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KEBANGSAAN

BANDAR UTAMA DAMANSARA (2)

Additional Mathematics

Project Work

4/2010

Education Malaysia

STATISTICS

Class : 5 Science 1

IC Number : 930921-10-5474

Teacher’s Name: Mr Tan Chuan Chen

Table of Contents

No. Title Page

1 Appreciation 3

2 Introduction 3

3 A Brief History of Statistics 4

4 Statistics Today 5

5 Part 1 6 to 11

6 Part 2 12 to 15

7 Part 3 16

8 Further Exploration 17

9 Reflection 18

10 Reference 18

Appreciation

I would like to express my gratitude towards my Additional Mathematics teacher, Mr

Tan Chuan Chen for his patient guidance to bring about the completion of this project. He

has provided invaluable tips and was very willing to give pointers to help us with the project. I

would also like to thank my parents for their support and encouragement and my siblings for

providing useful suggestions to improve my work. Furthermore, I am very grateful for the

cooperation and help I received from my friends. We divided tasks amongst ourselves to

reduce the workload and later combined all the information gathered.

Introduction

Students taking the elective subject Additional Mathematics in Form Five are

required to carry out a project work as required in the syllabus. This year, the Curriculum

Development Division of the Ministry of Education Malaysia prepared a total of four tasks for

the students where we are required to choose and complete one of the four based on our

area of interest. The title of the project work I have selected is on statistics. The objective of

this project is to improve the skill of applying mathematics in the daily lives of students while

adapting a variety of strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems. The project aims

to improve the thinking skills of students while learning to use the language of mathematics

to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely to increase the student’s confidence.

Students are required to undergo this task within groups. Through the group effort of

carrying out the project, it promotes effective mathematical communication and at the same

time it develops mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases

students’ interest and confidence. It provides an ideal learning environment to stimulate and

enhance effective learning. The students learn to develop a positive attitude towards

mathematics as well. Students will be able to apply knowledge and skills gained for

experience in classroom environments in meaningful ways to solve real-life problems and at

the same time express their mathematical thinking, reasoning and communication. It will also

prepare them from the demand of their future undertakings and in their workplace while

learning to be independent leaders. Lastly, students will learn to use technology especially

ICT appropriately and effectively.

Some scholars pinpoint the origin of statistics to 1663, with the publication of “Natural

and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality” by John Graunt. Early applications of

statistical thinking revolved around the needs of states to base policy on demographic and

economic data, hence its stat- etymology.

By the 18th century, the term "statistics" designated the systematic collection of

demographic and economic data by states. In the early 19th century, the meaning of

"statistics" broadened to include the discipline concerned with the collection, summary, and

analysis of data in general.

The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical theories of

probability and statistical inference, which are used in statistical practice. The mathematical

foundations of statistics were laid in the 17th century with the development of the probability

theory by Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat. The relation between statistics and probability

theory developed rather late, however. In the 19th century, statistics increasingly used

probability theory, whose initial results were found in the 17th and 18th centuries, particularly

in the analysis of games of chance such as gambling.

By 1800, astronomy used probability models and statistical theories, particularly the

method of least squares, which was invented by Legendre and Gauss around 1974. Early

probability theory and statistics was systematized and extended by Laplace; following

Laplace, probability and statistics have been in continual development. In the 19th century,

social scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new

sciences of experimental psychology and sociology; physical scientists used statistical

reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of thermodynamics and

statistical mechanics. The development of statistical reasoning was closely associated with

the development of inductive logic and the scientific method.

Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an autonomous mathematical science, like

computer science or operations research. Unlike mathematics, statistics had its origins in

public administration and maintains a special concern with demography and economics.

Being concerned with the scientific method and inductive logic, statistical theory has close

association with the philosophy of science; with its emphasis on learning from data and

making best predictions, statistics has great overlap with the decision science and

microeconomics. With its concerns with data, statistics has overlap with information science

and computer science.

Statistics Today

Today, statistics is widely employed in government, business, and all the sciences.

Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation, and have allowed statisticians

to develop "computer-intensive" methods. The use of modern computers has expedited

large-scale statistical computation, and has also made possible new methods that are

impractical to perform manually.

