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FIRE FIGHTING

CONTENT
Page no
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. BASIC PRINCIPLES 2
3. ACCESSORIES 5
4. STAND HOSE PIPE SYSTEM DESIGN 13
5. SPRINKLER SYSTEM DESIGN 14
6. SPRINKLER SYSTEM CALCULATION 16
7. SPRINKLER PUMP HEAD CALCULATION 16
8. SIZING OF BRANCHES 21
9. UNDERGROUND SUMP CAPACITY 31
LIST OF FIGURES
Page no.
1. Sprinkler color code 3
2. Landing Valves 5
3. Pressure regulating valves 6
4. Butterfly valve 6
5. Gate valve 6
6. Angle hose valves 7
7. Angle hose valves 7
8. Fire hose 8
9. Fire hose reel 8
10. Hydrants 9
11. Sprinkler bulb 9
12. Fire extinguisher 9
13. Fire doors 10
14. Fire hose reel cabinet 10
15. Diffuser nozzle 11
16. Schematic of fire pump 12

LIST OF TABLES

1. Coverage area of sprinkler system 14


2. Area density curve 15
1. INTRODUCTION

Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially
destructive fires. It involves the study of the behavior, compartmentalization, suppression and
investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development,
production, testing and application of mitigating systems. In structures, be they land-based,
offshore or even ships, the owners and operators are responsible to maintain their facilities in
accordance with a design-basis that is rooted in laws, including the local building code and fire
code, which are enforced by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Buildings must be constructed in
accordance with the version of the building code that is in effect when an application for a
building permit is made. Building inspectors check on compliance of a building under
construction with the building code

Structural fire protection (in land-based buildings, offshore construction or onboard ships) is
typically achieved via three means:

Passive fire protection (use of integral, fire-resistance rated wall and floor assemblies that are
used to form fire compartments intended to limit the spread of fire, or occupancy separations, or
firewalls, to keep fires, high temperatures and flue gases within the fire compartment of origin,
thus enabling firefighting and evacuation)

Active fire protection (manual and automatic detection and suppression of fires, as in using and
installing a fire sprinkler system or finding the fire (fire alarm) and/or extinguishing it

Education (ensuring that building owners and operators have copies and a working
understanding of the applicable building and fire codes, having a purpose-designed fire safety
plan and ensuring that building occupants, operators and emergency personnel know the
building, its means of Active fire protection and Passive fire protection, its weak spots and
strengths to ensure the highest possible level of safety

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2. BASIC PRINCIPLES
2.1 Stand Hose Pipe
Standpipe is a type of rigid water piping which is built into multi-story buildings in a vertical
position or bridges in a horizontal position, to which fire hoses can be connected, allowing
manual application of water to the fire. Within the context of a building or bridge, a standpipe
serves the same purpose as a fire hydrant.

In many other countries, hydrants in streets are below ground level. Fire trucks carry standpipes
and key, and there are bars on the truck. The bar is used to lift a cover in the road, exposing the
hydrant. The standpipe is then "sunk" into the hydrant, and the hose is connected to the exposed
ends of the standpipe. The bar is then combined with the key, and is used to turn the hydrant on
and off

2.2 Sprinkler system

Fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection measure, consisting of a water supply system,
providing adequate pressure and flow rate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire
sprinklers are connected. In buildings completely protected by fire sprinkler systems, over 99%
of fires were controlled by fire sprinklers alone
Each closed-head sprinkler is held closed by either a heat-sensitive glass bulb (see below) or a
two-part metal link held together with fusible alloy such as Wood's metal and other alloys with
similar compositions. The glass bulb or link applies pressure to a pipe cap which acts as a plug
which prevents water from flowing until the ambient temperature around the sprinkler reaches
the design activation temperature of the individual sprinkler. Because each sprinkler activates
independently when the predetermined heat level is reached, the number of sprinklers that
operate is limited to only those near the fire, thereby maximizing the available water pressure
over the point of fire origin.

The fusible link of an automatic fire sprinklers typically are color coded to illustrate their
predetermined operating temperature. This illustration shows the common temperature ratings
for fire sprinklers.

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Fig.1 sprinkler color code

The design of a sprinkler system is determined by the hazard classification of the building
occupancy. Each category has its own minimum design density of discharge and assumed
maximum area over which this design density is to be achieved.

