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a.

Return earned on total assets=(Net Income+Interest expense)/Average total assets

20Y8 20Y7 20Y6 20Y5 20Y4


Net income 273406 367976 631176 884000 800000
Interest expense 616047 572003 528165 495000 440000
(A) 889453 939979 1159341 1379000 1240000

Average total assets(B) 4270764 3928396 353472 3044250 2475000

Return earned on total assets(A/B) 20.83% 23.93% 327.99% 45.30% 50.10%

b.
Return earned on stockholder's equity=(Net Income)/Average total stockholder's equity

20Y8 20Y7 20Y6 20Y5 20Y4


Net Income(A) 273406 367976 631176 884000 800000

Average total stockholder's equity(B) 3569855 3249164 2749588 1992000 1150000

Return earned on stockholder's equity(A/B) 7.66% 11.33% 22.96% 44.38% 69.57%

c.
No. of times interest charges are earned =(Net Income+Income tax expense+Interest expense)/Interest expense

20Y8 20Y7 20Y6 20Y5 20Y4


Net Income 273406 367976 631176 884000 800000
Interest expense 616047 572003 528165 495000 440000
Income Tax Expense 31749 53560 106720 160000 200000
(A) 921202 993539 1266061 1539000 1440000

Interest expense(B) 616047 572003 528165 495000 440000

(A/B) 1.50 1.74 2.40 3.11 3.27

d.
Ratio of liabilities to stockholder's equity=Total liabilities/total stockholder's equity

20Y8 20Y7 20Y6 20Y5 20Y4


Total assets 4417178 4124350 3732443 3338500 2750000
Less:total stockholders equity -3706557 -3433152 -3065176 -2434000 -1550000
Total liabilities(A) 710621 691198 667267 904500 1200000

Total Stockholder's equity(B) 3706557 3433152 3065176 2434000 1550000


(A/B) 0.19 0.20 0.22 0.37 0.77