You are on page 1of 128

SEMINAR/WORKSHOP ON THE PREPARATION OF

DETAILED ENGINEERING DESIGN

Department of Interior & Local Government


May 28-June 1, 2018

Presented by:

Engr. VIRGILIO B. COLUMNA, f.asep, f. pice Engr. WILFREDO S. LOPEZ, f.asep, f.pice
VB Columna Construction Corporation WSLOPEZ Engineering & Consulting Services
Institution of Specialist Structural Engineers Institution of Specialist Structural Engineers of
of the Philippines, I.StructS. No. 008 the Philippines, I.StructS. No. 012
Structural Engineering Specialist StE No.82 Structural Engineering Specialist StE No. 68
Past President, ASEP (2013-2014) Past President, ASEP (2008-2009)
Trustee, IPROVE Global Inc. Trustee, IPROVE Global Inc.
Computer-Aided Structural Analysis & Design of Buildings
Objectives of this Presentation

1. To discuss the basic STAAD commands for use in


modeling simple building structures.
2. To provide an alternative design tool for structural
engineers performing structural design works.
Outcomes

At the end of this presentation, the participants are


expected to:
1. gain basic knowledge in modeling building structures
with the use of STAAD structural design software; and,

2. perform design and analysis of buildings with the use of


STAAD as an alternative design tool for structural design
works.
Introduction
STAAD-Structural Analysis and Design computer software is a
powerful program for 3D analysis of buildings. Developed by
Bentley Systems, Inc., it is used for building model development,
analysis, design, visualization and verification. It provides a full
range of analysis including static, P-Delta, pushover, response
spectrum, time history, cable, buckling and steel, concrete and
timber design. The STAAD input file can be prepared through Text
Editor or through the Graphical User Interface (GUI) modeling
facility.
Introduction

STAAD MENU
STAAD MENU
STAAD MENU
STAAD COMMANDS

 STAAD _________ Structure Type

• START JOB INFORMATION


• ENGINEER DATE Job Information
• END JOB INFORMATION
Number of characters per line
 INPUT WIDTH 79
(default=79)
 UNIT __________ Unit of measurement
Types of Structures

A structure can be defined as an assemblage of elements.


STAAD is capable of analyzing and designing structures
consisting of both frame, plate/shell, and solid elements.
The following are the structure types:
STAAD WINDOW/MENU
Types of Structures

1. SPACE. A 3D framed structure with loads applied in any


plane. This is the most general type.
Types of Structures

2. PLANE. A 2D framed bounded by the global X-Y


Coordinate with loads in the same plane.
Types of Structures

3. TRUSS. This structure consists of truss members which


can have only axial member forces and no bending in the
members.
Types of Structures

4. FLOOR. A 2D or 3D having no horizontal (global X or Z


movement of the structure (FX, FZ, MY are restrained at every
point). The floor framing (in global X-Z plane) of a building is an
ideal example of this type of structure. Columns can also be
modeled with the floor in a FLOOR structure as long as the
structure has no horizontal loading. If there is any horizontal load,
it must be analysed as a SPACE structure.
Types of Structures

4. FLOOR.
Degrees of Freedom (DOF)

DOF is the number of independent motion and/or


movement (translation and rotation) allowed in a structure.

1. PLANE:

3DOF per joint


Degrees of Freedom (DOF)

2. SPACE

6DOF per joint


Degrees of Freedom (DOF)

3. TRUSS
1DOF per joint

4. FLOOR

3DOF per joint


STAAD COMMANDS

 JOINT COORDINATES
 MEMBER INCIDENCE Structure Geometry
 ELEMENT INCIDENCE SHELL
Structure Geometry
Structure Geometry
A structure is an assembly of individual components such as
beams, columns, slabs, etc. In STAAD, frame elements and plate
elements may be used to model the structural components.
Typically, modeling of the structure geometry consists of two
steps:
a: Identification and description of joints or nodes.
b. Modeling of members or elements through specifications
of connectivity (INCIDENCES) between joints.
Structure Geometry

In general the term MEMBER-refers to frame elements and the term


ELEMENT will be used to refer to plate/shell and solid elements.
Connectivity for MEMBERs may be provided through the MEMBER
INCIDENCE command while the connectivity for ELEMENTs may be
provided through the ELEMENT INCIDENCE command.
Structure Geometry

Translational Repeat
Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

GLOBAL COORDINATE SYSTEM. Arbitrary coordinate system in


space which is utilized to specify the overall geometry and loading
pattern of the structure.

i. Conventional Cartesian Coordinate System. This coordinate


system is a rectangular coordinate system (X, Y, Z) which
follows the orthogonal right hand rule. This coordinate
system may be used to define the joint locations and loading
directions.
Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

i. Conventional Cartesian (Rectangular) Coordinate System

= translational DOF
= rotational DOF
Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

ii. Cylindrical Coordinate System

In this coordinate system, the X and Y coordinates of the


conventional Cartesian system are replaced by R (radius) and θ
(angle in degrees). The Z coordinate is identical to the Z
coordinate of the Cartesian system and its positive direction is
determined by the right hand rule.
Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

iii. Reverse Cylindrical Coordinate System

This is a cylindrical type coordinate system where the R-θ plane


corresponds to the X-Z plane of the Cartesian system. The right
hand rule is followed to determine the positive direction of the
Y-axis.
Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM. Associated with each member (or


element) and is utilized in MEMBER END FORCE output or local
load specification.

