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Explosion Source Phenomenology

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Geophysical Monograph 65

Explosion Source Phenomenology

Steven R. Taylor
Howard J. Patton
Paul G. Richards
Editors

American Geophysical Union


Published under the aegis of the AGU Books Board.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Explosion source phenomenology / Steven R. Taylor, Howard J. Patton,


Paul G. Richards, editors.
p. cm. — (Geophysical monograph : 65)
ISBN 0-87590-031-3
1. Underground nuclear explosions—Detection—Congresses.
2. Seismology—Congresses. I. Taylor, Steven R. II. Patton,
Howard J. III. Richards, Paul G., 1943- IV. Series.
UG465.5.E97 1991
623'.737—dc20 91-34802
CIP

Copyright 1991 by the American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue,


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Contents

The Explosion Seismic Source Function: Models and Scaling Laws Reviewed 1
M. D. Denny and L. R. Johnson

Free-Field Seismic ObservationsfromUnderground Nuclear Explosions 25


J. R. Murphy

Modeling Near-Field Data at NTS and Amchitka 35


D. Helmberger, L. Burdick, and R. Stead

Free-Field and Free Surface Ground Motions from Nuclear Explosions, Their Spatial Variations,
and the Constraint of Physical Source Mechanisms 47
B. W. Stump and R. E. Reinke

Experimental Studies of Stochastic Geologic Influences on Near-Source Ground Motions 63


R. E. Reinke and B. W. Stump

Yield Estimation Using Shock Wave Methods 73


F. K. Lamb, B. W. Callen, and J. D. Sullivan

Nonlinear Attenuation Effects Outside the Zone of Macroscopic Failure 91


B. P. Bonner and B. J. Wanamaker

Review of Attenuation in Salt at Moderate Strains 99


W. R. Wortman and G. D. McCartor

The Teleseismic Manifestation of pP: Problems and Paradoxes 109


T. Lay

Broad Band Estimates of the Seismic Source Functions of Nevada Explosions from Far-Field Observations of P Waves 127
A. Douglas

The Effects of Spall on Teleseismic /'-Waves: An Investigation with Theoretical Seismograms 141
J. Schlittenhardt

Near-Source Scattering of Rayleigh to P in Teleseismic Arrivals from Pahute Mesa (NTS) Shots 151
I. N. Gupta, T. W. McElfresh, and R. A. Wagner

Body Wave Observations of Tectonic Release 161


T. C. Wallace

Seismic Moment Estimation and the Scaling of the Long-Period Explosion Source Spectrum 171
H. J. Patton

Regional Seismic Observations from NTS Explosions 185


S. R. Taylor

Pn for the Nevada Test Site 197


L. J. Burdick, C. K. Saikia, and N. F. Smith

Effects of Explosion Source Parameters on High-Frequency Pg Spectra 211


E. P. Chael

High-Frequency P Wave Spectra from Explosions and Earthquakes 219


W. R. Walter and Keith F. Priestley

The Transition to the Elastic Regime in the Vicinity of an Underground Explosion 229
J. B. Minster, S. M. Day, and P. M. Shearer

Simulation of Teleseismic Body Waves, Regional Seismograms, and Rayleigh Wave Phase Shifts
Using Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Models of Explosion Sources 239
J. L. Stevens, T. G. Barker, S. M. Day, K. L. McLaughlin, N. Rimer, and B. Shkoller

Explosion Phenomenology in Jointed Rocks: New Insights 253


F. E. Heuze, T. R. Butkovich, O. R. Walton, and D. M. Maddix

Effects of an Explosive Source in an Anisotropic Medium 261


B. Mandal and M. N. Toksoz
PREFACE

In March 1989, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Lawrence The near-field working group, chaired by Jack Murphy and Brian
Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) sponsored a symposium on Stump, recommended development of an archive of existing near-field
Explosion Source Phenomenology at Lake Tahoe, California. The data, and field experiments to improve understanding of the seismic source
purpose was to summarize the state of knowledge of the underground function. The various DOE laboratories (Los Alamos National
explosion source, based on U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National
(NTS). Specifically, the goals were to summarize knowledge of the Laboratory) involved in the testing of underground nuclear explosions
explosion source, to identify limits of that knowledge and existing routinely collect near-field data in support of containment programs and
problems, and to propose directions of future research and data-collection for the evaluation and documentation of test effects. Such data could be of
efforts. great value for the study of specific source phenomenology. What is
The symposium was organized around three topics: (1) near-field needed is a coordinated effort between these laboratories to ensure that the
observations and modeling, which included free-field and surface historical data are reduced and cataloged in a standardized way, and then
measurements, small-scale laboratory measurements, and source region made available to the research community.
phenomenology; (2) far-field observations and modeling, which included Future data-collection efforts to understand the explosion source should
regional and teleseismic measurements; and (3) forward modeling from consider both nuclear and high explosive (HE) tests. The most valuable
code calculations using constitutive material relations. Chairmen for each experiments would be (1) to field instruments below shot level and
topic had the responsibility for running their technical session, conducting document the character of the down-going wavefield and its transition to a
a workshop on their topical areas, summarizing the results of the seismic (linear) signal and (2) to field instruments in a dense surface array
workshop, and making recommendations for future efforts. Participants, over the shot point to delineate the spall zone characteristics. Both
both technical experts and observers, were invited from universities, experiments should be supplemented with adequate teleseismic and
industry, government laboratories, and various government agencies with regional seismic data to permit testing of source models constrained by
interest in nuclear testing issues. the near-field data collected on these experiments. In the case of (1) for
Although an improved understanding of the explosion source aids in nuclear tests, the experiments would be enormously expensive and risky
our ability to monitor underground nuclear test ban treaties, we chose to with respect to data recovery, and they could not be recommended. HE
emphasize source physics rather than verification issues. A significant experiments offer alternatives at far more reasonable cost. Also, data from
amount of research has been directed toward understanding the explosion HE experiments could document the effects of amplitude-dependent strain
source over the past 30 years or more, and the research results are spread at peak strain levels in the range 10~3 to 10~ 6 . Such field experiments
out through volumes of articles published in the open literature or in the should be coordinated with laboratory measurements and numerical
"grey" literature (i.e., government reports). No single reference or simulations to ascertain whether amplitude-dependent strain is truly
synthesis of our knowledge of the explosion source currently exists. important for seismic source coupling.
Thus, the purpose of this monograph is to convey the findings of the The far-field workshop, chaired by Don Helmberger, identified various
meeting through summary articles by participants, supplemented with factors affecting the measurements of teleseismic magnitude, m^; seismic
recent studies on related source topics submitted by researchers who moment, M 0 \ and magnitude based on the amplitude of Lg waves,
responded to our call for papers. In addition to including current results, mb(Lg) . These factors include the effects of depth of burial, material
we asked the authors to review the state of knowledge in their research properties, and contamination by secondary sources (i.e., spall, block
area and to make their articles somewhat tutorial so that this volume motions, tectonic release) on the excitation of various teleseismic and
could serve as a reference for first-year graduate students in geophysics and regional phases. Improved understanding of these effects is important for
experienced researchers alike. yield estimation and nuclear test monitoring at reduced yield levels.
Because of large nonlinear motions associated with the nuclear Broadband seismic data offer the potential for obtaining more accurate M0
explosion and the close proximity of the free surface, the explosion source estimates and better M0-yield scaling relationships. Also, studies
is immensely more complicated than the sudden pressurization of a utilizing recently available broadband regional data from the Soviet Union
spherical cavity in a homogeneous medium. As is evident from this have indicated remarkable stability of Lg amplitudes from Soviet nuclear
monograph, further understanding of the explosion source can be obtained explosions. More work is needed to understand the excitation of Lg for
only through multidisciplinary efforts involving researchers from many hard rock environments in light of what is known about near-source
different branches of geophysics. What follows is a brief summary of the phenomenology.
working group reports and their recommendations for future efforts, as The main problems identified in the forward-modeling workshop,
submitted by the chairmen of the three workshops. chaired by Steve Day, were in the areas of hydrodynamic yield estimation,
inelastic zone response, effects of secondary sources, and variations caused based on excitation of regional phases and propagation through low-
by differences in test geometry and the testing medium. Problems in the attenuation media that our best opportunity for resolving some of the
hydrodynamic area are related to the interpretation of shock-wave arrivals most difficult problems about the explosion source rests in the analysis of
at reduced yield thresholds. At strains of 10~3 to 10" 6 , the rock response broadband data collected on Soviet explosions. Improvements in the
is non-linear, but stresses are insufficient to cause macroscopic failure, knowledge of source region phenomenology, and of geology of Soviet
which raises questions about the proper treatment in model calculations of test sites and propagation paths, need to keep pace with seismic data
the inelastic zone response. The effects of spall were brought up, and it acquisition if we are to use the new data to its full potential.
was pointed out that calculations suggest a stronger contribution from We acknowledge the assistance and cooperation of the technical
geophysical environments similar to those in the Soviet Union (i.e., hard chairmen in running the symposium, in the reporting of the workshop
rock sites). This emphasized the need for an improved understanding of results, and in their encouragement to publish a monograph based on the
spall and its effects on various seismic signals. The effects of testing meeting. We thank the authors for their patience and tolerance of the
geometry could also have an effect on monitoring capabilities, particularly process bringing this volume to fruition, and all reviewers for their
at reduced yield levels where the potential for evasion increases. (usually) timely and constructive criticisms of contributed manuscripts.
Understanding the causes of seismic coupling variations will require not Cynthia Talaber was the copy editor at LLNL working with the technical
only laboratory experiments and calculations, but also data from full-scale editors and authors on this project, and we appreciate the conscientious
field experiments. Data from nuclear tests provide the most directly and thorough qualities she brought to her work. Jean Miracle and Carol
useful observations and constitute the most effective benchmarks for a Corallo assisted with the correspondence to authors and reviewers and
quantitative evaluation of our forward-modeling capabilities. attended to numerous administrative details associated with this volume.
In summary, the theme reiterated throughout the conference was the We thank them, and also Katie Young for her assistance in organizing the
need for databases of broadband seismic data at all distances and the meeting at the Granlibakken Lodge. Finally, we thank Dr. Max Koontz
availability of reliable near-field data both for NTS explosions and of the DOE Office of Arms Control for establishing and supporting the
explosions in hard rock media. Broadband data offer the greatest hope of annual verification symposium from which this volume evolved.
tying source region phenomenology to observations made in the far field.
Not to be overlooked is the importance of broadband data now becoming Steven R. Taylor, Los Alamos National Laboratory
available in the Soviet Union, and the value these data have not only to Howard J. Patton, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
pure science but also to nuclear test verification. Arguments can be made Paul G. Richards, Columbia University
9/6/91
THE EXPLOSION SEISMI C SOURCE FUNCTION: MODEL S AN D SCALIN G LAWS REVIEWE D

