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Job Training Mechanical Technician Course
ADGAS Personnel & Training Division
Personnel & Training Division
Job Training—Mechanical Technician
Page No. Abbreviations and Terminology................................................. 1 2 3 4 5 Introduction ………………………………………………………….. Labyrinth Seals............................................................................ Liquid Film Seals......................................................................... Carbon Ring Seals....................................................................... Lip Seals....................................................................................... 5.1 5.2 5.3 6 Types of Lip Seal.............................................................. Seal Identification............................................................. Removing and Fitting Lip Seals...................................... 5 6 8 13 14 16 17 20 22 28 29 31 31 32 33 34 36 37 39
Mechanical Seals......................................................................... 6.1 6.2 Main Parts of a Mechanical Seal...................................... Types of Mechanical Seal................................................ 6.2.1 Rotating and Stationary Seals.............................. 6.2.2 Balanced and Unbalanced Seals.......................... 6.2.3 Pusher and Non-pusher (Bellows) Seals............. 6.2.4 Internal and External Seals................................... 6.2.5 Conventional and Cartridge Seals........................ 6.3 6.4 Dual Seals.......................................................................... Seal Fluids.........................................................................
Dynamic Seals/Rev. 0.0
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Personnel & Training Division
Job Training—Mechanical Technician
Page No. 7 8 Summary...................................................................................... Glossary....................................................................................... Appendix A................................................................................... Appendix B................................................................................... Exercises 1-5................................................................................ 45 46 47 48 49
Dynamic Seals/Rev. 0.0
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Personnel & Training Division
Job Training—Mechanical Technician
Completion of A.T.I. Maintenance Programme, ADGAS Induction Course and Basic Maintenance Technician Course.
The Job Training Mechanical Technician Course is the second phase of the development programme. It is intended specifically for Mechanical Maintenance Developees. On completion of the Course the developee will have acquired an awareness of some of the equipment, terminology, and procedures related to mechanical maintenance of ADGAS LNG plant. Appropriate safety procedures will continue to be stressed at all times. On completion of this module, the developee will be able to correctly : • • • • • • • identify types of dynamic seals and describe their applications identify parts of a lip seal and describe their functions identify parts of a mechanical seal and describe their functions describe the function of seal fluids remove and replace carbon ring seals remove and replace a lip seal remove, dismantle, re-assemble and replace a dynamic seal
The above will be achieved through the following: • • • • • pre-test classroom instruction audio visual support tasks & exercises post-test
Dynamic Seals/Rev. 0.0
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A small amount of initial wear between two surfaces that allows them to match. usually in series.0 Page 5 of 49 . 0. To clean by passing a large quantity of water. Dynamic Seals/Rev. Goes around something and applies a radially inward force.. A flexible material with an abrasive coating for finishing.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Abbreviations and Terminology API PTFE American Petroleum Institute Polytetrafluoroethylene—a low-friction polymer also known by its trade name: Teflon Barrier Bed in Buffer Ceramic Contaminants Elastomer Emery cloth Flush Garter spring Honing Inert Quench Tandem Something that blocks a path. Something that exists between two extremes and reduces the effect of one on the other. A helical spring with its ends joined to form a circle. A natural or synthetic rubber. Something that does not chemically react. To rapidly cool something. A very fine finishing process using an oilstone or whetstone to remove small amounts of material from a surface. unwanted additions to a substance. through or over. Materials that make a substance impure. etc. Describing two things that work together. heat-resistant material made of clay that has been permanently hardened by heating. A very hard.
Non-contact seals include: • • labyrinth seals liquid (oil) film seals Dynamic Seals/Rev. compressors. A typical use is to seal flange joints. There are two main types of seals: • • static seals dynamic seals Static seals stop leaks between components that do not move relative to each other. 0. These are described in the Gaskets module of this course. Dynamic seals control leaks of gas or liquid where there is movement between components. gearboxes and prime movers.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 1 Introduction Seals prevent. Dynamic seals either make contact with the moving part or leave a very small gap.0 Page 6 of 49 . They are often used to keep dirt from entering bearings and to keep lubricant from leaking out. If there is clearance. The most common static seals are gaskets and orings. fluid can leak through the gap. or reduce to a minimum acceptable level. They are used on the rotating and reciprocating parts of valves. leaks of gas or liquid from between component surfaces. They also prevent dirt from entering through those surfaces. pumps. In both cases there will be some leakage.
