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LTE Radio Access, Rel.

RL50,
Operating Documentation,
Issue 01

Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE


RAN
DN0958759

Issue 03
Approval Date 2012-08-02

Confidential

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Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

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Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN

Table of contents
This document has 35 pages.

Summary of changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1 Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN . . . . . . . . 9

2 Architecture of the monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN. . . . 11

3 Functional description for monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN


12
3.1 General concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2 Design approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.2.1 Versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.2 Triggers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.3 Cell approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.4 Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.5 KPIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2.6 Fault causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3 Performance monitoring areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3.1 Quality of Service (QoS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3.2 Capacity monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3.3 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.3.4 Traffic model verification (traffic profile) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.3.5 Network planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.3.6 Network optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.3.7 Cost-optimized network topology design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.3.8 Improvements of grade of services and quality of services . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.3.9 Acceptance tests / verification tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.3.10 Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.3.11 Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.3.12 Network operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.4 PMO measurement communities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3.5 Mapping of PMO functional areas to PMO data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.6 Mapping between procedures and measurement areas . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

4 Operating tasks related to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN


25
4.1 PMO operational procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1.1 Network supervision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1.2 Network analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.1.3 Traffic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.1.4 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.1.5 UE validation and interception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1.6 PMO administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2 PMO measurement procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.2.1 Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.2.2 Procedure areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.2.3 Technology Specific Performance Indicator Groups (PI Groups) . . . . . 32

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4.3 eNB monitoring procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32


4.3.1 Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.3.1.1 Monitoring Capacity License - Number of Active Users per BTS . . . . . . 33
4.3.2 Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity or quality . 34
4.3.3 Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with the performance
data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

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List of figures
Figure 1 Architecture of PMO operational concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Figure 2 Performance monitoring design concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Figure 3 Blocking time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Figure 4 PMO measurement communities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Figure 5 PMO functional areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

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List of tables
Table 1 Main functions of performance monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Table 2 Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Table 3 Network supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Table 4 Network analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Table 5 Traffic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Table 6 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Table 7 UE validation and interception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Table 8 PMO administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Table 9 Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Table 10 Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity or quality 34
Table 11 Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with performance
data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

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Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN Summary of changes

Summary of changes
Changes between issues 02A (2011-03-24, RL20) and 03 (2012-08-02, RL40)
Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN (1): Reference to
LTE1340: Trace-based Real Time Monitoring feature added.

Changes between issues 02 (2010-12-15, RL20) and 02A (2011-03-24, RL20)


Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN (1): References to LTE
and NetAct documentation added.
Operating tasks related to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN (4): section
4.3 eNB monitoring procedures added.

Changes between issues 01 (2010-05-31, RL10) and 02 (2010-12-15, RL20)


Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN (1): Table 1 Main func-
tions of performance monitoring updated.
Functional description for monitoring and measuring system in LTE RAN (3): Figure
5 PMO functional areas updated.

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Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN Introduction to monitoring and measuring system in
LTE RAN

1 Introduction to monitoring and measuring


system in LTE RAN
This document explains the generic design concept of the Performance Monitoring
(PMO) system for LTE Radio Access Network (RAN).
It mainly describes the process of definition and design of performance measurements,
what is defined in 3GPP and can be defined with common rules valid for all radio tech-
nologies.
In the life cycle of a mobile communication network there are many important reasons
to carry out performance measurement for different applications. The main goal of the
network operator is to achieve profit. Therefore, it is very essential to have many sub-
scribers, good network quality, and low costs. The usage of performance measurement
supports many tasks and processes under these aspects. With the help of performance
monitoring, it is possible to collect information on:
• networks traffic intensity
• traffic distribution (if it is spread out evenly, or concentrated in certain spots)
• events happening in certain spots of the network (and how often do they occur)
• planning efficiency (that is, if the instructions are fulfilled, or are there any additional
changes needed)
• locations where frequent failures are reported
• subscriber behavior (if it corresponds with the assumed model)
The operator is able to supervise the performance capacity and quality of his network
and increase the subscriber's satisfaction.
Performance monitoring is mainly used for:
• supervision of quality, capacity and performance
• verification of network planning and optimization
• forecasts for future network planning
• error detection and correction
• troubleshooting
• implementing services and features
• customer behavior identification
Table 1 Main functions of performance monitoring shows how performance monitoring
can be subdivided.

Function Sub-function Tools


Performance measurements: NetAct Administration of
Measurements
• counters
• counter-based KPIs BTS Site Manager: PM
Measuring
function
Threshold-based PM alarms NetAct Thresholder and
Profiler

Table 1 Main functions of performance monitoring

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Function Sub-function Tools


Subscriber and equipment trace NetAct TraceViewer
Cell traffic trace NetAct TraceViewer
Tracing
Trace-based real time monitoring Traffica
External interface trace 3rd party analyzer

Table 1 Main functions of performance monitoring (Cont.)