Marvin D. Denn y
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 9455 0

Lane R. Johnson
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 9472 0

Abstract. Th e explosio n seismi c sourc e functio n i s th e potentia l This review begin s wit h a discussion o f the analyti c model s for th e
which satisfie s th e spherica l P-wav e equation . I t i s completel y de - seismic sourc e functio n o f a n undergroun d explosion ; considere d ar e
scribed b y fou r properties . The y ar e th e steady-stat e value , roll-off , those wit h a n instantaneous rise-time , wit h a finite rise-time, wit h n o
overshoot, an d corne r frequency . I n on e approac h t o describin g th e steady-state value , an d with a steady-state value . Next , th e propose d
potential, th e spectra l roll-of f is specified an d the other propertie s ar e scaling law s ar e discussed . I t conclude s wit h a regressio n analysi s o f
determined b y fittin g th e dat a a t prescribe d times . I n a variatio n o f the relationship s o f th e seismi c momen t an d corner frequenc y param -
this approach , th e roll-of f is specified by assumin g a radial stres s o f a eters t o th e cavit y size .
known for m i s applie d uniforml y over a spherica l surface , locate d a t
a rang e wher e th e motio n i s assume d t o b e linear . I n thi s review , i t II. Th e Vibratin g Spher e Problem : Assumption s an d Definition s
was foun d tha t o f th e fou r properties , les s uncertaint y exist s abou t
the steady-stat e valu e an d th e corne r frequenc y tha n abou t th e othe r In th e vibratin g spher e problem , a n explosio n i s modelle d a t an d
two. A majo r proble m ha s bee n scalin g th e result s fro m on e yiel d beyond som e critica l distanc e wher e th e materia l behave s elasticall y
to another . Ne w result s ar e presente d tha t sho w that , whe n th e geo - by a radia l stres s applie d uniforml y ove r a spherica l surface . Th e
physical propertie s o f th e sho t poin t ar e take n i n account , cube-roo t spherical surfac e whic h separate s inelasti c fro m elasti c respons e ha s
scaling o f th e yiel d i s appropriat e fo r th e steady-stat e valu e an d th e been calle d th e equivalen t cavit y b y Sharp e [1942 ] an d th e equiva -
corner frequency , i.e. , yiel d t o th e firs t an d one-thir d powers , respec - lent radiato r b y O'Brie n [1960] , whil e th e rang e t o thi s surfac e ha s
tively. Th e ne w result s als o sugges t tha t previou s assumption s abou t been calle d th e elasti c radiu s b y Tokso z e t al . [1964] . Th e solutio n
the for m o f th e applie d radia l stres s ar e probabl y no t appropriate . of thi s proble m i s give n belo w i n term s o f a potentia l whic h satis -
Finally, chemica l an d nuclea r explosion s appea r i n th e ne w result s fies th e P-wav e equation . Th e descriptio n o f th e P-wav e potentia l
to b e indistinguishable , suggestin g tha t experiment s usin g chemica l is th e basi c goa l o f th e propose d explosio n sourc e model s (Tabl e 1) .
explosions coul d ai d i n reducin g th e remainin g uncertaint y i n th e Two approache s hav e bee n take n t o describ e thi s P-wav e potential .
seismic sourc e functio n properties . In one , th e potentia l i s describe d b y approximatin g it s tim e histor y
with a parametri c mode l evaluate d a t ke y times . I n th e other , th e
I. Introductio n form o f th e radia l stres s i s assume d t o b e know n an d it s parameter s
are determine d fro m ke y aspect s o f spectra l data . Whil e thes e ap -
In his review o f seismic sourc e model s for underground nuclea r ex - proaches ar e equivalent , th e secon d require s a more detaile d physica l
plosions, Mass e [1981 ] list s fou r unanswere d question s an d conclude s knowledge. I t i s worthwhile , therefore , t o begi n wit h a revie w o f th e
from these tha t th e seismi c sourc e for a n undergroun d nuclea r explo - vibrating spher e problem .
sion remain s poorl y define d afte r tw o decade s o f study . Th e thir d The solutio n fo r thi s proble m ha s bee n give n b y severa l authors :
of Masse' s questions , "Wha t i s th e seismi c source-tim e functio n fo r Jeffreys [1931 , 1971 , 1976] ; Sharp e [1942] ; Blak e [1952] ; Latte r e t al .
an undergroun d nuclea r explosion? " i s th e subjec t o f thi s review . [1959]; Cagniar d (translate d b y Flin n an d Di x [1962]) ; an d Gran t
Rodean [1981 ] als o found n o consensu s regardin g th e sourc e functio n and Wes t [1965] . Cagniard' s derivatio n usin g Laplac e transform s t o
among seve n paper s tha t h e reviewe d an d state d tha t ther e i s dis - simplify th e notatio n wil l b e followe d here . I n spherica l coordinate s
agreement abou t th e far-fiel d high-frequenc y displacemen t spectru m the radia l displacemen t an d stres s ar e give n b y
and abou t th e overshoo t i n th e sourc e function . Therefore , a s th e
fourth decad e o f undergroun d nuclea r testin g begins , i t i s appropri - d<t>
ate t o re-visi t som e o f thi s earl y work , t o re-evaluat e th e conclusion s (i)
of a decad e ago , an d t o discus s som e promisin g recen t result s tha t
and
may lea d t o a consensus . (A + 2/i ) d 2<f> 4/xcty
a 2 dt 2
r dr'
(2)
respectively, wher e A and / i ar e th e Lame' s constants , a i s th e com -
pressional wav e speed , an d<j > i s th e potentia l tha t satisfie s the spher -
ical wav e equatio n
1 8
^ fo (3)\
Explosion Sourc e Phenomenolog y
Geophysical Monograp h 6 5 The genera l solutio n o f the wav e equation fo r an expanding spher -
Copyright 199 1 America n Geophysica l Unio n ically symmetri c disturbanc e i s give n b y

i
2 EXPLOSIO N SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTION

TABLE 1. Propose d Source Models

High-
frequency Initia l Fina l Radial
Reference Data sy asymptote motio n valu e stress

1. Toksoz , Regiona l
sRP n
" pC? 2 + 2t|co e.s + C0 2)(^ + Tl) 2 r3 |Li(0) = 0 0 a rr = -P 0 te- £ V(t)
Ben-Menaham, Rayleig h waves
and Harkrider [1964]
as + b 5 ,, N
2. Haskel l [1967 ] Free-field r4 =0 Not specified (4)
V - c J W (1 )

sRPn
3. Muelle r [1969] Near-regional
2
r2 H(0) = 0 0 a rr = -P 0 e- a i n(t)
P (S' + 2-^co e5 + co £)(s + a )

^(J+^Pcd!)
4. Muelle r and Near-regional r2 n(0 ) = 0
Murphy [1971] ; p(j 2 + 2 ^ g v + w 2 )(5 + [(P - P0)e-®it + />0]u(t)
Murphy [1977 ]

r2
3
as + b
5. vo n Seggern and Teleseismic short- (2) n(0) = 0 Not specified (4)
Blandford [1972] period P-wave
j*
jy0r(S + 1 )
6. Helmberge r and Long-period P- and depends on £ 0 Not specified (4)
Harkrider [1972] Rayleigh waves (3)

7. Helmberge r and Local P-wave R3 jj(0) = 0 Not specified (4)


Hadley [1981]
—c—1
8. Denn y and Free-field r 3 |i(0) = 0 Not specified (4)
^ ( s 2 + 2'H(0 c5 + C0 2)(5 + (Oj )
Goodman [1990] and local

(1) a = (24 B + l)k 4 and b = k in Haskell's notation.


(2) a = (1 - 2 B)k 2 an d b = k in von Seggem and Blandford notation.
(3) a = (6B + l)k 3 and b = k in Helmberger and Hadley notation.
(4) No t specified by reference but may be derived from equation (6).