Any fluid used to lubricate the seal will leak out from between the sealed surfaces. there must be lubrication to stop excessive wear of the seal. In many applications. 0. It is a fire hazard.0 Page 7 of 49 . A flammable material catches fire easily. Contact seals include: • • • • packing glands carbon ring seals lip seals mechanical seals Modern seals are designed to reduce leakage to a very small amount. The failure of a seal can result in anything from a small water or oil leak to the escape of flammable or toxic fluids. gland packing has been replaced by other types of dynamic seals that are more reliable and easier to replace.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician If there is contact. This type has been described in the module on Gland Packing. You have met dynamic seals in this course in the modules on Pumps and Compressors. They are described here in more detail. Dynamic Seals/Rev. Packing of this kind is used mainly on valve stems and smaller pumps. The most common type of dynamic seal uses packing in a stuffing box. The planned replacement of seals to prevent failure is part of the routine maintenance of rotating equipment.
the kind of place that you can easily get lost in. knife-edged rings. 0. Figure 2. They do not make contact with the shaft but leave very small clearances between shaft and seal or between stationary and rotating parts of the seal.0 Page 8 of 49 . The word is used to describe seals that provide a long leakage path that makes any leaking fluid squeeze through a series of very small gaps.1: Simple Labyrinth Seals Dynamic Seals/Rev.1.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 2 Labyrinth Seals A labyrinth is a long and complicated path or network of paths. They have grooves machined on the surface. Labyrinth seals do not reduce leaks by rubbing on the shaft. as shown in Figure 2. leaving many sharp.
Seal fluid connections allow fluids to be injected and removed from the seal at points along its length.2(b). Seal fluid connections Stationary seal Rotating sleeve Stationary seal-half Rotating seal-half Stepped section (a) Seal Running on Plain Sleeve (b) Interlocking Seal Figure 2. as shown in Figure 2.1 but it is more usual for them to operate on a shaft sleeve or rotating seal-half that is fixed to the shaft as shown in Figure 2. This drawing shows two other features you may find on labyrinth seals. 0. Dynamic Seals/Rev. This creates a lot of fluid friction that results in pressure loss in the fluid.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician As fluid passes through the labyrinth it does not follow a straight path. This gives an even longer leakage path with a greater pressure drop. By the time the fluid reaches the end of the seal its pressure has dropped so much that it is no higher than the outside pressure and it can not flow out.2: Two-piece Labyrinth Seals The rotating seal-half may also have grooves and knife-edges that fit between those on the stationary half as shown in Figure 2.2. This is described later in this section. Labyrinth seals can operate directly on the shaft. It is constantly changing direction to squeeze through the gaps. To inject something is to feed it under pressure into a space or into another substance.0 Page 9 of 49 . The stepped section helps to stop leakage from right to left in the figure. Much of the leaking fluid rotates with the shaft and centrifugal action stops it from flowing inwards towards the shaft centre. Wear only results when worn bearings allow the shaft to move so that clearances are lost. The advantage of a non-contacting seal is that there is no contact wear between surfaces as long as clearance is maintained.
3(a) and (b) shows full inner and split outer sections of interlocking labyrinth seals. 0. Figure 2. This is the case for the small turbine seal shown in Figure 2.4: Rotating Labyrinth in Plain Casing Dynamic Seals/Rev.3: Interlocking Labyrinth Seal Halves Sometimes the grooved seal rotates with the shaft and seals against a plane section of casing.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician The outer half of an interlocking seal is split to allow assembly. (a) Full Inner Half (b) Split Outer Halves Figure 2.4.0 Page 10 of 49 . Figure 2.
Impeller Impeller eye labyrinth seal Balance drum labyrinth seal Balance drum Shaft Shaft sleeve Shaft labyrinth seal Figure 2.0 Page 11 of 49 .Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Labyrinth seals are used where pressure differences are not very great.5: Labyrinth Seal Locations in a Centrifugal Compressor Dynamic Seals/Rev. Figure 2. 0. They are often used between stages of centrifugal compressors and turbines.5 shows typical labyrinth seal locations in a centrifugal compressor.
If the contained fluid is hazardous and no leakage is acceptable a harmless fluid is injected at a higher pressure.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician If the pressure of the contained fluid is below atmospheric. Figure 2.6 shows an example of a labyrinth seal on the discharge end of a centrifugal compressor shaft. Dynamic Seals/Rev. 0. No air can enter a seal that contains fluid at a higher pressure. Escaping discharge gas returned to suction (recovery) Seal gas leaving High pressure seal gas entering Impeller Bearing Oil seal Figure 2.0 Page 12 of 49 . A second labyrinth seal contains oil in the bearing housing. The principle is the same as that for lantern-ring gland packing systems described in the Gland Packing module in this course. Fluids flow from high to low pressure. may escape without danger of pollution or hazard to health and safety. This fluid forms a barrier past which the contained fluid can not escape.6: Labyrinths Seal with Discharge Recovery and Seal Gas Connections Labyrinth seals are often used in series with other types of seal to give improved and back-up sealing. Small quantities of this seal fluid A barrier stops forward movement. injecting a fluid into the seal at a higher pressure stops air entering the system.
