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JOINING

• Soldering
• Produces coalescence of materials by heating to soldering
temperature (below solidus of base metal) in presence of filler
metal with liquidus < 450°C

• Brazing
• Same as soldering but coalescence occurs at > 450°C

• Welding
• Process of achieving complete coalescence of two or more
materials through melting & re-solidification of the base
metals and filler metal
SOLDERING & BRAZING
• Advantages
• Low temperature heat source required
• Choice of permanent or temporary joint
• Dissimilar materials can be joined
• Less chance of damaging parts
• Slow rate of heating & cooling
• Parts of varying thickness can be joined
• Easy realignment

• Strength and performance of structural joints need


careful evaluation
WELDING
• Advantages
• Most efficient way to join metals
• Lowest-cost joining method
• Affords lighter weight through better utilization of materials
• Joins all commercial metals
• Provides design flexibility
WELDABILITY
• Weldability is the ease of a material or a combination of materials
to be welded under fabrication conditions into a specific, suitably
designed structure, and to perform satisfactorily in the intended
service

• Common Arc Welding Processes


• Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
• Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) or, TIG
• Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) or MIG/MAG
• Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
• Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
ARC WELDING
• Arc welding is a process used to join two pieces of metal together.
• How does it work?
• A welder creates an electric arc that melts the metal and filler
rod to create a pool of molten metal that hardens to fuse the
two pieces of metal together.
• Why is welding important?

• Many of the things you use need to be welded.


• Your car
• Power line towers
• Your school desk
• Your bicycle
• Why Learn to Weld?

• Welding can help build a successful career to earn money.


• Skilled Welders are in high demand.
• Welding is challenging and high tech.
BASIC ELECTRICITY AND THE SCIENCE OF WELDING
¤ Voltage – The electrical potential or pressure that causes current to flow
¡ Measured in Volts
¤ Current – The movement of charged particles in a specific direction
¡ Measured in Amps
¤ Polarity
¡ DC- (Direct Current
Electrode Negative) DC+
¡ DC+ (Direct Current
DC -
Electrode Positive)
¡ AC (Alternating Current)

AC
BASIC ELECTRICITY AND THE SCIENCE OF
WELDING
• The electricity flows from the power source, through the electrode and across
the arc, through the base material to the work lead and back to the power
source
BASIC ELECTRICITY AND THE SCIENCE OF
WELDING
• The electron flow you just learned about is what creates the arc in arc
welding.
• This is a form of electrical energy
• How do we use that electrical energy to fuse metals together?
BASIC ELECTRICITY AND THE SCIENCE OF WELDING

• Here are some places to look to learn more about energy and energy transfers.
• Forms of Energy
• Energy Transformations
BASIC ELECTRICITY AND THE SCIENCE OF
WELDING
• Changes of State and Chemical Reactions
• During the welding process the metal changes states or forms.
• What are the states of matter?
• Solid
• Liquid
• Gas
• Plasma

Click here to learn more about the changes of state


BASIC ELECTRICITY AND THE SCIENCE OF
WELDING

• Changes of State and Chemical Reactions


• So what changes of state occur during welding?
• Initially the metal is a solid
• When the arc starts the solid is converted into a liquid
• Some of the liquid is converted into a gas vapor
• When the arc stops the liquid cools to form a solid again – this is the
newly formed weld joint

Liquid Solid
Solid weld joint
(gas vapor)
BASIC ELECTRICITY AND THE SCIENCE OF
WELDING
• Changes of State and Chemical Reactions
• Chemical Reactions
• During the welding process certain chemical reactions take place.
• Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen can react in the weld puddle and
cause changes in the structure of the weld weakening the weld.
WELDING PROCESSES
TWO CATEGORIES OF WELDING PROCESSES

• Fusion welding - coalescence is accomplished by melting the two parts


to be joined, in some cases adding filler metal to the joint
• Examples: arc welding, resistance spot welding, oxyfuel gas
welding

• Solid state welding - heat and/or pressure are used to achieve


coalescence, but no melting of base metals occurs and no filler metal is
added
• Examples: forge welding, diffusion welding, friction welding
ARC WELDING (AW)
A fusion welding process in which coalescence of the metals
is achieved by the heat from an electric arc between an
electrode and the work
• Electric energy from the arc produces temperatures ~
10,000 F (5500 C), hot enough to melt any metal
• Most AW processes add filler metal to increase volume and
strength of weld joint
WHAT IS AN ELECTRIC ARC?
An electric arc is a discharge of electric current across a gap
in a circuit
• It is sustained by an ionized column of gas (plasma)
through which the current flows
• To initiate the arc in AW, electrode is brought into contact
with work and then quickly separated from it by a short
distance
Arc Welding

• A pool of molten metal is formed near electrode tip, and as electrode


is moved along joint, molten weld pool solidifies in its wake
MANUAL ARC WELDING
AND ARC TIME

• Problems with manual welding:


• Weld joint quality
• Productivity
• Arc Time = (time arc is on) divided by (hours worked)
• Also called “arc-on time”
• Manual welding arc time = 20%
• Machine welding arc time ~ 50%
TWO BASIC TYPES OF AW ELECTRODES

• Consumable – consumed during welding process


• Source of filler metal in arc welding

• Nonconsumable – not consumed during welding process


• Filler metal must be added separately if it is added
CONSUMABLE ELECTRODES
• Forms of consumable electrodes
• Welding rods (a.k.a. sticks) are 9 to 18 inches and 3/8 inch or less in
diameter and must be changed frequently
• Weld wire can be continuously fed from spools with long lengths of
wire, avoiding frequent interruptions
• In both rod and wire forms, electrode is consumed by the arc and added
to weld joint as filler metal
NONCONSUMABLE ELECTRODES

• Made of tungsten which resists melting


• Gradually depleted during welding (vaporization is principal
mechanism)
• Any filler metal must be supplied by a separate wire fed into weld pool
ARC SHIELDING

• At high temperatures in AW, metals are chemically reactive to oxygen,


nitrogen, and hydrogen in air
• Mechanical properties of joint can be degraded by these reactions
• To protect operation, arc must be shielded from surrounding air in AW
processes
• Arc shielding is accomplished by:
• Shielding gases, e.g., argon, helium, CO2
• Flux
FLUX

A substance that prevents formation of oxides and other contaminants in welding,


or dissolves them and facilitates removal
• Provides protective atmosphere for welding
• Stabilizes arc
• Reduces spattering
VARIOUS FLUX APPLICATION METHODS

• Pouring granular flux onto welding operation


• Stick electrode coated with flux material that melts during welding to cover
operation
• Tubular electrodes in which flux is contained in the core and released as
electrode is consumed
POWER SOURCE IN ARC WELDING

• Direct current (DC) vs. Alternating current (AC)


• AC machines less expensive to purchase and operate, but generally
restricted to ferrous metals
• DC equipment can be used on all metals and is generally noted for better
arc control
CONSUMABLE ELECTRODE
AW PROCESSES

• Shielded Metal Arc Welding


• Gas Metal Arc Welding
• Flux-Cored Arc Welding
• Electrogas Welding
• Submerged Arc Welding
SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)

Uses a consumable electrode consisting of a filler metal rod coated with chemicals
that provide flux and shielding
• Sometimes called "stick welding"
• Power supply, connecting cables, and electrode holder available for a few
thousand dollars
Shielded Metal Arc Welding(SMAW)
WELDING STICK IN SMAW

• Composition of filler metal usually close to base metal


• Coating: powdered cellulose mixed with oxides and carbonates, and held
together by a silicate binder
• Welding stick is clamped in electrode holder connected to power source
• Disadvantages of stick welding:

• Sticks must be periodically changed


• High current levels may melt coating prematurely
SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING

• Shielded metal arc welding (stick


welding) performed by a human
welder (photo courtesy of Hobart
Brothers Co.)
SMAW APPLICATIONS

• Used for steels, stainless steels, cast irons, and certain


nonferrous alloys
• Not used or rarely used for aluminum and its alloys,
copper alloys, and titanium
GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW)

Uses a consumable bare metal wire as electrode with shielding by flooding arc with a gas
• Wire is fed continuously and automatically from a spool through the welding gun
• Shielding gases include argon and helium for aluminum welding, and CO2 for steel
welding
• Bare electrode wire plus shielding gases eliminate slag on weld bead
• No need for manual grinding and cleaning of slag
Gas Metal Arc Welding
GMAW ADVANTAGES OVER SMAW
• Better arc time because of continuous wire electrode

• Sticks must be periodically changed in SMAW


• Better use of electrode filler metal than SMAW

• End of stick cannot be used in SMAW


• Higher deposition rates
• Eliminates problem of slag removal
• Can be readily automated
FLUX-CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW)

Adaptation of shielded metal arc welding, to overcome limitations of stick


electrodes - two versions
• Self-shielded FCAW - core includes compounds that produce shielding
gases
• Gas-shielded FCAW - uses externally applied shielding gases
• Electrode is a continuous consumable tubing (in coils) containing flux and
other ingredients (e.g., alloying elements) in its core
Flux-Cored Arc Welding
Presence or absence of externally supplied shielding gas distinguishes:
(1) self-shielded - core provides ingredients for shielding, (2) gas-shielded -
uses external shielding gases
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW)

Uses a continuous, consumable bare wire electrode, with arc shielding by a cover
of granular flux
• Electrode wire is fed automatically from a coil
• Flux introduced into joint slightly ahead of arc by gravity from a hopper