Y
X

Z
Structure Geometry and Coordinate System
LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM. Local axis system of various sections
when global Y axis is vertical.
Structure Geometry and Coordinate System
LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM. Local axis system of various
sections when global Y axis is vertical.
Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates

Since the input for member loads can be provided in the local and
global coordinate system, it is important to know the relationship
between the, local and the global coordinate system. This
relationship defined by an angle β is measured in the following:
Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates

i. When the local x-axis is parallel to the global vertical axis, as in


the case of a column in a structure, the beta angle is the angle
through which the local z-axis has been rotated about the local
x-axis from a position of being parallel and in the same positive
direction of the global Z-axis.
Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates
Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates
ii. When the local x-axis is not parallel to the global vertical axis,
the beta angle is the angle through which the local coordinate
system has been rotated about the local x-axis from a
position of having the local z-axis parallel to the global X-Z
plane and the local y-axis in the same positive direction of the
global Vertical axis.
Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates
Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates
Finite Element Information
PLATE AND SHELL ELEMENT. The Plate/Shell is based on the
Hybrid element formulation. The element can be 3-noded
triangular) or 4-noded (quadrilateral). If all four nodes of a
quadrilateral element do not lie on one plane, it is advisable to
model them as triangular elements. The thickness of the
element may be different from one node to another.
Finite Element Information

“SURFACE STRUCTURES” walls, slabs, plates and shells may be


modeled using finite elements. For convenience in generation
of a finer mesh of plate/shell elements within a large area, a
MESH GENERATION facility is available. The ELEMENT PLANE
STRESS action can be used to specify member/in-plane
stiffness only.
Geometry Modeling Consideration

Nodes of an element must be specified in the clockwise or


counterclockwise pattern. For better efficiency, similar elements
should be numbered sequentially.
Geometry Modeling Consideration
Element aspect ratio should not be excessive. They should be in
the order of 1:1 and preferably less than 4:1. Individual element
should not be distorted. Angles between two adjacent
element sides should not be larger than 90 and never larger
than 180.
STAAD COMMANDS
 ELEMENT PROPERTY ___
 DEFINE MATERIAL START
 ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
 E 2.17185E+007
 P0ISSON 0.17
 DENSITY 23.516 Material Properties
 ALPHA 1e-005 (Structural Concrete)
 DAMP 0.05
 TYPE CONCRETE
 STRENGHT FCU 27579
 END DEFINE MATERIAL START
STAAD COMMANDS
 DEFINE MATERIAL START
 ISOTROPIC STEEL
 E 2.05E+008
 P0ISSON 0.3
 DENSITY 76.8195
 ALPHA 1.2e-005 Material Properties
 DAMP 0.03 (Structural Steel)
 TYPE STEEL
 STRENGHT FY253200 FU 407800
RY 1.5 RT 1.2
 END DEFINE MATERIAL START
STAAD COMMANDS

 MEMBER PROPERTY
 CONSTANTS
 MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL Member Properties
 SUPPORTS (Structural Concrete)
 MEMBER CRACKED
 SLAVE _MASTER_JOINT

Diaphragm Specification
STAAD COMMANDS

 MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN


 CONSTANTS
Member Properties
 MATERIAL STEEL ALL
(Structural Steel)
 SUPPORTS
 SLAVE _MASTER_JOINT

Diaphragm Specification
Member Properties

• For rectangular section:

= cross sectional area


= torsional constant
= moment of inertia about y-axis
= moment of inertia about z-axis
Member Properties
• For rectangular section:

OR:
= depth of section parallel to local y-axis

= depth of section parallel to local z-axis

= effective shear area for shear force parallel


to local y-axis
= effective shear area for shear force parallel
to local z-axis
Member Properties

• For T- section:
Member Properties
• For trapezoidal section:
Member Properties
Required section properties:
Member Dimensions

Prismatic Circular

Tee Trapezoidal
Cracked Sections (NSCP2015)
Member Properties

BUILT-IN STEEL SECTION LIBRARY

STAAD provides standard steel section/shapes specified in the


AISC Steel Tables.
BUILT-IN STEEL SECTION LIBRARY

AISC STEEL TABLE


WIDE FLANGE SECTION: W10X49 for members 1 to 10
1 to 10 TA ST W10X49

SINGLE CHANNEL SECTION: C8X11.5 for members 11 to 15

11 to 15 TA ST C8X11
DOUBLE CHANNEL SECTION BACK TO BACK: C8X18 for members 16 to 20