1: Liquid (Oil) Film Seal The example shown in the figure uses labyrinth seals to reduce leakage of the sealing liquid.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 3 Liquid Film Seals Liquid film seals are another type of non-contact seal. 0. Figure 3.0 Page 13 of 49 . This liquid is at a higher pressure than the contained fluid. As fluids can only flow from high to low pressure.1 shows an example of a liquid film seal. shaft and housing. no contained fluid can flow into the seal. Sealing liquid. enters the seal. filling the spaces between the floating ring. Dynamic Seals/Rev. The seal housing contains a floating ring that is free to rotate in the housing and has clearance on the shaft. Sealing liquid IN Floating ring Labyrinth seal Shaft sleeve Labyrinth seal Sealing liquid OUT Figure 3. usually oil.
0. as shown in the figure. Each section contains a set of rings.1: Carbon Ring Seal The casing is made up of a series of sections. This may be provided by the contained fluid. in which case some will leak out. Although they leave no gap for leakage there must be lubrication between the rubbing surfaces. A number of rings fit inside a casing as shown in Figure 4.1. Garter spring Garter spring Ring sets Lube oil Radially cut ring Tangentially cut ring Fluid pressure Fluid pressure Coolant Casing sections Garter springs Figure 4.0 Page 14 of 49 . normally made up of one tangentially cut ring and one radially cut ring. fluid pressure acts on the rings in each set to push them axially: together and against one side of the housing. Dynamic Seals/Rev. It may be an integral part of the equipment casing or a separate unit that can fit into a standard stuffing box. It also pushes the rings radially onto the shaft surface. If there is no leakage at all from a seal it must be running dry and will soon wear and fail. If some other lubricant is fed to the seal. A garter spring around the outside of each ring holds the parts of the ring together and keeps them in light contact with the shaft. In operation. These forces from the fluid help the rings to seal. some of that will leak out.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 4 Carbon Ring Seals Carbon ring seals make contact with the shaft and their casing and so they will wear.
0. may have lubricant and/or cooling fluid supplied. Labyrinth seals Carbon ring seals Oil rings for splash lubrication Figure 4. Figure 4. Bearing lubrication is by a simple splash lubrication system using oil rings that are turned by the shaft and dip into oil in the oil reservoir.2 shows carbon ring and labyrinth seals on a small steam turbine.2: Shaft Sealing on a Small Steam Turbine The carbon rings seal the steam in the main turbine casing. Now try Exercise 1 Dynamic Seals/Rev. Cases used for high-pressure. Seven packing sets are most common although up to twenty sets are used for special applications. These rings fit directly into the turbine casing. or in some high temperature applications.0 Page 15 of 49 .Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician The rings are traditionally made of carbon but may now be made of other low-friction materials such as PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). Labyrinth seals are fitted each side of the bearing to prevent lubrication oil leakage.
. They are used mainly to reduce leakage of lubricant from bearings and gearboxes. Figure 5. In operation. are another type of contact seal. They are only used for small pressure differences. 0.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 5 Lip Seals Lip seals.2(a). The main parts of a lip seal are shown in Figure 5. The garter spring holds the lip against the shaft. Figure 5. Dynamic Seals/Rev. etc. to a minimum and to keep dirt or other contaminants out. also called radial shaft seals.1 shows a typical lip seal. up to 1 or 2bar.1: Lip Seal The main parts of a lip seal are: • • • casing lip garter spring The lip is usually made of a rubber material (elastomer) that is bonded onto a metal casing.0 Page 16 of 49 . any pressure difference between the contained fluid and the outside should help to hold the lip against the shaft.
lubrication is necessary to avoid excessive wear of the lip. Dynamic Seals/Rev.0 Page 17 of 49 .2: Parts and Lubrication of a Lip Seal As this is a contact seal.2(b). 5. 0. Some of the oil being contained forms a film between the lip and the shaft as shown in Figure 5.1 Types of Lip Seal The type of lip seal depends on: • • • case design lip design whether or not a garter spring is fitted There are three main types of case: • • • single metal pressing a single metal pressing covered with the rubber lip material a double metal pressing Most lip seal cases are made of steel.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Metal case Garter spring Primary sealing lip Garter spring Metal case Primary sealing lip Oil Shaft Oil film Lip contact (a) Main Parts (b) Lip Lubrication Figure 5.
3: Basic Case This basic type is designed to fit into a housing that is machined accurately and which has a smooth surface finish. Dynamic Seals/Rev. Figure 5. To give more flexibility in the fit between seal and housing the case can be covered with the rubber lip material as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5.0 Page 18 of 49 .4.4: Rubber-covered Case A rubber-covered case gives a better seal between case and housing and allows for a rougher finish. It also allows for thermal expansion of the housing. 0.3.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician The simplest and cheapest type has a single metal pressing as shown in Figure 5.