There are four main types of sprinkler systems – wet, dry, alternate and pre-action system. They
are normally chosen by the nature of the area to be protected, whether storage of water in the
pipework would pose a risk due to process or weather condition, or where the risk of accidental
discharge is to be eliminated.

2.3 Fire hydrant

In a building, a fire hydrant system is a safety measure or emergency equipment required in


some buildings that comprises a series of components that when assembled together provide a
source of water to assist fire authorities in a fire. Putting it another way, a fire hydrant system is a
water supply with a sufficient pressure and flow delivered through pipes throughout a building to
strategically located network of valves for fire-fighting purposes.

In some circumstances, water from a reticulated fire hydrant system can also be shared with
other safety measures such as automatic fire sprinkler systems or fire hose reels.

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Under normal circumstances, a fire hydrant system is pressurized with water ready for
emergency use. When a hydrant valve is opened, the system experiences a drop in water
pressure. The drop in water pressure is detected by a pressure switch which in turn starts the
booster pump(s), drawing water from the water supply to increase the water pressure of the
system.

Water from the hydrant is then directed through the lay flat fire hose to a nozzle which is then
directed to the seat of a fire. During a fire the fire brigade may provide additional water and
boost the water pressure to satisfy the demands of the fire hydrant system. This is carried out by
connecting a fire appliance (truck) between an alternate water supply and the booster connection.

2.4 Fire hydrant wet riser


Wet risers are a form of internal hydrant for the fireman to use and are always pressurized with
water. Wet risers are only required for buildings where the topmost floor is higher than 30.5
meters above the fire appliance access level.
Wet riser system comprises duty fire pump with standby pump discharging into a 150mm
diameter riser pipe with landing valves at each floor and to which canvas hose with nozzles cab
be connected to direct the water jet at the fire. A jockey pump is usually provided to maintain
system pressure. For high rise buildings, each stage of the wet riser should not exceed 70.15
meters.

2.5 Down comer system

Down comers is also a form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use and are always charged
with water tank located at the top of a building but without any pumps. Down comers are only
permitted for private residential buildings with open balcony approach where the topmost floor is
not higher than 60 meters above the fire appliance access level and should be adopted for low
cost flats only.

Down comers system comprises a high level water storage tank discharging into 150mm
diameter riser pipe with landing valves at each floor and to which canvas hose with nozzles can

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be connected to direct the water jet at the fire. No pumps are provided and therefore the system
pressure is limited to the static pressure only.

3. ACCESSORIES
3.1 LV or Landing Valves

Landing Valves are used for fighting fire with water and accordingly mounted in fire hydrant
system at Internal or External places. The landing valves are sometimes also referred to as
internal hydrants because they are usually fitted inside the buildings for wet hydrant system. Its
body may be made of copper alloys and hand wheel made of spheroidal graphite cast iron

Fig.2 Landing Valves

3.2 PRV or pressure regulating valves


Pressure Regulating Valves automatically reduce a higher inlet pressure to a steady lower outlet
pressure regardless of changing flow rate and/or varying inlet pressure. The valves pilot control
system is very sensitive to slight downstream pressure fluctuations, and will automatically open
or close to maintain the desired pressure setting.

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Fig. 3 Pressure regulating valves
3.3 Butterfly valve
A butterfly valve is a valve which can be used for isolating or regulating flow. The closing
mechanism takes the form of a disk. Operation is similar to that of a ball valve, which allows for
quick shut off. A butterfly valve is from a family of valves called quarter-turn valves.

Fig.4 Butterfly valve


3.4 Gate valve
A fire hydrant valve or fire hydrant gate valve used to control water flow through one of the
discharge ports on a hydrant with two or more ports. Typically, one fire hose is initially
connected to one discharge and the fire hydrant gate is connected to one or more of the other
outlets. This allows a second hose to be connected to a fire hydrant that is flowing water without
shutting down the main valve to make the connection

Fig.5 Gate valve

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3.5 Angle hose valves
Angle hose valves are designed for use with hose storage devices and hydrants. Used as fire hose
outlet connections. Designed to protect hydrants from damage caused by throttling.

Fig.6 Angle hose valves


3.6 Air release valve
Air Release Valves help protect fire protection systems from air lock and collapse by eliminating
excess air or admitting air before a vacuum condition can occur. They not only help the system
maintain its design capacity that could be impacted if entrained air is present in the pipeline, they
are also a critical to reliable and safe pump start-up and stopping operations.