The Measuring function in practice means collecting and analyzing various performance
data. This data is gathered in form of counters - registers updated when a specified
network event occurs. Counters are grouped into administrative entities called measure-
ments, which represent a certain aspect of the performance area. The counter values
can be viewed locally, using the BTS Performance Monitoring application in the BTS
Site Manager, or globally using the NetAct Reporting tools. For information on mea-
surement administration, collection, storage, and so on, see Performance Management.
For information on the performance data content, see LTE Performance Measurements.
Counters are the building blocks for key performance indicators (KPIs). A KPIs is basi-
cally a formula that consists of one or several counters. These formulas are calculated
at NetAct level. The KPIs are used to create top-level reports which indicate the network
performance. For information on the KPI content, see Specifications of LTE RAN Key
Performance Indicators.
With the NetAct Thresholder and Profiler application it is possible to define thresholds
based on collected counters/KPIs. When this threshold is exceeded, an alarm is raised.
For details, see Using NetAct Applications (Report) and Reporter and Performance
Management Principles in NetAct operating documentation.
The Tracing function in practice means collecting and analyzing trace records that are
created for certain calls within a cell or for certain subscribers/equipment. The traced
data can be viewed using the NetAct TraceViewer application. For information on the
tracing area, see Tracing LTE RAN System. For information on the NetAct TraceViewer
application, see Tracing Principles and Tracing Subscribers and Equipment documents
in the Nokia Siemens Networks NetAct documentation. With the introduction of
LTE1340: Trace-based Real Time Monitoring feature, the data collected using the cell
trace feature can be forwarded to Traffica for visualization. Traffica is a real time traffic
monitoring and analyzing tool that allows the operator to immediately detect network
and service failures. Data forwarded to Traffica can be presented as a real time graph
(using the Traffica Views client). It also can be stored for further analysis. For information
on Traffica, see the Nokia Siemens Networks Traffica documentation.

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Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN Architecture of the monitoring and measuring system in
LTE RAN

2 Architecture of the monitoring and measur-


ing system in LTE RAN
NSN provides a complete PMO system with a large number of functions and a large
number of performance measurements. Therefore, the operator must be guided how to
use this performance monitoring system. Mainly for that reason, the PMO operational
concept has been defined with three levels of operation for supervision of a mobile radio
network.
Figure 1 Architecture of PMO operational concept shows the three level concept.

Figure 1 Architecture of PMO operational concept


To evaluate the network performance and check if a set of defined Quality of Service
(QoS) goals is fulfilled, the network must be monitored and the performance data col-
lected from many elements. The QoS requirements define, for example, the measure-
ments/KPIs that should be monitored with the PMO tools and added to particular
reports. To help find and eliminate problems more quickly, it is important to select pre-
cisely the items to be monitored and filter only the relevant information.

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3 Functional description for monitoring and


measuring system in LTE RAN

3.1 General concept


The design of performance measurements is mainly based on:
• the top down approach, which defines, based on procedures, the necessary KPIs.
The KPIs consist of several elementary counters, which are provided by different
subsystems of the eNB itself
• the PMO operational concept, which is already described in the Architecture of the
Monitoring and Measuring System in LTE RAN.
Starting with procedures, the intention is to focus on the main radio procedures, which
have to be supervised by each operator to guarantee that the LTE radio access network
works properly. KPIs can be used to monitor and optimize the system performance.
Counters are used to proactively identify network abnormalities and possible configura-
tion faults. Measurement results are the input for network planning and optimization
tasks.

Figure 2 Performance monitoring design concept

3.2 Design approach


The definition of performance measurements follows a general design approach. This
approach is valid for all RAN technologies.

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3.2.1 Versioning
The versioning principles:
• The backward compatibility is ensured, so that the impact on PM evaluation tools
(NetAct) can be reduced.
• The PM counters once defined should not be deleted in the subsequent releases.
(Exception: the case where a certain functionality is no longer supported).
• PM counters are designed to fit to licensing requirements.

3.2.2 Triggers
The (n-1) out of n approach (as defined in 3GPP TS 32.404) is used in order to avoid
redundancy in the measurements. The missing nth value can be calculated by post-pro-
cessing.

3.2.3 Cell approach


A cell approach is proposed:
• The usual events are counted for the source cell, for example for outgoing han-
dovers.
• For neighbor cell relations, it is counted for a pair of source cell-target object (target
object can be a cell or target NE, cell).
• If needed, it can also be counted for the target cell, for example for incoming han-
dovers.

3.2.4 Format
The rules of formatting:
• The percentage value is calculated at NetAct level. The definition of percent values
are omitted at NE.
• Counters representing percentage (average) values are calculated and reported at
the NE, only in case the denominator is not constant (for example, the CPU Load).
Percentage is done in the NE for implementation or performance reasons.
• Percentage values are reported in real percentage (for example 55,22%).