• Completely submerges operation, preventing


sparks, spatter, and radiation
Submerged Arc Welding
SAW APPLICATIONS AND PRODUCTS

• Steel fabrication of structural shapes (e.g., I-beams)


• Seams for large diameter pipes, tanks, and pressure vessels
• Welded components for heavy machinery
• Most steels (except hi C steel)
• Not good for nonferrous metals
NONCONSUMABLE ELECTRODE
PROCESSES

• Gas Tungsten Arc Welding


• Plasma Arc Welding
• Carbon Arc Welding
• Stud Welding
GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW)
Uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and an inert gas for arc shielding
• Melting point of tungsten = 3410°C (6170°F)
• A.k.a. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding

• In Europe, called "WIG welding"


• Used with or without a filler metal

• When filler metal used, it is added to weld pool from


separate rod or wire
• Applications: aluminum and stainless steel mostly
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GTAW
Advantages:

• High quality welds for suitable applications


• No spatter because no filler metal through arc
• Little or no post-weld cleaning because no flux
Disadvantages:

• Generally slower and more costly than consumable


electrode AW processes
PLASMA ARC WELDING (PAW)

Special form of GTAW in which a constricted plasma arc is directed at weld area
• Tungsten electrode is contained in a nozzle that focuses a high velocity stream of
inert gas (argon) into arc region to form a high velocity, intensely hot plasma arc
stream
• Temperatures in PAW reach 28,000°C (50,000°F), due to constriction of arc,
producing a plasma jet of small diameter and very high energy density
Plasma Arc Welding
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PAW
Advantages:
• Good arc stability and excellent weld quality
• Better penetration control than other AW processes
• High travel speeds
• Can be used to weld almost any metals
Disadvantages:
• High equipment cost
• Larger torch size than other AW processes
• Tends to restrict access in some joints
RESISTANCE WELDING (RW)

A group of fusion welding processes that use a combination of heat and pressure to
accomplish coalescence
• Heat generated by electrical resistance to current flow at junction to be welded
• Principal RW process is resistance spot welding (RSW)
RESISTANCE WELDING

• Resistance welding, showing


components in spot welding, the
main process in the RW group
ADVANTAGES AND DRAWBACKS OF RESISTANCE
WELDING
Advantages:
• No filler metal required
• High production rates possible
• Lends itself to mechanization and automation
• Lower operator skill level than for arc welding
• Good repeatability and reliability
Disadvantages:
• High initial equipment cost
• Limited to lap joints for most RW processes
RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING (RSW)

Resistance welding process in which fusion of faying surfaces of a lap joint is achieved at
one location by opposing electrodes
• Used to join sheet metal parts
• Widely used in mass production of automobiles, metal furniture, appliances, and other
sheet metal products

• Typical car body has ~ 10,000 spot welds


• Annual production of automobiles in the world is
measured in tens of millions of units
COMPONENTS IN RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING

• Parts to be welded (usually sheet metal)


• Two opposing electrodes
• Means of applying pressure to squeeze parts between electrodes
• Power supply from which a controlled current can be applied for a specified time
duration
Spot Welding Cycle

• (a) Spot welding cycle


• (b) Plot of force and current
• Cycle: (1) parts inserted
between electrodes, (2)
electrodes close, (3)
current on, (4) current off,
(5) electrodes opened
RESISTANCE SEAM WELDING (RSEW)
Uses rotating wheel electrodes to produce a series of overlapping spot welds
along lap joint
• Can produce air-tight joints
• Applications:

• Gasoline tanks
• Automobile mufflers
• Various sheet metal containers
Resistance Seam Welding
RESISTANCE PROJECTION WELDING (RPW)

A resistance welding process in which coalescence occurs at one or more small


contact points on the parts
• Contact points determined by design of parts to be joined

• May consist of projections, embossments, or localized


intersections of parts
Resistance Projection
Welding
• (1) Start of operation, contact between parts is at projections; (2) when current is
applied, weld nuggets similar to spot welding are formed at the projections
OTHER RESISTANCE PROJECTION WELDING
OPERATIONS
• (a) Welding of fastener on sheetmetal and (b) cross-wire welding
OXYFUEL GAS WELDING (OFW)

Group of fusion welding operations that burn various fuels mixed with oxygen
• OFW employs several types of gases, which is the primary distinction among
the members of this group
• Oxyfuel gas is also used in flame cutting torches to cut and separate metal
plates and other parts
• Most important OFW process is oxyacetylene welding
OXYACETYLENE WELDING (OAW)
Fusion welding performed by a high temperature flame from combustion of acetylene and
oxygen
• Flame is directed by a welding torch
• Filler metal is sometimes added

• Composition must be similar to base metal


• Filler rod often coated with flux to clean surfaces and
prevent oxidation
Oxyacetylene Welding
ACETYLENE (C2H2)
• Most popular fuel among OFW group because it is capable of higher
temperatures than any other
• Up to 3480°C (6300°F)
• Two stage reaction of acetylene and oxygen:
• First stage reaction (inner cone of flame)
C2H2 + O2 → 2CO + H2 + heat
• Second stage reaction (outer envelope)
2CO + H2 + 1.5O2 → 2CO2 + H2O + heat
Oxyacetylene Torch

• Maximum temperature reached at tip of inner cone, while outer


envelope spreads out and shields work surface from
atmosphere
• Shown below is neutral flame of oxyacetylene torch indicating
temperatures achieved
SAFETY ISSUE IN OAW

• Together, acetylene and oxygen are highly flammable


• C2H2 is colorless and odorless
• It is therefore processed to have characteristic garlic odor
OAW SAFETY ISSUE

• C2H2 is physically unstable at pressures much above 15 lb/in2 (about 1 atm)

• Storage cylinders are packed with porous filler material


saturated with acetone (CH3COCH3)
• Acetone dissolves about 25 times its own volume of
acetylene
• Different screw threads are standard on C2H2 and O2 cylinders and hoses to avoid
accidental connection of wrong gases
ALTERNATIVE GASES FOR OFW
• Methylacetylene-Propadiene (MAPP)
• Hydrogen
• Propylene
• Propane
• Natural Gas
OTHER FUSION WELDING PROCESSES
FW processes that cannot be classified as arc, resistance, or oxyfuel welding
• Use unique technologies to develop heat for melting
• Applications are typically unique
• Processes include:

• Electron beam welding


• Laser beam welding
• Electroslag welding
• Thermit welding
ELECTROGAS WELDING (EGW)

Uses a continuous consumable electrode, flux-cored wire or bare wire with


externally supplied shielding gases, and molding shoes to contain molten
metal
• When flux-cored electrode wire is used and no external gases are supplied,
then special case of self-shielded FCAW
• When a bare electrode wire used with shielding gases from external source,
then special case of GMAW
Electrogas Welding

• Electrogas welding using flux-cored electrode wire: (a) front


view with molding shoe removed for clarity, and (b) side view
showing molding shoes on both sides
ELECTRON BEAM WELDING (EBW)
Fusion welding process in which heat for welding is provided by a highly-focused,
high-intensity stream of electrons striking work surface
• Electron beam gun operates at:

• High voltage (e.g., 10 to 150 kV typical) to accelerate


electrons
• Beam currents are low (measured in milliamps)
• Power in EBW not exceptional, but power density is
EBW VACUUM CHAMBER

• When first developed, EBW had to be carried out in a vacuum chamber to minimize
disruption of electron beam by air molecules
• Serious inconvenience in production
• Pumpdown time can take as long as an hour
THREE VACUUM LEVELS IN EBW
1. High-vacuum welding – welding in same vacuum chamber as beam generation
to produce highest quality weld
2. Medium-vacuum welding – welding in separate chamber but partial vacuum
reduces pump-down time
3. Non-vacuum welding – welding done at or near atmospheric pressure, with
work positioned close to electron beam generator - requires vacuum divider to
separate work from beam generator
EBW ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF EBW
Advantages:
• High-quality welds, deep and narrow profiles
• Limited heat affected zone, low thermal distortion
• No flux or shielding gases needed

Disadvantages:
• High equipment cost
• Precise joint preparation & alignment required
• Vacuum chamber required
• Safety concern: EBW generates x-rays
LASER BEAM WELDING (LBW)

Fusion welding process in which coalescence is achieved by energy of a highly


concentrated, coherent light beam focused on joint
• LBW normally performed with shielding gases to prevent oxidation
• Filler metal not usually added
• High power density in small area
• So LBW often used for small parts
COMPARISON: LBW VS. EBW

• No vacuum chamber required for LBW


• No x-rays emitted in LBW
• Laser beams can be focused and directed by optical lenses and mirrors
• LBW not capable of the deep welds and high depth-to-width ratios of EBW
• Maximum LBW depth = ~ 19 mm (3/4 in), whereas EBW depths = 50 mm (2 in)
THERMIT WELDING (TW)
FW process in which heat for coalescence is produced by superheated
molten metal from the chemical reaction of thermite
• Thermite = mixture of Al and Fe3O4 fine powders that produce an
exothermic reaction when ignited
• Also used for incendiary bombs
• Filler metal obtained from liquid metal
• Process used for joining, but has more in common with casting than
welding
Thermit Welding
• (1) Thermit ignited; (2) crucible tapped, superheated metal flows
into mold; (3) metal solidifies to produce weld joint
TW APPLICATIONS
• Joining of railroad rails
• Repair of cracks in large steel castings and forgings
• Weld surface is often smooth enough that no finishing is required
SOLID STATE WELDING (SSW)