For a ste p i n pressure , p(t) = P 0U(t) wher e P 0 i s th e amplitud e


<t>(r,t) •• (4) of th e pressur e applie d t o th e insid e o f a spherica l surfac e a t r = R
and U(t ) i s th e Heavisid e ste p function , i.e . U(t) = 1 for t > 0 an d
where xJj i s determined onc e th e radial stress, a r r , a t r = R i s specified
U(t) = 0 otherwise , th e radia l stres s i s give n b y
and T is the reduce d time , r = t — ( r — R) /a, . Accordin g t o Rodea n
[1981], th e functio n ij> wa s firs t calle d th e reduced displacement po-
tential o r RD P b y Wert h e t al . [1961 ] because i t i s dependen t o n just <rrr = -P 0/s. (7)
the reduce d tim e variable . Substitutin g (4 ) int o (2) , an d takin g th e
Laplace transfor m wit h respec t t o r , th e radia l stres s i s the n give n In thi s case , (6 ) become s
by
2 2
p l r 2 4/? 4/J (8)
&rr = + —s + -V), (5) 4ps(s2 + 2rjuj es + u e
2
)'

where p i s th e densit y an d j3 is th e shea r wav e velocity . Wit h <7 n


specified a t som e rang e R , th e RD P i s fro m (5 ) where u) e = 2/3/R. Th e initial - an d steady-stat e values , ipo and V'oo
respectively, o f th e invers e o f (8 ) ca n b e readil y evaluate d fro m th e
initial- an d final-value s theorems , Chen g [1959] . Th e final-valu e the -
<j> = (6) orem states tha t lim{f}t^ OQ= lim{sf} s^,o an d the initial-value the -
p(s2 + 2rjcj es + w 2)
orem state s tha t lim{f} t^=0 lim{sf} s^where / i s a n arbitrar y
function. Thus , ip 0 and V'o o are 0 and P 0R3/4p, respectively . Th e in -
where th e ba r denote s th e Laplac e transformation , r j = /?/a , u e = verse solution t o (8 ) ca n b e found i n any table o f Laplace transforms ,
2(3/r, an d R i s greate r tha n o r equa l t o th e elasti c radius . e.g., Batema n [1954] , an d i s
DENNY AN D JOHNSON 3

3
, P 0R n We _ T is, i n general , no t th e sam e a s th e corne r frequency . Fo r example ,
sin(br + 9)), (9)
Denny an d Goodma n [1990 ] hav e show n tha t fo r th e nuclea r explo -
sion SALMON , (/ e ) r _ft e < / c , wher e R e i s the elasti c radius . I n thi s
where a = rjw e, b = u ey/l — rj 2, an d 0 = tan~ l(b/a) an d th e initial - case, th e corne r frequenc y wa s determine d b y th e radia l stress .
and steady-stat e value s ar e a s expected . Rodea n [1971 ] illustrate s The fac t tha t th e displacemen t i s proportiona l t o th e RV P a t suf -
the result s fo r thi s an d thre e othe r case s o f radia l stress . ficiently larg e range s (calle d th e far-field) i s readily show n a s follows .
Equations (8 ) an d (9 ) ar e wel l know n i n th e engineerin g fields . From (1 ) an d (4) , th e transforme d radia l displacement , u r , i s give n
In mechanica l engineering , the y describ e a simpl e mas s suspende d by
on a spring: u; e i s th e undampe d circula r frequenc y (27r/ ) o f oscilla -
tion, 6 is the dampe d circula r frequency , an d r j i s the dampin g factor . Ur = ( « + - ) • (12)
a rr
Gurvich [1965 ] described (6) , (8 ) an d (9) i n terms of a resonance filter.
In fac t i n electrical engineering , the y describ e a low-pass filte r whos e
The contributio n o f th e term , ( s + i n (12 ) i s importan t onl y fo r
order i s determine d b y th e numbe r o f th e root s o f th e numerato r o r
ranges (calle d th e near-field) wher e r i s not muc h greate r tha n a/u c,
denominator o f the rationa l polynomia l (8) , whicheve r i s larger. Th e
where uj c = 2wf c. A s th e rang e increases , a/r become s negligibl e
poles ar e th e root s o f th e denominato r an d th e zeroes ar e th e root s
compared t o u> c an d s - f a / r ~ s s o tha t th e far-fiel d transforme d
of th e numerator . I n general , th e RD P (6 ) i s th e resul t o f applyin g
displacement, ujf , become s
a second-orde r low-pas s filte r t o th e radia l stress . Thus , th e orde r o f
(6) i s th e numbe r o f pole s o f th e radia l stres s plu s two . I n th e cas e sip
of a ste p i n radia l stres s (8) , fo r example , th e RD P i s a third-orde r Uff
JJ ~ —. (13)
ar
low-pass filte r wit h 3 pole s an d n o zeroes .
In th e seismi c sourc e problem , th e dampin g facto r i n term s o f
Thus, th e spectru m o f th e far-fiel d displacemen t i s proportiona l t o
Poisson's ratio , v , i s
the transfor m o f th e derivativ e o f th e sourc e function .
1-21/ Finally, th e far-fiel d transformed kineti c energ y radiate d pe r uni t
T] = (10)
2(1-0' surface are a by th e vibratin g sphere , Ea , i s [Ak i an d Richards , 1980 ,
page 127 ]
As Poisson' s ratio ranges between zer o and one half ,77 ranges betwee n SEA = ipm; 2 , (14 )
y/2/2 an d zero . Thi s rang e o f dampin g mean s tha t (9) , beginnin g a t
zero, rise s t o a pea k a t T — 7r/ 6 an d the n die s ou t t o a stead y stat e
value o f ipoo . I n othe r words , i t overshoot s th e fina l valu e an d the n where v i s th e transforme d particl e velocity . Th e tota l energ y radi -
oscillates wit h decreasin g amplitud e abou t it . Th e amoun t o f over- ated, Et , i s then , b y Parseval' s theore m
shoot, i.e . th e ratio of the peak t o the final value, i s determined b y th e
damping and increases as 77 decreases. I n mechanical engineering, thi s = p* r v(iu>)v(iu)* df, (15)
ET
response i s describe d a s under-dampe d and , i n electrica l engineerin g 2w_c
terms, a s a good-to-poor oscillato r dependin g o n th e damping . where the asterisk denote s the comple x conjugate. Fo r a step function
The derivativ e o f t/> i s calle d th e reduced velocity potential (RVP ) in radia l stres s (15 ) become s wit h th e us e o f (13) , (8) , an d (11 )
and i s a mor e convenien t functio n t o wor k wit h tha n i s th e RDP .
This i s du e t o th e propertie s o f it s spectru m an d t o th e fac t tha t i t
is proportiona l t o th e far-fiel d displacement . Thes e feature s ar e dis - (16)
2rjpa5
cussed below . I n spit e o f thes e mor e convenien t feature s o f the RVP ,
the RD P i s commonl y calle d th e seismic source function. It can also be shown, i n other cases where the transformed RVP's roll-
For an RDP wit h a non-zero final value such as (8), th e modulus of off is steepe r tha n -2 , tha t th e energ y i s stil l proportiona l t o / C3M02.
the spectrum of the transforme d RDP ( | \j > |,=,2*/) i s infinite at / = 0
but tha t o f th e transforme d RV P (|sV>| a= ,2ir/) finite a t / = 0 an d III. Th e RDP : Revie w o f Experimenta l Result s
is equa l t o V\do - Th e modulu s o f th e transforme d RV P is , therefore , There ha s neve r bee n a clea r relationshi p establishe d betwee n
commonly plotte d instea d o f tha t o f th e RDP . Fro m suc h a plo t source function s determine d fro m th e close-in ( < 1 0 km ) dat a an d
four basi c sourc e functio n characteristic s ( seismic moment, comer the sourc e functio n fo r teleseismi c data . Th e concer n ha s bee n tha t
frequency, overshoot , an d roll-off) can , i n principle , b e estimated . the teleseismi c observation s depen d o n th e mediu m propertie s be -
The seismi c momen t fo r explosions, introduce d b y Miille r [1973 ] an d low th e sourc e volum e an d withi n perhap s several wavelength s o f th e
Aki e t al . [1974] , i s working point (i.e. , th e detonatio n point) , whil e th e close-i n observa -
tions sometime s onl y sampl e a ver y narro w apertur e abov e o r t o on e
Mo = 47T/0C* 2V'oo- (11) side o f th e workin g poin t an d withi n a range comparabl e t o perhap s
one teleseismi c wavelength . Effort s t o establis h suc h a relationshi p
The corne r frequency , / c , i s th e frequenc y wher e th e transforme d will b e reviewe d i n thi s section . Thre e o f th e fou r sourc e functio n
RVP's low-frequenc y asymptot e intersect s it s high-frequenc y asymp - characteristics identifie d abov e wil l b e reviewe d i n thi s section ; th e
tote. Fro m (6) , i t ca n b e see n tha t th e RD P alway s ha s a corne r fourth (corne r frequency ) wil l b e addresse d i n th e nex t section . Th e
frequency, eve n i n th e simpl e cas e o f a n impulse i n radia l stress . Th e question o f th e steady-stat e valu e o f the sourc e functio n wil l b e deal t
roll-off i s th e exponen t o f th e hig h frequenc y asymptot e (/—»-oo ) o f with first , followe d b y th e roll-of f an d th e overshoot . O f th e three ,
the transforme d RV P or , equivalently , o f th e far-fiel d displacemen t the steady-stat e issu e seem s t o b e th e bes t an d th e overshoo t th e
spectrum. Th e roll-of f i s equa l t o th e differenc e betwee n th e numbe r least wel l understood .
of zeroes an d the numbe r o f poles. I n (8) , th e corne r frequenc y i s th e
same a s the boundary condition eigenfrequency , i.e . th e magnitud e o f A. Steady-State Value
the comple x pai r of poles specified by the boundary conditio n divide d
by 27r , / e = w e /2ir. Th e roll-off , in thi s case , i s -2. As pointe d ou t above , (6 ) show s tha t th e sourc e functio n i s a
It shoul d b e note d tha t th e boundar y conditio n eigenfrequenc y low-pass versio n o f th e applie d radia l stress . Therefore , i f th e radia l
4 EXPLOSIO N SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTION

stress ha s a steady-stat e value , th e sourc e functio n als o ha s one . I n volume samplin g proble m describe d above , th e relationshi p o f free -
the followin g th e observation s recorde d i n th e literatur e ar e summa - field estimate s o f th e sourc e function' s steady-stat e componen t t o
rized. Som e author s refe r t o radia l stres s whil e other s writ e o f th e teleseismic an d surface-wav e signal s becam e a cause fo r concern .
source function . Liebermann an d Pomero y [1969 ] an d Molna r e t al . [1969] , study -
Brune an d Pomero y [1963 ] wer e th e firs t t o infe r th e characte r ing th e Ms/mi , discriminant , conclude d tha t a plausibl e explanatio n
of th e explosio n sourc e functio n fro m regional seismi c dat a (10 0 t o for the discriminant' s succes s i s that th e source function for an earth-
1000 km) . The y studie d th e radiatio n pattern s an d th e phas e spec - quake ha s a steady-stat e valu e whil e tha t fo r a n explosio n doe s not ,
tra of Rayleigh waves . Explosion s i n alluviu m an d tuf f were found t o implying tha t th e radia l stres s fo r a n explosion i s a decaying puls e o f
have a characteristic explosio n radiatio n patter n an d to be consisten t the for m given b y Tokso z e t al . [1964] . Savin o e t al . [1971] , studyin g
with th e phas e o f a ste p i n radia l stress . Unfortunately , a differen t Rayleigh wave s fro m earthquake s an d explosion s fro m th e Wester n
conclusion wa s reache d b y Tokso z e t al . [1964 ] wh o analyze d long - US, th e Aleutians , Novay a Zemlya , an d Centra l Asia , cam e t o th e
period Rayleig h wav e dat a als o take n a t regiona l distances . Afte r same conclusion . Muelle r [1969 ] modelled th e spectr a of seismic dat a
removing fro m th e dat a th e contributio n o f th e pat h an d recordin g taken at near-regional distance s (<20 0 km ) from several explosions a t
instrumentation, Tokso z e t al . conclude d tha t a radia l stres s o f th e the Nevad a Test Sit e (NTS ) usin g a simple exponentially decayin g ra-
form <r rr = —Pote'^U^t) , wher e £ i s a n arbitrar y parameter , fi t th e dial stres s mode l wit h seemingl y satisfactor y results . Afte r studyin g
data bette r tha n di d a ste p function . Thus , a controvers y began . both short - an d long-perio d data , Helmberge r an d Harkride r [1972 ]
found that th e Haskel l mode l wa s adequat e fo r short-period dat a bu t
7000 not fo r predictin g th e long-perio d observations . T o overcom e thi s
deficiency, the y propose d a mode l (Tabl e 1 ) wit h n o steady-stat e
component. Thus , unti l 1972 , man y investigator s clearl y favore d n o
steady-state value .
6000
Others wer e unsur e abou t th e natur e o f th e long-perio d behavio r
of the sourc e function . Molna r [1971] , thoug h finding th e spectr a for
teleseismic P- waves fro m the explosion s JORU M an d HANDLE Y t o
- | 500 0 decrease rapidl y wit h perio d (o c T~ 2 ) i n the range of 1 to 2 0 sec, con -
£ cluded tha t thi s coul d b e du e eithe r t o th e modulatin g effec t o f th e
surface reflection , pP, o r t o th e explosio n sourc e function . H e als o
•g 400 0 found tha t th e dat a wer e no t o f sufficien t qualit y o r quantit y t o rul e
4>
E out an y linea r combinatio n o f impulse an d ste p functio n component s
0 in th e sourc e function , unles s othe r dat a demonstrat e tha t th e sur -
« 300 0 face reflection does not hav e a major effect on the observe d spectrum .
a
(0 If thi s wer e true , h e conclude d th e dat a woul d the n prov e tha t th e
'S source function is primarily a n impulse. Wys s et al . [1971 ] undertook
g 2000 a study simila r t o that o f Molnar usin g teleseismi c P- wave dat a from
3 the Amchitka explosions, MILRO W an d LONGSHOT, an d four shal-
"O
tt>
DC
low earthquake s i n th e Aleutia n Island s an d came , essentially , t o th e
1000 same conclusions . Miille r [1973] , introducin g th e ide a o f th e seismi c
moment fo r explosions, foun d tha t strai n measurement s mad e o n th e
explosion BENHA M a t loca l distance s (28-2 9 km ) wer e consisten t
with a step function, bu t h e was puzzled b y th e apparen t long-perio d
P-wave explosio n spectra behavior tha t appear s to be consistent wit h
Time (s) an impulsiv e sourc e note d b y othe r investigators .
While th e cas e agains t a steady-stat e valu e becam e increasingl y
Fig. 1 . Reduce d displacemen t potentials . Th e dat a i n thi s figure
clouded, th e argumen t fo r a steady-stat e valu e slowl y becam e mor e
are fro m Wert h an d Herbs t [1963] , Fig . 2 . Al l hav e a n overshoo t
convincing. Haskel l [1961 ] solve d th e quasi-stati c proble m o f a n
except tuff . Murph y [1979 ] show s th e result s fro m anothe r gage ,
expanding cavit y i n a plasti c medium . Thi s solutio n showe d tha t
where a surface reflection was not a problem, o n the sam e experimen t
the far-fiel d permanen t displacemen t and , hence , th e steady-stat e
(RAINIER) wit h a significant overshoot .
value o f th e sourc e functio n ar e dependen t o n th e final cavit y size .
Von Segger n an d Lambert [1970] , studying spectral ratio s of Rayleigh
The firs t experimenta l data , i n th e for m of RDP's , wer e reporte d waves o f both earthquake s an d explosion s betwee n period s o f 1 0 an d
by Wert h an d Herbs t [1963] . Th e data , reproduce d i n Figur e 1 , were 50 sec , foun d the m t o b e consisten t wit h Haskell' s model . Tsa i an d
taken i n th e free-field fro m nuclea r explosion s i n tuf f (RAINIER) , Aki [1971 ] studie d th e Rayleig h wave s fro m 1 0 smal l an d 3 larg e
alluvium (FISHER) , granit e (HARDHAT) , an d sal t (GNOME) . T o underground explosion s a t NT S recorde d a t far-regional distance s
be i n th e free-field , th e gage s mus t b e burie d i n th e mediu m dee p (940 an d 240 5 km) . The y foun d th e result s t o b e i n excellen t agree -
enough s o tha t th e compressiona l wav e i s recorde d withou t interfer - ment wit h Haskell' s model . Muelle r an d Murph y [1971 ] use d th e
ence o f surfac e reflections . A s show n i n Figur e 1 , al l fou r RDP' s ris e quasi-static ide a o f computing th e final displacemen t and , hence , th e
to a maximu m (overshoot ) an d the n deca y t o a steady-stat e value . RDP unde r th e assumptio n o f incompressibilit y fro m th e cavit y siz e
Berg an d Papageorg e [1964 ] fit th e RD P a t 398 m o n GNOM E wit h in thei r propose d sourc e mode l (Tabl e 1) . Ak i e t al . [1974 ] als o en -
a ste p i n radia l stress , obtainin g onl y a fai r fi t t o th e data . Haskel l dorsed this line of reasoning and argued that a nuclear explosion mus t
[1967] propose d a general mode l (Tabl e 1 ) t o describ e th e overshoo t have a steady-state value . The y als o considere d a spherical shel l sur -
and steady-stat e valu e o f al l fou r RDP's . Unfortunately , th e dura - rounding th e non-elasti c zon e o f a n explosion , explainin g tha t thi s
tion o f th e free-fiel d dat a i s shor t a s see n i n Figur e 1 an d nois e i n shell stretche s durin g th e passag e o f th e shoc k wave s an d remain s
the signa l make s computatio n o f th e steady-stat e valu e difficul t an d stretched becaus e par t o f th e strai n i s plastic . Th e sourc e functio n
introduces uncertaint y i n th e result . Fo r thi s reaso n an d th e sourc e for explosion s mus t the n b e a ste p functio n fo r lon g period s sinc e
DENNY AN D JOHNSON 5