3.2.5 KPIs
KPI design rules:
• KPIs are calculated at NetAct level based on raw counters.
• The average throughput measurements are calculated at the NetAct level by using
raw volume and time counters. In contrast, the minimum, maximum (peak) through-
put is measured at the NE because of implementation / performance impacts.

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3.2.6 Fault causes


Rules of fault monitoring:
• The sum counters that represent the summary of all failure causes (message-based
and internal events) are provided (exceptions are possible). This is important for
Netact and PM evaluation tools.
• To avoid useless measurements, not every failure cause as defined in 3GPP TS is
implemented. If useful, a grouping of failure causes into failure categories is done.
• Only important per cause events are implemented with single sub-counters. The
less important are implemented within the Unspecified cause.
• All kind of failure messages and internal events (for example No reply, SW error,
Restart) are covered by per cause counters.

3.3 Performance monitoring areas

3.3.1 Quality of Service (QoS)


Network operators use performance measurements to obtain statements about the
quality of service of the network. To improve the performance, it is even necessary to
obtain QoS data provided by each cell and to find the worst ones. If a predefined quality
threshold is exceeded, the operator uses the results of the measurements to trigger
further investigations and actions.
For this purpose, basic procedures on a mobile application level are observed in terms
of success or failures of these procedures. The main important procedures in this sense
are procedures that are observed from their subscribers and that are basis for customer
satisfaction. The quality as perceived by the subscribers with regards to access ability,
retain ability and quality of the connection has to be monitored. Additional aspects for
the subscriber perception are the call setup time and the throughput rate in case of
packet services.
Examples of relevant measurement types:
• Measurement: S1AP (M8000)
• Measurement: EPS Bearer Measurement (M8006)
• Measurement: Radio Bearer (M8007)
• Measurement: RRC (M8008)
Related KPI groups:
• E-UTRAN E-RAB related KPIs
• E-UTRAN S1AP related KPIs
• E-UTRAN Radio Bearer related KPIs
• E-UTRAN RRC signaling related KPIs

3.3.2 Capacity monitoring


Performance measurements on a regular base are used to monitor the utilization of
provided resources and capacity within the network (capacity monitoring). The goal of
capacity monitoring is to detect potential bottlenecks within the network in time. In case
of lack of resources or capacity, appropriate actions are triggered depending on the
result of the monitoring process, for example adaptation of network configuration or HW
upgrade. Typical targets to monitor the network are:

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• Load on links, connections between network elements and their resources


• Load on potential bottlenecks
• Amount of traffic and the load in the busy hour
Examples of relevant measurement types:
• Measurement: Cell Load (M8001)
• Measurement: Transport Load (M8004)
• Measurement: Cell Resource (M8011)
• Measurement: Cell Throughput (M8012)
• Measurement: eNB Load (M8018)
Related KPI group: E-UTRAN Capacity related KPIs.
The basic intention of capacity monitoring is to provide sufficient information that allow
network operators to act before resources get exhausted and the Grade of Service
(GoS) to mobile users cannot be maintained anymore (pro-active approach). In case of
failures due to lack of resources or capacity, appropriate performance measurement
counters allow to identify the relevant bottlenecks. Since appropriate actions are trig-
gered after the GoS has been degraded, this is a re-active approach.
Performance measurements on a regular base are used to monitor the load and the
quality of the mobile network. As a result, network operation actions will be executed
depending on the result of the monitoring process. The typical targets of monitoring the
network are:
• Utilization on TNL connections between network elements
• load potential bottlenecks within the network elements
• amount of traffic and the load in the busy hour
• usage of resources of the network element
In UTRAN, the following capacity is monitored:
• equipment capacity
• radio network capacity
• transport layer capacity
• resource capacity
The basic approach of capacity element measure pro-active and re-active.
Methodology of capacity monitoring (pro-active and re-active)
The diagram below demonstrates the concept of the general methodology to monitor the
trend of a key capacity element in order to detect a suitable time for starting a network
expansion activity. To predict the time for the expansion, the following procedures are
needed:
• Choose the key capacity element which appears or expects to form a primary bot-
tleneck of system resource, causing service blocking or quality degradation.
• Determine the limit against blocking, which is the value of the key capacity element
at which service blocking or quality degradation is experienced.
• Monitor the actual trend of the key capacity element at sites during daily operation
the time to reach the limit against blocking using the graph below.
• Monitor the actual trend of the key capacity element at sites during daily operation.
• Estimate the time to reach the limit against blocking using the Figure 3 Blocking
time.

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• Estimate the time required for the expansion activity and the threshold for expansion
considering the implementation plan of the system expansion. (for example stock
status and availability of spare parts, lead-time for delivery of parts, installation &
testing period etc.)