• Coalescence of part surfaces is achieved by:


• Pressure alone, or
• Heat and pressure
• If both heat and pressure are used, heat is not enough to melt work
surfaces
• For some SSW processes, time is also a factor
• No filler metal is added
• Each SSW process has its own way of creating a bond at the faying surfaces
SUCCESS FACTORS IN SSW

• Essential factors for a successful solid state weld are that the two
faying surfaces must be:
• Very clean
• In very close physical contact with each other to permit atomic
bonding
SSW ADVANTAGES OVER FW PROCESSES

• If no melting, then no heat affected zone, so metal around joint retains original properties
• Many SSW processes produce welded joints that bond the entire contact interface
between two parts rather than at distinct spots or seams
• Some SSW processes can be used to bond dissimilar metals, without concerns about
relative melting points, thermal expansions, and other problems that arise in FW
SOLID STATE WELDING PROCESSES
• Forge welding
• Cold welding
• Roll welding
• Hot pressure welding
• Diffusion welding
• Explosion welding
• Friction welding
• Ultrasonic welding
FORGE WELDING

Welding process in which components to be joined are heated to hot working


temperature range and then forged together by hammering or similar means.
• Historic significance in development of manufacturing technology

• Process dates from about 1000 B.C., when


blacksmiths learned to weld two pieces of metal
• Of minor commercial importance today except for its variants
COLD WELDING (CW)

SSW process done by applying high pressure between clean contacting


surfaces at room temperature
• Cleaning usually done by degreasing and wire brushing immediately
before joining
• No heat is applied, but deformation raises work temperature
• At least one of the metals, preferably both, must be very ductile

• Soft aluminum and copper suited to CW


• Applications: making electrical connections
COLD WELDING

• Pressure is applied to the


workpieces through dies or
rolls

• Preferably both work pieces


should be ductile

• The work pieces should


cleaned thoroughly
Fig: The roll bonding or cladding
process
• Can not join dissimilar metals
ROLL WELDING (ROW)

SSW process in which pressure sufficient to cause coalescence is applied by means of


rolls, either with or without external heat
• Variation of either forge welding or cold welding, depending on whether heating of
workparts is done prior to process

• If no external heat, called cold roll welding


• If heat is supplied, hot roll welding
Roll Welding
ROLL WELDING APPLICATIONS
• Cladding stainless steel to mild or low alloy steel for corrosion
resistance
• Bimetallic strips for measuring temperature
• "Sandwich" coins for U.S mint
DIFFUSION WELDING (DFW)
SSW process uses heat and pressure, usually in a controlled atmosphere, with
sufficient time for diffusion and coalescence to occur
• Temperatures ≤ 0.5 Tm
• Plastic deformation at surfaces is minimal
• Primary coalescence mechanism is solid state diffusion
• Limitation: time required for diffusion can range from seconds to hours
DFW APPLICATIONS
• Joining of high-strength and refractory metals in aerospace and nuclear
industries
• Can be used to join either similar and dissimilar metals
• For joining dissimilar metals, a filler layer of different metal is often
sandwiched between base metals to promote diffusion
EXPLOSION WELDING (EXW)
SSW process in which rapid coalescence of two metallic surfaces is
caused by the energy of a detonated explosive
• No filler metal used
• No external heat applied
• No diffusion occurs - time is too short
• Bonding is metallurgical, combined with mechanical interlocking that
results from a rippled or wavy interface between the metals
Explosive Welding

Commonly used to bond two dissimilar metals, in particular to clad one


metal on top of a base metal over large areas.
EXPLOSIVE WELDING
• Commonly used to bond two dissimilar metals, e.g., to clad one
metal on top of a base metal over large areas
• (1) Setup in parallel configuration, and (2) during detonation of
the explosive charge
FRICTION WELDING (FRW)
SSW process in which coalescence is achieved by frictional heat combined with
pressure
• When properly carried out, no melting occurs at faying surfaces
• No filler metal, flux, or shielding gases normally used
• Process yields a narrow HAZ
• Can be used to join dissimilar metals
• Widely used commercial process, amenable to automation and mass production
Friction Welding

• (1) Rotating part, no contact; (2) parts brought into contact to


generate friction heat; (3) rotation stopped and axial pressure
applied; and (4) weld created
APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FRICTION
WELDING
Applications:
• Shafts and tubular parts
• Industries: automotive, aircraft, farm equipment, petroleum and natural gas
Limitations:
• At least one of the parts must be rotational
• Flash must usually be removed (extra operation)
• Upsetting reduces the part lengths (which must be taken into consideration in
product design)
FRICTION STIR WELDING (FSW)
SSW process in which a rotating tool is fed along a joint line between two
workpieces, generating friction heat and mechanically stirring the metal to
form the weld seam
• Distinguished from FRW because heat is generated by a separate wear-
resistant tool rather than the parts
• Applications: butt joints in large aluminum parts in aerospace, automotive, and
shipbuilding
FRICTION STIR WELDING
• (1) Rotating tool just before entering work, and (2) partially completed weld seam
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
FRICTION STIR WELDING

• Advantages
• Good mechanical properties of weld joint
• Avoids toxic fumes, warping, and shielding issues
• Little distortion or shrinkage
• Good weld appearance
• Disadvantages
• An exit hole is produce when tool is withdrawn
• Heavy duty clamping of parts is required
ULTRASONIC WELDING (USW)
Two components are held together, and oscillatory shear stresses of ultrasonic
frequency are applied to interface to cause coalescence
• Oscillatory motion breaks down any surface films to allow intimate contact and
strong metallurgical bonding between surfaces
• Temperatures are well below Tm
• No filler metals, fluxes, or shielding gases
• Generally limited to lap joints on soft materials
Ultrasonic Welding

• (a) General setup for a lap joint; and (b) close-up of weld area
USW APPLICATIONS

• Wire terminations and splicing in electrical and electronics industry

• Eliminates need for soldering


• Assembly of aluminum sheet metal panels
• Welding of tubes to sheets in solar panels
• Assembly of small parts in automotive industry
OXYFUEL WELDING
INTRODUCTION
• Oxyfuel welding is a welding process where
the heat for fusion is supplied by a torch
using oxygen and a fuel gas.
• Several different fuel gasses can be used:
FUEL GASSES
v Propane (LPG)
v Natural Gas
v Acetylene
v MAPP
v Hydrogen
USES
¤ Traditionally oxyfuel equipment was used for:
¡ Brazing
¡ Fusion welding
¡ Flame hardening
¡ Metalizing
¡ Soldering
¡ Stress relieving
¡ Cutting
¡ Bending
¤ New technologies in the GMAW process has almost
eliminated the need for oxyfuel welding.
¡ Primary uses today are heating, brazing and cutting.
OXYFUEL SAFETY
¤ The hazards of oxyfuel welding are primarily compressed gas
cylinders, flammable gases and open flame.
¤ Common concerns are :
¡ PPE (shade 4 face shield/goggles, gloves).
¡ Store and handle cylinders correctly.
œKeep caps on cylinders whenever regulators are not attached.
œNever
Never use oil, grease, or any hydrocarbons on fittings.
œStore cylinders in a locked enclosure.
¡ Check system for leaks
¡ Follow correct procedures for turning on and off.
¡ Remove combustible materials from area.
œCutting slag can travel 35 feet on concrete
¡ Insure adequate ventilation
OXYFUEL SYSTEM
¤ Before discussing how the system works, it is important to know the name of the parts.

A. Oxygen safety disc


B. Oxygen cylinder valve
C. Oxygen cylinder pressure
gauge
D. Oxygen working pressure
gauge
E. Oxygen regulator
F. Oxygen regulator adjusting
screw
G. Acetylene cylinder safety
disc
H. Acetylene cylinder valve
I. Acetylene cylinder
pressure gauge
OXYFUEL SYSTEM--CONT.
J. Acetylene working pressure gauge
K. Acetylene regulator
L. Acetylene regulator adjusting
screw
M. Acetylene hose
N. Oxygen hose
O. Oxygen torch valve
P. Acetylene torch valve
Q. Torch
R. Welding tip
S. Acetylene cylinder
T. Oxygen cylinder
OXYGEN CYLINDER
• One piece, seamless construction.
• Each cylinder has unique serial number
and number is recorded in national
registry.
• Scheduled inspection required.
• Must not be dropped.
• Should not be used as a roller.
• Never use any lubricates on threads or
any part of the cylinder.
• Three common sizes are 244, 150 & 80
cubic feet.
• The valve should never be left exposed. It
must always have the regulator attached
or the cap on.
ACETYLENE CYLINDER
• Special cylinder because
acetylene is unstable
above 15 psi. • Acetylene cylinders are filled entirely with a
porous materials which must be able to stop
• Acetylene is shock the propagation of an acetylene
sensitive. decomposition within the cylinder initiated by
a backfire or an external heating of the
acetylene cylinder.
• 250 psi when filled.
• Protected by fuse plugs that melt at 212 oF.
• The cylinder should be opened only 1/2 to 3/4
of a turn when in use.
• The withdrawal rate in cubic feet per hour
should never exceed 1/7 times the cylinder
capacity.
• Common sizes are 300, 120 and 75 cubic feet.
• The cylinders must always be used,
transported and stored upright.
9
PRESSURE REGULATORS

¤ Gas systems must have a


pressure regulator to reduce the
pressure from the high pressure
in the cylinder down to the
working pressure.