Fig.7 Angle hose valves


3.7 Fire hose
A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardant (such as foam) to a
fire to extinguish it. Outdoors, it attaches either to a fire engine or a fire hydrant. Indoors, it can
permanently attach to a building's standpipe or plumbing system

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Fig.8 Fire hose
3.8 Fire hose reel
Fire hose reel is an efficient and reliable fire-fighting unit suitable for use in all types of
buildings. Fire Hose Reels are located to provide a reasonably accessible and controlled supply
of water to combat a potential fire risk. A control nozzle attached to the end of the hose enables
the operator to control the direction and flow of water to the fire

Fig.9 Fire hose reel


3.9 Hydrants
A hydrant is an outlet from a fluid main often consisting of an upright pipe with a valve attached
from which fluid (e.g. water or fuel) can be tapped. Fire hydrant is an active fire protection
measure, and a source of water provided in most urban, suburban and rural areas with municipal
water service to enable firefighters to tap into the municipal water supply to assist in
extinguishing a fire. The internal hydrants (Landing valves) is single headed type taken out from
150/100 mm dia riser through suitable reducer.

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Fig.10 Hydrants
3.10 Sprinkler bulb
Fire sprinkler or sprinkler head is the component of a fire sprinkler system that discharges
water when the effects of a fire have been detected, such as when a predetermined temperature
has been exceeded.

Fig.11 Sprinkler bulb


3.11 Fire extinguisher
Fire extinguisher, or extinguisher, is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control
small fires, often in emergency situations. There are different type of fire extinguishers depend
upon the type of material used for suppression of fire. Materials used are water, carbon dioxide,
foam, dry powder etc.

Fig.12 Fire extinguisher

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3.12 Fire doors
A fire door is a door with a fire-resistance rating (sometimes referred to as a fire
protection rating for closures) used as part of a passive fire protection system to reduce the
spread of fire or smoke between compartments and to enable safe egress from a building or
structure or ship.

Fig.13 Fire doors

3.13 Fire hose reel cabinet


It is a box like structure to accommodate Hose reel, landing valve, nozzles etc. Cabinet and Hose
Reel painted with red electrostatic powder coating. Cabinet is usually door made of electro -
galvanized steel sheet.

Fig.14 Fire hose reel cabinet

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3.14 Diffuser nozzle
Diffuser nozzle has an adjustable annular orifice which enables the jet of water to be controlled
from shut-off to small jet through to large jet then to spray pattern by turning of the rubber
sleeve. Body may be usually made of copper alloy

Fig.15 Diffuser nozzle


3.15 Pumps
Fire pumps are usually housed in a pump room very close to the fire tanks. The key thing is that
the pumps should be located at a level just below the bottom of the fire tank, so that all the water
in the tanks can flow into the pumps by gravity.

Like all important systems, there must be backup pumps in case the main pump fails. Usually
there are three types of pumps

 Electrical pump
It is a main pump that is electric. a backup electric pump can also be provided based on
the size of system.
 Diesel pump
It is used in case the electricity fails, which is common. Each of these pumps is capable
of pumping the required amount of water individually - they are identical in capacity.
 Jockey pump
There is also a fourth type of pump called a jockey pump. This is a small pump attached
to the system that continually switches on to maintain the correct pressure in the

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distribution systems, which is normally 7 Kg/cm2 or 100 psi. If there is a small leakage
somewhere in the system, the jockey pump will switch on to compensate for it. Each
jockey pump will also have a backup
The pumps are controlled by pressure sensors. When a fire fighter opens a hydrant, or when a
sprinkler comes on, water gushes out of the system and the pressure drops. The pressure sensors
will detect this drop and switch the fire pumps on. But the only way to switch off a fire pump is
for a fire fighter to do this manually in the pump room. This is an international code of practice
that is designed to avoid the pumps switching off due to any malfunction in the control system.
The capacity of the pumps is decided by considering a number of factors, some of which are:

• The area covered by hydrants / standpipes and sprinklers


• The number of hydrants and sprinklers
• The assumed area of operation of the sprinklers
• The type and layout of the building

Fig.16 schematic of fire pump

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4. STAND HOSE PIPE SYSTEM DESIGN

Standpipe systems are a series of pipe, which connect a water supply to hose connections; they
are designed to provide a pre-piped water system for building occupants or the fire department.
Some older buildings only have standpipe systems while many newer buildings will have a
combination system, which supplies the fire sprinkler system and the standpipe system.
Standpipe systems are designed to provide fire protection water for hose lines in strategically
placed locations inside a building or structure.

