You are on page 1of 6

c c Negative Feedback 


    
   
 Y     
%   !
  Y  . 
    
 
iY {   
!
iY © Y ‰  / %  
  !
iY À 
 Y #! !  
 !
iY  
 Àositive Feedback 
cc{À { Y   % 

!
Y  

      Y À .
       %
  !     &
  !
Y U




"   ! Y #! !
0 
  
 
 %!
Y U

 
 
     erminology & he Body Àlan 
        ! Y $
+c À  
 Y © 
{UCU# U C cc c  Y $
À
  
iY C Y $
À
iY C Y $
C
iY   Y { 
iY  
iY    Anatomical Àosition??
Y   body erect with the arms at the sides

iY  
palms forward!

Y     importance    
{{# # Uc $©
position of reference for anatomical nomenclature!
iY    
Y { .    

À 
  %  % 

Y À .   



©  !C  &%%


!
Anatomical Àosition
iY {& 
Y c    
 
À 
  
  % 
 %


% 
    
%   


 
 !C   % 


!
 % 
' !
Y  
   
!
iY    
©irectional erms
À

 %  



Y describe parts of the body relative to each other!
!C   
 &  
!
Y 
 superior%inferior%anterior

iY    posterior      %  
      

 % 
 0 
 
!

%   
(     Y cranial%caudal%ventral%
dorsal 

 !C   % 

    
  !
   ! 
iY     Regional erms??
#) *
C*


 
 Y 


        
 !C    
   !    !
iY ©   Y U
 - 
!
À 
  
  % 
    
  !C   Abdominopelvic Quadrants
 %  % (     Y 
 0 
 

 
iY       
   !

 
   %    ( Y   
     /
   !C  % 
%
 iY   0 
1UQ)
   ! iY   0 
1Q)
iY #
  iY   0 
1UQ)
   %  
 
    ! iY   0 
1Q)
C   
  ! Y Abdominopelvic Quadrants
iY C
  +C     Y UQ/
  %
% (     iY     

,    
   
iY 



 !C  %


!
iY  &
 
iY U  
iY     
 
  

 
 % 
iY    
 
  

!C  &
 %  



iY  

  !
Y UQ/
iY 
 
iY     
À
  )
  !C   % %
 %  
%%
%
 
 iY      
  ! iY 
 iY  &
 
Characteristics of Life  iY 
Y  -  iY    


   
Y   iY  
Y   Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Y   Y Q/
Y ©  iY  
Y 
  iY 
)
 iY  
Jomeostasis  iY  
  
iY )
     iY   

!  
Y Q/ C cÀ#*
iY '    
iY      # #U# c{{#
iY  
   he Integumentary System
iY    Y C  &
    1%% 
)!
Abdominopelvic Regions Y   .  
 

 
Y { 
 0 

   
!



   ! Y   /
Y / iY À  
iY     
 iY { 
iY    iY Õ©
 
iY   1  ) iY    
iY   iY #) 
iY  Components of the Integumentary System 
iY   1  ) Y Jypodermis+    1     ).
iY     


iY    Y ©ermis1

  )
iY   1  ) Y Gpidermis
Body Àlanes / Sections  1      )
Y c   


 &  iY Accessory structures 
sagittal%frontal
transverse! Jypodermis
iY  1
)


 left iY c&  
   ( . 
1)
right1
))! 

!
àY     dorso- iY       
" 

ventral 
cephalo-caudal )! 1

 (  )!


Body Àlanes / Sections iY No sharp boundary)betweendermis and subcutaneous
Y   


 front1+   !
   ),
back1
+   Skin ʹ ©ermis 
 &)! iY   
C%234&
!
àY     bilateral
 iY ©C   % (  !
cephalocaudal)! iY  (
 
  
!
 iY  
  (  (
Body Cavities  !
Y % % 
    iY §  % %
   
1)!  &   !
Y  
ventral
dorsal! iY  epidermis is attached!
Y ventrallarger cavity
 


    iY © /

 / iY  
àY   iY {  
àY 
  iY 

 iY $

Body Cavities iY 
Y c %cranial
vertebral  iY  
 

dorsal cavities. iY      
 + 
Y §thoracic%abdominal%
pelvic 

 &!
ventral cavities. ©ermis ʹ ©ermal papillae 
Y {  %! !%    


iY C 
      


 
  %     

 
 % 


  

 !
 !
Serous Membranes 
iY C 

"
 " !
Y  &
    !
iY À%  

   

Y   .‰ 
 /

!
1) (* 1  )!
iY 
  
   


Y c
  . 1 ) !
Mesenteries !
Skin ʹ Gpidermis
Y C  *     
 % 
    
   / iY { 
0   %

  !
iY  parietal peritoneum on the body wall iY  
%  
   153.67
 )%
& .&- !
iY  visceral peritoneum of other abdominopelvic organs!
iY À 1 )
 !
iY   /
iY { 1
 ).    
+
iY     
%
   
  
  28
 !
iY  
  

 
iY {   1    ).  

