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What is the principal carbohydrate storage product in animals?
What molecules are the building blocks of proteins?
Why is a saturated fat called a "saturated" fat?
Of what is a triglyceride composed?
Where does Glycolysis take place in the cell?
What is another name for Chemiosmosis?
Where does the Kreb’s Cycle take place in the cell?
What is another name for the Kreb’s Cycle?
The final output of the Citric Acid cycle includes what?
Glycogen (stored in the liver and muscles)
Polysaccharides are long chains of simple sugars bonded together including starch, glycogen and cellulose.
Each carbon in the fatty acid chain is bonded to the maximum number of hydrogen atoms, and is said to be saturated with hydrogen. Unsaturated fatty acids have carbon-carbon double bonds which can be broken to add more
One glycerol with 3 fatty acids
CO2, ATP, NADH and FADH2 are the final output substances of the Krebs cycle
Citric Acid Cycle
A scientist can most readily distinguish between an onion cell and a cheek cell because the onion cell has what structure that the cheek cell does not?
What organelle processes, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids?
What is the thick, semi-fluid material within the cell that contains the organelles and the various materials that are involved in metabolism?
The extensive network of membranes that is found throughout much of the cell is the ______.
What is the structure in the cell that contains the genetic material and controls the structure and function of the cell?
What is the relationship between volume and surface area? Why is cell division therefore important?
The G1 Checkpoint is known as the Restriction Checkpoint because it determines whether a cell should divide, delay division, or enter a nondividing resting state known as the ___ phase.
What cellular checkpoint signifies the beginning of the M Phase?
The purpose of cell regulation is to maintain __________.
In regard to cell biology, what is density-dependent inhibition?
Golgi apparatus processes, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids
The endoplasmic reticulum is the network of membranes that is found inside the cell.
The cytosol is the thick, semi-fluid material within the cell that contains the organelles and the various materials that are involved in metabolism. The term "cytoplasm" includes both the semi-fluid material and the organelles.
Volume increase faster than surface area. Cells with a much greater volume than surface area become less efficient as it becomes more difficult for substances to pass through the cell membrane (too many substances, not enough membrane). Cell division keeps the ratio of volume to surface area at a manageable size.
When a cell population reaches a certain density, the amount of required growth factors and nutrients available to each cell becomes insufficient to allow continued cell growth.
What is Codominance?
What is Polygenic Inheritance?
What is Pleiotropy?
What is Epistasis?
What is Dominance?
What is the shape of DNA?
What type of bonds between nucleotides?
What are the three units of a nucleotide?
What is an anticodon?
What is an Okazaki fragment and what enzyme is related to Okazaki fragments?
Traits that are controlled or influenced by several genes (ex: intelligence, height, weight, eye color, behavior)
Situation in which two different alleles for a genetic trait are both expressed. (ex: red cattle + white cattle = red and white spotted offspring)
The presence of one gene affects the expression of another gene. One gene interferes with or prevents the expression of another gene located at a different locus. Double Helix
Pleiotropy occurs when a single gene influences multiple phenotypic traits. Consequently, a new mutation in the gene will have an effect on all traits simultaneously.
Condition in which a trait is intermediate between two parents (ex: red flower + blue flower = purple flower).
5-C Sugar, Phosphate Group, Nitrogenous Base
An Okazaki fragment is a relatively short fragment of DNA created on the lagging strand during DNA replication. Primase initiates Okazaki fragment primers.
A sequence of 3 letters found on TRNA that pairs with the codon of MRNA.
What are the two primary storage sites for glycogen?
What is an “essential” nutrient?
What is a primary use of vitamin E?
Do fat-soluble OR water-soluble vitamins build up in the body, eventually leading to toxic levels?
What is a “fluid feeder?”
Which body system is responsible for moving fluids, gases, and wastes to and from cells?
What is meant by a “closed” cardiovascular system?
Name the four chambers of the heart. Which chamber is the last to receive blood before it leaves the heart through the Aorta?
What, exactly, carries oxygen and nutrients to the target cells?
Is the lymphatic system open or closed?