Figure 3 Blocking time

3.3.3 Troubleshooting
Network operators monitor the quality of their networks with different means. They use
performance measurements to obtain statements about the QoS and the GoS of the
network (refer to ITU Grade of Service concept of ITU E.720). That means that basic
procedures on the mobile application level are monitored in terms of success or failures
of these scenarios. Typical examples are call success rates, call drop rates or handover
success rates. Once the failure (or failure ratio) exceeds a defined threshold, the
operator uses the results of the measurements to trigger further analysis.
In addition, performance measurement counters may give more detailed information on
the failure, such as indications about the specific error cause or an indication about the
network element that caused the failure (fault localization). For this purpose, the
provided performance measurement counters are based on a suitable set of failure
causes.
Examples of relevant measurement types:
• Measurement: S1AP (M8000)
• Measurement: EPS Bearer Measurement (M8006)
• Measurement: Radio Bearer (M8007)
• Measurement: RRC (M8008)
• Measurement: LTE X2AP (M8022)

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• Measurement: Intra eNB Handover (M8009)


• Measurement: Inter eNB Handover (M8014)
• Measurement: LTE Handover (M8021)
Related KPI groups:
• E-UTRAN E-RAB related KPIs
• E-UTRAN S1AP related KPIs
• E-UTRAN Radio Bearer related KPIs
• E-UTRAN RRC signaling related KPIs
• E-UTRAN Handover related KPIs
In general, it is assumed that performance measurements are not a means to support
detailed fault detection or detailed fault localization. This is the task of further investiga-
tion by technical service personnel using other means than performance measurements
(for example: tracer, external monitoring equipment, error notebook information, and so
on).

3.3.4 Traffic model verification (traffic profile)


Performance measurements are used to obtain the traffic profile of a real network. For
this purpose, measurements on elementary mobile network procedures in the busy hour
per subscriber level are provided.
For the network operator, the measured real traffic profile is used to verify the assump-
tions for its traffic model.
The result of the traffic profile analysis influences a variety of activities on the network
operator side such as the network planning process, the definition of charging models,
or the instruction of new services.
In addition, the operators can observe how the subscriber behavior varies over the time.
For marketing purposes, the traffic profile is used to verify the traffic forecasts for on a
subscriber base.

3.3.5 Network planning


Performance measurements can be used to obtain the traffic demand in a real network
element. For this purpose, measurements on elementary mobile network procedures in
the busy hour per subscriber are provided. For the network operator, the measured
traffic demand/traffic model is used to verify the assumptions made during the planning
process for the individual network element. Since network elements cover different geo-
graphical areas, network related measurements can be provided by the network
elements on different levels (for example cell, controller, location area). The derived
traffic model serves several verification purposes. For the network operator, the real
traffic demand is used to verify the assumptions made during the network planning
process. In addition, the operators can observe how the subscriber behavior changes
over the time. For marketing purposes, the traffic model is used to verify the traffic fore-
casts on a subscriber base. For an equipment vendor, real traffic models can be used
as input for the network element planning, in particular for developing a strategic perfor-
mance roadmap that meets network operator requirements.
Network dimensioning, planning and configuration of the network element and
the surrounding network

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Performance measurements are an important input for the planning process of single
network elements in an operator's network. Two aspects influence the planning process
and its activities of dimension and configuring the network element.
• One aspect is that new traffic figures are considered as derived from traffic forecast
or traffic roadmaps. Performance measurements provide the necessary information
for the next planning steps in existing networks and network elements on how to
dimension and to configure the network element and their interfaces to the surround-
ing network. Performance measurements that serve this purpose are basic load
measurements, grade of service measurement and measurements that verify the
network configuration.
• Another aspect is the re-configuration of the network element when new features are
introduced, new software or hardware has been installed, or new or modified redun-
dancy schemes are applied. This can be done together or independently from the
normal network planning process as described above. Basic load measurements
and grade of service measurements are means to evaluate the new network
element configuration.

3.3.6 Network optimization


Network optimization comprises two parts: the improvement of the GoS and QoS and
the introduction of a cost-optimized network design.

3.3.7 Cost-optimized network topology design


This procedure comprises the verification and modification of the network design or the
network plan. The goal is to reduce operational and capital expenditures by maintaining
or even improving the same current GoS.
Usually, an initial network design is done first. Later on, this initial design is subject to
modifications with the goal of finding an optimal solution, (for example trade-off) for
CAPEX and OPEX. The entire process can be described as a loop to optimize the
current network design and network plan. The final result of each optimization loop is
influenced by several parameters.
One type of input parameters is the current traffic profile from the current network,
obtained by analyzing appropriate performance measurements. Another input is the
traffic forecast for the existing network. Traffic forecast includes the number of subscrib-
ers served by the network in the upcoming period of time, the traffic per subscriber in
that timeframe and the planned network coverage for given geographical areas. In addi-
tion, marketing forecasts and expectations will be considered and used as input param-
eters for this process.
Similar to the previous section, performance measurements are used for verification of
the implemented improvements by analyzing the same performance measurements
beforehand and afterwards.

