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You are on page 1of 128

May 28-June 1, 2018

Presented by:

Engr. VIRGILIO B. COLUMNA, f.asep, f. pice Engr. WILFREDO S. LOPEZ, f.asep, f.pice

VB Columna Construction Corporation WSLOPEZ Engineering & Consulting Services

Institution of Specialist Structural Engineers Institution of Specialist Structural Engineers of

of the Philippines, I.StructS. No. 008 the Philippines, I.StructS. No. 012

Structural Engineering Specialist StE No.82 Structural Engineering Specialist StE No. 68

Past President, ASEP (2013-2014) Past President, ASEP (2008-2009)

Trustee, IPROVE Global Inc. Trustee, IPROVE Global Inc.

Computer-Aided Structural Analysis & Design of Buildings

Objectives of this Presentation

modeling simple building structures.

2. To provide an alternative design tool for structural

engineers performing structural design works.

Outcomes

expected to:

1. gain basic knowledge in modeling building structures

with the use of STAAD structural design software; and,

STAAD as an alternative design tool for structural design

works.

Introduction

STAAD-Structural Analysis and Design computer software is a

powerful program for 3D analysis of buildings. Developed by

Bentley Systems, Inc., it is used for building model development,

analysis, design, visualization and verification. It provides a full

range of analysis including static, P-Delta, pushover, response

spectrum, time history, cable, buckling and steel, concrete and

timber design. The STAAD input file can be prepared through Text

Editor or through the Graphical User Interface (GUI) modeling

facility.

Introduction

STAAD MENU

STAAD MENU

STAAD MENU

STAAD COMMANDS

• ENGINEER DATE Job Information

• END JOB INFORMATION

Number of characters per line

INPUT WIDTH 79

(default=79)

UNIT __________ Unit of measurement

Types of Structures

STAAD is capable of analyzing and designing structures

consisting of both frame, plate/shell, and solid elements.

The following are the structure types:

STAAD WINDOW/MENU

Types of Structures

plane. This is the most general type.

Types of Structures

Coordinate with loads in the same plane.

Types of Structures

can have only axial member forces and no bending in the

members.

Types of Structures

movement of the structure (FX, FZ, MY are restrained at every

point). The floor framing (in global X-Z plane) of a building is an

ideal example of this type of structure. Columns can also be

modeled with the floor in a FLOOR structure as long as the

structure has no horizontal loading. If there is any horizontal load,

it must be analysed as a SPACE structure.

Types of Structures

4. FLOOR.

Degrees of Freedom (DOF)

movement (translation and rotation) allowed in a structure.

1. PLANE:

Degrees of Freedom (DOF)

2. SPACE

Degrees of Freedom (DOF)

3. TRUSS

1DOF per joint

4. FLOOR

STAAD COMMANDS

JOINT COORDINATES

MEMBER INCIDENCE Structure Geometry

ELEMENT INCIDENCE SHELL

Structure Geometry

Structure Geometry

A structure is an assembly of individual components such as

beams, columns, slabs, etc. In STAAD, frame elements and plate

elements may be used to model the structural components.

Typically, modeling of the structure geometry consists of two

steps:

a: Identification and description of joints or nodes.

b. Modeling of members or elements through specifications

of connectivity (INCIDENCES) between joints.

Structure Geometry

ELEMENT will be used to refer to plate/shell and solid elements.

Connectivity for MEMBERs may be provided through the MEMBER

INCIDENCE command while the connectivity for ELEMENTs may be

provided through the ELEMENT INCIDENCE command.

Structure Geometry

Translational Repeat

Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

space which is utilized to specify the overall geometry and loading

pattern of the structure.

system is a rectangular coordinate system (X, Y, Z) which

follows the orthogonal right hand rule. This coordinate

system may be used to define the joint locations and loading

directions.

Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

= translational DOF

= rotational DOF

Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

conventional Cartesian system are replaced by R (radius) and θ

(angle in degrees). The Z coordinate is identical to the Z

coordinate of the Cartesian system and its positive direction is

determined by the right hand rule.

Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

corresponds to the X-Z plane of the Cartesian system. The right

hand rule is followed to determine the positive direction of the

Y-axis.

Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

element) and is utilized in MEMBER END FORCE output or local

load specification.

Y

X

Z

Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM. Local axis system of various sections

when global Y axis is vertical.

Structure Geometry and Coordinate System

LOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM. Local axis system of various

sections when global Y axis is vertical.

Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates

Since the input for member loads can be provided in the local and

global coordinate system, it is important to know the relationship

between the, local and the global coordinate system. This

relationship defined by an angle β is measured in the following:

Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates

the case of a column in a structure, the beta angle is the angle

through which the local z-axis has been rotated about the local

x-axis from a position of being parallel and in the same positive

direction of the global Z-axis.

Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates

Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates

ii. When the local x-axis is not parallel to the global vertical axis,

the beta angle is the angle through which the local coordinate

system has been rotated about the local x-axis from a

position of having the local z-axis parallel to the global X-Z

plane and the local y-axis in the same positive direction of the

global Vertical axis.

Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates

Relationship Between Global and Local Coordinates

Finite Element Information

PLATE AND SHELL ELEMENT. The Plate/Shell is based on the

Hybrid element formulation. The element can be 3-noded

triangular) or 4-noded (quadrilateral). If all four nodes of a

quadrilateral element do not lie on one plane, it is advisable to

model them as triangular elements. The thickness of the

element may be different from one node to another.

Finite Element Information

modeled using finite elements. For convenience in generation

of a finer mesh of plate/shell elements within a large area, a

MESH GENERATION facility is available. The ELEMENT PLANE

STRESS action can be used to specify member/in-plane

stiffness only.

Geometry Modeling Consideration

counterclockwise pattern. For better efficiency, similar elements

should be numbered sequentially.

Geometry Modeling Consideration

Element aspect ratio should not be excessive. They should be in

the order of 1:1 and preferably less than 4:1. Individual element

should not be distorted. Angles between two adjacent

element sides should not be larger than 90 and never larger

than 180.

STAAD COMMANDS

ELEMENT PROPERTY ___

DEFINE MATERIAL START

ISOTROPIC CONCRETE

E 2.17185E+007

P0ISSON 0.17

DENSITY 23.516 Material Properties

ALPHA 1e-005 (Structural Concrete)

DAMP 0.05

TYPE CONCRETE

STRENGHT FCU 27579

END DEFINE MATERIAL START

STAAD COMMANDS

DEFINE MATERIAL START

ISOTROPIC STEEL

E 2.05E+008

P0ISSON 0.3

DENSITY 76.8195

ALPHA 1.2e-005 Material Properties

DAMP 0.03 (Structural Steel)

TYPE STEEL

STRENGHT FY253200 FU 407800

RY 1.5 RT 1.2

END DEFINE MATERIAL START

STAAD COMMANDS

MEMBER PROPERTY

CONSTANTS

MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL Member Properties

SUPPORTS (Structural Concrete)

MEMBER CRACKED

SLAVE _MASTER_JOINT

Diaphragm Specification

STAAD COMMANDS

CONSTANTS

Member Properties

MATERIAL STEEL ALL

(Structural Steel)

SUPPORTS

SLAVE _MASTER_JOINT

Diaphragm Specification

Member Properties

= torsional constant

= moment of inertia about y-axis

= moment of inertia about z-axis

Member Properties

• For rectangular section:

OR:

= depth of section parallel to local y-axis

to local y-axis

= effective shear area for shear force parallel

to local z-axis

Member Properties

• For T- section:

Member Properties

• For trapezoidal section:

Member Properties

Required section properties:

Member Dimensions

Prismatic Circular

Tee Trapezoidal

Cracked Sections (NSCP2015)

Member Properties

AISC Steel Tables.