Nutrients that cannot be manufactured by the organism
Liver, muscle cells
Protection of membrane phospholipids from oxidation
Organisms that feed on the fluids of other animals or even plants. Examples of fluid feeders include: Aphids, Ticks, Mosquitoes, Leeches, Hummingbirds
Right ventricle, left ventricle, right atrium, right ventricle. Left ventricle.
The blood never leaves the system of blood vessels.
Name the main components of the excretory system.
What is an alimentary canal?
What is the most important organ of the excretory system; where is it located?
What is resting potential?
What is the functional unit of muscle contraction?
The endocrine system is responsible for releasing signaling molecules known as ______, which are _____ (faster/slower) than nerve impulses in signaling reactions in the body, but produce responses that last ______ (longer/shorter) than nerve impulses.
The hormone PRL, which stands for ______, is responsible for milk production in mammary glands.
Where does spermatogenesis take place?
The _____ _____ is the solid body formed in the ovaries after the egg has been released into the fallopian tube which continues to grow and divide for a while.
The release of what hormone matures the egg? What is an alternative name for this hormone in the male, where it stimulates the Leydig cells?
The sweat glands, the liver, the lungs, and the kidneys are the main components of the excretory system.
When the neuron is inactive and polarized. ( -70 mV)
Kidneys. The kidneys are placed on either side of the spinal column near the lower back
Hormones; slower; longer
Seminiferous tubules of the testes
LH (lutenizing hormone); ICSH (Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone)
What is the translation?
Bacteriophages are involved in what mode of virus proliferation? (Conjugation, Transduction, Transformation, etc)
What is another name for the genophore?
This layer of polysaccharide (sometimes proteins) protects the bacterial cell and is often associated with pathogenic bacteria because it serves as a barrier against phagocytosis by white blood cells.
What are polygenic traits?
What is evolution?
What is phylogeny?
Define ‘clade.’ What is “cladistics?”
The transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another is known as: ______ _______
A 3-base sequence in a tRNA molecule that base-pairs with its complementary codon in an mRNA molecule.
Polypeptide chain (or a protein)
Traits that arise from the action of several genes.
The evolutionary history of a species.
Cumulative changes that occur in a population over time.
A monophyletic organisms.
Cladistics – hierarchical classification of species based on evolutionary ancestry.
What is a Domain, and where does it rank in respect to Kingdoms?
What are the six kingdoms? What two kingdoms were combined in the Five-Kingdom System, and what was the name of that combined kingdom?
True or False: The Phylum Chordata, meaning “hollow dorsal nervous cord,” incorporates human beings.
The common name for animals in Phylum “Platyhelminthes” is what?
Why are viruses denied kingdom of their own?
The first land plants to have evolved were:
The most primitive vascular plants belong to Division (Phylum) __________.
The water-conducting ______ tissue in plant stems is actually composed of dead cells.
What is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants?
What does it mean for a plant to be “perennial?”
Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea, and Eubacteria Archaea and Eubacteria; Kingdom Monera (or Prokaryota)
The Phylogenetic classification that is comprised of multiple Kingdoms. Domains are ranked immediately higher than Kingdoms.
Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts)
They are not organisms.
Perennial plants live for many growing seasons and continue to reproduce once mature.
The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.
What is cephalization?
Cortisol is elevated in the bloodstream during times of ____. It is a reliable indicator of what in an animal?
Standing outside the flight zone of cattle will cause them to start or stop moving?
What is meant behavior?”
The difference between a "sensitive" period and a "critical" period with regard to normal development of animal behavior is that, while they both concern the times in an animal's life when certain types of learning are more easily accomplished, the critical periods:
Stress Cortisol is a reliable indicator of the degree of stress an animal is under
Cephalization is an evolutionary trend, whereby nervous tissue, over many generations, becomes concentrated toward one end of an organism. This process eventually produces a head region with sensory organs.
“Instinct.” Behavior determined by the "hard-wiring" of the nervous system. It is usually inflexible, a given stimulus triggering a given response.
Have a more definite beginning and end
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