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IGNEOUS ROCKS

Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten rock material. There are two basic
types.
Andesite is a fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock composed
mainly of plagioclase with other minerals such as hornblende,
pyroxene, and biotite. The specimen shown is about two inches
(five centimeters) across

Basalt is a fine-grained, dark-colored extrusive igneous rock


composed mainly of plagioclase and pyroxene. The specimen
shown is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Dacite is a fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock that is usually light


in color. It has a composition that is intermediate
between rhyolite and andesite. The specimen shown is about four
inches (ten centimeters) across.

Gabbro is a coarse-grained, dark-colored, intrusive igneous rock


that contains feldspar, pyroxene, and sometimes olivine. The
specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters)
across

Granite is a coarse-grained, light-colored, intrusive igneous rock


that contains mainly quartz, feldspar, and mica minerals. The
specimen above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.
METAMORPHIC ROCKS
Metamorphic rocks have been modified by heat, pressure, and chemical processes, usually while
buried deep below Earth's surface. Exposure to these extreme conditions has altered the
mineralogy, texture, and chemical composition of the rocks.

Amphibolite is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that forms through


recrystallization under conditions of high viscosity and directed
pressure. It is composed primarily of hornblende (amphibole)
and plagioclase, usually with very little quartz. The specimen shown
above is about two inches (five centimeters) across

Gneiss is a foliated metamorphic rock that has a banded appearance


and is made up of granular mineral grains. It typically contains
abundant quartz or feldspar minerals. The specimen shown above
is about two inches (five centimeters) across

Hornfels is a fine-grained nonfoliated metamorphic rock with no


specific composition. It is produced by contact metamorphism.
Hornfels is a rock that was "baked" while near a heat source such
as a magma chamber, sill, or dike. The specimen shown above is
about two inches (five centimeters) across

Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced from


the metamorphism of limestone or dolostone. It is composed
primarily of calcium carbonate. The specimen shown above is about
two inches (five centimeters) across

Slate is a foliated metamorphic rock that is formed through the


metamorphism of shale. It is a low-grade metamorphic rock that splits
into thin pieces. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five
centimeters) across.
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
Sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation of sediments. There are three basic types of
sedimentary rocks.

Breccia is a clastic sedimentary rock that is composed of large (over


two-millimeter diameter) angular fragments. The spaces between the
large fragments can be filled with a matrix of smaller particles or a
mineral cement which binds the rock together. The specimen shown
above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms mainly from plant


debris. The plant debris usually accumulates in a swamp
environment. Coal is combustible and is often mined for use as a
fuel. The specimen shown above is about two inches (five
centimeters) across.

Dolomite (also known as "dolostone" and "dolomite rock") is a


chemical sedimentary rock that is very similar to limestone. It is
thought to form when limestone or lime mud is modified by
magnesium-rich ground water. The specimen shown above is
about four inches (ten centimeters) across.

Limestone is a rock that is composed primarily of calcium


carbonate. It can form organically from the accumulation of shell,
coral, algal, and fecal debris. It can also form chemically from the
precipitation of calcium carbonate from lake or ocean water.
Limestone is used in many ways. Some of the most common are:
production of cement, crushed stone, and acid neutralization. The
specimen shown above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock made up mainly of sand-size


(1/16 to 2 millimeter diameter) weathering debris. Environments
where large amounts of sand can accumulate include beaches,
deserts, flood plains, and deltas. The specimen shown above is about
two inches (five centimeters) across