16 to 20 TA D C8X18

DOUBLE CHANNEL SECTION FRONT TO FRONT: C8X18 for members 21 to 25

21 to 25 TA FR C9X20 SP 0.5

SP
SINGLE ANGLE SECTION: 2X2X1/4 for members 26 to 30

26 to 30 TA ST L20204

DOUBLE ANGLE SECTION: 23X3X1/8 for members 31 to 35

31 to 35 TABLE LD L30302

DOUBLE ANGLE SECTION: 24X3X3/8 for members 36 to 40 LONG LEGS


BACK-TO-BACK

36 to 40 TABLE LD L40306
DOUBLE ANGLE SECTION: 24X3X3/8 for members 41 to 45 SHORT LEGS
BACK-TO-BACK

41 to 45 TABLE SD L40306

T-SECTION: W10X49 for member 46 to 50 (note: T-sections are cut from


W section)

46 to 50 TABLE T W10X49
PIPE SECTION: 50 mm (2 inches) diameter for members 50 to 55

50 to 55 TA ST PIPX20 X=extra strong

50 to 55 TA ST PIPS20 S=standard

50 to 55 TA ST PIPD20 D=double extra strong

TUBE SECTION: 4 x 3 x 1/8 inches for members 56 to 60

56 to 60 TA ST TUB40302
Member/Element Release

STAAD allows releases for members and plate elements. One or


both ends of a member or element can be released.
Members/Elements are assumed to be rigidly framed into joints in
accordance with the structural type specified. When full rigidity is
not applicable, individual force components at either end of the
member can be set to zero with member release statements.
Member/Element Release
By specifying release components, individual degrees of freedom
are release from analysis. Member release should not be applied
on a member which is declared TRUSS, TENSION ONLY or
COMPRESSION ONLY.

FIXED

PINNED

PINNED/”ROLLER”
TRUSS and TENSION- or COMPRESSION-ONLY MEMBERS

For analyses which involve members that carry axial loads only
(i.e. truss members) there are two methods for specifying this
condition. When all the members in the structure are truss
members, the type of structure is declared as TRUSS, whereas,
when only some of the members are truss members (e.g. bracing
of a building), the MEMBER TRUSS command can be used where
those members will be identified separately. In STAAD, the
MEMBER TENSION or MEMBER COMPRESSION command can be
used to limit the axial load the member may carry.
MEMBER OFFSET

Some members of a structure may not be concurrent with the


incident joints thereby creating offsets. This offset distance is
specified in terms of global or local coordinate system (i.e. X, Y, Z
distance from the incident joint). Secondary forces induced, due
to this offset connection, are taken into account in analyzing the
structure and also to calculate the individual member forces. The
new offset centroid of the member can be at the start or end
incidences and the new working point will also be the start or end
of the member.
MEMBER OFFSET

Example
MATERIAL CONSTANTS
The material constant are: modulus of elasticity (E); weight
density (DEN); Poisson’s ratio (POISS); coefficient of thermal
expansion (ALPHA); Composite Damping Ratio; and beta angle
(BETA)

E must be provided or the analysis will not be performed. DEN is


used only when selfweight of the structure is to be taken into
account. POISS is used to calculate the shear modulus (G) by the
formula
MATERIAL CONSTANTS

If POISS is not provided, STAAD will assume a value based on the


value of E. ALPHA is used to calculate the expansion of the
members if temperature loads are applied. Composite damping
ratio is used to compute the damping ratio for each mode in
dynamic solution. This is only useful if there are several materials
with different damping ratios.
SUPPORTS

Supports are specified as PINNED, FIXED or FIXED with different


releases. A pinned support restraints against all translational
movements and none against rotational movement. In other
words a pinned support will have reactions for all forces but will
resist no moments. A fixed support has restraints against all
direction of movement. The restraint of a fixed support can also
be released in any desired direction as specified.
STAAD COMMANDS

Load Case Numbers Suggested Load Cases

 LOAD 1 EQX
 LOAD 2 EQZ
 LOAD 3 DEAD LOAD
 LOAD 4 LIVE LOAD
 LOAD 5 ROOF LIVE LOAD
 LOAD 6 WIND LOAD
 LOAD COMBINATION
LOADS
JOINT LOADS. Any free joint may be applied with both forces and
moments. These loads act in the global coordinate system of the
structure. Positive forces act in the positive coordinate directions.
Any number of loads may be applied on a single joint, in which
case the loads will be additive on that joint.
LOADS
• JOINT LOADS:
LOADS

• MEMBER LOADS.