TO19
the relaxatio n tim e fo r plasti c deformatio n i s muc h longe r tha n th e
seismic periods ; indeed , sinc e explosion s creat e permanen t cavities , (a)
it i s infinite . Burdic k an d Helmberge r [1979] , i n modellin g teleseis - From |v>
mic short - an d long-perio d bod y waves , chos e no t t o us e th e mode l 10 18
long-period o
of Toksoz e t al . [1964] , Muelle r [1969] , o r Helmberge r an d Harkride r TO
Rayleigh 3
[1972] since thes e model s d o not hav e a step componen t and , i n thei r
17 waves / T C
words, "Som e d c componen t shoul d realisticall y b e expected i f a cav- 10 o>
fn CQ
ity i s forme d b y th e explosion. " A s see n i n Tabl e 1 , thi s argumen t —
E
apparently wa s powerful enoug h fo r two investigators t o chang e thei r c RO o Rn ' O
o r a
opinion; se e Muelle r [1969] , Muelle r an d Murph y [1971] , Helmberge r E 10 16 CO
o 3
and Harkride r [1972] , an d Helmberge r an d Hadle y [1981] . And , fi - Tr CP
nally, Patto n [1982 ] applie d th e metho d o f Brun e e t al . [1960 ] t o
E
o D /SH t°£
T
.C
t:
CO
4 NT S explosion s an d showe d clearl y tha t th e spectra l phase s o f th e 15 0)
| 10 S
Rayleigh wave s ar e consisten t wit h a step function . 0) / c
c/> <D
Having give n a very persuasiv e argumen t fo r a steady-state value , T.
Aki e t al . [1974 ] the n argue d tha t th e seismi c momen t a s estimate d
10 14 - A , From 3
o-
from free-fiel d dat a i s hig h b y a facto r o f 3 a s show n i n Figur e 2a , LU
close-in
the underlyin g assumptio n bein g tha t th e seismi c momen t shoul d b e
data
independent o f th e sourc e media . However , thi s assumptio n i s no t I I
necessarily tru e an d th e apparen t discrepanc y ma y no t b e a s ba d a s 10 13
5
Figure 2 a shows . Murph y [1974 ] explaine d som e o f th e varianc e a s
being du e t o difference s i n th e sourc e properties . Assumin g tha t th e mb
higher yiel d explosion s ar e generally a t Pahut e Mes a whil e th e lowe r
yield one s ar e a t Yucc a Valley , h e derive d a moment-magnitud e re - Shot medium mb
lationship, Figur e 2b , fo r each regio n base d o n typica l P-wav e soun d A: Alluvium ° LRSM
speeds an d densities , usin g th e incompressibilit y relationshi p T: Tuff ° Basham
A
G: Granite Evernden
*l>oo = R 3c/i, (17 ) S: Salt • PDE
SH: Shale • Others
where R c i s th e cavit y radius . I n addition , Denn y an d Goodma n
D: Dolomite x Revised Salmon
[1990] have show n tha t th e SALMO N momen t (th e large r magnitud e
R: Rhyolite
of th e tw o sal t dat a points ) shoul d b e lowe r b y 40% , bringin g i t rea -
L: Limestone
sonably clos e t o th e surfac e wav e lin e i n Figur e 2a . Th e SALMO N
datum wa s over-estimated becaus e th e estimat e wa s mad e fro m dat a 10 19 | l I
taken i n th e non-linea r zon e whic h i s easil y identifie d b y a peak par - I I | I I I II I | I I "
ticle velocit y spatia l rat e o f deca y exceedin g tha t expecte d fro m (13 ) = (b)
for linea r motion , i.e. , r - 1 . A s show n b y Denn y an d Goodman , es -
10 1 8 ^ From
timates mad e i n thi s regio n ar e to o larg e du e t o larg e permanen t long-period T.
displacements associate d wit h plasti c yielding . Thi s i s probabl y th e Rayleigh
case for the other explosions in hard-rock (e.g . granite , salt , dolomite ,
1017U
shale, etc. ) a s well . Thi s sam e conclusio n wa s als o reache d b y Bach e
[1982]. Furthermore , Wert h an d Herbst [1963 ] do not provid e an y ev -
idence tha t th e measurement s fo r th e fou r explosion s the y reporte d o
E 1 0 16
are i n th e linea r region . A cursor y perusa l o f th e pea k particl e ve -
locity dat a give n b y Perre t an d Bas s [1975 ] suggests, tha t o f th e ex - E
o
plosions i n Aki' s table , th e measurement s fo r GNOME, HARDHAT , E 10 15
HANDCAR, an d GASBUGG Y wer e probably i n the non-linea r zone , w
<D
while th e RAINIE R an d FISHE R measurement s ma y hav e bee n i n C/>
the linea r zone .
10 14 =• From
From th e foregoin g i t seem s possibl e tha t difference s betwee n
close-in
close-in an d regiona l surfac e wav e observation s ca n b e resolved . An - data
other indicatio n tha t thi s migh t b e true is given b y Murph y (thi s vol - 'l l I ' l l I I ' l I I I ' '
ume; se e Figur e 5. ) I n Murphy' s Figur e 5, th e rati o o f th e regiona l 10>13
6
surface wav e moment s o f Ak i e t al . [1974 ] t o th e momen t compute d
from (17 ) i s shown . Th e explosion s i n Yucca Valle y see m t o b e mor e
consistent tha n thos e a t Pahut e Mesa . A s suggeste d b y Patto n (thi s Fig. 2 . Seismi c moment s v s magnitude , (a ) Thi s i s Fig . 1 o f Ak i
volume), thi s apparent discrepanc y ma y be due to a systematic differ- et al . Th e moment s o n th e left-han d sid e wer e compute d fro m free-
ence i n th e releas e o f tectoni c energ y b y th e highe r yiel d explosions , field dat a whil e thos e o n th e right-han d sid e wer e compute d fro m
typically locate d a t Pahut e Mesa . long-period surfac e wave data. Base d on this figure Aki et al . though t
B. Roll-off that th e free-fiel d dat a wer e hig h b y a factor o f 3 . (b ) Thi s i s Fig . 1
of Murph y [1974] . Som e o f th e varianc e ca n b e accounte d fo r b y dif -
The asymptoti c behavio r o f the RV P a t hig h frequencie s depend s ferences in th e sourc e media . Th e uppe r lin e i s for Pahut e Mes a an d
on th e for m o f th e radia l stress . Fro m (6) , i t ca n b e see n tha t th e the lowe r on e i s for Yucca Flats . Som e o f the discrepanc y i s probabl y
roll-off wil l b e steepe r tha n - 2 i f th e transfor m o f th e derivativ e o f also du e t o dat a take n i n th e inelasti c region . Suc h estimate s fro m
the radia l stres s ha s mor e pole s tha n zeroes . these dat a ar e expecte d t o b e high .
6 EXPLOSIO N SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTION

In th e relativel y simpl e cas e o f a ste p functio n radia l stress , th e Of th e model s o f Tabl e 1 , fou r o f th e si x earlies t one s (1 , 3 , 4 ,
order o f th e mode l give n b y (8 ) i s 2 and th e roll-of f i s - 2 sinc e i t ha s and 6 ) wer e obtained b y specifyin g the radia l stress. Th e other s wer e
no zeroes . Mor e complicate d radia l stresses , requirin g highe r orde r determined b y approximatin g th e shap e o f eithe r th e reduce d dis -
models, ca n als o hav e a roll-of f of-2 . Model s 3 an d 4 i n Tabl e 1 are placement potentia l (model s 2, 5, an d 7 ) o r th e reduce d acceleratio n
examples o f thir d orde r model s wit h - 2 roll-offs . I n mode l 3 , Muelle r potential (mode l 8) . Th e radia l stres s implied b y these models can be
[1969] assume d a n exponentiall y decayin g radia l stress , determined fro m (5) fo r any specified range. Th e rang e of most inter -
aT est, o f course , i s th e on e wher e th e motio n firs t becomes linear ; thus ,
crrr = -P 0e- U(r), (18) equating (6 ) t o mode l 8 (Tabl e 1) , th e radia l stres s fo r SALMO N a t
while i n model 4 , Muelle r an d Murph y [1971 ] assumed tha t th e radia l the elasti c radiu s ca n b e estimate d b y
stress i s a combination o f a Heaviside ste p functio n an d a n exponen - p(s2 + 2rj eujes i
tially decayin g term , = 2
(22)
R E ( S + 2TJCLJCS + w | ) ( a+ w i ) '
u T
<rrr = -(P 0 + Pie- * )U(r). (19)
where Vo o = 220 0 m 3 , rj e = 0.55 , tj c = 0.6 , p = 220 0 kg/m 3 , an d
The transforme d derivative s o f the radia l stresse s o f (18 ) an d o f (19 ) u>c, lji, an d tj e ar e 36.4 , 29. 4 6. 3 rad/sec , respectively , a s determine d
are by Denn y an d Goodma n [1990] . T o estimat e th e elasti c radiu s som e
-Po- (20) independent informatio n mus t b e used . Fo r th e SALMO N explo -
s+ a ' sion, Denn y an d Goodma n estimate d th e locatio n o f th e elasti c ra -
and dius b y extrapolatin g th e pea k particl e velocit y dat a fo r bot h th e
(l + P 1/P0)8 + LJ 1 SALMON an d th e STERLIN G explosion s t o th e rang e wher e th e
s<yrr = -P 0 (21)
S + U) 1 linearity threshol d i s crossed . I n thi s case , threshol d i s base d o n th e
respectively. Bot h (20 ) an d (21 ) hav e on e pol e an d on e zero . There - amplitude o f the elastic precursor. (Th e elasti c precurso r i s thought ,
fore, eve n thoug h th e orde r fo r bot h RVP' s i s three , th e roll-of f i s Glenn [1990] , t o b e th e resul t o f strai n hardenin g an d i t propagates ,
-2. Thi s i s tru e sinc e th e high-frequenc y asymptote s o f the modul i o f in thi s case , i n th e inelasti c regio n wit h a n amplitud e equa l t o th e
(20) an d (21 ) ar e constants , P Q an d P Q + Pi , respectively . threshold valu e o f abou t 0. 3 m/ s an d a t P-wav e speed , ahea d o f a
Haskell's mode l (2 , Tabl e 1 ) i s a n exampl e o f a mode l where th e larger, slowe r plastic wave . Th e elastic precurso r an d the plastic wav e
implied radia l stres s ha s mor e pole s tha n zeroes . Thi s mode l wa s ultimately becom e a single wav e travellin g a t P-wav e speed whe n th e
derived b y requirin g acceleratio n t o b e continuou s a t r = 0 . Ap - particle velocit y fall s belo w th e threshold. ) Usin g thi s procedure , a n
plication o f (13 ) an d th e initial-valu e theore m t o thi s mode l show s elastic radiu s o f abou t 80 0 m wa s found . Th e correspondin g radia l
that i t is , i n fact, continuou s t o acceleratio n an d tha t it s roll-of f is -4. stress compute d fro m (22 ) i s a s show n i n Figur e 3 an d look s lik e a
Similarly, model s wit h roll-off s of - 3 an d - 2 ar e continuou s a t r = 0 damped sine-wav e superimpose d o n a small ste p function .
to velocit y an d displacement , respectively .
Von Segger n an d Blandfor d [1972 ] note d tha t Haskell' s model ,
when scale d u p i n yield , faile d t o satisf y th e spectra l ratio s o f short - G> 2 0~
«
period teleseismic dat a from the three nuclear explosions at Amchitka .
1 5 10
They wer e able to obtain a better fit of the spectral ratios using mode l 03 - O _
=5 ~ 0
5 (Tabl e 1 ) with a roll-off of -2. Thi s model wa s obtained by reducin g (0
the orde r o f Haskell' s mode l b y two .
0 0.0 5 0.1 0 0.1 5 0.2 0 0.2 5
Peppin [1976 ] compute d 14 0 P- wave spectr a o f explosions , earth -
quakes, an d explosion-induce d aftershocks , al l withi n th e NT S an d Reduced time (s)
all fro m wide-ban d seismi c dat a a t loca l (<3 0 km ) an d near-regiona l
Fig. 3 . Radia l stress . Thi s i s Fig . 2 2 fro m Denn y an d
distances (20 0 t o 30 0 km). Fro m these h e concluded tha t th e far-field
Goodman [1990 ] showin g th e estimate d radia l stres s a t th e elasti c
source spectr a deca y a t leas t a s fas t a s frequenc y cubed ; a roll-off o f
radius fo r SALMON . Not e tha t th e fina l steady stat e valu e o f abou t
-3 o r steeper .
2 bars occurs outsid e th e tim e fram e shown an d fro m (6) th e RD P i s
Helmberger an d Hadle y [1981 ) showe d tha t a mode l continuou s
a low-pas s versio n ( / c ~ l H z ) o f thi s signal .
only t o displacemen t produce s a n unrealisti c discontinuit y i n syn -
thetic seismogram s and , therefore , i s unsatisfactory . Thei r mode l (7 , An interesting , worthwhil e exercis e woul d b e t o deriv e th e equiv -
Table 1 ) i s continuou s t o particl e velocit y an d wa s obtaine d b y re - alent radia l stres s for those fe w explosions where free-field radial par -
ducing th e orde r o f Haskell' s b y one , fo r a roll-of f o f -3 . Usin g thi s ticle velocit y measurement s wer e mad e a t severa l ranges . Fo r thos e
model, La y e t al . [1984 ] satisfactoril y modelle d th e teleseismi c dat a explosions whos e dat a ar e onl y i n th e non-linea r zone , th e result s
from the Amchitk a nuclea r explosions . Th e model' s roll-of f o f -3 di d would obviousl y b e fictitiou s bu t thei r progressiv e chang e i n shap e
not caus e an y problem s i n th e 0.5 - t o 3-H z rang e a s foun d b y vo n with rang e shoul d b e enlightening .
Seggern an d Blandfor d [1972 ] with Haskell' s origina l model . Th e dif -
ference wa s no t i n th e chang e o f th e roll-off , but i n th e fac t tha t La y C. Overshoot
et al . use d th e empiricall y obtaine d corne r frequencie s of Helmberge r
and Hadle y [1981] ; whereas, vo n Segger n an d Blandfor d simply cube - The free-fiel d dat a o f Wert h an d Herbs t [1963] , Figur e 1 , sho w
root scale d thos e obtaine d b y Haskel l fo r granite . a significan t overshoo t fo r bot h hard-rocks , granit e an d salt ; how -
Denny an d Goodma n [1990] , borrowin g electrica l engineerin g sys - ever, fo r th e porou s rock s th e dat a sho w a significan t overshoo t fo r
tem identificatio n techniques , modelle d th e free-fiel d dat a an d th e alluvium bu t no t fo r tuff . Subsequen t studie s hav e produce d con -
spectral ratio s o f local (10 t o 11 1 km ) seismi c dat a fro m th e nuclea r tradictory result s wit h th e onl y poin t o f agreemen t bein g th e resul t
explosions, SALMO N an d STERLING , i n sal t wit h a rationa l poly - for alluvium . Th e alluviu m dat a o f Wert h an d Herbs t i s consisten t
nomial. The y foun d tha t a third-orde r mode l (Tabl e 1 ) wa s require d with tha t o f Perre t [1971 ] fo r th e MERLI N explosio n an d o f Mur -
to adequatel y describ e th e rise-tim e observe d i n th e free-fiel d dat a phy an d Bennet t [1979 ] fo r th e FISHE R an d th e MERLI N explo -
and th e high-frequenc y roll-of f of -3 observed i n the spectra l ratio s o f sions. Murph y an d Bennet t als o studie d free-fiel d dat a fo r th e ex -
the tw o explosions . plosions RAINIER , MUDPACK , an d DISCU S THROWE R i n tuff .
DENNY AN D JOHNSON 7