¤ Many different designs are used.

¤ They range from simple fixed


output, commonly used for gas
grills and camping stoves,

to double stage regulators used for oxyfuel


welding.
WORKING PRESSURE

¤ Oxygen and fuel gas working pressure should be


set according to manufactures recommendations
for the job being performed.
¤ Potential problems with excessive pressure.
¡ Harsh flame
¡ Damaged equipment
¡ Increased potential of flashback.
¤ Potential problems of insufficient pressure.
¡ Insufficient heat
¡ Unstable flame
¡ Increased plugging of welding or cutting tip.
Size selection c hart for Vict or welding t ips.
WELDING TIP SIZE
Metal Tip Oxy Acet Acet
Thickness Size Pressure Pressure cf h
1/6 4 " 000 5 5 1 Example welding tip
1/3 2 " 00 5 5 2 selection and working
3/6 4 " 00 5 5 2 pressure chart.
1/1 6 " 0 5 5 3
5/6 4 " 0 5 5 3
3/3 2 " 1 5 5 5
1/8" 2 5 5 8
3/1 6 " 3 7 7 14
1/4" 4 8 8 21
3/8" 5 9 9 31
1/2" 5 10 10 31
3/4" 6 11 11 41
1" 7 12 12 52
1 - 1/4" 7 12 12 52
2" 8 12 12 65
3" 10 20 14 94
4" 12 23 15 130
OXYFUEL TORCH
¤ The oxyfuel torch is the handle for holding and controlling the system.
¤ It the controls the flow rate of the gasses and delivers them to the welding
tip, or cutting attachment.
AIR ACETYLENE TORCH

¤ Burns a mixture of acetylene or


MAPP and air.
¤ As fuel gas flows through torch it
draws in the correct amount of air.
¤ Lower temperature than
oxyacetylene.
¤ Primary use is in soldering and
brazing copper piping.
HOSES AND CONNECTIONS
¤ Requires special nonporous hoses.
¤ Hoses are color coded.
¡ Green: oxygen
¡ Red or Black: fuel gas
¤ Connections
¡ Oxygen: right hand
¡ Acetylene: left hand
¤ Hoses should be protected from hot
metal and physical damage.
PPE
• Use protection for:
• Eyes
• Body
• Eyes
• Correctly shaded lens--not sun glasses.
• Shade 4 or 5
• Body
• Fire resistant gloves
• Long sleeves
• Button shirt
SETTING UP OXYFUEL SYSTEM
¤ Extinguish all open flames and stop processes that produce
sparks.
¤ Steps (assuming new system)
1. Secure cylinders
2. Remove caps
3. Crack cylinder valves
4. Connect regulators
5. Open cylinder valves
6. Connect hoses to cylinders
7. Connect hoses to torch body
8. Connect welding tip to torch body
9. Set working pressures
10.Check system for leaks.
SHUTTING DOWN SYSTEM
¤ Close cylinder valves
¤ Open torch valves
¡ Leave open until regulator gauges read zero.
¡ Some sources recommend doing fuel first and
oxygen last.
¤ Close torch valves
¤ Release tension on regulator adjusting screw.
¤ Roll up hoses and place torch in a safe position.
GMAW FUNDAMENTALS

Gas Metal Arc Welding


(Metal Inert Gas)
(MIG)
INTRODUCTION

v GMAW is defined as arc welding using a continuously fed


consumable electrode and a shielding gas.
v GMAW is also known as MIG (Metal Inert Gas).
v Produces high-quality welds
v Yields high productivity
ADVANTAGES
v Large gaps filled or bridged easily
v Welding can be done in all positions
v No slag removal required
v High welding speeds
v High weld quality
v Less distortion of work piece
TYPES OF METAL TRANSFER
The basic GMAW process includes three distinctive process techniques:

1. Short Circuit (Short Arc)


2. Globular Transfer
3. Spray Arc Transfer
SHORT CIRCUIT (SHORT ARC)

v Operates at low voltages and welding current


v Small fast-freezing weld puddle obtained
v Useful in joining thin materials in any position, as well as
thick materials in vertical and overhead positions
v Metal transfer occurs when an electrical short circuit is
established
GLOBULAR TRANSFER
v Welding current and wire speed are increased above
maximum for short arc
v Droplets of metal have a greater diameter than the wire
being used
v Spatter present
v Welding is most effectively done in the flat position when
using globular transfer
SPRAY ARC TRANSFER
v Occurs when the current and voltage settings are increased
higher than that used for Globular Transfer
v Used on thick sections of base material, best suited for flat
position due to large weld puddle
v Spatter is minimal to none
MANUAL GMAW EQUIPMENT
v Three major elements are :
1.) Welding torch and accessories
2.) Welding control & Wire feed motor
3.) Power Source

v GMAW equipment can be used either manually or


automatically
GMAW COMPONENTS
• DC or Direct Current power supply
• Electrode or wire feed controller
• Wire drive roller assembly
• Shielding gas source (cylinder) & regulator
• Manually held Gun & ground clamps
• Wire reel
GMAW COMPONENT DIAGRAM
WIRE CONTROL
&
WIRE FEED
MOTOR

POWER SOURCE
WELDING TORCH & ACCESSORIES
v The welding torch guides the wire and shielding gas to the
weld zone.
v Brings welding power to the wire also
v Major components/parts of the torch are the contact tip,
shielding gas nozzle, gas diffuser, and the wire conduit
GAS DIFFUSER

NOZZLE

TRIGGER
CONTACT TIP

INSTALLED

COMPONENTS
WELDING CONTROL & WIRE
FEED MOTOR
v Welding control & Wire feed motor are combined
into one unit
v Main function is to pull the wire from the spool and
feed it to the arc
v Controls wire feed speed and regulates the starting
and stopping of wire feed
v Wire feed speed controls Amperage
WIRE FEEDER
POWER SOURCE
v Almost all GMAW is done with reverse polarity also
known as DCEP
v Positive (+) lead is connected to the torch
v Negative (-) lead is connected to the work piece
v Provides a relatively consistent voltage to the arc
v Arc Voltage is the voltage between the end of the
wire and the work piece
POSITIVE NEGATIV
TERMINAL E
TERMINA
L
SHIELDING GASES
v Purpose of shielding gas is the protect the weld
area from the contaminants in the atmosphere
v Gas can be Inert, Reactive, or Mixtures of both
v Gas flow rate is between 25-35 CFH
v Argon, Helium, and Carbon Dioxide are the main
three gases used in GMAW
FLOW METER

CFH PRESSURE
ADJUSTMENT
KNOB

CYLCINDER
PRESSURE
GAUGE
SHIELDING GAS
• Air in the welding zone is displaced by inert gas to
“Shield” the molten weld pool and prevent it from
contamination from Oxygen, Nitrogen and Water
present in the atmosphere.
• Insufficient gas flow will not displace the
atmosphere resulting in “porosity” or voids in the
deposited weld.
• Flow is measured in CFH (Cubic Feet per Hour).
INSUFFICIENT SHIELDING GAS
COVERAGE
• Gas not turned on
• Flow rate not properly adjusted
• Leaks in the hose supplying the shielding gas to the
machine
• GMAW / MIG Gun loose at wire drive connection
• Spatter buildup on gas cup
• Windy environment
EXCESSIVE GAS COVERAGE

• Will cause porosity.


• The turbulence caused by the rapid flow of shielding gas
exiting from the gas cup will draw the surrounding
atmosphere into the stream of gas.
• It will reduce weld pool temperatures causing decreased
penetration.
TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING
(TIG)
BACKGROUND

• What is TIG?
• Tungsten Inert Gas
• Also referred to as GTAW
• Gas Shielded Tungsten Welding
• In TIG welding, a tungsten electrode heats the metal you are
welding and gas (most typically Argon) protects the weld
from airborne contaminants

2
BACKGROUND
• TIG welding uses a non-consumable tungsten
• Filler metal, when required, is added by hand
• Shielding gas protects the weld and tungsten

3
ADVANTAGES

• Welds more metals and metal


alloys than any other process
• High quality and precision
• Aesthetic weld beads
• No sparks or spatter
• No flux or slag
• No smoke or fumes

4
DISADVANTAGES

• Lower filler metal deposition


rates
• Good hand-eye coordination
a required skill
• Brighter UV rays than other
processes
• Slower travel speeds than
other processes
• Equipment costs tend to be
higher than other processes

5
SAFETY
• Electric shock can kill.
• Always wear dry insulating gloves
• Insulate yourself from work and ground
• Do not touch live electrical parts
• Keep all panels and covers securely in place
• Fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health.
• Keep your head out of the fumes
• Ventilate area, or use breathing device

6
SAFETY
• Welding can cause fire or explosion.
• Do not weld near flammable material
• Watch for fire; keep extinguisher nearby
• Do not locate unit over combustible surfaces
• Do not weld on closed containers
• Arc rays can burn eyes and skin; Noise can damage
hearing.
• Wear welding helmet with correct shade of filter
• Wear correct eye, ear, and body protection