BUILT-IN STEEL SECTION LIBRARY

WIDE FLANGE SECTION: W10X49 for members 1 to 10

1 to 10 TA ST W10X49

11 to 15 TA ST C8X11

DOUBLE CHANNEL SECTION BACK TO BACK: C8X18 for members 16 to 20

16 to 20 TA D C8X18

21 to 25 TA FR C9X20 SP 0.5

SP

SINGLE ANGLE SECTION: 2X2X1/4 for members 26 to 30

26 to 30 TA ST L20204

31 to 35 TABLE LD L30302

BACK-TO-BACK

36 to 40 TABLE LD L40306

DOUBLE ANGLE SECTION: 24X3X3/8 for members 41 to 45 SHORT LEGS

BACK-TO-BACK

41 to 45 TABLE SD L40306

W section)

46 to 50 TABLE T W10X49

PIPE SECTION: 50 mm (2 inches) diameter for members 50 to 55

50 to 55 TA ST PIPS20 S=standard

56 to 60 TA ST TUB40302

Member/Element Release

both ends of a member or element can be released.

Members/Elements are assumed to be rigidly framed into joints in

accordance with the structural type specified. When full rigidity is

not applicable, individual force components at either end of the

member can be set to zero with member release statements.

Member/Element Release

By specifying release components, individual degrees of freedom

are release from analysis. Member release should not be applied

on a member which is declared TRUSS, TENSION ONLY or

COMPRESSION ONLY.

FIXED

PINNED

PINNED/”ROLLER”

TRUSS and TENSION- or COMPRESSION-ONLY MEMBERS

For analyses which involve members that carry axial loads only

(i.e. truss members) there are two methods for specifying this

condition. When all the members in the structure are truss

members, the type of structure is declared as TRUSS, whereas,

when only some of the members are truss members (e.g. bracing

of a building), the MEMBER TRUSS command can be used where

those members will be identified separately. In STAAD, the

MEMBER TENSION or MEMBER COMPRESSION command can be

used to limit the axial load the member may carry.

MEMBER OFFSET

incident joints thereby creating offsets. This offset distance is

specified in terms of global or local coordinate system (i.e. X, Y, Z

distance from the incident joint). Secondary forces induced, due

to this offset connection, are taken into account in analyzing the

structure and also to calculate the individual member forces. The

new offset centroid of the member can be at the start or end

incidences and the new working point will also be the start or end

of the member.

MEMBER OFFSET

Example

MATERIAL CONSTANTS

The material constant are: modulus of elasticity (E); weight

density (DEN); Poisson’s ratio (POISS); coefficient of thermal

expansion (ALPHA); Composite Damping Ratio; and beta angle

(BETA)

used only when selfweight of the structure is to be taken into

account. POISS is used to calculate the shear modulus (G) by the

formula

MATERIAL CONSTANTS

value of E. ALPHA is used to calculate the expansion of the

members if temperature loads are applied. Composite damping

ratio is used to compute the damping ratio for each mode in

dynamic solution. This is only useful if there are several materials

with different damping ratios.

SUPPORTS

releases. A pinned support restraints against all translational

movements and none against rotational movement. In other

words a pinned support will have reactions for all forces but will

resist no moments. A fixed support has restraints against all

direction of movement. The restraint of a fixed support can also

be released in any desired direction as specified.

STAAD COMMANDS

LOAD 1 EQX

LOAD 2 EQZ

LOAD 3 DEAD LOAD

LOAD 4 LIVE LOAD

LOAD 5 ROOF LIVE LOAD

LOAD 6 WIND LOAD

LOAD COMBINATION

LOADS

JOINT LOADS. Any free joint may be applied with both forces and

moments. These loads act in the global coordinate system of the

structure. Positive forces act in the positive coordinate directions.

Any number of loads may be applied on a single joint, in which

case the loads will be additive on that joint.

LOADS

• JOINT LOADS:

LOADS

• MEMBER LOADS.

of a structure. These loads are uniformly distributed loads,

concentrated loads, and linearly varying loads (including

trapezoidal). Any number of loads may be specified to act

upon a member in any independent loading condition.

Member loads can be specified in the member coordinate

system or the global coordinate system.

LOADS

• MEMBER LOADS.

LOADS

• MEMBER LOADS.

