LAZARUS KUBASU and MARTIN MUNENE Provincial Peace Forum (PPF) Rift Valley Province P.O.BOX 28-20100 Nakuru, Kenya. Tel: 254 (051) 221652/66/24 Cell: 0720 855909/ 0724 881380 Email: kubasuln@yahoo.com samwelmusumba@yahoo.com

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010




District Peace Committee District Commissioner Development Alternatives Inc. Provincial Peace Forum Post Election Violence Provincial Commissioner United States Agency International Development National Council of Churches of Kenya Internally Displaced Persons

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


Table of Contents

1.0: INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………4 2.0: OPENING REMARKS……………………………………………………………………….5 3.0: CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………...……8 4.0: APPROACHES TO PEACE…………………...…………………………………………...13 5.0: PULLING TOGETHER…………...…………………………………………………….….18 6.0: CLOSING REMARKS………………………………………………………………….……19 7.0: ACTION PLANS…………………………………………………………………………….21

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


1.0 INTRODUCTION This report intends to give a general outline of both events and proceedings of the Kuresoi consultative meeting held at Hotel Cathay-Nakuru on 13th and 14th July 2010 In all cases of Post Election Violence, the Central Rift Valley province has always been the epicenter of inter-ethnic conflicts. Out of the 1,133 deaths reported according to the Waki Report on the 2008 Post Election Violence (PEV), 744 cases were in Rift Valley alone. The districts of Uasin Gishu (230 deaths), Larger Nakuru (213) and Trans Nzoia (104), Molo (94), and Kuresoi (105) registered the highest deaths in the country, all in Rift Valley. The Larger Nakuru district has experienced the violence each general elections with Molo, Kuresoi and Naivasha districts experiencing the violence even in a relatively calm general election like the 2002. As the country moves towards the National Referendum on the new Proposed Draft Constitution, tensions are high in most parts of Central Rift Valley Province, in Nakuru, Rongai, Molo, Kuresoi, Njoro, Kipkelion districts. These tensions are emerging from the mis-interpretations by the political leaders on issues among them Land, which has been as the centre stage in the previous post election violence among communities living in the Rift Valley Province it is in line with this that the forum was organized and facilitated by the Provincial Peace Forum, PPF with support from USAID/DAI through KTI (Kenya transition initiative). The meeting which was mainly consultative attracted well over 60 participants all drawn from diverse ethnic communities and of different gender age and opinion but united in purpose; to promote a violence free referendum in Kuresoi and Molo districts .Also present were group representatives of the youth women, clergy elders, politicians. Civic leaders, public administration and the donor agency representatives. 1.2 Reasons for the forum /objectives The main objective of the forum was to create a platform for the stakeholders to critically carry out conflict mapping and analysis, look for approaches to sustainable peace in Kuresoi/Molo region and prevention of referendum related violence. In line with this forum sought to achieve the following goals. I. To analyze and gain a common understanding of the issues history and context: The forum intended to find out what reasons for conflict is identity conflict prone areas, the pattern of the conflict been going on as well as describing the current situation for development of the effective conflict management strategies and action plan. To discuss ways of addressing the conflict and work towards a lasting peace and stability through finding /proposing a sound and applicable efficient approach strategies to peace building, conflict prevention and resolution .the forum intended to carry a comparative analysis of the previous strategies employed in the


Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


management of this conflict by discussing success stories and challenges that have hindered the conflict management strategies employed in the past .the forum also sought to know what is to be done where and how so as to promote peace coexistence conflict/violence mitigation. III. To purpose a frame work for coordination and an early warning system to address potential violence especially those that as related to the oncoming referendum exercise. Introduction and Opening Remarks Mr. Lodumpui, the Facilitator

2.0 2.1

The meeting started by a word of prayer from Pastor Lucy Njoroge.The facilitator welcomed the participants and asked them to be free in the mode of communication. He also emphasized the need of establishing roles of engagement that would facilitate smooth running of the meeting. The participants proposed among others time management, active participation,participants to freely and openly tell it all. Switching off (silent mode) mobile phones. Then stressed the need for participant to be objective in their discussion and to respect the views and opinions of the others that may seem conflicting to them by adopting a spirit of tolerance and avoid being judgmental. He then welcomed Mr. Kubasu, Provincial Peace Secretariat from PPF. 2.2 Mr. Kubasu, Provincial Peace Forum, Secretariat

Mr.Kubasu, Provincial Peace Forum, Secretariat, outlining the objective of the forum and the way forward.