7
SAFETY
• Hot parts can cause injury.
• Allow cooling period before touching welded metal
• Wear protective gloves and clothing
• Magnetic fields from high currents can affect
pacemaker operation.
• Flying metal can injure eyes.
• Welding, chipping, wire brushing, and grinding cause
sparks and flying metal; wear approved safety glasses
with side shields

8
TECHNIQUES FOR BASIC WELD JOINTS

Arc Length
• Arc length normally one electrode diameter, when AC
welding with a balled end electrode
• When DC welding with a pointed electrode, arc length
may be much less than electrode diameter

9
* Figure copied from “TI G Handbook”
TECHNIQUES FOR BASIC WELD JOINTS

Arc Starting with High


Frequency
• Torch position on left shows
recommended method of starting the
arc with high frequency when the
torch is held manually
• By resting gas cup on base metal
there is little danger of touching the
electrode to the work
• After arc is initiated, torch can be
raised to proper welding angle

10
* Figure copied from “TI G Handbook”
TECHNIQUES FOR BASIC WELD JOINTS

Manual Torch Movement

ENBE 499 11
* Figure copied from “TI G Handbook”
TECHNIQUES FOR BASIC WELD JOINTS

Manual Torch Movement


• Torch and filler rod must be moved progressively
and smoothly so the weld pool, the hot filler rod
end, and the solidifying weld are not exposed to air
that will contaminate the weld metal area or heat
affected zone
• When arc is turned off, postflow of shielding gas
should shield the weld pool, electrode, and hot end
of the filler rod

12
TIG SHIELDING GASES

• Argon
• Helium
• Argon/Helium Mixtures

13
TIG SHIELDING GASES
Argon Helium
• Good arc starting • Faster travel speeds
• Good cleaning action • Increased penetration
• Good arc stability • Difficult arc starting
• Focused arc cone • Less cleaning action
• Less low amp stability
• Lower arc voltages
• Higher arc voltages
• 10-30 CFH flow rates
• Higher flow rates (2x)
• Higher cost than argon

14
TIG SHIELDING GASES
Argon/Helium Mixtures
• Improved travel speeds over pure argon
• Improved penetration over pure argon
• Cleaning properties closer to pure argon
• Improved arc starting over pure helium
• Improved arc stability over pure helium
• Arc cone shape more focused than pure helium
• Arc voltages between pure argon and pure helium
• Higher flow rates than pure argon
• Costs higher than pure argon

15
WELDING PARAMETERS

Aluminum w eld parameters

16
* Figure copied from “TI G Handbook”
WELDING PARAMETERS

Stainless steel w eld parameters

17
* Figure copied from “TI G Handbook”
WELDING PARAMETERS

Titanium w eld parameters

18
* Figure copied from “TI G Handbook”
WELDING PARAMETERS

Mild steel w eld parameters

19
* Figure copied from “TI G Handbook”
TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE SELECTION

Guide to selecting a tungsten electrode based on amperage range

20
* Figure copied from “Guidelines to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding ( GTAW) ”
2015
FRICTION WELDING TECHNOLOGY

Submitted by:
Abdullah Terkaoui – 138565
Awad Alterkaoui - 138566
Mouhamed Oubari – 128412

12/01/2015
Welding Technology - MENG 488

FRICTION WELDING TECHNOLOGY

Friction welding is a solid-state welding process that generates heat through


mechanical friction between a moving work piece and a stationary component, with the
addition of a lateral force called "upset" to plastically displace and fuse the materials.
Technically no melt occurs, and no filler metal is added.

1. Types of Friction Welding

a. Spin welding
Spin welding systems consist of two
chucks for holding the materials to be welded,
one is fixed and the other rotating. The piece is
then spun up to a high rate of rotation to store
the required energy in the flywheel. Once
spinning at the proper speed, the motor is
removed and the pieces forced together under
pressure. The force is kept on the pieces after
the spinning stops to allow the weld to set.
The figure on the right side illustrates the steps
of spin welding process.

1|Page
Mechanical Engineering Department – Eastern Mediterranean University – North Cyprus
Welding Technology - MENG 488

b. Linear friction welding


Linear friction welding is similar to spin
welding except that the moving chuck
oscillates laterally instead of spinning. The
speeds are much lower in general, which
requires the pieces to be kept under pressure at
all times. This also requires the parts to have a
high shear strength.

2. Applications

It can be used for wide applications such as;


 Automobile: Engine valve, gear hub etc.
 Aerospace: Turbine blade joining, seamless joining etc.
 Consumer: Hand tools, sports equipment
 Industrial: Spindles, tapers, tools
 Military
 Medical: Stainless steel joining of containers
 Marine: Shipping Industry
 Mining/Drilling: Twist drill etc.
 Hydraulic equipment.

2|Page
Mechanical Engineering Department – Eastern Mediterranean University – North Cyprus
Welding Technology - MENG 488

3. Advantages and Disadvantages

 Simplicity of operation and simple equipment.


 It allows dissimilar materials to be joined.
 Less time requirement.
 Low Surface impurities and oxide films.
 Heat affected zone is small as compare to conventional welding.
 There is no flux, gas, filler metal or slag present to cause imperfections in welds.
 Welds at higher speed and lower cost, less electric current is required compare to
conventional welding process.

 Use only for joining small parts.


 In case of tube welding process becomes complicated.
 In case of high carbon steels it is difficult to remove flash.
 It requires heavy rigid machine due to high pressure applied.

3|Page
Mechanical Engineering Department – Eastern Mediterranean University – North Cyprus
Materials Behavior
Basic Regions of a Weld

 Fusion Zone: area that


is completely melted

 Heat-Affected Zone:
portion of the base metal
not melted but whose
mechanical properties
and microstructure were
affected by the heat of
the joining process

 Base Metal
Fusion Weld
Zone

Fig : Characteristics
of a typical
fusion weld zone
in oxyfuel gas
and arc welding.
Composite Zone Concerns
Grain Structure

(a) (b)

Fig : Grain structure in (a) a deep weld (b) a shallow weld. Note
that the grains in the solidified weld metal are perpendicular
to the surface of the base metal. In a good weld, the
solidification line at the center in the deep weld shown in (a)
has grain migration, which develops uniform strength in the
weld bead.
Solidification of
Weld metal

• Solidification begins with formation of columnar


grains which is similar to casting
• Grains relatively long and form parallel to the
heat flow
• Grain structure and size depend on the specific
alloy
• Weld metal has a cast structure because it has
cooled slowly, it has grain structure
• Results depends on alloys ,composition and
thermal cycling to which the joint is subjected.
• Pre-heating is important for metals having high
thermal conductivity
Weld Beads

(a) (b)

Fig : (a) Weld bead (on a cold-rolled nickel strip) produced by a


laser beam. (b) Microhardness profile across the weld bead.
Note the lower hardness of the weld bead compared to the
base metal.
Heat affected Zone

• Heat effected zone is within the metal itself


• Properties depend on:
• Rate of heat input and cooling
• Temperature to which the zone was raised
• Original grain size ,Grain orientation , Degree of prior
cold work

• The strength and hardness depend on:


• how original strength and hardness of the base metal
was developed prior to the welding.
• Heat applied during welding which Recrystallises
elongated grains of cold worked base metal.
Weld Quality
• Welding discontinuities can be caused by inadequate or
careless application
• The major discontinuities that affect weld quality are
• Porosity
• Slag Inclusions
• Incomplete fusion and penetration
• Weld profile
• Cracks
• Lamellar tears
• Surface damage
• Residual stresses
Cracks

• Cracks occur in various directions and various locations

Factors causing cracks:

• Temperature gradients that cause thermal stresses in the


weld zone

• Variations in the composition of the weld zone.

• Embrittlement of grain boundaries

• Inability Of the weld metal to contract during cooling


Cracks

Fig : Types of cracks (in welded joints) caused by thermal stresses


that develop during solidification and contraction of the weld bead
and the surrounding structure. (a) Crater cracks (b) Various types
of cracks in butt and T joints.
Cracks

• Cracks are classified as Hot or Cold.

• Hot cracks – Occur at elevated temperatures


• Cold cracks – Occur after solidification

• Basic crack prevention measures :


1.Change the joint design ,to minimize stresses
from the shrinkage during cooling
2.Change the parameters, procedures, the
sequence of welding process
3.Preheat the components to be welded
4.Avoid rapid cooling of the welded components
Cracks in Weld Beads

Fig : Crack in a weld bead,


due to the fact that the
two components were
not allowed to contract
after the weld was
completed.
Perils of Welding Free-Machining Steels

 Solidification cracking
due to impurity
elements
 Sulfur, phosphorus,
boron
 Impurity segregation at
weld centerline creates
low ductility area
 Combines with shrinkage
stress to cause cracking
Manganese Can Prevent Solidification
Cracking

 Manganese combines with sulfur to form MnS


particles
 Use a filler metal with higher manganese to absorb
sulfur
ER70S-3 Composition ER70-6
0.06 - 0.15 carbon 0.07-0.15
0.9 - 1.4 manganese 1.4 - 1.85
0.45 - 0.7 silicon 0.8 - 1.15
0.02 phosphorus 0.02
0.035 sulfur 0.035
0.05 copper 0.5
Residual Stresses:

• Caused because of localized heating and cooling


during welding, expansion and contraction of the
weld area causes residual stresses in the work
piece.

