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Boolean Algebra is the mathematics we use to analyse digital gates and circuits. We can

use these “Laws of Boolean” to both reduce and simplify a complex Boolean expression

in an attempt to reduce the number of logic gates required. Boolean Algebra is therefore a

system of mathematics based on logic that has its own set of rules or laws which are used

to define and reduce Boolean expressions.

Switching Circuit Rule

A+1=1 A in parallel with Annulment

closed = "CLOSED"

open = "A"

closed = "A"

open = "OPEN"

A = "A"

A = "A"

(double negative) =

"A"

1

A + A’ = 1 A in parallel with Complement

NOT A = "CLOSED"

NOT A = "OPEN"

B in parallel with A

B in series with A

with AND

(A.B)’ = A’+B’ invert and replace de Morgan’s Theorem

AND with OR

1. Annulment Law - A term AND´ed with a “0” equals 0 or OR´ed with a “1” will equal

1.

A + 1 = 1 A variable OR’ed with 1 is always equal to 1

2. Identity Law - A term OR´ed with a “0” or AND´ed with a “1” will always equal that

term.

A . 1 = A A variable AND’ed with 1 is always equal to the variable

3. Idempotent Law - An input that is AND´ed or OR´ed with itself is equal to that input.

A . A = A A variable AND’ed with itself is always equal to the variable.

2

4. Complement Law - A term AND´ed with its complement equals “0” and a term OR´ed

with its complement equals “1”.

A + A’ = 1 A variable OR’ed with its complement is always equal to 1.

5. Commutative Law - The order of application of two separate terms is not important.

difference.

A + B = B + A The order in which two variables are OR’ed makes no

difference

6. Double Negation Law - A term that is inverted twice is equal to the original term.

variable.

expression.

A + (B.C) = (A + B).(A + C) (AND Distributive Law)

simpler one by absorbing like terms.

A(A + B) = A (AND Absorption Law)

3. Associative Law – This law allows the removal of brackets from an expression and

regrouping of the variables.

A(B.C) = (A.B)C = A . B . C (AND Associate Law)

3

Boolean Algebra Functions

Function Description Expression

1. Null 0

2. Identity 1

3. Input A A

4. Input B B

5. NOT A A’

6. NOT B B’

7. A AND B (AND) A.B

8. A AND NOT B A . B’

9. NOT A AND B A’ . B

10. NOT AND (NAND) (A . B)’

11. A OR B (OR) A+B

12. A OR NOT B A + B’

13. NOT A OR B A’ + B

14. NOT OR (NOR) (A + B)’

15. Exclusive-OR A . B’ + A’ . B

16. Exclusive-NOR A . B + A’ . B’

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