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


He started by thanking all the participants for honoring the invitation to work with PPF and described this as a consultative meeting that seeks and come up with ways and means of preventing the referendum and environment conflicts experienced in Kuresoi Molo through conflict mapping analysis and facilitate a feasible conflict management strategy. He encouraged the participants to work closely as partners with the government and take active role in conflict prevention through reporting early warning signs to the provincial administration officers and to be involved in lobbing for the realization of the reform Agenda and for realization of the peaceful voting during the coming referendum on the proposed constitution draft. Mr. Kubasu took the opportunity to thank the participants for their efforts towards realization of peace in Kuresoi and reminded them that the government has recognized their contribution and is willing to join hands with them to ensure a peaceful referendum period through the caravan. Lastly he thanked USAID/DAI for their contribution and support in facilitating the meeting and other successful peace initiatives in the North Rift region. 2.3 Mr. Luke, Youth Representative

In his remark, the youth representatives Mr. Luke thanked the organizations (PPF and DAI) of the workshop for ensuring that the youth have been mainstreamed in this peace building process. Mr. Luke retaliated that although there has been many peace initiatives in Kuresoi/Molo in the past, the youth who have been affected most have been sidelined. Mr. Luke identified unjust structures resources different opinion objectives and cultural diversity as the main causes of the conflict in Kuresoi. He also blamed women and elders for taking active role in escalation of conflicts by spreading rumors and marginalizing youth efforts respectively. It described success stories associated with youth group activities such as sports and culture for peace environmental conservation and cultural exchange programmes according to him although the youth in this region have good intentions they are faced with resource challenges. Mr. Luke’s presentation was followed by women leaders’ remarks. The women as represented by Pastor Lucy Asked the government to implement peace initiatives that will address conflicts during its early stages since they are the most affected party when conflicts escalade to violence. She stressed the need to address land issues IDPS and Mau evictees, she also recommended extensive civic education so as to reduce the role of politicians in interpreting the draft constriction, and in her conclusion she thanked the government and organizers for facilitating the meeting at the right time.

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


2.4 Councilor Cheluk Councilor Cheluk- civic leader from Kamara in Kuresoi- retaliated that Kuresoi is well known for all the wrong reasons. He thanked the stakeholders for their timely approach to the conflict. He also said that the participants were there to report that thing were not well in Kuresoi and that the conflict in Kuresoi is a time bomb that is waiting to be triggered. He also sighted discrimination in treatment of IDPs as the main cause of division among the Agikuyu and Kalenjin communities. He recommended that if there will be a future settlement arrangement then it ought to ensure equal treatment of both communities and promote a mixture of these tribes so as to promote unity among the people. He identified three main issues which included  Land  Resources  Government laxity in the settling of IDPS. He told the participants that they should ensure that Kuresoi will not experience conflicts again and asked the organizers if they can facilitate a peace meeting for Molo, Nakuru, and Naivasha. He finally thanked PPF and USAID/DAI offices for their effort to address the issues and asked the participants to note the need to preserve Mau forest since it is a water catchments area. 2.5 Pastor Lucy, NCCK Representative In her remarks, she stressed the needed to address the IDPs and Mau evictees’ problem. She complained that although the IDPs were assisted by NCCK,most of them are still suffering and lack both food and a piece of land to settle. She was sad that the Government failed to reflect the needs of the IDPs in the 2010/11 financial year. “They are not reflected in the budget yet they are still hungry and suffering especially during rainy seasons” She therefore asked the government to speed up and act on the plight of this forgotten lot of Kenyans. 2.6 Councilor Matukel In his remarks councilor Matukel from Mau defended the Ogiek eviction from the forest that although they have been living in the forest since time immemorial, the government has been reluctant in addressing issues relating to the implementation of the taskforce and eviction. This has lead the Ogiek feeling marginalized on the ground. Councilor Matukel appreciated the efforts of the P C’s office and asked the government to send people to collect and record information from the ground so as to come up with the real issues affecting the Ogiek people and their opinion regarding the conflict. In his