3.3.8 Improvements of grade of services and quality of services


One of the major goals of network optimization is the improvement of the GoS and QoS
without extending the network or single network element. Thus, network optimization is
focused on:
• Reduction of malfunctions and failures within the network

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• Maintaining and improving mobile user satisfaction related to GoS and QoS of
offered services
• Improving network quality for operators in competition
• Meeting requirements of official regulations
Appropriate performance measurement is provided to obtain the current status of QoS
and GoS of the relevant network scenarios and procedures before optimization activities
start. Implemented improvements are verified by analyzing the same performance mea-
surements afterwards.
At typical example for an optimization task in the UTRAN is the analysis of performance
measurement data provided by each cell and to find the worst ones. In case a pre-
defined quality threshold is exceeded, the operator uses the results of the measure-
ments to trigger further investigations and actions.

3.3.9 Acceptance tests / verification tests


Acceptance tests are to be conducted in order to verify contractually agreed perfor-
mance targets. This is the case when a vendor has to approve performance and network
quality values under field conditions after the network rollout or the network upgrade.
Depending on the type of measurement during acceptance, PM counters are used to
obtain the requested measurement result. Appropriate performance measurement
counters provide the necessary information by collecting data for the supported mea-
surement objects and scenarios.

3.3.10 Benchmarking
Benchmarking of the supplied network elements and the network itself is the compari-
son of different vendors with the same measurement methodology. Performance mea-
surements serve the purpose of benchmarking by providing measurement data for
comparable network scenarios and procedures. In order to execute performance mea-
surements for benchmarking purposes, the following requirements are met.
First, the measurements on equipment of different vendors are implemented by using
the same trigger points for the same scenarios. Ideally, the measurements follow the
definitions from the standardization bodies.
Second, the performance measurements must be executed in similar network environ-
ments. That means that comparing different equipment requires an equivalent traffic
environment (for example local traffic profile) with equivalent network configurations.
Consequently, standardized or commonly used performance measurements for the
most important scenarios within the RAN are supported.

3.3.11 Reliability
Network operators must assure reliability of their network elements to provide stable
communication services for their customers. Reliability is typically represented by the
mean time between failure (MTBF) and the mean time to repair (MTTR) of the network
elements. However, current implementation and 3GPP TS 32.403 do not address reli-
ability as a part of performance management objectives. NSN recognizes that reliability
is monitored in the context of fault management (FM) instead of performance manage-
ment (PM).

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3.3.12 Network operation


Network operators use performance measurement results to keep track of the current
network operating condition. If one or more QoS (KPI) values exceed the predefined
thresholds, the network operator may want to diagnose the network problem that leads
the QoS (KPI) degradation. Certain performance counters for failed network events per
error cause are provided for diagnosing the network problem and choosing corrective
actions. Examples include counters for failed RAB establishment, failed RRC connec-
tion establishment, and radio link failures. Note that such performance counters for
failed network events are not mandatory for equipment vendors to implement; to calcu-
late the call setup success rate it is just enough to measure the call setup request counts
and the successful call setup counts. This is a so-called (n-1) out of n approach in the
32.403 specification. Nevertheless, many network operators find it useful to diagnose
network problems by analyzing performance counters of failed network events. Network
problem diagnosis is further facilitated by linking the performance management failure
trend with the fault management system logs.

3.4 PMO measurement communities


Performance monitoring based on PM counters is one of the most important PMO func-
tions for permanent supervision of the mobile radio network.
Depending on the scope of performance measurements, network monitoring can serve
different purposes for different measurement communities, defined by 3GPP.
These measurement communities can be understood as categories of users that
outlined their needs and requirements for measurements taken from their wireless tele-
communication network.
The most important measurement communities are as follows:
• Network Planning Community
• Network Operation Community
• Network Optimization Community
• Marketing Community
• Customer Care Community
• Management Community
The basic intention of this information model is to define a methodology and implicitly
the workflow define useful performance measurement counters in core network prod-
ucts.
Any new requests for performance measurement counters must fit into this concept.
Figure 4 PMO measurement communities shows the concept.

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Figure 4 PMO measurement communities

3.5 Mapping of PMO functional areas to PMO data


Mapping of PMO functional areas to PMO data is of major importance for design of the
PMO system. The following PMO data types based on different characteristics are
defined for the PMO functional areas.
Figure 5 PMO functional areas shows the relation between PMO function and PMO
data.

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Figure 5 PMO functional areas


The PMO data can be collected with reports, records and files.
• PMO report
A PMO report consists of several PMO records. Each report is sent separately to the
NE or NetAct.
• PMO records
A PMO record can contain a group of information related to one event, for example
tracing IEs, PM counters.
The content of these PMO records is defined as PMO data type. Different PMO func-
tions provide different PMO data types that can be separated according to their charac-
teristics into:
Subscriber related records
• subscriber and equipment trace records
• cell trace records
• interface trace records
Non-subscriber related records
• PM counter records

3.6 Mapping between procedures and measurement areas


In Table 2 there may be several measurement areas per procedure. In addition, the
same measurement area may apply to several procedures. The table defines the

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mapping example between the particular measurement areas and the procedures that
use these measurement areas.