Three (3) types of member loads may be applied to a member


of a structure. These loads are uniformly distributed loads,
concentrated loads, and linearly varying loads (including
trapezoidal). Any number of loads may be specified to act
upon a member in any independent loading condition.
Member loads can be specified in the member coordinate
system or the global coordinate system.
LOADS
• MEMBER LOADS.
LOADS

• MEMBER LOADS.
LOADS
• AREA LOAD, ONE-WAY and FLOOR LOADS.

Uniform pressure/loads applied on the floor systems can be


specified through the use of AREA LOADS, ONEWAY LOADS or
FLOOR LOADS. ARE LOAD and ONEWAY LOAD are used for one
way distribution and the FLOOR LOAD is used for two way
distribution.
LOADS
• AREA LOAD, ONE-WAY and FLOOR LOADS.
LOADS
• AREA LOAD, ONE-WAY and FLOOR LOADS.
LOADS
• AREA LOAD, ONE-WAY and FLOOR LOADS.
LOADS
• AREA LOAD, ONE-WAY and FLOOR LOADS.

Two-way distribution
for oneway?
LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS
LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS
LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS
LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS
LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS
LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS
LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS
LOADS :ASSIGNING DEAD LOADS
STAAD COMMANDS
 DEFINE UBC LOAD
 ZONE__ RWX__ RWZ__ STYP__ NA__ NV__
 SELFWEIGHT
 MEMBER WEIGHT
 JOINT WEIGHT

Seismic Load Generator


LOADS
SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR. STAAD seismic load generator follows
the procedure of equivalent lateral load analysis explained in UBC
(consistent with the NSCP), IBC and several codes. Total lateral
seismic force or base shear is automatically calculated by STAAD
based on the assigned code specifications. For load generation per
the codes, the user is required to provide seismic zone
coefficients, importance factor, soil characteristics parameters, etc.
(see UBC/NSCP).
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR. After the base shear is calculated


from appropriate equation, it is distributed among the various
levels and roof per UBC/NSCP specifications. The distributed
base shears are subsequently applied as lateral loads on the
structure. These loads may then be utilized as normal load cases
for analysis and design.
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

Assigning Seismic Dead Loads


LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

Assigning Seismic Dead Loads


LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD CASE
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD CASE
LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD CASE
STAAD COMMANDS

 DEFINE WIND LOAD


 TYPE Wind Load Generator
 INT
LOADS

WIND LOAD GENERATOR. This is a utility which takes as input


wind pressure and height ranged over which these pressures act
and generates nodal and member loads. This facility is available
for two types of structures:
1. Panel type or Closed structures
2. Open structures

Calculation of wind load follows the procedures given in ASCE 7-


10, a reference code of the NSCP2015.
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR
LOADS VERIFICATION
LOADS VERIFICATION
LOADS VERIFICATION
LOADS VERIFICATION
STAAD COMMANDS

 PERFORM ANALYSIS
 LOAD LIST
 PRINT
ANALYSIS FACILITIES
Various analysis facilities are available in STAAD as follows: (Note
that detailed theoretical treatments of these various analysis
procedures are available in standard textbooks).

•Stiffness Analysis
•Second Order Analysis (P-Delta)
•Buckling Analysis
•Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis
•Dynamic Analysis
•Pushover Analysis
POSITIVE DIRECTIONS OF MEMBER END FORCES
POSITIVE DIRECTIONS OF MEMBER END MOMENTS
PRINTING FACILITES
All input data and output may be printed in STAAD using the
PRINT commands.
STAAD COMMANDS
 START CONCRETE DESIGN
 CODE ACI
 FC 27579.2 ALL
Concrete Design Parameters
 FYMAIN 413688 ALL
 FYSEC 275000 ALL
 MAXMAIN 25 ALL
 MINMAIN 20 ALL Rebars Design Parameters
 MINSEC 10 ALL
 DESIGN BEAM LIST
Member Design Parameters
 DESIGN COLUMN LIST
 CONCRETE TAKE OFF Quantity Take Off
 END CONCRETE DESIGN
STAAD COMMANDS
 PARAMETER 1
 CODE AISC
 FU 413688 ALL
 FYLD 248213 ALL Structural Steel Design Parameters
 KX 1 ALL
 KY 1 ALL
 KZ 1 ALL
 CHECK CODE ALL
Member Design Parameters
 SELECT ALL
 STEEL TAKE OFF LIST Quantity Take Off
DESIGN CAPABILITIES
Concrete Design in STAAD follows the provisions of the ACI
Code. Steel design is based on the Manual of Steel Design and
Construction of the AISC while timber design is based on the
Timber Construction Manual of the AITC. Provisions of these
American codes were adopted in the NSCP.
THANK YOU

WORKSHOP FOLLOWS!!!