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


closing remarks he asked the participants to promote civic education and be weary in approaching the Mau issues since it is different and complex.
2.7 Mr. Sam Kona, DAI Representative

In his presentation, Mr. Kona narrated success stories in peace initiatives under taken by PPF in partnership with USAID through KTI program. He also talked about the need to understand that as Kenyans we are inter-connected and as such stand together as a country. He said his office is recording positive feedback and asked the participants to come forward and ensure Kuresoi, Molo and its environment is safe. He also stressed the need for commitment in realizing sustainable peace and development. Mr. Kona asked the participant to be ready to ensure nobody is intimidated because of his/her voting opinion. He told the Caravan to be hard on the problem and not to the person by telling them that the future of Kuresoi and Molo lies on the hands of the people of Kuresoi and Molo districts and that they should actively participate fully in the grassroots, implementation of the program. In his closing remark, Mr. Kona asked the participants to refuse violence and support any candidate of their choice but let peace be a pre-condition. 2.8 D.C Silas, Kuresoi District He started by saying that Kuresoi people should love peace. however according to him the current situation is not encouraging as he noted the recent dog poisoning incidences he also appreciated the government efforts to address the causes of conflict in this area which included putting in place of peace committees from location to district level and encouraged the participants to embrace the culture of peace since it is the prerequisite of development.
3.0 Contextual Analysis: Current Issues/Situation 3.1 Introduction

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The participants were asked to discuss the causes, pattern, actors, when it started and the current situation. This was meant to analyze and gain a common understanding of the issues leading to conflict. The participants were asked to form four groups’ in terms of their ethnic background. These groups included:  Ogiek  Luhya  Kikuyu  Kalenjin 3.2 Description Of The Conflict

3.2.1 Ogiek According to the Ogiek, land and historical injustices, leadership wrangles, unemployment, poor infrastructure, political differences and kipsigis trespass on Ogiekland are the main courses of the Molo/Kuresoi conflict. Although this conflict was first experienced in 1992, the trend has been recurring after every 5 years –during election periods. The actors have included the elders, youth and women and the areas mostly affected have included Mawe Mbili, Kamwaura, Wateri and Ngongongeri where cases of animal and livestock theft have been reported frequently. Registration of the real Ogiek and lack of information about the draft and civic education has led to the current tensions in Kuresoi. 3.2.2 Abaluhya According to their representative the Luhya feel that the main causes of the conflict, which started in 1992, have included cultural differences, resources, biased IDP resettlement and employment opportunities which have always taken the tribal lines. Just like their Ogiek counterparts the Luhya noted that the main hot spots include Kuresoi, kamwaura and Keringet Divisions. The pattern of conflict has been described as starting with secrete meetings ,rumous ,assault cases ,tensions ,robberies and rape followed by creation of no go zones. This can also be observed through patterns of migration and threats, closure of institutions and finally attacks and retaliations leading to displacement and fear among the community members. The actors involved include the police, NGOS and the media. The participants felt that the high tensions in this area are caused by the Mau Evictees pressure and need to address their survival and existence needs. 3.3.3 Kikuyu. This group identified generalization of issues, ignorance and the assumptions that all kikuyu support a particular party, hypocrisy and government laxity to address unequal distribution of employment as among the reasons that have led to escalation of this

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


conflict. The actors involved in this conflict were divided into those that are involved directly and those involved indirectly.  Elders.  Politicians.  Women.  Directly  Youths.  Married Youth.  Militia groups e.g. kalenjin warriors, Mungiki etc. This group noted that tension is high and speculates that whichever side will win, conflict is bound to arise. The summary of the group’s discussions and presentation are as tabulated below: 3.4 What are the causes of the conflict the Kuresoi Conflict?