The DISCU S THROWE R dat a were taken clos e to the tuff/paleozoic effect of spall coul d mimi c overshoo t i n far-field spectral observation s
interface makin g th e signal s to o comple x t o use . Fo r RAINIER , the y (c.f. Taylo r an d Randal l [1989]) .
found, fo r a gag e mos t likel y i n th e linea r zon e an d als o les s likel y
to b e affecte d b y a surfac e reflectio n tha n th e on e use d b y Wert h IV. Scaling : Theor y an d Observation s
and Herbst , a n overshoot o f abou t 2 to 1 . MUDPAC K als o showed a
A. Theory
significant overshoot . Finally , Denn y an d Goodma n [1990 ] studyin g
SALMON foun d n o significan t overshoo t fo r salt . Therefore , i f th e Cube-root scalin g come s fro m a simpl e energy , volum e relation -
salt an d granit e data , give n b y Wert h an d Herbst , ar e i n erro r an d ship. Fo r a give n chemica l explosive , it s specific energy , i.e. , energ y
this i s a stron g possibilit y becaus e th e dat a i n questio n wer e take n per uni t mas s o f a n explosion, i s a constant s o tha t it s energ y releas e
in th e non-linea r region , the n on e migh t conclud e tha t porou s medi a is simpl y dependen t o n th e mass , o r volume , o f th e explosive . Fo r a
have a significan t overshoo t whil e non-porou s medi a d o not . Th e nuclear explosion , th e volum e o f th e firebal l i n ai r o r o f th e vapor -
conclusion fo r th e porou s medi a seem s wel l establishe d bu t th e on e ized zon e i n th e eart h i s proportiona l t o th e energy . Th e energ y re -
for hard-roc k i s mor e speculative . leased by a nuclear explosion i s called it s yield an d is given in kilotons
Other contradictor y observation s hav e bee n made . Ak i e t al . (1 k t = 4. 2 x 10 12 J) whil e th e energ y o r yield o f a chemical explosio n
[1974] compare d loca l dat a take n a t NT S wit h long-perio d Rayleig h is usuall y quote d i n kilograms eve n thoug h al l chemica l explosion s
wave dat a an d conclude d tha t a larg e overshoo t i n th e sourc e func - do no t hav e th e sam e specifi c energy . Sinc e th e unit s o f volum e ar e
tion, 4 o r 5 times th e residua l value , i s require d t o explai n bot h set s length cubed , th e yiel d i s proportional t o length cubed, o r conversely ,
of data . Peppi n [1976 ] conclude d fro m hi s stud y o f 14 0 explosion s length (/ ) i s proportiona l t o th e cube-roo t o f th e yiel d ( / o c W 1^3).
and earthquakes tha t sourc e spectra of explosions i n tuff are flat from Specific energ y ha s th e unit s o f lengt h divide d b y time , al l square d
0.2 t o 1. 0 H z (n o overshoot) . ((l/t) 2 ). Therefore , i n orde r fo r th e unit s o f th e specifi c energ y t o
Burdick an d Helmberge r [1979 ] modelle d teleseismi c short - an d be consistent , tim e mus t als o b e proportiona l t o th e cube-roo t o f th e
long-period bod y wave s usin g syntheti c seismogram s an d conclude d yield ( t o c W 1 / 3 ), wher e tim e refer s to fireball or cavity growth. Fro m
that th e sourc e functio n mus t hav e a substantia l overshoot . (8), th e RD P i s see n t o hav e th e unit s o f volum e whil e thos e o f th e
Helmberger an d Hadle y [1981 ] trie d t o deduc e th e overshoo t param - seismic momen t ar e th e sam e a s energy . Therefore , bot h quantitie s
eter (controlle d b y th e zer o in th e RDP ) i n their mode l fro m close-i n should scale as (i.e. , b e proportiona l to ) th e yiel d t o th e firs t power .
data recorde d a t 8 k m o n JORUM . Th e frequenc y paramete r ( k i n Frequency, obviously , shoul d b e inversel y proportiona l t o th e cube -
ref. 7 , Table 1 ) was readily determined b y the dominan t perio d of the root o f th e yield .
data, bu t th e overshoo t parameter , B , coul d no t b e uniquel y deter - Care mus t b e take n whe n scalin g data . Amplitude s fro m narrow -
mined fo r tw o reasons . First , th e arriva l time s o f pP and/o r relate d and wide-ban d dat a d o no t scal e i n th e sam e way s an d tim e ca n
slapdown phenomena are such that they arriv e during the later half of not b e scale d whe n recorde d o n narrow-ban d systems . Onl y tim e i n
the direc t P-wav e an d ar e superimposed o n it ; an d second , th e band - the sourc e functio n ca n b e scaled . Arriva l time s obviousl y ca n no t
width o f th e dat a i s suc h tha t th e zer o i n th e Helmberger-Hadle y be scaled . Therefore , onl y reduce d tim e fro m signal s recorde d b y
model make s a n importan t contributio n an d canno t b e separate d wide-band instrumentation , i.e. , bandwidt h greate r tha n th e corne r
from ipo o • frequency o f th e signal , an d i n th e free-fiel d can b e scaled .
Douglas an d Hudso n [1983 ] demonstrate d tha t th e mai n feature s Insight int o ho w groun d motio n scale s wit h yiel d ca n b e gaine d
of the WWSSN seismograms shown by Burdick an d Helmberger [1979 ] from th e proble m o f th e vibratin g sphere . Fo r a ste p i n applie d
and Helmberger an d Hadley [1981 ] can be accounted for , with a source pressure, th e far-fiel d transforme d displacemen t i s obtaine d b y sub -
with n o significan t overshoot . Reverberation s i n th e crus t a t th e stituting (8 ) int o (13) ,
source an d th e receive r ca n accoun t fo r mos t o f the variation s i n th e
observed Novaya Zemlya WWSSN L P seismograms shown by Burdick
and Helmberge r [1979] , makin g i t impossibl e t o dra w an y fir m con - !S
" ar(s 2 - f 2r)u es + w e 2 ) {Z6)
clusions abou t th e overshoot . Burdic k e t al . [1984 ] did essentially th e
same analysi s a s Helmberge r an d Hadle y [1981 ] but o n th e Amchitk a At a fixe d range , th e onl y quantitie s i n (23 ) tha t scal e ar e V'o o an d
explosions, MILRO W an d CANNIKIN , usin g local dat a (recorde d a t uje. Therefore , fo r lo w frequencie s ( / < u e /27t), th e groun d motio n
7 t o 2 0 km) . Th e Helmberger-Hadle y [1981 ] mode l parameter s wer e in al l o f it s form s (displacement , velocity , an d acceleration ) i s the n
evaluated fo r bot h explosions . The y found , a s other s had , tha t th e proportional t o V'o o whil e fo r hig h frequencie s ( / > o; e/27r) the y ar e
overshoot paramete r coul d no t b e resolved . proportional t o ipoo^e - Thus , fo r lo w frequencie s th e groun d motio n
In th e Mueller-Murph y mode l th e zer o i s yiel d dependent , mak - scales a s th e first-powe r o f th e yiel d whil e fo r hig h frequencies , i t
ing th e overshoo t als o dependen t o n yield . I n th e previou s section , scales a s th e cube-roo t o f th e yield . Thi s resul t ha s bee n derive d b y
the low - an d high-frequenc y asymptote s fo r thi s mode l wer e show n several investigators , e.g. , O'Brie n [1957,1960] , Latte r e t al . [1959] ,
to b e Po an d P Q + P\, respectively . Th e rati o o f high - t o th e low - and Carpente r e t al . [1962] .
frequency asymptot e control s th e overshoot ; th e highe r th e ratio , th e Broadband displacement s an d velocities , however , d o no t scal e i n
larger th e overshoot . I n th e Mueller-Murph y mode l thi s rati o i s a the sam e way . Fro m (9 ) an d (13) , th e broadban d far-fiel d displace -
proportional t o h° 07 W°13 wher e h i s th e dept h o f buria l an d W i s ment i s
the yield . Thi s featur e i s contrar y t o tha t foun d b y La y e t al . [1984 ] V'oo^e -o r • / » \ /o>i \
who determine d tha t th e Helmberger-Hadle y [1981 ] sourc e mode l i s
best fi t i f the amoun t o f overshoot decrease s wit h increasin g yiel d o r and th e velocit y i s
depth o f burial .
These contradictor y result s ope n th e fiel d fo r othe r interpreta -
tions. On e possibilit y i s tha t th e overshoo t i s controlle d b y neithe r
the dept h no r th e yield . Dept h o f burial i n al l thes e model s coul d b e
^ a K ^ V ' ' ' " " ' ™ ^ ' ' ' ^ (25 )