4.1 Class I Systems

Class I Systems [2-1/2" (64mm) hose connections] are provided for use by fire departments and
those trained in handling heavy water streams. In high rise buildings without sprinklers and
beyond the reach of fire department ladders, Class I systems provide water supply for the
primary means of firefighting, i.e. manually.

4.2 Class II Systems

Class II Systems [1-1/2" (38mm) hose lines] are provided for use by trained building occupants
until the fire department arrives.

4.3 Class III Systems

Class III Systems shall provide [1-1/2" (38mm)] hose stations to supply water for use by trained
building occupants and [2-1/2" (64mm)] hose connections to supply a larger volume of water for
use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy water streams.

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5. SPRINKLER SYSTEM DESIGN

NFPA 131 provides designers with a range of sprinkler densities and application areas. The
design criteria applicable to typical residential and commercial buildings are based on matching
the building occupancy to one of five classes of occupancy hazard - light, ordinary hazard (O.H.)
groups 1 and 2, and extra hazard groups 1 and 2. NFPA 13 graphically describes multiple
potential design points for each of these five occupancy classes.

5.1 Hazard classification hierarchy


The requirements contained in NFPA 13 are keyed to the hazard classification. Section 2-1 in the
1999 edition of NFPA 13 indicates there are three basic hazard classifications used in the design
of sprinkler systems. These three hazard classifications are as follows:

• Light Hazard

• Ordinary Hazard

• Extra Hazard

Sprinkler system design is based on the hazard level of the occupancies. The coverage area and
sprinkler spacing is depend upon these rating.

Table.1 Coverage area of sprinkler system

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Maximum Distance from Wall = half (1/2) of the maximum distance between
sprinkler heads.
Minimum Distance between Sprinklers = typically 6'-0".
Distance from Ceiling = minimum 1", maximum 12" for unobstructed construction.
The minimum 1" is typical; however, concealed, recessed, and flush sprinklers may be mounted
less than 1" from the ceiling and shall be installed based on their listing.
Similarly area- density curve explains the maximum flow rate required and assumed area of
operation.

Table.2 Area density curve

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Assumed area of operation for sprinkler systems for different rating of hazards can be obtained
from his curve.

6. SPRINKLER SYSTEM CALCULATION

Type of Building : Light Hazard


Assumed Area of Operation : 3000sqft
Discharge : 0.10 gpm/sq.ft

Coverage area of sprinkler = 225 sq.ft or 20.9 𝑚2


Maximum spacing between sprinklers = 4.6 m
Number of sprinklers required = assumed area of operation /coverage
area of a sprinkler
= 3000 / 225
= 13 [approximately]

So consider 13 sprinklers of farthest point of topmost floor friction losses


Flow through one sprinkler = 300 / 13
= 23 gpm = 0.087 𝑚3 /min

7. SPRINKLER PUMP HEAD CALCULATION


7.1 Frictional Head Loss
Nodes 4.1-4.2
Pipe length = 3.28 m
Gpm = 2 × 23
= 46 gpm
= 0.174 𝑚3 /min
Pipe diameter = 40 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 270.129 m / 1000m (V = 2.301m/s)
We have,

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Head loss, HL = friction head loss × C × 1.2 × L
HL = (270.129 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.28 = 1.063 m
Nodes 4.2-4.3
Pipe length = 2.9 m
Gpm = 5 × 23 = 115 gpm = 0.435 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 140.59 m / 1000m (V = 2.19m/s)
HL = (140.59 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 2.9 = 0.49 m
Nodes 4.3-4.4
Pipe length = 4.3 m
Gpm = 10 × 23 = 230 gpm = 0.87 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 80 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 181.9 m / 1000m (V = 2.877 m/s)
HL = (181.9 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 4.3 = 0.938 m
Nodes 4.4-4.0
Pipe length = 44.9 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 44.9 = 5.37 m
Nodes 4.0 – 3.0
Pipe length = 3.5 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.5 = 0.418 m
Nodes 3.0 – 2.0
Pipe length = 3.5 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)