OGIEK -Land and historical injustices -Leadership wrangles -NGO’s with self interest -Unemployment of youth

LUHYA -cultural differences -Resource -Unemployment -Bias IDPs resettlements

KIKUYU -generalization of issues -ignorance -perceptions on political stand -cattle rustling the

KALEJINS -misunderstanding -communication breakdown -rumors -generalization and perceptions of others -tribalism -unequal treatment of IDPs -resources -poverty idleness -competition political power and

-poor infrastructure -Political differences -Kipsigis tress passing in Ogiek land

-lack of social amenities -poor infrastructure -misinformation

-lack of civic education -defending the leadership -unemployment of youth -hypocrisy among the leaders signing peace accords



The pattern of the conflict
OGIEK -During election period -Unplanned LUHYA -Secret meetings,church,women groups -Assault cases -Tensions -Rape KIKUYU -Grouping -Livestock theft -Threats to opinion leaders -Grazing trespass Rumours,Leaflets KALENJIN -Dog poisoning -Migration of people -Media -Increased raids -Business trends

3.what are the characteristics or patterns of the conflict

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-Creation of no go zone -Patterns of migration -Reduction of school attendance -Rumors and leaflets -Closure of institutions

and speculation -Talking in parables -Robbery, rape, murder and mutilation of dead bodies.


Areas prone to violence
OGIEK LUHYA -Olenguruoni -Kamara -Total -Landi -Mau-Samit -Mulima Jogoo -Kiptororo -Kipkerwa -Kongoi KIKUYU/kalenjin -Kuresoi District

2.which are the areas prone to violence

-Mawe mbili -Water -Ngongongori -Kuresoi -Kamwaura -Kuresoi center -Kiptororo


Actors involved and for how long has the conflict been existing.
OGIEK LUHYA -Kalenjin Vs others -Kalenjin Vs others -Thieves Vs others KIKUYU Indirectly: -elders,polititians,and women Directly: -the youth -militia groups e.g. Kalenjin 1992 and whenever there is a political difference KALENJINS -Every body -Elders -Government officials

4,Who is involved

-The youth -the elders -women

5.for how long

Since 1992

Since 1992

Since 1975 forced eviction at Chepakundi


The Current Situation
OGIEK LUHYA Mau evictees have a lot of pressure KIKUYU -there is still early warnings and tension -threats KALENJINS -people are feared and threatened not to vote for the proposed constitution of fear of eviction -high tensions between

6. What is the current situation

Sensitive due to registration of real Ogiek leading to tension -lack of

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


information about the draft

yes and no proponents -signs of eruption with many warnings and threat

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3.2.4 CONCLUSION: DESCRIPTION OF THE CONFLICT The reasons for the conflict in Molo and Kuresoi range from land and IDPs issues to unemployment and unequal distribution of resources among the inhabitants who are mainly of Kalenjin and Kikuyu origin. The participants observed that the main areas affected includes the three divisions of Kuresoi,Kamara and Keringet .The pattern of conflict included formation of groups, rumous and increased tensions that are as a result of hate speech propagated by politicians and spread of leaflets that bare threats and warnings. This is sometimes followed by creation of no go zones information that is always spread through word of mouth. The conflict has mainly been fueled by the role of the media, the police, NGOs with vested interests, thieves, elders, youth and women. The police as an institution is blamed for being biased in their operation which is tribal based while the media is blamed for wrongfully showing video clips from their archives in their news updates. An example is given when the media shoed (in 2008) houses that were burned in 1992. This conflict, according to the participants, has been on and off since 1992 but keeps on erupting whenever there is any political differences among the local or national leadership. Mr. Luke, a representative of the Kalenjin community explained that conflict between kalenjin and Kikuyu started in 1975 when there was a forced eviction in Chepakundi and Orofa. Currently people who perceived to be likely to vote for the proposed constitution are threatened a situation which has called for immediate action as non kalenjin are selling their land. Tension is high and the region is volatile. 4.0 APPROACHES TO PEACE IN KURESOI