Both types are shown in Figure 5. This is shown in Figure 5. an extra (secondary) rubber lip is added to keep it away from the main (primary) lip.6: Lip Types Dynamic Seals/Rev. Where the outside of the seal is open to the surroundings and there is danger of dirt entering. Figure 5.6.5: Double Metal Case Lip designs can also vary but there are two main types: • • single lip single lip and dust lip The seals shown above are of the single-lip type.0 Page 19 of 49 .5. Dust lip Primary lip Figure 5. 0.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician The third main type of case has no rubber covering but a second metal pressing to give the seal case more strength.
7. They are also used on hydraulic cylinders for wiping hydraulic fluid or dirt from reciprocating components.7(b). as shown in Figure 5.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Lip seals without garter rings are used for more viscous fluids like grease.4 or just coated on the fluid side. e. most are made of one of the many synthetic rubbers. (a) For Viscous Fluid Applications (b) For Wiping in Hydraulic Cylinder Applications Figure 5. as shown in Figure 5. plus some additional designs lip type—as described in the last section. This may be fully coated.2 Seal Identification Lip seals are identified by their: • • • casing type—as described in the last section. Almost all are of some kind of rubber but. 5.7: Garterless Lip Seals The material of the lip depends on the fluid being sealed.0 Page 20 of 49 . as natural rubber is attacked by hydrocarbons. Examples of these are shown in Figure 5. plus many more lip material—mostly synthetic rubbers which must be compatible with the fluid they contact • seal dimensions Things that are compatible can exist together without harming each other Dynamic Seals/Rev. 0.g. oil and grease. If the fluid being sealed attacks the steel casing a rubber coated case is used.
These may be different for different seal manufacturers. Lip materials are identified by a code letter.8. A table of applications for different rubbers is shown in Appendix B of this module. Look at the manufacturer’s catalogue to find the coding for the seal you need. 0. Housing Bore Depth Seal Width Housing ID Shaft Diameter Seal OD Seal ID Figure 5. An example of a typical seal type coding system is shown in Appendix A of this module. Lip materials depend on the fluid they contact and the operating temperature. Other dimensions sometimes needed are shown in black in the figure.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Lip and casing types are identified by code letters and numbers.0 Page 21 of 49 .8: Lip Seal Dimensions Dynamic Seals/Rev. The basic dimensions for a lip seal are: • • • shaft diameter housing diameter seal width and sometimes • seal OD The main dimensions are shown in red in Figure 5.
Make very sure that the lip material code is correct for the application.9. After removing the old seal. 0. Figure 5. Remove scratches and burs by honing and finishing with fine emery cloth. Now try Exercise 2 5. clean the shaft and housing and inspect them for scratches or burs.0 Page 22 of 49 . Clean and dry all surfaces.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Seal type. Check that the seal is the correct replacement for the one you have removed.9: Seal Identification Information Look at the manufacturer’s information to identify a seal from the case markings. especially on shoulders. material and size information is usually marked on the metal case of the seal as shown in Figure 5. Before fitting a new seal. Make sure that the garter spring is located correctly and the seal is clean and free of dust. Dynamic Seals/Rev. The seal can normally be levered out using a sharp tool behind the seal case. splines and keyways. inspect it carefully for any damage.3 Removing and Fitting Lip Seals The main thing to remember when removing an old seal is not to damage the housing bore. Check the shaft for excessive wear.
10 you can see the right and the wrong way to fit a lip seal.0 Page 23 of 49 . Dynamic Seals/Rev. 0. This is correct and pressure of the contained fluid helps to keep the seal lip against the shaft.10(b) the seal is fitted with the garter spring on the inside. Dirt also can collect in the seal and can effect the operation of the garter spring.10: Effects of Correct and Incorrect Seal Orientation In Figure 5.. In Figure 5. Fluid pressure Build-up of dirt behind seal and around spring Fluid pressure (a) NOT Correct (b) CORRECT Figure 5.10(a) the seal is fitted so that you can see the garter spring from outside.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician You must be aware of two important facts before you fit a lip seal: • the higher pressure should always push on the garter spring side to help the lip to stay in contact with the shaft • most lip seals are designed for a particular direction of shaft rotation: clockwise or anti-clockwise In Figure 5. This is not correct as the pressure of the contained fluid tries to lift the seal lip off the shaft causing excessive leakage. Dirt can not build up so easily and can not affect the garter spring.
10(b) is the difference in lip angles.11. If fitted the wrong way around it pushes liquid out from the seal. this helps to keep the liquid behind the seal.0 Page 24 of 49 . If fitted correctly.11: Pumping Direction of Rotating Shaft Tests have shown that in operation the shaft rotation pushes liquid from the side with the small angle to the side with the big angle. 0. Liquids pushed this way by rotating shaft Bigger angle Smaller angle Figure 5. One side of the lip is at a greater angle than the other as shown in Figure 5. Dynamic Seals/Rev.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Always fit lip seals with the garter spring on the higher pressure side Higher pressure (oil side) Lower pressure (air side) Another reason for fitting seals in the way shown in Figure 5.