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HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.5 = 0.418 m

Nodes 2.0 – 1.0


Pipe length = 3.5 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.5 = 0.418 m
Nodes 1.0 – G
Pipe length = 3.5 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.5 = 0.418 m
Nodes G –GL- SP
Pipe length = 3.5m (G to GL) + 30m (GL to SP) = 33.5m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 33.5 = 4m

7.2 Total Head

Total friction loss = 1.063+0.49+0.938+5.37+0.418+0.418+0.418+0.418+4


= 13.533 m
Static head = 17.5 m
Residual head = 45m
TOTAL HEAD = Total friction loss + Static head + Residual head
= 13.533 + 17.5 + 45
= 76.033 m of WC.
Thus the pump should work against a head of 76.033 m or 7.6033 bar for a flow of 300 gpm.

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7.3 HEAD AVAILABLE AT VARIOUS NODES

Node SP
Pressure available at node SP is the total head against which pump has to work.
Therefor pressure at node SP = Total head
Or P-SP = 76.033 m
Node G
Total head or P-SP = 76.033m
Static head loss for node G = 3.5m
Friction loss for Node G-GL-SP = 4m
Thus, head available at Node G or P-G
= {P-SP – static head up to node G – Friction loss for
Node G – GL - SP}
P-G = 76.033 – 3.5 – 4 = 68.533 m
Node 1.0
Head at Node G or P-G = 68.533m
Static head loss in Node 1.0-G = 3.5m
Friction loss for node 1.0 - G = 0.418 m
Thus, head available at Node 1.0 or P-1.0
= {P-G – static head loss in Node 1.0-G – Friction
loss for Node 1.0-G}
P-1.0 = 68.533 – 3.5 – 0.418 = 64.615 m
Node 2.0
Head at Node 1.0 or P-1.0 = 64.615m
Static head loss in Node 2.0-1.0 = 3.5m
Friction loss for node 2.0 – 1.0 = 0.418 m
Thus, head available at Node 2.0 or P-2.0
= {P-1.0 – static head loss in Node 2.0-1.0 – Friction
loss for Node 2.0-1.0}
P-2.0 = 64.615 – 3.5 – 0.418 = 60.697 m

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Node 3.0
Head at Node 2.0 or P-2.0 = 60.697m
Static head loss in Node 3.0-2.0 = 3.5m
Friction loss for node 3.0 – 2.0 = 0.418 m
Thus, head available at Node 3.0 or P-3.0
= {P-2.0 – static head loss in Node 3.0-2.0 – Friction
loss for Node 3.0-2.0}
P-3.0 = 60.697 – 3.5 – 0.418 = 56.779 m

Node 4.0
Head at Node 3.0 or P-3.0 = 56.779m
Static head loss in Node 4.0-3.0 = 3.5m
Friction loss for node 4.0 – 3.0 = 0.418 m
Thus, head available at Node 4.0 or P-4.0
= {P-3.0 – static head loss in Node 4.0-3.0 – Friction
loss for Node 4.0-3.0}
P-4.0 = 56.779 – 3.5 – 0.418 = 52.861 m
Node 4.4
Head at Node 4.0 or P-4.0 = 52.861m
Static head loss in Node 4.4-4.0 = 0m
Friction loss for node 4.4 – 4.0 = 5.37 m
Thus, head available at Node 4.4 or P-4.4
= {P-4.0 – static head loss in Node 4.4-4.0 – Friction
loss for Node 4.4-4.0}
P-4.4 = 52.861 – 0 – 5.37 = 47.491 m
Node 4.3
Head at Node 4.4 or P-4.4 = 47.491m
Static head loss in Node 4.3-4.4 = 0m
Friction loss for node 4.3 – 4.4 = 0.938 m
Thus, head available at Node 4.3 or P-4.3

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= {P-4.4 – static head loss in Node 4.3-4.4 – Friction
loss for Node 4.3-4.4}
P-4.3 = 47.491 – 0 – 0.938 = 46.553 m
Node 4.2
Head at Node 4.3 or P-4.3 = 46.553m
Static head loss in Node 4.2-4.3 = 0m
Friction loss for node 4.2 – 4.3 = 0.49 m
Thus, head available at Node 4.2 or P-4.2
= {P-4.3 – static head loss in Node 4.2-4.3 – Friction
loss for Node 4.2-4.3}
P-4.2 = 46.553 – 0 – 0.49 = 46.063 m
Node 4.2
Head at Node 4.2 or P-4.2 = 46.063m
Static head loss in Node 4.1-4.2 = 0m
Friction loss for node 4.1 – 4.2 = 1.063 m
Thus, head available at Node 4.1 or P-4.1
= {P-4.2 – static head loss in Node 4.1-4.2 – Friction
loss for Node 4.1-4.2}
P-4.1 = 46.063 – 0 – 1.063 = 45.00 m