4.1 Introduction This session intended to discuss ways of addressing the conflict and work towards a lasting peace and stability through critically analyzing the past conflict prevention and management strategies employed, which ones succeeded, failed and why. The following is a summary of what the two groups presented. The session also involved discussions that aimed at coming up with other management strategies that will ensure sustainable peace is achieved, by addressing what ought to be done, by who and where.
Worked partial failed 50%  why -gave help to the destitute -squatters benefited

Past Conflict management Resettlement of people in

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different places

Peace preaching Formation of peace groups Enhancement of security personnel

worked worked partially 

-lives were saved -farming resumed Failed -issues were not addressed -resettlement was poorly conducted -It reduced suspicion -Increased exchange of ideas -exchange of ideas through discussion -increased access to security services and reduced crime -establishment of rescue centers

Past conflict management strategy Games and cultural activities Humanitarian assistance





worked partially

Signing of peace accord


Social, activities brought people together Created employement,people benefited from food and shelter -constitution of infrastructure e.g. horsing FAILED Problem of unequal distribution of food and tents(discrimination) -poor infrastructure

Past conflict management strategy Churches and mosque Ngos e.g. NCCK,CREAW AND ABANTU Chief and Barazas Through IDP resettlement Humanitarian worked Failed 50% Why

-abates for development

FAILED Provisional operation,

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Rudi Nyumbani -confusion and lack of finances and poor coordination -no dialogue between government and IDPS

Healing and counseling

Kuresoi group members putting their heads together in search of a viable approach to sustainable peace in Kuresoi 4.4 GROUP 1 KURESOI: CONFLICT MITIGATION
By who where how

What should be done -youths should be involved in community development and leadership -training people in conflict early warning -introducing shelter programmes that is fairly conducted -preaching peace in churches and Barazas -promoting social activities at district levels -monitoring , evaluation and reporting should be encouraged -conducting

All stake holders (me you and others)

The whole of Kuresoi District

-networking and collaboration -volunteering and community mobilization

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


What should be done

By who



-Carry out civic education on peace building with specific time and people -exchange programs with people from different areas -get support government through counselors,

-civic educators -networking with other stake holders At the grass root level -local communication (hot sports) and the government

This way, Molo group members discussing what should be done, by whom, where and how.

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provincial administration officials -promoting reconciliation spirit



Having been a region that experiences intermittent conflict in the past 18 years, many actors including both the government and nongovernmental peace stakeholders have tried to put up a fight against violence through employing many conflict management strategies which included the following:  Signing of peace accord.  Games, sports and cultural activities.  Risk takers.  Conflict resolution trainings.  Operation ujirani mwema and Rudi nyumbani.  The media.  The church.  Use of community elders from all tribes  Humanitarian assistance.  Enhancement of security for all tribes.  Resettlement of people in different places  Chiefs Barazas. Trauma healing and counseling among others. Although most strategies worked, others failed due to different reasons as explained in the table above. The main problems experienced in implementation of these e strategies have included; biased personnel, unequal distribution of foods and tents e.g. Mau evictees were given substandard tents, negative journalism, and poor conduction of resettlement and fake beneficiaries and issues that led to the conflicts were left unaddressed. In line with this the Kuresoi group suggested that all stakeholders should net work and mobilize their communities in an effort to address the conflict through involving the youth community development and leadership, training people in early warning, preaching peace in churches, stop the use of inflammatory language, hate speeches and words, Encouragement of civic education and community projects e.g. Kazi kwa Vijana in the whole of Kuresoi district. The Molo group in their part, stressed the need to have strategies that are grass roots based and people driven in all mentioned hot spots such as Sirikwa, strategies which will carry out civic education, promote cultural appreciation through exchange programs and