• Effects:
• 1.Distortion,Warping and buckling of welded parts

• 2.Stress corrosion cracking

• 3.Reduced fatigue life


Distortion after Welding

Fig : Distortion of parts after welding : (a) butt joints; (b) fillet
welds. Distortion is caused by differential thermal expansion
and contraction of different parts of the welded assembly.
Stress relieving of welds :

• Preheating reduces problems caused by


heating the base metal or the parts to be
welded
• Heating can be done electrically, in furnace or by OAW
torch and for thin surfaces by radiant lamp or hot air
blast.

• Some other methods of stress relieving :


Peening, hammering or surface rolling
Welding Metallurgy 2
Presented by:
Dr.Behzad Heidarshenas
PhD in Manufacturing Processes
Welding Metallurgy 2

Objectives
• The various region of the weld where liquid does not
form

• Mechanisms of structure and property changes


associated with these regions
Heat Affected Zone Welding
Concerns
Heat Affected Zone Welding
Concerns

• Changes in Structure Resulting


in Changes in Properties

• Cold Cracking Due to Hydrogen


STRESS CONCENTRATION IN
WELDED STRUCTURES

– Theoretical calculations of fracture strength is


based on atomic bonding energies.
– The measured fracture strengths of materials are
significantly lower than the theoretical values,
because of the presence of microvoid flaws or
cracks that always exist under normal conditions.
– The applied stress is amplified or concentrated at
the crack tips.
– The flaws are called stress risers
Flaws are St ress Concent rat ors!

• Griffit h Crack

1/ 2
a 
σm = 2σo   = K t σo
 ρt 
ρt
w here
ρt = radius of curvat ure
σo = applied st ress
σm = st ress at crack t ip

Adapted from Fig. 8.8(a), Callister & Rethwisch 8e.


6
Concent rat ion of St ress at Crack Tip

Adapted from Fig. 8.8(b),


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

7
ENGINEERING FRACTURE DESIGN

– Stress amplification is not restricted to these


microscopic defects, and may occur at
macroscopic internal discontinuities (e.g., voids or
inclusions), at sharp corers, scratches, and
notches.
– When the magnitude of a tensile stress at the tip
of one of the flaws exceeds the value of critical
stress, a crack forms and then propagate, which
result in fracture.
ENGINEERING FRACTURE DESIGN
Engineering Fract ure Design
• Avoid sharp
σ0 corners! σmax
Stress Conc. Factor, K t =
σ0
2.5

2.0 increasing w/h


w
σmax
1.5
r, h
fillet
radius
1.0 r/h
0 0.5 1.0
sharper fillet radius
10
Crack Propagat ion
Cracks having sharp tips propagate easier than cracks
having blunt tips
• A plastic material deforms at a crack tip, which
“blunts” the crack.
deformed
region
brittle ductile

Energy balance on the crack


• Elastic strain energy-
• energy stored in material as it is elastically deformed
• this energy is released when the crack propagates
• creation of new surfaces requires energy
Criterion for Crack Propagat ion

Crack propagates if crack-tip stress (σm)


exceeds a critical stress (σc)
1/ 2
 2Eγ s 
i.e., σm > σc σc =  
 πa 
where
– E = modulus of elasticity
– γs = specific surface energy
– a = one half length of internal crack

For ductile materials => replace γs with γs + γp


where γp is plastic deformation energy

12
Example – Brittle Fracture
• Set σc = 40Mpa
• Given SAW weld joint • Solve Griffith Eqn for
with Edge-Crack Length
– Tensile Stress,
2 Eγ s
σ = 40 Mpa a=
– E = 69 GPa πσ applied
2

– γ = 0.3 J/m § Solving


• Find Maximum Length 2(69 ×109 N/m 2 )(0.3 N/m )
a=
π (40 ×10 N/m )
of a 6 2 2
Surface Flaw
a = 8.2 ×106 m = 8.2 µm
• Plan
Design Against Crack Grow t h
• Crack growth condition:
K ≥ Kc = Yσ πa
• Largest, most highly stressed cracks grow first!
--Scenario 1: Max. flaw --Scenario 2: Design stress
size dictates design stress. dictates max. flaw size.
2

σdesign <
Kc 1  K c 
<
π  Yσdesign 
a max
Y πa max
σ a max

fracture fracture
no no
fracture a max fracture σ
Design Example: Steel Weld Joint

• Material has KIc = 26 MPa-m0.5


• Two designs to consider...
Design A Design B
--largest flaw is 9 mm --use same material
--failure stress = 112 MPa --largest flaw is 4 mm
K Ic --failure stress = ?
• Use... σc =
Y πa max
• Key point: Y and KIc are the same for both designs.
KIc
= σ a = constant
Y π
--Result:
112 MPa 9 mm 4 mm

(σ c a max ) = (σ
A c a max ) B

Answer: (σc )B = 168 MPa


Design using fracture mechanics

Example:
Compare the critical flaw sizes in the following weld joints subjected to
tensile stress 1500MPa and K = 1.12 σ√πa.
KIc (MPa.m1/2) Critical flaw size (microns)
Al 250 7000
Steel 50 280
Zirconia(ZrO2) 2 0.45
Toughened Zirconia 12 16
SOLUTION

Where Y = 1.12. Substitute values


Temperat ure Gradient In HAZ
Look At Two Types of Alloy Systems
Effect of Heat Treat ing After Cold Working
• 1 hour treatment at Tanneal...
decreases TS and increases %EL.
• Effects of cold work are nullified!
a nne a l i ng t e mpe r a t ur e ( ºC)
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 • Three Annealing stages:
ength (MPa)

600 60
tensile strength 1. Recovery
(M

ductility (%EL)
50 2. Recrystallization
tensile strength

500
40
3. Grain Growth

400 30
Adapted from Fig. 8.22, Callister & Rethwisch
ductility 20 4e. (Fig. 8.22 is adapted from G. Sachs and
300 K.R. van Horn, Practical Metallurgy, Applied
Metallurgy, and the Industrial Processing of
Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals and Alloys,
American Society for Metals, 1940, p. 139.)

22
Three Stages During Heat Treat ment :
1. Recovery

•During recovery, some of the stored internal strain energy


is relieved. In addition, physical properties such as
electrical and thermal conductivities are recovered to their
precold-worked states.

23
Three Stages During Heat
Treat ment :
• New grains are formed that:
2. Recrystallizat
-- have low dislocation densities ion
-- are small in size
-- consume and replace parent cold-worked grains.
0.6 mm 0.6 mm

Adapted from
Fig. 8.21 (a),(b),
Callister &
Rethwisch 4e.
(Fig. 8.21 (a),(b)
are courtesy of
J.E. Burke,
General Electric
Company.)

33% cold New crystals


worked nucleate after
brass 3 sec. at 580°C.
24
As Recrystallizat ion Cont inues…
• All cold-worked grains are eventually consumed/replaced.
0.6 mm 0.6 mm

Adapted from
Fig. 8.21 (c),(d),
Callister &
Rethwisch 4e.
(Fig. 8.21 (c),(d)
are courtesy of
J.E. Burke,
General Electric
Company.)

After 4 After 8
seconds seconds

25
Anisot ropy in σy
• Can be induced by rolling a polycrystalline metal
- before rolling - after rolling
Adapted from Fig. 8.11,
Callister & Rethwisch 4e.
(Fig. 8.11 is from W.G. Moffatt,
G.W. Pearsall, and J. Wulff,
The Structure and Properties
of Materials, Vol. I, Structure,
p. 140, John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 1964.)

rolling direction
235 µm
- isotropic - anisotropic
since grains are since rolling affects grain
equiaxed & orientation and shape.
randomly oriented.

26
Three Stages During Heat
Treat ment :
• At longer times, average grain size increases.
3.shrink
-- Small grains Grain(and Grow
ultimatelyt h
disappear)
-- Large grains continue to grow
0.6 mm 0.6 mm
Adapted from
Fig. 8.21 (d),(e),
Callister &
Rethwisch 4e.
(Fig. 8.21 (d),(e)
are courtesy of
J.E. Burke,
General Electric
Company.)

After 8 s, After 15 min,


580ºC 580ºC
coefficient dependent
• Empirical Relation:
on material and T.
exponent typ. ~ 2
grain diam. elapsed time
at time t. d n
− d on = Kt
27
TR = recrystallization
temperature

TR

Adapted from Fig. 8.22,


Callister & Rethwisch 4e.