Procedure Measurement area


Acceptance / Verification Accessibility
NE availability
Integrity / Reliability
Retainability
Network planning Service availability
Access time
Accessibility
Integrity / Reliability
Retainability
Resource utilization / Usage
Traffic distribution
Traffic model verification Service availability
Accessibility
Traffic distribution
Benchmarking NE availability
Service availability
Access time
Accessibility
Integrity / Reliability
Retainability
Troubleshooting NE availability
Service availability
Access time
Accessibility
Integrity / Reliability
Resource utilization / Usage
Capacity monitoring Accessibility
Integrity / Reliability
Retainability
Resource utilization / Usage
Traffic distribution
O&M: Monitoring of QoS Accessibility

Table 2 Mapping

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Procedure Measurement area


Mobility
Integrity / Reliability
Retainability
Network optimization: GoS / Service availability
QoS
Access time
Accessibility
Integrity / Reliability
Retainability
Network optimization: opti- Accessibility
mized network design
Integrity / Reliability
Retainability
Resource utilization
Traffic distribution
Reliability Fault management
Network operation External monitoring tool

Table 2 Mapping (Cont.)

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4 Operating tasks related to monitoring and


measuring system in LTE RAN

4.1 PMO operational procedures


PMO operational procedures are activities which can be executed by the operator for
supervision of the mobile network. It includes all performance management functions to
collect, administer, plan, execute, store, and evaluate performance monitoring data for
the following areas.

4.1.1 Network supervision


Table 3 shows procedures relevant for network supervision.

Procedure Procedure descrip- PM data Procedure Evalua- Target PM PM


title tion category trigger tion group function tool
interval
Online Permanent supervision Perfor- permanent online Network Threshold NetAct
Network of specific PM data to mance, opera- based PM Report
Supervision detect problems in the Capacity, tion alarming at er
(Threshold network (for example: Quality NetAct (Thres
based PM anomalies, sleeping level holder
alarms) cells, high Drop Rates, and
and so on). Notification Pro-
is generated if the col- filer)
lected PM data
exceeds the defined
threshold. Operator is
able to define thresh-
olds for notification
generation.
Short Term Permanent supervision Perfor- permanent short term Network Perfor- BTS
Network of specific PM data to mance, opera- mance SM
Supervision detect problems in the Capacity, tion measure- PM
network. Short term Quality ments Data
reporting of PM data. viewer
Report
er

Table 3 Network supervision

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Procedure Procedure descrip- PM data Procedure Evalua- Target PM PM


title tion category trigger tion group function tool
interval
Mid/Long Permanent supervision Perfor- permanent mid term Network Perfor- Report
Term of specific PM data to mance, long term opera- mance er
Network detect week points and Capacity, tion measure- Global
Supervision performance in the Quality ments report
network (for example: er
Technical report, Worst
Cell List). Mid or long
term reporting of PM
data.

Table 3 Network supervision (Cont.)

4.1.2 Network analysis


Table 4 shows procedures relevant for network analysis.

Procedure Procedure descrip- PM data Procedure Evalua- Target PM PM


title tion category trigger tion group function tool
interval
Online Analysis of detected Perfor- on demand real time Network Online Online
Network problems in case mance, operation monitoring PM
Analysis threshold based PM Capacity, based on Visu-
alarm was received. Quality PM counter alizer
Triggered by the PM reports
alarms, the PM data of
the pre-defined mea-
surements are
reported online.
Short Term Analysis of detected Perfor- on demand short Network Perfor- BTS
Network problems with detailed mance, term operation mance SM
Analysis PM data for trouble- Capacity, Measure- PM
shooting. Short term Quality ments Data
reporting of detailed viewer
PM data. Report
er
Mid/Long Analysis of detected Perfor- on demand mid term Network Perfor- Report
Term problems with detailed mance, long operation mance er
Network PM data for trouble Capacity, term Network measure- Opti-
Analysis shooting. Mid/long Quality optimiza- ments mizer
term reporting of tion
detailed PM data.