8. SIZING OF BRANCHES

8.1 Fourth Floor [NE Branch]


Node 4.5 to 4.6
Pipe length = 7.8 m
Gpm = 2 × 23 = 46 gpm = 0.174 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 40 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 270.129 m / 1000m (V = 2.3m/s)
HL = (270.129 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 7.8 = 2.528 m
Node 4.6 to 4.7
Pipe length = 3.2 m

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Gpm = 4 × 23 = 92 gpm = 0.348 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 91.643 m / 1000m (V = 1.74m/s)
HL = (91.643 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.2 = 0.35 m
Node 4.7 to 4.8
Pipe length = 3.5 m
Gpm = 8 × 23 = 184
gpm = 0.696 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 330.789 m / 1000m (V = 3.486m/s)
HL = (330.789 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.5 = 1.38 m
Node 4.7 to 4.0
Pipe length = 25 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 25 = 2.99 m
Total friction head loss in this branch
ie in 4.0 -4.5 = 2.528+0.35+1.38+2.99 = 7.248 m
Available pressure at node 4.0 = 52.881 m
Residual pressure head = 45m
Maximum possible friction head loss = 52.881 – 45 = 7.81 m of WC
[Actual friction head loss is less than maximum possible value. Thus design is safe.]

8.2 Third Floor [SW Branch]


Pressure available at Node 3.0 = 56.779m
Maximum possible friction loss = 56.779 – 45 = 11.779 m
Nodes 3.1-3.2
Pipe length = 3.28 m
Gpm = 2 × 23 = 46 gpm = 0.174 𝑚3 /min
Pipe diameter = 40 mm [assume]

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Friction head loss = 270.129 m / 1000m (V = 2.301m/s))
HL = (270.129 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.28 = 1.063 m
Nodes 3.2-3.3
Pipe length = 2.9 m
Gpm = 5×23 = 115 gpm = 0.435 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 140.6 m / 1000m (V=2.1m/s)
HL = (140.6 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 2.9 = 0.49 m
Nodes 3.3-3.4
Pipe length = 4.3 m
Gpm = 10×23 = 230 gpm = 0.87 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 500.1 m / 1000m (V = 4.3 m/s)
HL = (500.1 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 4.3 = 2.58 m
Nodes 3.4-3.0
Pipe length = 44.9 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 44.9 = 5.37 m
Total friction loss = 1.063+0.49 +2.58 +5.37 = 9.5m of WC
[Actual friction head loss is less than maximum possible value. Thus design is safe.]

8.3 Third Floor [NE Branch]


Pressure available at Node 3.0 = 56.779 m
Maximum possible friction loss = 56.779 – 45 = 11.779 m
Node 3.5 to 3.6
Pipe length = 7.8 m
Gpm = 2 × 23 = 46 gpm = 0.174 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 40 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 270.129 m / 1000m (V = 2.3m/s)

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HL = (270.129 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 7.8 = 2.528 m
Node 3.6 to 3.7
Pipe length = 3.2 m
Gpm = 4 × 23 = 92 gpm = 0.348 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 50 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 328.8 m / 1000m (V = 2.94 m/s)
HL = (328.8 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.2 = 1.26m
Node 3.7 to 3.8
Pipe length = 3.5 m
Gpm = 8 × 23 = 184 gpm = 0.696 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 330.789 m / 1000m (V = 3.486m/s)
HL = (330.789 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.5 = 1.38 m
Node 3.7 to 3.0
Pipe length = 25 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 25 = 2.99 m

Total friction head loss in this branch = 2.528+1.26+1.38+2.99 = 8.21 m


[Actual friction head loss is less than maximum possible value. Thus design is safe.]