LOADS

• AREA LOAD, ONE-WAY and FLOOR LOADS.

specified through the use of AREA LOADS, ONEWAY LOADS or

FLOOR LOADS. ARE LOAD and ONEWAY LOAD are used for one

way distribution and the FLOOR LOAD is used for two way

distribution.

LOADS

• AREA LOAD, ONE-WAY and FLOOR LOADS.

LOADS

• AREA LOAD, ONE-WAY and FLOOR LOADS.

LOADS

• AREA LOAD, ONE-WAY and FLOOR LOADS.

LOADS

• AREA LOAD, ONE-WAY and FLOOR LOADS.

Two-way distribution

for oneway?

LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS

LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS

LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS

LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS

LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS

LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS

LOADS :DEFINE DEAD LOADS

LOADS :ASSIGNING DEAD LOADS

STAAD COMMANDS

DEFINE UBC LOAD

ZONE__ RWX__ RWZ__ STYP__ NA__ NV__

SELFWEIGHT

MEMBER WEIGHT

JOINT WEIGHT

LOADS

SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR. STAAD seismic load generator follows

the procedure of equivalent lateral load analysis explained in UBC

(consistent with the NSCP), IBC and several codes. Total lateral

seismic force or base shear is automatically calculated by STAAD

based on the assigned code specifications. For load generation per

the codes, the user is required to provide seismic zone

coefficients, importance factor, soil characteristics parameters, etc.

(see UBC/NSCP).

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

from appropriate equation, it is distributed among the various

levels and roof per UBC/NSCP specifications. The distributed

base shears are subsequently applied as lateral loads on the

structure. These loads may then be utilized as normal load cases

for analysis and design.

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD CASE

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD CASE

LOADS: SEISMIC LOAD CASE

STAAD COMMANDS

TYPE Wind Load Generator

INT

LOADS

wind pressure and height ranged over which these pressures act

and generates nodal and member loads. This facility is available

for two types of structures:

1. Panel type or Closed structures

2. Open structures

10, a reference code of the NSCP2015.

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS: WIND LOAD GENERATOR

LOADS VERIFICATION

LOADS VERIFICATION

LOADS VERIFICATION

LOADS VERIFICATION

STAAD COMMANDS

PERFORM ANALYSIS

LOAD LIST

PRINT

ANALYSIS FACILITIES

Various analysis facilities are available in STAAD as follows: (Note

that detailed theoretical treatments of these various analysis

procedures are available in standard textbooks).

•Stiffness Analysis

•Second Order Analysis (P-Delta)

•Buckling Analysis

•Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis

•Dynamic Analysis

•Pushover Analysis

POSITIVE DIRECTIONS OF MEMBER END FORCES

POSITIVE DIRECTIONS OF MEMBER END MOMENTS

PRINTING FACILITES

All input data and output may be printed in STAAD using the

PRINT commands.

STAAD COMMANDS

START CONCRETE DESIGN

CODE ACI

FC 27579.2 ALL

Concrete Design Parameters

FYMAIN 413688 ALL

FYSEC 275000 ALL

MAXMAIN 25 ALL

MINMAIN 20 ALL Rebars Design Parameters

MINSEC 10 ALL

DESIGN BEAM LIST

Member Design Parameters

DESIGN COLUMN LIST

CONCRETE TAKE OFF Quantity Take Off

END CONCRETE DESIGN

STAAD COMMANDS

PARAMETER 1

CODE AISC

FU 413688 ALL

FYLD 248213 ALL Structural Steel Design Parameters

KX 1 ALL

KY 1 ALL

KZ 1 ALL

CHECK CODE ALL

Member Design Parameters

SELECT ALL

STEEL TAKE OFF LIST Quantity Take Off

DESIGN CAPABILITIES

Concrete Design in STAAD follows the provisions of the ACI

Code. Steel design is based on the Manual of Steel Design and

Construction of the AISC while timber design is based on the

Timber Construction Manual of the AITC. Provisions of these

American codes were adopted in the NSCP.

THANK YOU

WORKSHOP FOLLOWS!!!

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