The direction of rotation is clockwise or anticlockwise as you look at the end of the shaft from outside the seal.13: Two-direction Lip Seals Dynamic Seals/Rev.12: Single-direction Lip Seals These ribs help the pumping action of the rotating shaft.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Many lip seals are designed for a particular direction of shaft rotation. or may be part of the manufacturer’s seal code. Lip seals designed for shaft rotation in both directions often have ribs in both directions as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. They have ribs moulded into the outside face of the seal as shown in Figure 5. Seal case marking Shaft rotation Fluid flow Ribs Ribs (a) Clockwise Shaft Rotation (b) Anti-clockwise Shaft Rotation Figure 5.13. As the shaft rotates it drags fluid around with it. The rotation direction may be marked on the seal with an arrow.0 Page 25 of 49 . as shown in the figure. The ribs are in a direction that carries any leaking fluid back towards the sealing edge of the lip. 0.12.
0.14(b). Lubricate the lip before sliding it onto the shaft. If you are sliding the front (inside) face over the end of the shaft.15: one to slide the seal over a shoulder and one to slide it over a keyway or splines.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician When you are sure that you have the correct replacement seal and that the housing and shaft are in good condition you can install the seal. Front of seal Back of seal Smoothed edges Direction of seal installation (a) Back-first Installation Direction of seal installation (b) Front-first Installation Figure 5.14(a). splines or a keyway. use a cap over the end of the shaft. If you are sliding the back (outside) face over the end of the shaft. Use the same fluid that will be contacting the seal during operation. Dynamic Seals/Rev. Another lubricant may not be compatible with the seal material.14: Shaft Preparation for Seal Installation If the shaft is not machined as shown in the figure or if the seal must slide over a shoulder. Two examples are shown in Figure 5.0 Page 26 of 49 . the shaft should be chamfered as shown in Figure 5. the shaft should be radiused as shown in Figure 5.
16(b). If one is not available you can use a correctly sized tube. Tool for Flush Mounting (b) Cap to Slide over Keyway and Splines.15 above. Take great care to fit the seal square in its housing. not as shown in Figure 5. Tool for Recessed Mounting Figure 5.0 Page 27 of 49 .16: Seal Installation ERRORS Now try Exercise 3 Dynamic Seals/Rev.15: Shaft Cap and Seal Mounting Tool The seal is an interference fit in the housing. 0. very much like the way in which you press-fit a bearing. Housing ID Tool diameter (a) Mounting Tool too Small (b) Out of Square Figure 5.16(a). with an OD slightly smaller than the housing ID. using a press wherever possible. Two examples of suitable mounting tools are shown in Figure 5. Apply the mounting force steadily. It is very important to fit the seal with a force that is spread evenly around the seal. and as close to the outside as possible to avoid bending the casing as shown in Figure 5.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Keyway Shoulder Mounting tool Protective cap Seal housing (a) Cap to Slide over Shoulder.
0. some fluid must pass between the sealing surfaces to lubricate and help cool them. One is attached to and rotates with the shaft. Sealing faces Sealing faces Spring loading Spring loading Figure 6.1: Mechanical Seal Dynamic Seals/Rev. The seal is made between the very smooth. By using more than one seal and by injecting harmless fluids between them we can stop any hazardous fluids from leaking into the environment. This does not mean that there is no leakage and. Figure 6. as with other contact seals. The other is attached to the housing and is stationary. They reduce leakage to such a small amount that it can not be seen. Any liquid leakage usually evaporates before it can be detected.0 Page 28 of 49 .1 shows the two sealing faces of a mechanical seal.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 6 Mechanical Seals Mechanical seals can protect against leakage across much higher pressure differences than the other seals described. The sealing faces are held together by a spring force. very flat faces of two rings. During operation this force is usually increased by the pressure of the contained fluid.
The face is usually made of a softer material than the seat. There may be a single spring as shown in Figure 6. Even the small amount of acid in your sweat can damage them so you should never touch them with bare fingers.2. The other ring is often called the seat. Dynamic Seals/Rev. The dynamic seal between these surfaces is called the primary seal.2: Basic Parts of a Mechanical Seal The spring-loaded ring is often just called the face.1 and 6.2(b).0 Page 29 of 49 . Spring (or springs) Shaft collar (or sleeve) Primary seal (between faces) Stationary ring Spring (or springs) Shaft collar (or sleeve) Primary seal Rotating ring Stationary ring Secondary seal Housing Secondary seal Rotating ring Shaft Shaft Housing Secondary seals (a) Basic Mechanical Seal (b) Drawing of Basic Mechanical Seal Figure 6. The face is often made of carbon. which reduces wear during start-up and shut-down. before a fluid film can form between the faces. The primary seal surfaces are lapped to very high precision of flatness and surface finish.2.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 6.1 Main Parts of a Mechanical Seal There are many different designs of mechanical seals but they all contain the basic parts shown in Figure 6. In most mechanical seals it is the face that rotates against the stationary seat as shown in Figure 6. This allows the face to bed in and prevents the harder seat from wearing. a natural solid lubricant. 0.2(a) or a number of springs as shown in Figures 6.