8.4 Second Floor [SW Branch]


Pressure available at Node 2.0 = 60.697m
Maximum possible friction loss = 60.697 – 45 = 15.697 m
Nodes 2.1-2.2
Pipe length = 3.28 m
Gpm = 2 × 23 = 46 gpm = 0.174 𝑚3 /min
Pipe diameter = 32 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 800.86 m / 1000m (V = 3.59/s))

24 | P a g e
HL = (800.86 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.28 = 3.15 m
Nodes 2.2-2.3
Pipe length = 2.9 m
Gpm = 5 × 23 = 115 gpm = 0.435 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 50 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 497.15 m / 1000m (V = 3.68m/s)
HL = (497.15 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 2.9 = 1.73 m
Nodes 2.3-2.4
Pipe length = 4.3 m
Gpm = 10 × 23 = 230 gpm = 0.87 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 500.1 m / 1000m (V = 4.3 m/s)
HL = (500.1 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 4.3 = 2.58 m
Nodes 2.4-2.0
Pipe length = 44.9 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 44.9 = 5.37 m

Total friction loss = 3.15+1.73 +2.58 +5.37 = 12.83 m of WC


[Actual friction head loss is less than maximum possible value. Thus design is safe.]

8.5 Second Floor [NE Branch]


Pressure available at Node 2.0 = 60.697m
Maximum possible friction loss = 60.697 – 45 = 15.697 m
Node 2.5 to 2.6
Pipe length = 7.8 m
Gpm = 2 × 23 = 46 gpm = 0.174 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 32 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 800.86 m / 1000m (V = 3.6 m/s)
HL = (800.86 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 7.8 = 7.49 m

25 | P a g e
Node 2.6 to 2.7
Pipe length = 3.2 m
Gpm = 4×23 = 92 gpm = 0.348 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 50 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 328.8 m / 1000m (V = 2.94 m/s)
HL = (328.8 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.2 = 1.26m
Node 2.7 to 2.8
Pipe length = 3.5 m
Gpm = 8×23 = 184 gpm = 0.696 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 330.789 m / 1000m (V = 3.486m/s)
HL = (330.789 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.5 = 1.38 m
Node 2.7 to 2.0
Pipe length = 25 m
Gpm = 13×23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 25 = 2.99 m
Total friction head loss in this branch = 7.49+1.26+1.38+2.99 = 13.12 m
[Actual friction head loss is less than maximum possible value. Thus design is safe.]

8.6 First Floor [SW Branch]


Pressure available at Node 1.0 = 64.615
Maximum possible friction loss = 64.615 – 45 = 19.615m
Nodes 1.1-1.2
Pipe length = 3.28 m
Gpm = 2 × 23 = 46 gpm = 0.174 𝑚3 /min
Pipe diameter = 32 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 800.86 m / 1000 m (V = 3.59/s))
HL = (800.86 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.28 = 3.15 m

26 | P a g e
Nodes 1.2-1.3
Pipe length = 2.9 m
Gpm = 5×23 = 115 gpm = 0.435 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 50 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 497.15 m / 1000m (V = 3.68m/s)
HL = (497.15 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 2.9 = 1.73 m
Nodes 1.3-1.4
Pipe length = 4.3 m
Gpm = 10×23 = 230 gpm = 0.87 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 500.1 m / 1000m (V = 4.3 m/s)
HL = (500.1 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 4.3 = 2.58 m
Nodes 1.4-1.0
Pipe length = 44.9 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 44.9 = 5.37 m
Total friction loss = 3.15+1.73 +2.58 +5.37 = 12.83 m of WC
[Actual friction head loss is less than maximum possible value. Thus design is safe.]

8.7 First Floor [NE Branch]


Pressure available at Node 1.0 = 64.615m
Maximum possible friction loss = 64.615 – 45 = 19.615 m
Node 1.5 to 1.6
Pipe length = 7.8 m
Gpm = 2 × 23 = 46 gpm = 0.174 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 32 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 800.86 m/1000m(V=3.6 m/s)
HL = (800.86 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 7.8 = 7.49 m

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Node 1.6 to 1.7
Pipe length = 3.2 m
Gpm = 4 × 23 = 92 gpm = 0.348 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 40 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 982.3 m / 1000m (V = 4.62 m/s)
HL = (982.3 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.2 = 3.77m
Node 1.7 to 1.8
Pipe length = 3.5 m
Gpm = 8 × 23 = 184 gpm = 0.696 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 330.789 m / 1000m (V = 3.486m/s)
HL = (330.789 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 3.5 = 1.38 m
Node 1.7 to 1.0
Pipe length = 25 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000 m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 25 = 2.99 m
Total friction head loss in this branch = 7.49+3.77+1.38+2.99 = 15.63 m
[Actual friction head loss is less than maximum possible value. Thus design is safe]