During the 20th century, the creation of precise instruments for agricultural research,

public health concerns (epidemiology, biostatistics, etc.), industrial quality control, and

economic and social purposes (unemployment rate, econometry, etc.) necessitated

substantial advances in statistical practices.

Till this day, the use of statistics has broadened far beyond its origins. Individuals and

organizations use statistics to understand data and make informed decisions throughout the

natural and social sciences, medicine, business, and other areas.

Statistics is generally regarded not as a subfield of mathematics but rather as a

distinct, albeit allied, field. Many universities maintain separate mathematics and statistics

departments. Statistics is also taught in departments as diverse as psychology, education,

and public health.

Part 1

The prices of goods sold in shops vary from one shop to another. Shoppers tend to buy

goods which are not only reasonably priced but also give value for their money.

You are required to carry out a survey on four different items based on the following

categories i.e. food, detergent and stationery. The survey should be done in three different

shops.

(a) Collect pictures, newspaper cuttings or photos on items that you have chosen. Design a

collage to illustrate the chosen items.

the table below. Since items may be differently packed, be

sure to use consistent measurements for each item

selected so that comparison can be done easily and

accurately.

Tesco Econsave Jaya Jusco

Food 1. Self-raising flour(1000g) 3.65 3.95 4.05

2. Sugar(1000g) 1.65 1.65 1.65

3. Butter(500g) 8.49 8.90 8.90

4. Eggs - Grade A(10s) 3.59 3.99 4.00

Total Price 17.38 18.49 18.60

Detergent 1. Softlan(3000ml) 6.99 6.95 6.99

2. TOP Liquid Blue

Oceania(5000ml) 21.99 22.90 24.90

3. Trojan Lau Powder(4000g) 17.90 17.90 17.90

4. Dynamo Regular(3000g) 18.25 12.50 12.99

Total Price 65.13 60.25 62.78

Stationer

y 1. Pencil (12pcs) 9.20 7.20 9.60

2. Pen (4pcs) 2.39 3.20 3.50

3. Ruler (2pcs) 1.00 1.00 1.20

4. Correction pen (2pcs) 10.40 10.70 12.40

Total Price 22.99 22.10 26.70

Grand total 105.50 100.84 108.08

(c) Create at least two suitable graphical representations (the use of ICT is encouraged) to

compare and contrast the prices of the items chosen.

(d) Based on the graphical representations that you have constructed in Part 1 (c), interpret,

discuss and draw conclusions. Comment on your findings.

1. The price of selected foods are always lowest at Tesco.

2. The price of detergents at Tesco also very competitive, except Dynamo Regular (3000g),

where it is about 45% higher than Econsave and Jaya Jusco.

3. The price of selected stationeries at Tesco are relatively low compared to Econsave and

Jaya Jusco, except for pencils where Econsave has the lowest price which is about 22%

lower than Tesco and Jaya Jusco.

4. The total price of the selected items for foods are about the same in the three shops.

Econsave has the lowest total price for detergents. The total price of stationeries are about

the same for Tesco and Econsave but much higher at Jaya Jusco.

The prices at Tesco are competitive for most items. However, shoppers are advised to

compare prices between Tesco and Econsave, especially the high priced item such as

detergents. This is because the price for certain items in Tesco is abnormally higher than

Econsave. The prices are less competitive at Jaya Jusco (especially stationeries). However,

for detergents and food, the price difference is not obvious. Therefore, shoppers are advised

to consider other factors such as parking fee, transportation, time consuming and etc. before

making their decisions.

Part 2

Every year, SMK Indah organises a carnival to raise funds for the school. This year, the

school plans to install air conditioners in the school library. Last year, during the carnival, you

class made and sold butter cakes. Because of the popularity of butter cakes, your class has

decided to carry out the same project for the year’s carnival.

(a) Suggest a shop from Part 1 from which you would go to purchase the ingredients for the

butter cakes. State and discuss your reasons for purchasing from the shop you suggested.

Tesco. All the ingredients from Tesco are the cheapest compared to the other two.