0 Page 30 of 49 . An outer shell and pins or lugs often provide this drive as shown in Figure 6. chevron and u-cups). The drive is usually through a positive drive mechanism that allows the rotating ring to move axially on the shaft. There may be other static secondary seals at points where leakage between stationary or axially sliding surfaces is possible.3: Drive for Rotating Face Dynamic Seals/Rev.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician The seat is made from a metal or ceramic material. Rotating face Drive lug Shell Spring Collar Figure 6. 0. This must happen to form the seal and take up any wear on the faces. as well as gaskets. This collar drives the spring (or springs) and the rotating ring. A secondary seal also stops leakage between the stationary ring and its housing.3. under the collar and rotating ring. Both surfaces must be compatible with the fluid they contact. A collar or sleeve is fixed to the shaft by a key or by set screws. Static secondary seals stop the contained fluid from leaking along the shaft. Rubber o-rings are the most common type of secondary seal but other polymers (PTFE for example) and sections (wedge. are also used.
2 Types of Mechanical Seal Mechanical seals can be grouped in a number of ways. the seal is of the stationary type.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 6. Figure 6.1 Rotating and Stationary Seals In most mechanical seal designs it is the spring-loaded face that rotates with the shaft and the seat that is fixed in a stationary housing.4 shows a stationary-type seal.2.4: Stationary-type Mechanical Seal Dynamic Seals/Rev.0 Page 31 of 49 . depending on: • primary seal design o rotating and stationary o balanced and unbalanced • secondary seal design o pusher and non-pusher (bellows) • location and method of fitting o internal and external o conventional and cartridge 6. This is a rotating mechanical seal. All the seals shown in figures so far have been of the rotating type. 0. If the spring-loaded face is fixed in the housing and the seat rotates with the shaft. Housing Spring-loaded face held in fixed housing Seat located on shaft sleeve Shaft Figure 6.
This is good up to a certain pressure but for higher pressures it can break down the lubricating film between surfaces.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 6. 0. only a part of the fluid pressure pushes the seal surfaces together as some is balanced by a force in the opposite direction. some of the contained pressure can be used to push back as shown in Figure 6.5(b). the pressure of the fluid being contained helps to keep the primary seal surfaces pressed together.5(a). Dynamic Seals/Rev. all the axial part of the force pushes the face onto the seat as shown in Figure 6. The force pushing them together depends on the fluid pressure and the area the pressure pushes on. By changing the shape of the spring-loaded face. Balanced seals can continue to operate under higher pressures than unbalanced seals.2 Balanced and Unbalanced Seals In most designs.5: Balanced and Unbalanced Seals In the balanced seal.2.0 Page 32 of 49 . In an unbalanced seal. Axial part of contained fluid pressure (a) Unbalanced Axial parts of contained fluid pressure (b) Balanced Figure 6.
2. 0. the secondary seal is located so that it slides along the shaft with the seal face as shown in Figure 6. so that the primary face can not take up wear. In a non–pusher seal. or hang up. This type uses a metal or rubber (elastomer) bellows to keep fluid away from the shaft downstream from the secondary seal.0 Page 33 of 49 .Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 6.7: Non-pusher or Bellows Seal Seals with elastomer bellows need a spring to push the primary face against the seat. Dynamic Seals/Rev.6. In a pusher seal. Non-sliding secondary seal Bellows Figure 6. This arrangement is shown in Figure 6.3 Pusher and Non-pusher (Bellows) Seals As the seal face wears.6: Pusher Seal This is the most common type. If the bellows is made of metal it can also act as a spring. it is pushed closer to the seat by the spring or springs. the secondary seal is located under the collar and does not slide with the primary face. Sliding secondary seal Figure 6.7. The disadvantage with this arrangement is that the secondary seal can stick.
This has the advantage that fluid pressure helps to keep the face pushed against the seat.2. The rotating seal face. etc.0 Page 34 of 49 . corrosion-resistant materials.8 shows elastomer and metal bellows seals.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Figure 6. spring.8: Bellows Seals 6. the seal parts must be made of expensive. If the contained fluid is very corrosive. The disadvantage is that inside the seal gland the seal is exposed to the contained fluid. Bellows Spring Bellows (a) Elastomer Bellows (b) Metal Bellows Figure 6. Dynamic Seals/Rev. collar. 0. are mounted inside the seal gland. Figure 6.9 shows a typical internal seal..4 Internal and External Seals Most seals are mounted internally.