just a surrogat e variabl e fo r som e workin g poin t materia l property . where 0 = tan~ 1(a/b). Fro m (24 ) an d (25) , i t ca n b e see n tha t a t
Then th e overshoo t coul d b e independen t o f yield an d dept h an d de- a fixe d rang e displacement s woul d b e expecte d t o scal e a s th e two -
pendent onl y o n th e workin g point' s materia l properties . Also , th e thirds powe r o f yiel d an d velocitie s a s th e one-thir d powe r o f yield .
8 EXPLOSIO N SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTION

This may seem like a contradiction, sinc e the unit s of particle velocit y 1/3 o r 1/4 , respectively .
and displacemen t woul d indicat e tha t th e forme r should b e indepen - Yield i s not th e onl y importan t propert y tha t determine s th e cor -
dent o f yiel d an d th e latte r shoul d b e proportiona l t o th e cube-roo t ner frequency . I f th e energ y deposite d b y a n explosio n int o th e sur -
of th e yield . Whe n viewe d i n term s o f th e scaled range, R/W 1^3, rounding materia l i s a given fractio n o f the yiel d fo r a given materia l
however, ther e i s n o contradiction . Particl e velocit y i s the n see n t o then, b y (16 )
be independen t o f yiel d an d displacemen t i s see n t o b e proportiona l f3 o c pa*E/M2. (28 )
to yiel d t o th e one-thir d powe r whil e bot h ar e inversel y proportiona l
As discusse d above , Muelle r an d Murph y [1971 ] hypothesize d tha t
to th e scale d range . Free-fiel d dat a ar e typicall y presente d i n thi s
the elasti c radius , whic h b y thei r definition s i s proportiona l t o a / f c ,
form, e.g. , Perre t an d Bas s [1975] . is inversel y dependen t o n th e overburde n a s i n (26) . Thus , th e cor -
Carpenter e t al . [1962 ] use d cube-roo t scalin g o f free-fiel d dat a ner frequenc y woul d b e expecte d t o b e directl y dependen t o n th e
from th e RAINIE R explosio n t o stud y th e amplitude-yiel d scalin g overburden an d inversel y dependen t o n th e cube-roo t o f th e yiel d
question. The y conclude d tha t for most practica l application s (mean -
ing narrowban d recordings ) i t appear s tha t a power la w ca n b e used , /, 3 ( X a3(pghfl"/W. (29 )
although fo r ver y larg e charge s (o r hig h frequencies ) th e amplitud e
will increas e les s rapidl y tha n charg e siz e an d ma y eve n decrease . In th e rea l eart h bot h densit y an d wav e spee d ten d t o increas e wit h
This effec t i s du e t o th e bandwidt h o f th e recordin g instrument . Fo r depth. Furthermore , th e dept h o f burial o f a given devic e i s dictate d
small explosion s th e corne r frequenc y woul d b e abov e th e frequenc y by containmen t requirement s t o b e proportiona l t o th e cube-roo t o f
of the peak response of the seismograph, bu t for larger ones the corner the expecte d yield . Thus , bot h (28 ) an d (29 ) predic t tha t th e cor -
would mov e close r unti l finall y i t woul d b e belo w th e pea k response . ner frequenc y wil l decreas e les s rapidl y wit h yiel d tha n predicte d b y
Similar result s wer e obtaine d b y Wert h an d Herbs t [1963 ] an d b y simple cube-roo t scaling .
Berg an d Papageorg e [1964] . Thus , th e amplitud e measure d o n a
narrowband seismograp h coul d b e expecte d t o b e A o c W b, wher e 6 B. Observations
ranges fro m 1. 0 t o 1/3 . Sinc e th e seismi c magnitud e i s proportiona l 1. Amplitude Scaling. Earl y experimenta l result s seeme d t o sup -
to th e lo g o f th e amplitude , m o c log A, the n th e seismi c magnitud e port simpl e cube-roo t scaling . Gaskel l [1956 ] performe d severa l ex -
is proportiona l t o th e lo g o f th e yield , m o c 6 lo g W. I f th e corne r periments i n cla y usin g smal l chemica l explosives . Th e cavit y siz e
frequency o f th e signal s ar e alway s greate r tha n th e frequenc y o f th e was foun d t o b e consisten t wit h cube-roo t scaling , an d th e ampli -
peak respons e of the seismograph, a s it is for the long-period WWSS N tudes o f refracte d wave s wer e found t o be proportiona l t o th e weigh t
seismograph, the n th e slop e o r exponen t 6 would b e expecte d t o b e of th e charge . O'Brie n [1957 , 1960 ] performe d a regressio n analysi s
unity. on three set s o f data taken o n smal l chemica l explosion s t o determin e
Mueller [1969 ] assume d tha t th e mediu m "o n th e large " ha s lo w the scalin g exponent . Th e rang e o f result s wa s 0.8 8 t o 1.1 2 wit h th e
tensile strengt h an d tha t th e limitin g pressur e i s therefor e i n th e mean valu e o f 0.99±.18 . Latte r e t al . [1959 ] found tha t a t a Caltec h
neighborhood o f the overburden pressure in order to keep the mediu m seismic statio n locate d 18 0 k m fro m NT S th e recorde d amplitude s
from going into tension an d propagating cracks . Muelle r an d Murph y were proportiona l t o th e first-powe r o f yield .
[1971, Tabl e 1 ] used thi s logi c t o infe r fro m analysis o f near-regiona l Then th e pictur e bega n t o ge t clouded . O'Brie n [1969 ] performed
and free-field data that th e peak pressure, P p, i s 1. 5 times overburden , many experiment s i n sandston e an d cla y usin g chemica l explosive s
i.e., P p = P Q + P I = 1.5 pgh, where P o an d P\ ar e the same a s in (19) , with charg e weight s o f 0.0 8 t o 9. 5 kg . Broadban d measurement s o f
h i s th e dept h o f buria l an d g i s gravity . The y als o assume d tha t radial stres s wer e foun d t o b e dependen t o n yiel d t o th e 0.5 5 powe r
the pea k pressur e follow s a powe r la w i n th e inelasti c region , P p o c in bot h materials , an d a significan t dependenc e o n dept h wa s als o
{r/W1f3)~n. Equatin g thes e tw o relationships fo r the pea k pressure , found. I n cla y th e pea k stres s wa s foun d t o deca y a s h~° 38 an d
they determine d th e elasti c radiu s t o b e relate d t o overburden a s the half-perio d a s h~ 0 8 . I n sandstone , pea k displacement s wer e
follows ^ ^ found t o deca y a s / i - 0 5 1 an d half-period s a s /i~ 0 6 1 . Basha m an d
Horner [1973 ] studyin g abou t 6 0 explosions , foun d Rayleig h wave s
W»73 a (pghy/"' (26)
to b e proportiona l t o th e 1.2-powe r o f yiel d fro m lo w yield s t o ove r
Invoking th e incompressibilit y argument , the y foun d 3 megatons . Springe r an d Hanno n [1973 ] foun d th e slop e i n th e
magnitude-yield relationshi p fo r bod y wave s t o b e slightl y greate r
p than 0. 6 a t regiona l distance s bu t t o b e almos t 1. 0 a t teleseismi c
° = T(f ) 3
' (27)
distances, whil e fo r Rayleigh-wav e dat a the y foun d th e slop e t o b e
where th e cavit y radius , R c, fro m empirical studie s i s give n b y R c = about 1.1 . Murph y [1977 ] showe d tha t th e Mueller-Murph y mode l
cW°-29h~011. A t lo w frequencie s th e Mueller-Murph y mode l pre - with it s dept h dependencie s i s consisten t with : 1 ) th e observe d yiel d
dicts tha t V'o o and, therefore , amplitude s shoul d scal e a s W° 87 /h0 33 , scaling exponent s fo r large sample s o f NT S explosion s belo w th e wa -
while a t hig h frequencie s the y scal e a s W l ^ 3 h 0 f>S3 . Assumin g tha t ter tabl e usin g near-regiona l broadban d spectra , 2 ) th e broadban d
the dept h o f burial scale s a s th e cube-roo t o f th e yield , thes e scalin g Rulison/Gasbuggy spectra l rati o representativ e o f explosions a t ver y
laws becom e W° 7 6 an d W° 527 , respectively . different scale d depth s i n hard-rock , 3 ) regional P n amplitude s fro m
It i s wort h notin g tha t groun d motio n scalin g a t hig h frequencie s NTS explosion s an d 4 ) bot h short-perio d an d long-perio d teleseis -
(/ > f c) proportiona l t o th e cube-roo t o f th e yiel d applie s onl y t o mic P wav e spectr a observe d fro m a larg e sampl e o f Pahut e Mes a
a mode l whos e roll-of f i s -2 . Whe n applyin g cube-roo t scalin g t o a explosions coverin g th e yiel d rang e fro m 15 5 t o 130 0 kt . Murph y
model whos e roll-of f is -3, th e spectral amplitude s a t hig h frequencie s also note d tha t th e observe d long-perio d surfac e wav e dat a ar e in -
are found t o b e independen t o f yield; while fo r a model whos e roll-of f consistent wit h th e Mueller-Murph y mode l an d suggeste d tha t ther e
is - 4 suc h a s Haskell's , the y decreas e wit h yield . Fo r a model wit h a are factors contributin g t o th e long-period , teleseismi c surfac e wave s
roll-off of -3 o r -4 t o hav e high-frequenc y amplitude s increasin g wit h which ar e no t accounte d fo r b y th e simpl e sphericall y symmetri c
yield th e corne r frequenc y mus t someho w b e modifie d either throug h source (o r isotropic) models .
some inheren t dept h dependenc e o r throug h som e materia l propert y Marshall e t al . [1979 ] studie d a tota l o f 4 6 explosion s an d foun d
which change s uniforml y wit h dept h s o tha t th e corne r frequenc y the slop e fo r rag, a teleseismi c body-wav e magnitude , t o b e abou t
would ultimatel y depen d inversel y o n yiel d t o som e powe r les s tha n 0.8 fo r U S explosion s belo w th e wate r tabl e i n porous , saturate d me -
DENNY AN D JOHNSON 9