(b) (i) Calculate the price index for each of the ingredients in the table for the year 2010

based on the year 2009.

Ingredient Quantity per cake Price in the year 2009 Price in the year 2009

(RM) (RM)

Self-raising flour 250g 0.90 0.9125

Sugar 200g 0.35 0.33

Butter 250g 3.30 4.245

Eggs (Grade A) 5 eggs (300g) 1.25 1.795

• Self-raising flour

I = 0.9125

0.90 x 100

= 101.39

• Sugar

I = 0.33

0.35 x 100

= 94.29

• Butter

I = 4.245

3.30 x 100

= 128.63

• Eggs

I = 1.795

1.25 x 100

= 143.6

(ii) Calculate the composite index for making a butter cake in the year 2010 based on the

year 2009. Discuss how you obtained your answers.

101.4 0.9 x 10 = 9 912.6

94.3 0.35 x 10 = 3.5 330.05

128.6 3.3 x 10 = 33 4243.8

143.6 1.25 x 10 = 12.5 1795

∑w = 58 ∑Iw = 7281.45

∑w

= 9 x 912.6 + 3.5 x 330.05 + 33 x 4243.8 + 12.5 x 1795

9 + 3.5 + 33 + 12.5

= 7281.45

58

= 125.54

(iii) In the year 2009, the butter cake was sold at RM15.00 each. Suggest a suitable

selling price for the butter cake in the year 2010. Give reasons for your answer.

• RM 15 x 125.54% = RM 15 x 125.54

100

= RM 18.80

OR

100

= RM 3.80

New selling price, RM 15 + RM 3.80 = RM18.80

From the composite index, we know that the cost of the ingredient has risen by 25.54%.

Therefore, the price of a butter cake should be increased by 25.54%, that is, from RM15 to

RM18.80 to keep the profit margin unchanged.

(c) (i) Find out from reliable sources how to determine a suitable capacity of air-conditioner

to be installed based on volume/size of a room.

Capacity of any cooling machine is known as ton. Ton refers to one ton of water or 1,000kg.

The quantity of ice produced in one day (24 hours) when water is put into the cooling

machine will determine its capacity. If it produces one ton of ice then the capacity of the

machine is one ton. If it produces 100kg of solid ice in 24 hours then the capacity is 0.1 ton.

The capacity of an air conditioner is given in BTU (British Thermal Unit) or HP (Horse

Power). The British Thermal Unit (BTU) is a unit of energy equal to about 1.06 kilojoules

(kJ). It is approximately the amount of energy needed to heat 1 pound or 0.454kg of water 1

°F or 0.556 °C. It is used to generate power and steam as well as heating and air

conditioning industries. In scientific contexts, the BTU has largely been replaced by the SI

unit of energy, which is joule, though it may be used as a measure of agricultural energy

production (BTU/kg). It is still used unofficially in metric English-speaking countries (such as

Canada and the United Kingdom), and remains the standard unit of classification for air

conditioning units manufactured and sold in many non-English-speaking metric countries.

In North America, the term "BTU" is used to describe the heat value (energy content) of

fuels, and also to describe the power of heating and cooling systems, such as furnaces,

stoves, barbecue grills, and air conditioners. When used as a unit of power, BTU per hour

(BTU/h) is the correct unit, though this is often abbreviated to just "BTU".

To determine the BTUs needed to cool a given space, follow this procedure:

1. Calculate the total square feet to be cooled by measuring the size of the room (or rooms)

to be cooled, to obtain total square feet followed by multiplying the room length by width for

each room and if there are multiple rooms, add the room areas together to get a single

number.

2. Read the Base BTUs needed from Table below. The table below gives recommended air

conditioning BTU's necessary to cool a single room. The data in the table assumes that the

ceiling over the room is insulated and that the room is not over or is not itself a special heat-

producing area such as a kitchen or boiler room.