0. they are more exposed to damage. Dynamic Seals/Rev. being outside.9: Internal Seal For very corrosive fluids an external seal may be cheaper.10.Personnel & Training Division Face Job Training—Mechanical Technician Gland throat Seat Fluid pressure Atmospheric pressure Figure 6. Face Seat Gland throat Fluid pressure Atmospheric pressure Figure 6. Fluid pressure acts to open the seal so they are not suitable for high pressures.0 Page 35 of 49 . The seal is reversed and the moving parts are mounted outside the gland. Only the seat and face are exposed to the contained fluid. as shown in Figure 6.10: External Seal These seals are easier to access for maintenance but.
0. This design does not need setting and alignment on site and reduces maintenance time and cost.0 Page 36 of 49 . The face and seat have to be assembled on site and must be set and aligned carefully. Cartridge seals are pre-assembled on a shaft sleeve and include a gland. Face Seat Fluid pressure Sleeve Atmospheric pressure Figure 6.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 6.2.5 Conventional and Cartridge Seals The seals described so far are conventional seals. They fit directly onto a shaft of the correct size or a second shaft sleeve.11: Cartridge Seal Dynamic Seals/Rev.11 shows a typical cartridge seal. Figure 6.
They describe two things that work together. The API preferred term for all of these seals is dual.12: Dual Seals Mounted in Tandem *Note: The words dual.0 Page 37 of 49 .13 and 6. 0.12.3 Dual* Seals Two mechanical seals may be mounted together to: • • provide a back-up to protect against failure of one seal allow higher pressures to be sealed or to reduce the pressure drop across the inside (inboard) seal • • prevent leakage of hazardous or toxic fluids seal corrosive or abrasive fluids There are three possible arrangements of dual* seals: • • • tandem*— both seals facing the same direction double* seals mounted back-to-back double* seals mounted face-to-face These seal arrangements are shown in Figures 6. 6.14. Dynamic Seals/Rev. Inboard primary seal Outboard primary seal Contained fluid Figure 6. tandem and double all have the same meaning.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 6.
13: Dual Seals Mounted Back-to-back Contained fluid Inboard primary seal Outboard primary seal Figure 6. 0.14: Dual Seals Mounted Face-to-face Dynamic Seals/Rev.0 Page 38 of 49 .Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Inboard primary seal Contained fluid Outboard primary seal Figure 6.
0. Temperature control at the primary seal surfaces is important to maintain the lubricating film between them. All these fluids may help to control the temperature at the seals.4 Seal Fluids Fluid can be injected into the seal gland area for several reasons: • flushing—to wash out any unwanted fluids or solids that might build up in the seal or to keep abrasives away from primary seal surfaces • quenching—to control temperature and remove solids. including the seal buffer—to reduce the total pressure difference across the seals in two steps barrier—to stop any leakage of toxic or hazardous fluids Seal fluids must be compatible with the seal materials.0 Page 39 of 49 . that might build up outboard of the seal • • • jacketing—to cool the stuffing box area. if the fluid pressure in the film is close to its vapour pressure the fluid may vapourise causing cavitation between the surfaces. Figure 6. The higher the temperature the lower the viscosity and the easier it is for the fluid film to break down. Dynamic Seals/Rev. Cavitation is described in the Pumps module in this course.15 shows a single seal with connections for these.. some will leak into the contained fluid and this must be acceptable to the final product. quenching and jacketing fluids can be used with single and dual seals. In some cases. Also. etc. Flushing.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 6. Temperature affects the viscosity of a fluid.
Personnel & Training Division Flush liquid out Jacket liquid out Throat bushing Job Training—Mechanical Technician Quench liquid out Outboard seal or throttle bushing Jacket liquid in Flush liquid in Quench liquid in Figure 6. also called vent and drain fluid. This makes sure that no air is trapped inside during filling. e. These glands have spaces around the seal to allow fluid to circulate. If an exit connection is not provided the flushing fluid enters the contained fluid through the throat bushing. Jacketing fluid is used for some seal glands where temperature control of the whole gland area is necessary. Quench liquid does not enter the contained fluid. is injected into the area outboard of the seal. 0.15: Seal Fluids used for Single and Dual Seals If the fluids used are liquids they should enter at the bottom and leave at the top.0 Page 40 of 49 .g. It is a clean fluid that keeps the surfaces clear of solid build-up and harmful liquids or vapours and helps to cool the seal surfaces. Quenching fluid. is used the flow direction is reversed—in at the top and out at the bottom. steam. Dynamic Seals/Rev. This does a similar job to the flush but cleans and cools the seal from the outside. Flushing fluid is directed towards the primary seal surfaces at a pressure higher than that of the contained fluid. If gas or vapour.