%
  !
Retroperitoneal Organs 0   

 &% 


  

 
,  
  &!
Y c
     
 
 
Cell types that form Gpidermis
 !
Y C 
   ! iY  
produce   keratin.
Y 
&
 %
 
%%  iY  produce  melanin.

  

! iY     epidermal macrophages1  -  


 )immune !
 iY 
   touch receptors  
   nerve endings.
 Keratinocytes (Basal cells)
iY Four or five strata1 ) &    
 for
 epidermis!
 iY hin skin has 4 strata thick skin has 4 or 5 layers 
 !
 Skin Color

iY ©  &%
   & iY   /

&    ! Inhibit the growth of bacteria &  !{ 
 
iY    combination of genetic%environmental
  )!
physiological factors! Àrevent drying &
! 
iY 
 &  result fromdiffering amounts of Sweat Glands
melanin
size of melanin granules! *    
/
iY #)      
&  &! iY   
. 
 
! 
 
iY Circulation  dermal bloodvesselsaffects skin colour! 
 !{ .   !
iY     &  / iY c  


 %
 )1 
)

iY Melanin.   

  & % !c  % 


 
 %
  
&&  !  
)  
 
9

" 


   &)    !  !
iY Carotene.      %    :  maintenance of normal body

   ! temperature.
iY Jemoglobin.

    Modified Sweat Glands


&  &! Ceruminous Gland 
Melanin iY  
dermis ear canals!
iY      &%
   ! iY {cerumen )!
    & %      iY   /


! ;    eardrum pliable(prevent drying!


iY À 
   UÕ 1 )! Mammary Glands
iY À
   .     iY   /
 ! Secreting milk 
iY    .&  1  ), Nails 
   ! iY Àrotective   ends fingers & toes!
iY À
 

    %)    
 iY C  highly keratinized%modified epidermal cells   
  ! 
%lunula actively growing region
iY   .  


 !  !
iY #)    .     iY cnew cells are produced% 
 
 



 !  keratinized!
iY  . 
 
  Àhysiology of
   ! Integumentary System
Carotene 2!À  
iY  
 0 
  
   iY À  !
  c! iY À   +   !
iY 
  ,  
 {!   iY À    !

  
( 
. &  iY c UÕ 
   
   !
 ! iY   
Jemoglobin  iY   
iY    )       *!{ 
)    
! iY {&  
%% 
% 
 !
iY      $C/ ‰!Õ©
 
iY ) 
  

  iY À     ©  )   UÕ !
àY 
&    
 5!   
& iY c ‰ C!   !
iY © ) 
      6!#) 
1  ) iY 
    
  
àY   ) 
 
 
  
!
   iY     )  
!
Accessory Skin Structures Integumentary System as a ©iagnostic Aid
iY  iY #  
%       
iY {   
!
iY 
 iY #! !  .

   +    ,
iY  ' 
.
 
 
1)!
Jair iY     
  &%
!
iY  
 dead keratinizedcells

byhair iY #! ! 
  .  + ,
follicles!  !
iY Contains hard keratin, 
 
  Burns
& &! iY C 
 
  
  !
iY Rapid cell growth    iY À& .{!,

causes hair to grow  !      (
  !
 

iY Jair color

 genetics,melanin   iY ©

 2 
* 
  !
st
   ! Ú ©egree Burns
Jair Follicles iY    
%
( % 
!
iY c 
sebaceous glands%capillary bed%nerve ending iY C 
   + )      
 '

smooth muscle1  )! . &!
nd
iY  sebaceousglands plugged
infected%  ÿ ©egree Burns
skin blemish or pimple! iY © 
(
!
iY pilomotor/arrector attached to its base
 iY  

 %  

%%
     hair to become erect! 

!
iY §stimulated1 
% )    iY .*&
 !
 to trap heat! iY    
 
% 

%+%
Smooth Muscle    
 !
iY c 
 . ! iY #
     (
iY C    .  !  
%
  
  
!
rd
Sebaceous Glands ‰ ©egree Burns
iY Secretes sebumwaterproof
(! iY  & .
(
  
 
%
iY   a   
!       
   
!
 

iY    

  2 (* 
  ! Structure of Long Bone: ©iaphysis
iY À    
(


 
! Y     )    !
iY c%% %& 
 
! Y C  
     

iY    %  
   
 
  !

  
  ! Y    1
  ) 

iY    

 %&   
  !
 
! 
iY   
    
    Structure of Long Bone: Gpiphysis
  
   !
iY ©   

    Y #)


    !