Number of rooms Room area minimum Room are maximum BTUs needed

cooled square feet square feet

One 100 4,000 - 6,000

One 100 180 6,000 - 7,500

One 180 270 7,500 - 9,000

One 270 400 9,000 - 10,500

Several 400 10,500 - 12,000

Several 400 500 12,000 - 13,500

Several 500 700 13,500 - 15,000

Several 700 800 15,000 - 16,500

Large areas 900 16,500 - 18,000

Large areas 900 1,000 18,000 - 19,500

Large areas 1,000 1,100 19,500 - 21,000

Large areas 1,000 1,100 19,500 - 21,000

Large areas 1,100 1,200 21, 000 - 22,500

Large areas 1,200 1,500 22,500 - 24,000

Large areas 1,500 1,700 24,000 - 25,500

Large areas 1,700 1,900 25,500 - 27,000

Large areas 1,900 2,200 27,000 - 28,500

• + 4,000 BTUs for each room below a ceiling or roof which is not insulated.

• + 4,000 BTUs for a home or residential kitchen included in the cooled area.

• + 1,500 BTUs for each window which receives significant daily sunshine.

• + 1,500 BTUs for a room over a kitchen or boiler room IF the kitchen or boiler room is

actively producing heat during the cooling period.

• + 600 BTUs per person over two, if more than two occupants will be occupying the

room during the cooling period.

4. Subtract BTUs from the total required if these factors are present:

• - 1,000 BTUs if the room is on the shaded side of the building.

5. Calculate the final total BTU/h needed from the above steps. To estimate the range of

cooling capacity needed.

Note:

The guide is based on a room of about 8 feet height. If the height of a building is about 8-9

feet, then the guide above can be used. If a building has a ceiling much higher than that, (old

building usually), then the following guide can be used:

Step 1: Measure the room. The square footage of the room as well as the height of the

ceiling need to be known.

Step 2: Find the room's volume in cubic feet. Multiply the room's square footage by the

height of the ceiling. The total is the room's volume in cubic feet.

Step 3: Rate the room's insulation within a range of three numbers. Very good insulation is

rated 2, average is 3, and 4 represents poor insulation.

Step 4: Multiply the room's insulation rating by the room's volume. This will give the total

number of BTUs it takes to heat a room.

Step 5: Plus/Minus base on the factors given in previous guide.

However, most air conditioners give both HP and BTU as their cooling capacity. Therefore,

calculation in both HP and BTU is acceptable. You can convert BTU to HP by a factor of

42.44/minute or 2545/hour.

(ii) Work in groups to estimate the volume of your school library. Explain how you arrive

at your answer. Hence, determine the number of air conditioners with the appropriate

capacity required for your library.

Assuming the volume of the school library is 12,000 cubic feet, has an average insulation,

has 4 windows receiving significant sunlight, about 30 students at an average using the

library all the time every day, the calculation of the Capacity of the Air Conditioner is as

below:

12,000 x 3 = 36,000 BTU/h (for a room of 12,000 cubic feet with average insulation)

+ 4 x 1,500 BTU/h (for 4 windows receiving significant sunlight)

+ 30 x 600 BTU/h (for 30 students occupying the library)

= 60,000 BTU/h

Air conditioners with a total capacity of 60,000 BTU/h is required for the library. The AIR

COND-WALL SPLIT TYPE 2HP from Hock Sin Leong (HSL) has a cooling capacity of

17,100 BTU/h and costs RM2,399 each while the AIR COND-WALL SPLIT 1HP (Model

SHP-AHAUP9LMV) which is also a product of HSL, has a cooling capacity of 9000 BTU/h

and costs RM1,199 for a single unit. In order to obtain this cooling capacity, 3 units of AIR

COND-WALL SPLIT TYPE 2HP and 1 unit of AIR COND-WALL SPLIT 1HP (Model SHP-

AHAUP9LMV). Therefore, the total price is:

RM 2,399 x 3 + RM 1,199 = RM 8,396

(iii) If your class intends to sponsor one air conditioner for the school library, how many

butter cakes must your class sell in order to buy the air conditioner?

If the selling price of the cake is RM 18.80, the profit made for selling each cake is:

RM 18.80 - (RM 0.9125 + RM 0.33 + RM 4.245 + RM 1.795)

= RM 11.5175

≈ RM11.6

The price of the 4 units of air conditioner is RM 8,396. In order to buy the 4 units of air

conditioner, 730 units of butter cakes need to be sold.