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


promote reconciliation spirit through networking with other stakeholders and local communities. 5.0 PULLING TOGETHER AND PRIORITIZING ISSUES

In tackling the third objective, the participants identified resources and socio cultural differences as the most fundamental causes which are always triggered by political differences and tribalism. They also identified politicians, businessmen, thieves and the youth as the main actors in their role in using their influence to gain political power, businessmen’s opportunity to increase the prices and thieves take advantage of lawlessness to steal and conduct livestock raids. In order to propose a framework for coordination and early warning system to address potential violence and prevent referendum-related violence the participants suggested the following; that both NGOs and community leaders, law enforcement agencies and other stakeholders to work closely in peace building and mitigation of the Kuresoi Molo conflict especially during the referendum period. This can be done through, addressing the need to sensitize the community on the content of the draft constitution, the need for peaceful election campaign and the need for enforcement of National Cohesion Act by reporting the offenders. They unanimously agreed that confidence and trust can only be built through promoting cultural interaction, preaching peaceful coexistence and strengthening of community policing and peace networks. They also promised to take active role in prevention of political manipulation and incitement during referendum and building sustainable peace in their communities by acting as role models and peace ambassadors, creating awareness on the importance of peace.
Way forward and action plan (SEE ANNEX)



Youth, Kimani – “The meeting was a privilege granted to the people of Molo and Kuresoi Realized when it comes to issues of peace one need to sacrifice” “What is it that is very painful and costly that has to be paid by deaths of fellow Kenyans”Mr.Kimani. Bishop Mutahi - Thanked all and encouraged people to be peaceful.

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


Madam Lucy - Thanked the facilitators encouraged the all participants to promote peaceful co-existence and encouraged participants to be more involved. She also thanked all participants and said that she was happy to work with the government through provincial administration. Luke, Youth leader - Thanked Kuresoi D.C for his patience and love for peace and appreciated the role of both PPF and DAI in prevention of conflict in Kuresoi and Molo Districts. D.C closing remarks - Asked the participants to dedicate their time and resources so as to cascade down to the village level what you have learnt in this meeting in relation to peace building. Told the participants that the Government is working together with them. Government is committed to bringing the conflict to an end and ensure sustainable peace. Kuresoi has been one of the best areas in his administration career. He assured the participants of closer, working relationship in implementation of grassroots meetings Mr.Silas.D.C. Kuresoi “Peace will not be built by foreigners but us”. Mr. Kubasu - PPF Thanked all the participants for taking their time, accepting the invitation and co- operation. The PPF office appreciated the D.C for his role in the meeting and also thanked USAID/DAI for their quick response and financial support. He also told the participants that the project is meant to reach the grassroots level and asked them to take active role in peace building and conflict prevention in their respective district. Encouraged the participants to take active role in reporting early signs of conflicts in their villages through s.m.s either to the D.C or the P.Cs office. “With the collaboration of councilor’s women, youth and D.P.C we can’t fail”Mr. Kubasu. Sam Kona - DAI Thanked the participants and the PPF for their active participation and role in peace building and conflict management within Rift Valley Province. He also outlined the role of conflict analysis and congratulated all participants for their contribution towards achieving this end. Finally he urged participants to remain focused and courageous. “Don’t shy away from advocating for peace”

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The meeting successfully came to an end with the unanimous agreement that the peace process be named Kuresoi Molo Peace Caravan.












Molo Town Kiambogo Marioshoni Mau Narok Kiambiriria Elburgon Likia Sachangwan Kamwaura Nilewet






7.0 7.1




Sirikwa + total

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010


Temoyetta + gacharage Murinduko +kongot central Kamwaura +taita Chepkaburot + sitoito + tebere Karanoit Chepkinoyo + tiloa Githima + kio Baringo b + mawingu _set kobor Mwahe + seguton LAND STOCK THEFT TRIBALISM INEQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES POLITICAL POWER Intercom muni ty dialogue

Community leaders Facilitators Provincial Administration

Youth Women Elders Barazas

Kuresoi Peace Caravan Report-13th-14th July 2010

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