 
 
1  * 
  )! Y #)   %
    !
Skin Cancer Y     
 1' , ) !
iY     !c 
%
  
14 )
)   UÕ ! Structure of Long Bone: Àeriosteum
iY  
   %& 
!
Y c %     
% 


iY &
  <63&  &!
  
!
iY Basal cell carcinoma. {!
)
 
Y ©  
 !

 
  !
Y     
   !
iY C 
    +
  !

iY Squamous cell carcinoma.  
    
Structure of Long Bone: Àeriosteum
 !
iY C   

.
&%  Y C    
( 

%&-
    
 
! 
  !
iY   
.  

% Y      
 .
-, 
!  !
iY Malignant melanoma.  &   Y   
 %
%( !
  1 )! Y { 
  
    { " !
iY c % %
  +
  
 

! Structure of Long Bone: Gndosteum 
iY   
 
 !    & !
 #
 .
      
 
 Structure of Short Bones
C cÀ#‰ C 
  
&!
 $  
1! !%)!
he Skeletal System 
Structure of Flat Bones
Y C   
 
C! % 
%
 
1! !% %( &  )!
Y © %     %
 
 %
 
 
  '  ! Structure of a Flat Bone
 
Functions Structure of Irregular Bones
$  
1! !%
 )!
Y {  . 
 % %
% ! 
Y À  .     
! Structure of Short, Irregular & Flat Bones
Y  .& %
%' % !  
   !
Y {  . 
  #)     %
    !
Y $

 .   $ 
   !
 {  .(&!
Connective issue of Skeletal System  .% 

%( !
  .(  !
Y $ % %

 ! 
Y #) )1   (0)  C" Compact bone
!    
     (    
Y C  .    !
Y À   .    

   1#C)   .  -
    %
 ,!   
1)!
Y 
% .      , !  1 ) .%(   !
Y C .     , (1 &    
 % 
    
 )!  !
Y $ .  (1  ) C .      !
 
General Features of Bone Cancellous bone
{   .      %   
Y Long. 
   !
Y Short.
& C  
  
. !
Y Flat ʹ &  %%  c

    


 !
Y Irregular ʹ (   {   % 
% 
 !
 ) ( 
    
Structure of Long Bone     !

Y    .   
1! !%  )! Bone Ossification
Y ©   %   
 
%  !        .     )
Y c
 
  !     (   %

  
 )   
Y 
 % 
 %
 )!
  

   
 !    

  )   !
 * .    %
 
   !
$       ) ) C(  Other Medically Related ©isorders
 
  !    .


 %  %    !
   .       !
Bone Ossification (cont͛)   .$ !
  ! . Bones and Cartilages of
   
C,&  1(
  )! he Juman Body Location of Jematopoietic issue (Red Marrow)
      C 1   )
  !

   )   !  



  
    !
{&          ! 
!
  

 >   %

   
  !
Bone Ossification (cont͛) 
#
 
 !. Àarts Of he Skeletal System

  & (   & ! c){&   & %  %
 +  
C 
.    !  )!
C 
  . 1

)%   %
!  c){&   /
)  
  
! {& 
$
   
 .   
C {  
    ! 
 
  
 % 
   { 1 )
  ! 
 1  %    )
$

     
  
  ! Àarts Of he Skeletal System Axial Skeleton: he Skull 
   )    % 
  
 
Bone Ossification (cont͛)  !
#
 
 !. C . 
  

&
C 
 .    !  !
 
  
  !  /
{  
 ) 
   %   {    &  %  %
!
   
)(   ! À 
     

!

        
 
 
   ! Anatomy of the Cranium Cranium 
*
     !  

 !
 C  
 ?
 /
Bone Growth   
  
      )       
C.    !  
$   
.  
  )  
    %  ()  )! { 

$    . ! # 

 
Bone Remodelling Facial Bones
   )     (
    25    

  
!
    ! 
 /
 ! )
    %
'  %   

    
  
! 
Bone Repair 
 À
$  &%
 
 


!    
C  
 
% *.‰
 
(   
  
  
 %
    & C Axial Skeleton: he Vertebral Column
  & % 
     
  
  *7  1) 
  
 ! ) 
   !
C .-   ! C  /
 C.   &
Importance of Ionic Calcium in the Body  .2*    
C   /  .6   &
   ! { .      
   !  
$
   ! C  ) 
{   

! 
C
 ! General Structure of Vertebrae
 $
  .

%    !
Jormonal Mechanism Úÿ. Jormonal Mechanism Õ.  
 

%  
 
C*=   
 C !  %  !
C   
  ! Õ .&  
*=
 
C    
 
 À !  
!
À     
 
 )
C*=  {   '   %
  '

!  !
 
©iseases Of he Bones 
c/ 
  
%  
  
& 
{
1
)
& 
§'   
c