8,396

11.5 = 730

Part 3

As a committee member for the carnival, you are required to prepare an estimated budet to

organise this year’s carnival. The committee has to take into consideration the increase in

expenditure from the previous year due to inflation. The price of food, transportation and

tents has increased by 15%. The cost of games,prizes and decorations remain the same,

whereas the cost of miscellaneous items have increased by 30%.

(a) Complete Table 3 based on the information given above.

Food 1220 1380

Games 500 500

Transportation 300 345

Decoration 200 200

Prizes 600 600

Tents 800 920

Miscellaneous 400 520

Food 115 12 1380

Games 100 5 500

Transportation 115 3 345

Decoration 100 2 200

Prizes 100 6 600

Tents 115 8 920

Miscellaneous 130 4 520

∑w = 40 ∑Iw = 4465

(b) Calculate the composite index for the estimated budget of the carnival in the year 2010

based on the year 2009. Comment on your answer.

40

= 111.625

The overall budget for year 2010 should increase by 11.625% based on the value of the

composite index of 111.625 as calculated above.

(c) The change in the composite index for the estimated budget for the carnival from the year

2009 to the year 2010 is the same as the change from the year 2010 to the year 2011.

Determine the composite index of the budget for the year 2011 based on the year 2009.

100 x 111.625

= 124.6

Further Exploration

Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations, for example air pollution

index, stock market index, gold index and property index.

Obtain information from the internet or other reliable sources on the importance of two

different types of index numbers of your choice. Elaborate the use and the importance of

these index numbers in daily life situations.

Index numbers are designed to measure the magnitude of economic changes over

time. They work in a similar way to percentages and make such changes easier to compare.

The method of index number is used for measuring changes in price level. The prices of

base years are compared to the prices of the current year. It is also used to note increase in

prices. Index numbers lets a customer know the rate of inflation. An index number of the cost

of living can guide us in the adjustment of wages to the changing prices. Labourers can

demand more wages on the basis of changes in price. The government can revise the pay

after regular periods. It can also determine the industrial production and business activity.

Index numbers may be helpful in judging the effect of certain policy adopted by the

government. To a businessman, they are helpful in comparing production in his own

business with that of an industry. Index numbers are helpful to measure the intelligence of

the students. The teachers can check their efficiency through index numbers. The

Government can then take remedial measures for the improvement of students and

teachers. Index numbers are helpful in judging the changes in investment. The stock

exchange prepares index numbers to show investment made by the people from time to

time. Investor can buy and sell shares in order to earn more profit. It is useful to note the

changes in employment level. The Government can increase the employment level by

creating new jobs. The increase in employment means the economy is developing.

Decrease in employment alarm the Government to take remedial measure.

that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural

environment into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous

system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to

air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's

ecosystems.

The Air Quality Index (AQI) (also known as the Air Pollution Index (API) or Pollutant

Standard Index (PSI) is a number used by government agencies to

characterize the quality of the air at a given location. As the AQI increases, an increasingly

large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health

effects. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model.

The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and

is different in different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each

range is assigned a descriptor and a colour code. Standardized public health advisories are

associated with each AQI range. An agency might also encourage members of the public to

take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high.

Reflection

While I was conducting this project, I have learnt to be patient and to not give up easily while

looking for information to complete my project. Furthermore, I realized the importance in

comparing prices before making purchases to avoid wastage. After doing so much research

and problem solving, I now know how vital the usage of index numbers and statistics is in

our daily life. It is not only widely used in markets but also in interpreting the condition of the

surrounding air or water. I am more appreciative of statistics and am very thankful of those

who have contributed to the idea of it.

Reference

http://www.hslene.com.my/default_ca.htm

http://www.ehow.com/how_4793243_many-btus-takes-heat-room.html#ixzz0qwMO5xL6

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080728234218AAKp6A8

http://www.inspectapedia.com/aircond/AirConditionerChart.htm

http://sawaal.ibibo.com/physics/how-calculate-capacity-airconditioner-813215.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_thermal_unit

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_statistics

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Index_numbers

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