Table 4 Network analysis

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Procedure Procedure descrip- PM data Procedure Evalua- Target PM PM


title tion category trigger tion group function tool
interval
Network Analysis of detected Perfor- on demand mid term Network Perfor- Report
Optimiza- problems with detailed mance, long operation mance er
tion PM data for network Capacity, term Network measure- Opti-
optimization (including Quality optimiza- ments mizer
fine tuning) tion
Deep Deeper analysis of Perfor- on demand mid term Network Subscriber Report
Network detected problems with mance, long operation and equip- er
Optimiza- any PM data for Capacity, term Network ment Opti-
tion network optimization Quality optimiza- trace/Cell mizer
tion trace Trace
viewer
Radio Checking the radio Trace on demand short Network Subscriber Trace
Network coverage. Using a records term operation and equip- viewer
Planning drive test before ment trace
Verification putting an BTS into
operation
Multi Getting performance, Perfor- on demand long Manage- Perfor- Report
Vendor capacity, quality indica- mance, term ment mance er
Bench- tions for multi vendor Capacity, Network measure-
marking benchmarking Quality operation ment
Network
optimiza-
tion
Accep- Getting performance, Perfor- on demand online Network Perfor- Report
tance and capacity, quality indica- mance short operation mance er
Verification tions and message Capacity term measure- Trace
tests flows for acceptance Quality trace ments viewer
tests and feature verifi- records Subscriber
cation, for example and equip-
before rollout. ment trace
Cell trace

Table 4 Network analysis (Cont.)

4.1.3 Traffic analysis


Table 5 shows procedures relevant for traffic analysis.

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Procedure Procedure PM data Procedure Evaluation Target PM PM tool


title description category trigger interval group function
Traffic Using GPS or Trace on demand short term Network Cell Trace Trace
Localization CI/RTT data of records mid term operation viewer
(Hotspot the traced con- Network
detection) nections to optimiza-
determine traffic tion
localization for Network
dedicated areas planing
Traffic Long term per- Perfor- on demand mid term Network Perfor- Reporter
Model Verifi- formance and mance, long term planing mance
cation capacity obser- Capacity measure-
vation to verify ments
the traffic model.

Table 5 Traffic analysis

4.1.4 Troubleshooting
Table 6 shows procedures relevant for troubleshooting.

Procedure Procedure PM data Procedure Evalua- Target PM PM tool


title description category trigger tion group function
interval
Online Deeper analysis of Perfor- on demand real time Network Perfor- NetAct
Trouble detected problems mance, or online operation mance Applica-
Shooting with any PM data Capacity, Network measure- tion
for trouble shoot- Quality, optimiza- ments (Online
ing. Using the trace Trace tion Cell trace Monitor)
function to get more records (online) Reporter
detailed informa- TraceVie
tion on connection Sub-
scriber and wer
level. Both PM data
equipment
and connection
trace
level information is
(online)
reported online or
in real time.

Table 6 Troubleshooting

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Procedure Procedure PM data Procedure Evalua- Target PM PM tool


title description category trigger tion group function
interval
Short Term Deeper analysis of Perfor- on demand short term Network Perfor- Reporter
/ Mid Term detected problems mance mid term operation mance TraceVie
Trouble with any PM data Capacity Network measure- wer
Shooting and trace data for Quality trace optimiza- ments
trouble shooting. records tion Cell trace
Short Term/Mid
Sub-
Term reporting of
PM data and con- scriber and
equipment
nection level infor-
trace
mation.
Subscriber Checking how the trace on demand online Network Sub- Trace
Complain complaining sub- records short term operation scriber and viewer
scriber’s services monitoring equipment
are working, to get records trace
information at con-
nection level in
order to find out the
reason for the com-
plaint
Radio Using Cell Traffic trace on demand online Network Cell Trace TraceVie
Coverage Trace without records short term operation wer
Check sending out the monitoring
drive tester records
External IF Trace of at least L3 trace on demand short term Network external IF 3rd party
Trace information on records operation trace tools
external interfaces
to get advanced
symptom data for
trouble shooting
Internal IF Trace of all neces- trace trace short term Service Internal IF Diagno-
Trace sary information on records records (no opera- trace sis work-
internal interfaces bility bench
to get advanced feature)
symptom data for develop-
service activities ment

Table 6 Troubleshooting (Cont.)

4.1.5 UE validation and interception


Table 7 shows procedures relevant for UE validation and interception.

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Procedure Procedure descrip- PM data Procedure Evaluation Target PM PM tool


title tion category trigger interval group function
User Equip- Checking how differ- trace on demand online short Network Sub- TraceVi
ment Valida- ent vendor’s UE are records term opera- scriber ewer
tion working (for tion and equip-
example in field ment trace
testing) in the mobile
network or getting
detailed information
on the UE. Observa-
tion of UE which is
not working on the
specifications or on
the grey or black EIR
list.
Interception To get the user trace on demand online short Network Sub- TraceVi
of UE behaviors of particu- records term opera- scriber ewer
lar subscriber also tion and equip-
including the ment trace
location information
(as alternative for
lawful interception).

Table 7 UE validation and interception

4.1.6 PMO administration


Table 8 shows procedures relevant for PMO administration.