8.9 Ground Floor [SW Branch]


Pressure available at Node G = 68.53 m
Maximum possible friction loss = 68.53 – 45 = 23.533m
Nodes G.1-G.2
Pipe length = 6.8 m
Gpm = 2 × 23 = 46 gpm = 0.174 𝑚3 /min
Pipe diameter = 32 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 800.86 m / 1000 m (V = 3.59/s))
HL = (800.86 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 6.8 = 6.53 m

28 | P a g e
Nodes G.2-G.3
Pipe length = 1.8 m
Gpm = 4 × 23 = 92 gpm = 0.348 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 40 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 982.3 m / 1000m (V = 4.62 m/s)
HL = (982.3 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 1.8 = 2.12 m
Nodes G.3-G.4
Pipe length = 5.36 m
Gpm = 8 × 23 = 184 gpm = 0.696 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 330.8 m / 1000m (V = 3.48 m/s)
HL = (330.8 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 5.36 = 2.127 m

Nodes G.4-G.5
Pipe length = 2.5 m
Gpm = 11 × 23 = 253 gpm = 0.957 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 80 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 218.47 m / 1000m (V = 3.176m/s)
HL = (218.47 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 2.5 = 0.65 m
Nodes G.5-G
Pipe length = 45.11 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 100 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 99.7 m / 1000m (V = 2.39m/s)
HL = (99.7 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 45.11 = 5.39 m
Total friction loss = 6.53+2.12+2.127+0.65+5.39 = 16.78 m of WC
[Actual friction head loss is less than maximum possible value. Thus design is safe.]

8.10 Ground Floor [NE Branch]


Pressure available at Node G = 68.53 m
Maximum possible friction loss = 68.53 – 45 = 23.533m

29 | P a g e
Node G.6 to G.7
Pipe length = 4.93 m
Gpm = 2 × 23 = 46 gpm = 0.174 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 32 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 800.86 m / 1000m (V = 3.6 m/s)
HL = (800.86 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 4.93 = 4.73 m
Node G.7 to G.8
Pipe length = 1.86 m
Gpm = 6×23 = 138 gpm = 0.522 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 50 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 697 m / 1000m (V = 4.42 m/s)
HL = (697 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 1.86 = 1.55m

Node G.8 to G.9


Pipe length = 4m
Gpm = 8×23 = 184 gpm = 0.696 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 65 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 330.789 m / 1000m (V = 3.486m/s)
HL = (330.789 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 4 = 1.58 m
Node G.9 to G
Pipe length = 31.9 m
Gpm = 13 × 23 = 300 gpm = 1.13 𝑚3 /min
Pipe dia = 80 mm [assume]
Friction head loss = 297.37 m / 1000m (V = 3.75m/s)
HL = (297.37 / 1000) × 1 × 1.2 × 31.9 = 11.38 m
Total friction head loss in this branch = 4.73+1.55+1.58+11.38 = 19.24 m
[Actual friction head loss is less than maximum possible value. Thus design is safe]

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9. UNDERGROUND SUMP CAPACITY

Sprinkler System
Area of operation = 3000 𝑓𝑡 2
Discharge per unit are = 0.1 𝑔𝑝𝑚 𝑃𝑒𝑟 𝑓𝑡 2
Flow, Q = Area of operation x discharge per unit area
= 3000 x 0.1 = 300 gpm
Time of operation = 60 min
Capacity = flow x time of operation
= 300 x 60 = 18000 G
Hydrant System
Type of stand hose pipe : Class ш
Specification = Ф 63 mm & Ф 38 mm (2 ports)
Discharge per port = 500 gpm
Total discharge = 500 x 2 = 1000 gpm
Time of operation = 60 min
Capacity = 1000 x 60 = 60000 G

Sump
Total capacity of the sump = 60000+18000 = 78000 G
= 295.26 𝑚3
Depth of sump, D = 2m
Area of sump, L x B = 295.26 / 2 = 147.56 𝑚2
Length = 17 m
Breadth = 147.56 / 17 = 8.68 m

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