º
28
Recrystallizat ion Temperat ure
TR = recrystallization temperature = temperature
at which recrystallization just reaches
completion in 1 h.
0.3Tm < TR < 0.6Tm

For a specific metal/alloy, TR depends on:


• %CW -- TR decreases with increasing %CW
• Purity of metal -- TR decreases with
increasing purity

29
Cold Worked Alloy Without Allotropic Transformation

Introductory Welding Metallurgy,


AWS, 1979
Welding
Precipitation
Hardened Alloys
Without Allotropic
Phase Changes

Welded In:
• Full Hard
Condition
Introductory Welding
Metallurgy,

• Solution AWS, 1979

Annealed
Condition
Annealed upon
Cooling
Precipitation Hardened Alloy Welded in Full Hard Condition

Introductory Welding Metallurgy,


AWS, 1979
Precipitation Hardened Alloys Welded in Solutioned Condition

Introductory Welding Metallurgy,


AWS, 1979
Steel Alloys With Allotropic Transformation

Introductory Welding Metallurgy,


AWS, 1979
Introductory Welding Metallurgy,
AWS, 1979
Cracking in Welds

Hydrogen Cracking
• Hydrogen cracking, also called cold
cracking, requires all t hree of t hese
factors
– Hydrogen
– St ress
– Suscept ible microst ruct ure (high
hardness)
• Occurs below 300°C
• Prevent ion by
– Preheat slows dow n t he cooling rate;
t his can help avoid martensite
format ion and supplies heat to diffuse
hydrogen out of t he material
– Low -hydrogen welding procedure
Dickinson
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels

Why Preheat ?
• Preheat reduces t he temperat ure
different ial bet ween t he weld
region and t he base metal
– Reduces t he cooling rate, w hich
reduces t he chance of forming
martensite in steels
– Reduces distort ion and shrinkage
st ress
– Reduces t he danger of weld
cracking
– Allows hydrogen to escape
Steel
Using Preheat to Avoid Hydrogen
Cracking
• If t he base material is preheated, heat flows more
slow ly out of t he weld region
– Slower cooling rates avoid martensite format ion
• Preheat allows hydrogen to diffuse from t he metal
T base Cooling rate ∝ (T - Tbase)3

Cooling rate ∝ (T - Tbase)2


T base
Steel
Interact ion of Preheat and
Composit ion
CE = %C + %Mn/6 + %(Cr+Mo+V)/5 + %(Si+Ni+Cu)/15

• Carbon equivalent (CE) measures abilit y to form


martensit e, w hich is necessary for hydrogen
cracking
– CE < 0.35 no preheat or post weld heat
t reat ment
– 0.35 < CE < 0.55 preheat
– 0.55 < CE preheat and post weld heat t reat ment
• Preheat temp. ↑ as CE ↑ and plate t hickness ↑
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels

Why Post -Weld Heat Treat ?


• The fast cooling rates associated w it h welding
often produce martensite
• During post weld heat t reat ment , martensite is
tempered (t ransforms to ferrite and carbides)
– Reduces hardness
– Reduces st rengt h
– Increases duct ilit y
– Increases toughness
• Residual st ress is also reduced by t he post weld
heat t reat ment
Steel

Post weld Heat Treat ment and


Hydrogen Cracking
• Post weld heat t reat ment (~ 1200°F) tempers
any martensite t hat may have formed
– Increase in duct ilit y and toughness
– Reduct ion in st rengt h and hardness
• Residual st ress is decreased by post weld heat
t reat ment
• Rule of t humb: hold at temperat ure for 1 hour
per inch of plate t hickness; minimum hold of
30 minutes
Base Metal Welding Concerns
Cracking in Welds

Lamellar Tearing

• Occurs in t hick plat e subject ed t o high t ransverse


welding st ress
• Relat ed t o elongat ed non-metallic inclusions,
sulfides and silicates, lying parallel t o plat e surface
and producing regions of reduced duct ilit y
• Prevent ion by
– Low sulfur steel
– Specify minimum duct ilit y levels in t ransverse direct ion
– Avoid designs w it h heavy t hrough-t hickness direct ion
st ress
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels

M ult ipass Welds

• Heat from subsequent passes affect s t he


st ruct ure and propert ies of previous
passes
– Tempering
– Reheat ing to form austenite
– Transformat ion from austenite upon cooling
• Complex M icrost ruct ure
Steel

M ult ipass Welds


• Exhibit a range of
microst ruct ures
• Variat ion of
mechanical propert ies
across joint
• Post weld heat
t reat ment tempers t he
st ruct ure
– Reduces propert y
variat ions across t he
joint
DEFECTS
AND
DISCONTINUITIES
DEFECT
• A flaw or flaws that by nature or accumulated effect
render a part or product unable to meet minimum
applicable acceptance standards or specifications. The
term designates rejectability.
DISCONTINUITY
• An interruption of the typical structure of a material, such
as a lack of homogeneity in its mechanical, metallurgical,
or physical characteristics. A discontinuity is not
necessarily a defect.
WELD JOINT DISCONTINUITIES
• Misalignment (hi-lo) • Inclusions • Base Metal
• Slag Discontinuities
• Undercut
• Wagontracks – Lamellar tearing
• Underfill
• Tungsten – Laminations and
• Concavity or Convexity • Spatter Delaminations
• Excessive reinforcement • Arc Craters – Laps and Seams
• Improper reinforcement • Cracks • Porosity
• Overlap • Longitudinal – Uniformly Scattered
• Burn-through • Transverse – Cluster
• Incomplete or Insufficient • Crater – Linear
Penetration • Throat – Piping
• Incomplete Fusion • Toe • Heat-affected zone
• Surface irregularity • Root microstructure alteration
– Overlap • Underbead • Base Plate laminations
• Arc Strikes • Hot • Size or dimensions
• Cold or delayed
DIMENSIONAL DEFECTS

A Dimensional defects are any defect that cause the weld metal.
Parent metal, work piece to be out of specification or tolerance.
Dimensional defects are mainly caused by improper set up or
distortion. This should be managed before the welding process.
MISALIGNMENT (HI-LO)
• Definition: Amount a joint is out
of alignment at the root

• Cause: Carelessness. Also due to joining different


thicknesses (transition thickness)
• Prevention: Workmanship. Transition angles not to exceed
2.5 to 1.
• Repair: Grinding. Careful on surface finish and direction of
grind marks. Inside of Pipe /Tube difficult.
Linear Misalignment
UNDERCUT
• Definition: A groove cut at the
toe of the weld and left unfilled.
• Cause: High amperage, electrode
angle, long arc length, rust
• Prevention: Set machine on scrap metal. Clean metal
before welding.
• Repair: Weld with smaller electrode, sometimes must be
low hydrogen with preheat.
UNDERCUT
(CONT......)

Undercut typically has an allowable limit. Different


codes and standards vary greatly in the allowable
amount.
Plate - the lesser of 1/32” or 5% (typ.)
UnderCut
UNDERCUT
INSUFFICIENT FILL
• Definition: The weld surface is below the adjacent
surfaces of the base metal

• Cause: Improper welding techniques

• Prevention: Apply proper welding techniques for the weld


type and position.
• Repair: Simply weld to fill. May require preparation by
grinding.
UNDERFILL
CONCAVE AND CONVEX
WELD PROFILES
The concave defect cause the
weld to be weak across the
throat of the weld
(Middle).

The cause of this are:


• Travel speed is to quick
• Amps are to high
• Poor electrode
Manipulation
CONCAVE AND CONVEX
WELD PROFILES

• The convex defect cause the


weld to become weak at the
toes of the weld (outer
edges).

• This is caused by :
• Travel speed being to slow
• Amps to low
• Poor electrode
manipulation.
EXCESSIVE CONCAVITY OR
CONVEXITY
• Definition: Concavity or convexity of a fillet weld which
exceeds the specified allowable limits

• Cause: Amperage and travel speed

• Prevention: Observe proper parameters and techniques.

• Repair: Grind off or weld on. Must blend smoothly into the
base metal.
Concavity
EXCESSIVE CONCAVITY
Root Concavity
Convexity
EXCESSIVE CONVEXITY
REINFORCEMENT
The amount of a groove weld which extends beyond the surface
of the plate

• Excessive Face Reinforcement


• Insufficient
• Improper contour

Root Reinforcement
EXCESSIVE
REINFORCEMENT
• Definition: Specifically defined by the standard. Typically,
Reinforcement should be flush to 1/16”(pipe) or flush to
1/8” (plate or structural shapes).
• Cause: Travel speed too slow, amperage too low

• Prevention: Set amperage and travel speed on scrap plate.

• Repair: Remove excessive reinforcement and feather the


weld toes to a smooth transition to the base plate.
EXCESSIVE WELD REINFORCEMENT
Insufficient Reinforcement
• Definition: Specifically defined by the standard. Typically,
Underfill may be up to 5% of metal thickness not to exceed
1/32” as long as the thickness is made up in the opposite
reinforcement.

• Prevention: Use proper welding technique. Use backing or


consumable inserts. Use back weld or backing.

• Repair: Possibly simply increase the face reinforcement. If


backwelding is not possible, must remove and reweld.
Improper Weld Contour
• Definition: When the weld exhibits less than a 1350
transition angle at the weld toe. 1350

• Cause: Poor welding technique

• Prevention: Use proper techniques. A weave or whip motion


can often eliminate the problem.
• Repair: The weld face must be feathered into the base plate.
UNACCEPTABLE
WELD PROFILES
OVERLAP
• Definition: When the face of the weld extends beyond the
toe of the weld
• Cause: Improper welding technique. Typically, electrode
angles and travel speed.
• Prevention: Overlap is a contour problem. Proper welding
technique will prevent this problem.
• Repair: Overlap must be removed to blend smoothly into
the base metal. Be careful of deep grind marks that run
transverse to the load. Also be careful of fusion
discontinuities hidden by grinding. Use NDT to be sure.
Overlap

Overlap is measured with


a square edge such as a
6” rule. No amount of
overlap is typically
allowed.
OVERLAP
BURN-THROUGH
• Definition: When an undesirable open hole has been
completely melted through the base metal. The hole may or
may not be left open.

• Cause: Excessive heat input.

• Prevention: Reduce heat input by increasing travel speed,


use of a heat sink, or by reducing welding parameters.

• Repair: Will be defined by standards. Filling may suffice.