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Procedure Procedure descrip- PM data Procedure Evaluation Target PM PM


title tion category trigger interval group function tool
Trace Configuration of sub- administra- on demand online Network Sub- Trace
administra- scriber/UE trace tion operation scriber and Viewe
tion parameters equipment r
(IMSI/IMEI, trace trace
depth, trace sched- Cell trace
ule)
Subscriber trace acti-
vation: SBA, MBA
Configuration of cell
traffic trace parame-
ters (list of traced
cells, trace depth,
trace schedule,
maximum number of
traced connections)
Cell traffic trace acti-
vation: MBA

Table 8 PMO administration

4.2 PMO measurement procedures


The PMO measurement use cases describe the measurement targets of certain PM
KPIs and PM counters to understand the added value for certain KPIs and counters, for
example why, how, and when to use certain KPIs and counters.
The PMO measurement procedures can be either subdivided into categories, procedure
areas or into certain technology specific performance indicator groups (PI groups).

4.2.1 Categories
• accessibility
• retainability
• mobility
• integrity
• network usage
• availability

4.2.2 Procedure areas


• troubleshooting
• traffic load
• resource availability
• quality of service, grade of service
• performance

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4.2.3 Technology Specific Performance Indicator Groups (PI Groups)


• connection setup procedures
• release procedures
• handover procedures
• HW and Platform indicators
• interface utilization
• quality of service
• transport
• availability
For the design of a performance monitoring system, these PMO measurement proce-
dures are of major importance to understand the related KPI and PM counters.

4.3 eNB monitoring procedures


This section gives an overview about procedures to monitor and optimize an LTE
network by using performance measurements collected inside the eNB.
For permanent supervision of the LTE network, mainly performance measurements at
the eNB are taken into account. Additionally those eNB performance measurements are
used for troubleshooting and network optimization.
The most important procedures are as follows:
• Performance supervision of the LTE Radio Network Layer (RNL) and Transport
Network Layer (TNL)
• Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity or quality
• Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with performance data

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4.3.1 Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL


Table 9 Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL gives an overview of the
relevant procedure.

Procedure #1 Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL


Objective Permanent supervision of PM KPIs to supervise the performance,
capacity and quality of the network.
Description The operator must be able to monitor the LTE network for all cells per-
manently with the PM based KPIs of the following PM categories:
• accessibility
• retainability
• mobility
• integrity
• network usage
• quality
The operator must be able
• to see the overall performance for a certain cell
• to compare the performance and quality of the LTE network with
other technologies
• to compare the performance and quality of an eNB with another
eNB
• to supervise the performance, capacity, or quality of the transmis-
sion lines between eNBs and the core network
• to see performance degradations over the time
• to see on a high level whether the offered quality is sufficient for
the end customers
• to monitor the network usage to enhance the network resources
in time
Frequency 60 minutes
Observed per eNB
object

Table 9 Performance supervision of the LTE RNL and TNL

4.3.1.1 Monitoring Capacity License - Number of Active Users per BTS


Because of licensing, it is required to monitor the maximum number of active UEs. In
case a licensing mechanism is available in the eNB, the maximum number of active
users per Flexi Multiradio BTS can be controlled by a capacity license. The measure-
ments allow the operator to supervise the eNB load in case of active users.
Following measurements are required:
• Number of UE with buffered data
• Number of active UE per cell
• Number of active UE per eNB

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4.3.2 Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity or


quality
Table 10 Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity or quality gives an
overview of the relevant procedure:

Procedure #2 Localization of sources of insufficient performance,


capacity or quality
Objective In case of insufficient performance, capacity or quality of proce-
dure #1, the operator must be able to find out the location of the
problem, for example, cell or interfaces.
Description In case of procedure #1, if it turns out that a certain eNB has
insufficient performance, capacity or quality, then the operator
must be able to find out the location of problem (for example
cell, interface, and so on). Therefore, the operator must be able
to evaluate performance measurements per cell and/or per
interfaces to find the source of the problem with PM based KPIs
of the following PM categories:
• accessibility
• retainability
• mobility
• integrity
• network usage
• quality
Frequency 15 minutes
Observed object per eNB / cell / interface

Table 10 Localization of sources of insufficient performance, capacity or quality

4.3.3 Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with the per-
formance data
Table 11 Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with performance data
gives an overview of the relevant procedure:

Procedure #3 Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with


performance data
Objective Evaluation of eNB performance measurements mainly for trou-
bleshooting reason to detect and locate the problems as well as
for optimization of eNB configurations.

Table 11 Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with performance


data

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Procedure #3 Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with


performance data
Description The operator must be able to evaluate eNB performance mea-
surements or diagnostic data mainly in case a customer com-
plains (subscriber), for example, if it is not possible to setup a
connection.The operator must be able to find out the location
and reason of the problem, for example, he must be able to see
whether the problem is located at the air interface, eNB, S1
interface, transmission line or MME / S-GW.The operator must
be able to retrieve historical performance data or diagnostic
data for that reason mainly for:
• accessibility (for example: connection setup)
• retainability (for example: connection drop rate)
• quality of the air interface
The upload and evaluation have to be executed mainly for trou-
bleshooting of a certain eNB.
Frequency 15 minutes
Observed object per eNB / cell / interface

Table 11 Troubleshooting and network optimization at the eNB with performance


data (Cont.)

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