16 shows tandem seals with a buffer fluid. Figure 6. Dynamic Seals/Rev.16: Buffer Fluid Barrier fluids are injected between dual seals at a pressure higher than that of the contained fluid. 0. there are two that are used only with dual seals.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician In addition to the seal fluids that can be used for single or dual seals.0 Page 41 of 49 . Figure 6.17 shows back-to-back seals with a barrier fluid. Buffer fluids are injected between dual seals at a pressure between that of the contained fluid and the outside atmosphere. This reduces the pressure drop across each seal. Barrier fluids are used to stop any trace of leak of a hazardous or toxic fluid. Buffer fluid out Atmospheric pressure P3 Contained pressure P1 Buffer fluid in at pressure P2 Buffer pressure P2 P1>P2>P3 Figure 6. This makes sure that no contained fluid escapes into the space between the seals and so none can escape to atmosphere. allowing higher contained pressures to be sealed.
Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Barrier fluid in at pressure P2 Barrier fluid out Atmospheric pressure P3 Contained pressure P1 Barrier pressure P2 P2>P1>P3 Figure 6. Dynamic Seals/Rev. Seal liquids taken from an outside source may be circulated by gravity and convection or pumped under pressure.0 Page 42 of 49 .17: Barrier Fluid The choice of seal fluid used depends on the application. 0. Water is often used for pumps and air or an inert gas like nitrogen for compressors. often called a thermosyphon system. Figure 6. Fluid can be taken directly from pump or compressor suction or discharge if the pressure and cleanliness of the fluid is suitable.18 shows a natural convection supply system.
through coolers and filters and then to the seals. The more dense cooler liquid falls to the lowest point in the system. This system is very similar to a forced lubrication supply to bearings. Figure 6.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Reservoir Hot return Seal Cold feed Figure 6. In this way the convection currents set up circulate the liquid around the system. displacing the hotter less dense liquid and pushing it up into the reservoir.18: Seal Fluid Supply by Thermosyphon As the seal liquid temperature increases inside the seal it expands. becoming less dense. Dynamic Seals/Rev.0 Page 43 of 49 .19 shows a P&ID of a typical compressor seal oil system. For many applications a forced feed system is used in which seal fluid is pumped from the reservoir. 0.
19: Compressor Seal Oil Forced Circulation System P&ID Now try Exercises 4 and 5 Dynamic Seals/Rev. 0.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Figure 6.0 Page 44 of 49 .
These seals are mentioned in the modules on Pumps and on Compressors but they are described in much greater detail here. re-assembling and fitting a mechanical seal depends on the type and design of the seal. know their applications and have had practice in fitting some of them. 0. Exercise 5 gives you practice at following a procedure for one type of mechanical seal. You should now be able to identify most of the seals used on the plant.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 7 Summary In this module the types of dynamic seals not covered in the module on Gland Packing are described. Dynamic Seals/Rev. You should be able to identify the different types and arrangements of mechanical seals and know the types of seal fluids used and what they are for.0 Page 45 of 49 . dismantling. The procedure for removing.
You will find these words in coloured italics in the notes. There is a short definition in a box near the word in the notes.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician 8 Glossary Here are some words used in this module that might be new to you. Sometimes a doctor injects a drug directly into your blood. It is difficult to work with someone with whom you are not compatible. usually under pressure Dynamic Seals/Rev. Never leave flammable liquids standing in direct sunlight.0 Page 46 of 49 . 0. Word First Used on Page: 12 Part of Speech noun Meaning Example of Use Barrier Something that blocks the path Able to exist or be used together without problems Easily set on fire A barrier across the entrance is lifted when you show your security pass. Compatible 20 adjective Flammable 7 adjective Inject 9 verb To feed something into another substance.
Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Appendix A Typical Lip Seal Codes Dynamic Seals/Rev. 0.0 Page 47 of 49 .
Dynamic Seals/Rev. can be used if no other materials available.Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Appendix B Typical Synthetic Lip Seal Material Codes and Applications LIP MATERIAL Material Code Temperature Range * Oil Resistance Acid Resistance Alkali Resisitance Water Resisitance Heat Resistance Cold Resistance Wear Resistance Ozone Resistance ASTM D2000 Spec. 0.0 Page 48 of 49 . Fair. Not recommended. NITRILE N -40 F ~ 250 F (-35 C ~ 120 C) E G G G G G E G 2BG715B14B34 E014 EO34EF11EF21 POLYACRYLATE P -20 F ~ 300 F (-30 C ~ 150 C) E F X F E F E E SDH710A26B16 B36EO16EO36 SILICONE S -80 F ~ 400 F (-60 C ~ 200 C) G F X G E E G E 2GE8O7A19B3 7 EO16EO36G11 FLUOROELASTOMER V -30 F ~ 400 F (-35 C ~ 200 C) E E F G E F E E 2HK710A110B38 * maximum temperature limits depend on other operating conditions. Key: E G F X Excellent Good for most applications.
Personnel & Training Division Job Training—Mechanical Technician Exercises Dynamic Seals/Rev.0 Page 49 of 49 . 0.
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