Otherwise, removal and rewelding may be required. Some
standards may require special filler metal.
INCOMPLETE FUSION AND
PENETRATION
Incomplete root fusion is when the
weld fails to fuse one side of the
joint in the root. Incomplete root a) b)

penetration occurs when both


sides of the joint are unfused.

Some of the causes are:- c) d)

a) Excessively thick root gap.


b) Too small a root gap
c) Misaligned welds
d) Power input to low
e) Arc (heat) input to low
e)

These defects can be reduced in MMA welding by


Using the correct welding parameters and
Electrode size, This will give the correct arc energy
Input.
INCOMPLETE OR INSUFFICIENT
PENETRATION

• Definition: When the weld metal does not extend to the


required depth into the joint root
• Cause: Low amperage, low preheat, tight root opening, fast
travel speed, short arc length.
• Prevention: Correct the contributing factor(s).

• Repair: Back gouge and back weld or remove and reweld.


Incomplete Root Penetration
INCOMPLETE FUSION
• Definition: Where weld metal does not form a cohesive
bond with the base metal.
• Cause: Low amperage, steep electrode angles, fast travel
speed, short arc gap, lack of preheat, electrode too small,
unclean base metal.
• Prevention: Eliminate the potential causes.

• Repair: remove and reweld, being careful to completely


remove the defective area. This is sometimes extremely
difficult to find.
Incomplete Fusion
INCOMPLETE FUSION
ARC STRIKE
• Definition: A localized coalescence outside the weld zone.

• Cause: Carelessness
• Prevention: In difficult areas, adjacent areas can be
protected using fire blankets.
• Repair: Where applicable, arc strikes must be sanded
smooth and tested for cracks. If found, they must be remove
and repaired using a qualified repair procedure and
inspected as any other weld.
Arc Strike
INCLUSIONS

• Slag
• Wagontracks
• Tungsten
Slag Inclusion
• Definition: Slag entrapped within the weld

• Cause: Low amperage, improper technique, Trying to weld


in an area that is too tight. Slow travel in Vertical Down
• Prevention: Increase amperage or preheat, grind out tight
areas to gain access to bottom of joint.
• Repair: Remove by grinding. Reweld.
Wagon Tracks
• Definition: Slang term for a groove left at the toe of a root
pass which becomes filled with slag and is trapped in the
weld.
• Cause: The contour of the root pass is too high, or the weld
toe is not bonded to the base metal
• Prevention: Use proper technique to deposit the weld root.

• Repair: Carefully grind the root pass face flat. be careful not
to gouge other areas on the weldment.
Wagon Tracks
Tungsten Inclusion
• Definition: A tungsten particle embedded in a weld.
(Typically GTAW only)
• Cause: Tungsten electrode too small, amperage too high,
AC balance on +, Upslope too high, electrode tip not
snipped, electrode dipped into the weld pool or touched
with the fill rod, electrode split.
• Prevention: Eliminate the cause

• Repair: Grind out and reweld


SPATTER

• Definition: Small particles of weld metal expelled from the


welding operation which adhere to the base metal surface.
• Cause: Long arc length, severe electrode angles, high
amperages.
• Prevention: Correct the cause. Base metal can be protected
with coverings or hi-temp paints.
• Repair: Remove by grinding or sanding. Sometimes must be
tested as if it were a weld.
SPATTER
Spatter
CRACKS
• Longitudinal
• Transverse
• Crater
• Throat
• Toe
• Root
• Underbead and Heat-affected zone
• Hydrogen Cracking
• Hot
• Cold or delayed
CRACKS
Longitudinal Crack
• Definition: A crack running in the direction of the weld axis.
May be found in the weld or base metal.
• Cause: Preheat or fast cooling problem. Also caused by
shrinkage stresses in high constraint areas.
• Prevention: Weld toward areas of less constraint. Also
preheat to even out the cooling rates.
• Repair: Remove and reweld
Transverse Crack
• Definition: A crack running into or inside a weld, transverse
to the weld axis direction.
• Cause: Weld metal hardness problem

• Prevention: Preahiting

• Repair: Remove and reweld


Crater Crack
• Definition: A crack, generally in the shape of an “X” which
is found in a crater. Crater cracks are hot cracks.
• Cause: The center of the weld pool becomes solid before the
outside of the weld pool, pulling the center apart during
cooling
• Prevention: Use crater fill, fill the crater at weld termination
and/or preheat to even out the cooling of the puddle
• Repair: Remove and reweld
CRATER CRACKS

INSUFFICIENT FILLING AT THE END OF THE WELD


Throat Crack
• Definition: A longitudinal crack located in the weld throat
area.
• Cause: Transverse Stresses, probably from shrinkage.
Indicates inadequate filler metal selection or welding
procedure. May be due to crater crack propagation.
• Prevention: Correct initial cause. Increasing preheat may
prevent it. be sure not to leave a crater. Use a more ductile
filler material.
• Repair: Remove and reweld using appropriate procedure.
Be sure to correct initial problem first.
Toe Crack
• Definition: A crack in the base metal beginning at the toe of
the weld
• Cause: Transverse shrinkage stresses. Indicates a HAZ
brittleness problem.
• Prevention: Increase preheat if possible, or use a more
ductile filler material.
• Repair: Remove and reweld
Root Crack
• Definition: A crack in the weld at the weld root.

• Cause: Transverse shrinkage stresses. Same as a throat


crack.
• Prevention: Same as a throat crack

• Repair: Remove and reweld


Underbead Crack
• Definition: A crack in the unmelted parent metal of the
HAZ.
• Cause: Hydrogen embrittlement

• Prevention: Use Lo/Hi electrodes and/or preheat

• Repair: (only found using NDT). Remove and reweld.


HYDROGEN CRACKING

Hydrogen cracking may also be call


cold/delayed cracking. Hydrogen is
given off by the flux during the
welding process. These type of Cracks
mainly appear during or just after
welding,
The cracks can be caused by :-
•Tensile pressures affecting the weld
joint after the weld has cooled.
•The weld bead being to small for the
weld joint.
•High heat input then rapid cooling of
the material.
Weld Metal Hydrogen Cracking
Hot Crack
• Definition: A crack in the weld that occurs during
solidification.
• Cause: Micro stresses from weld metal shrinkage pulling
apart weld metal as it cools from liquid to solid temp.
• Prevention: Preheat or use a low tensil filler material.

• Repair: Remove and reweld


Cold Crack
• Definition: A crack that occurs after the metal has
completely solidified
• Cause: Shrinkage, Highly restrained welds, Discontinuities

• Prevention: Preheat, weld toward areas of less constraint,


use a more ductile weld metal
• Repair: Remove and reweld, correct problem first, preheat
may be necessary.
REPAIRS TO CRACKS

• Determine the cause


• Correct the problem
• Take precautions to prevent reoccurrence
• Generally required to repair using a smaller
electrode
BASE METAL
DISCONTINUITIES
• Lamellar tearing
• Laminations and Delaminations
• Laps and Seams
Laminellar Tearing
LAMINATIONS
•Base Metal Discontinuity
•May require repair prior to welding
•Formed during the milling process
Lamination effects can be reduced by joint design:
LAPS AND SEAMS
A mill-induced discontinuity in which results from a lump of metal
being squeezed over into the surface of the material.
If beyond acceptable limits, must be removed and repaired or
discarded.
POROSITY
• Single Pore
• Uniformly Scattered
• Cluster
• Linear
• Piping
SINGLE PORE
• Separated by at least their own diameter along the
axis of the weld
UNIFORMLY SCATTERED
POROSITY
• Typically judged by diameter and proximity to a start or
stop
• often caused by low amperage or short arc gap or an
unshielded weld start
CLUSTER POROSITY
• Typically viewed as a single large discontinuity
LINEAR POROSITY
• being linear greatly affects the severity of this
discontinuity
PIPING POROSITY

• Generally has special allowable limits


POROSITY
• preheat will help eliminate
• may need an electrode with more deoxidizers
• Use run-on/run-off taps
• restart on top of previous weld and grind off lump
STRUCTURAL DISCONTINUITIES IN
WELD
POROSITY- Gas entrapment
Porosity
Porosity
SIZE OR DIMENSION
• If it renders the part unusable, it is a defect.
• If it is outside the allowable limit, it renders the part
unusable.
• Things don’t have to be perfect, just within the acceptable
tolerance. Working to perfection is too time consuming
and costly
Inspection Tools
Measuring Weld Sizes
Fillet Weld Size - For equal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest
isosceles right triangle that can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross
section. For unequal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest right
triangle that can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section
Undercut Guage
Palmgrin Guage
Magnifying Glass

Used to read small scales


Flashlight
Used to cast shadows to find porosity, undercut and overlap.
STANDARD ACCEPTABILITY OF
WELDING DEFECTS:
1. Undercut should not exceed 1/32” inch(0.8mm) width and
depth or must not exceed to 5% thickness from base metal.
2. No porosity shall exceed 1/16 inch (1.6mm) or in addition no
square inch of weld metal shall exceed 1/16 inch(1.6mm) in
greatest dimensions.
3. No gas pocket on square inch of weld metal area shall contain
more than 6 gas pocket exceeding 1/16 inch (1.6mm) in
greatest dimensions.
4. No slag inclusion shall exceed 1/8 inch (3.2mm) in every 6
inches of weld.
WHAT CAN HAPPEN IF WELDING
DEFECTS AREN’T FOUND