dia an d t o b e abou t 1. 0 fo r U S an d USS R explosion s i n hard-rock . for th e isotropi c componen t gav e reduce d varianc e i n th e momen t
The slop e fo r the sur f ace-wave magnitud e wa s found t o b e abou t 1.0 . versus yield plot s over thos e mad e withou t removin g th e spal l contri -
Larson [1982 ] found tha t th e pea k particl e velocitie s measure d i n th e bution. I n addition , th e yiel d scalin g exponen t fo r explosion s belo w
laboratory fro m smal l chemica l explosion s i n sal t model s coul d b e the wate r tabl e wa s reduce d fro m abou t 1 to 0.84 , i.e. , close r t o tha t
cube-root scale d ove r 1 0 order s o f magnitud e o f energ y t o thos e ob - expected fro m Mueller-Murph y model .
tained fro m the SALMO N experiment . From the foregoing, ther e seem s t o b e some reaso n t o believe tha t
Lay e t al . [1984 ] studie d th e Amchitk a explosions , whic h wer e the sam e scalin g shoul d appl y t o bot h long - an d short-perio d data .
thought t o hav e littl e tectoni c release , s o tha t long-perio d Rayleig h There als o seem s t o b e a consensu s buildin g tha t simpl e cube-roo t
waves coul d b e use d withou t bias . The y foun d tha t th e Helmberger - scaling is not adequat e i n the real earth, thoug h i n the idealized worl d
Hadley [1981 ] sourc e mode l i s bes t fi t i f th e long-perio d leve l o f th e of laborator y models , i t probabl y applies . Thus , som e dept h depen -
explosion potential , ^oo , increase s wit h yield , W , b y V'o o oc W° 90 , o r dence suc h a s i n th e Mueller-Murph y mode l i s needed , bu t i t i s no t
with yiel d an d dept h b y V>o o oc W/h 1/3. clear whethe r som e sourc e materia l propert y o r propertie s coul d b e
Nuttli [1986 ] foun d tha t th e magnitude-yiel d relationshi p ha d a used t o replac e depth . An d lastly , ther e seems t o be a consensus tha t
plope o f abou t 0. 7 fo r L g waves . Patto n [1988] , applyin g Nuttli' s there is no curvature i n the magnitude-yiel d relationshi p a s predicte d
method t o a differen t dat a set , foun d tha t th e slop e wa s 0.95±0.0 3 by Carpente r e t al . an d others. Non e of the investigation s mentione d
for explosion s i n dry , porou s materia l an d 0.80±0.0 2 i n saturated , above foun d a nee d fo r anythin g bu t a straigh t line .
porous material . Vergin o [1989 ] found th e slop e t o b e 0.7 1 fo r 1 9 an- 2. Corner frequency scaling. T o ai d i n characterizatio n o f th e
nounced Sovie t explosions . Vergin o an d Mensin g [1990 ] found , afte r source, Wys s e t al . [1971 ] introduce d th e ide a o f source dimension
correcting for gas porosity , th e slop e i n the magnitude-yiel d relation - (source radius ) t o explosions , r s = cv/f c wher e c i s a constan t ex -
ship to be 0. 9 for a very large set of regional dat a for NTS explosions . pected t o b e nea r unit y an d v i s one of the elasti c wav e velocities. B y
Finally, Patto n (thi s volume ) attempte d t o explai n som e o f th e introducing a constant o f proportionality betwee n th e deca y constan t
differences i n th e scaling . H e studie d tw o classe s o f non-isotropic (u>i i n (19) ) an d th e boundar y conditio n eigenfrequency , Muelle r
sources fo r NT S explosions : tectoni c releas e an d explosion-drive n and Murph y [1971 ] obtained estimate s o f th e elasti c radiu s show n i n
block motion . A non-isotropi c sourc e i s on e du e t o som e non - Figure 4a . I n th e cas e o f SALMON , th e Mueller-Murph y estimat e
spherically symmetri c explosion-induce d phenomenon . Th e mai n differs b y abou t a facto r o f tw o fro m a recen t estimat e b y a differ -
characteristic of tectonic release i s that of strike-slip motions on faults ent procedure . Th e elasti c radiu s estimated b y Denn y an d Goodma n
at sho t leve l o r deepe r whil e tha t o f block-drive n motio n i s mainl y [1990] i s 460-52 0 m/kt 1 / 3 whil e th e Mueller-Murph y valu e i s abou t
of vertica l motio n abov e th e sho t level , ofte n i n direction s opposit e 270 m/kt 1 / 3 . I n contrast, th e Denny-Goodma n estimat e o f the sourc e
to th e naturall y occurrin g faultin g i n th e Basi n an d Range . I n thi s radius ( c = 1 an d v = a ) compare s wel l wit h th e Mueller-Murph y
analysis, h e use d fundamenta l an d higher-mod e surface-wav e dat a estimate a s show n i n Figur e 4b . Thes e result s wer e obtaine d b y
recorded a t regiona l distance s an d estimates o f the spal l sourc e t o in - removing th e Mueller-Murph y constant s o f proportionalit y fo r tuff ,
vert th e dat a int o isotropi c an d non-isotropi c components . Fro m th e rhyolite, shal e an d sal t (1.5 , 2.0 , 2.4 , an d 4.5 , respectively) . Th e
estimates o f th e non-isotropi c components , h e tentativel y concluded , variance i n th e Mueller-Murph y scale d elasti c radiu s plo t i s see n t o
pending furthe r study , tha t ther e ar e tw o "fields " o f explosions char - be considerabl y greate r tha n tha t i n th e scale d sourc e radiu s plot .
acterized b y differen t non-isotropi c mechanism s s o tha t ther e i s a The scale d sourc e radiu s plo t als o show s remarkabl e agreemen t be -
reason fo r difference s i n scaling . Fo r explosion s abov e 30 0 kt , tec - tween differen t materials . Th e significanc e o f thi s ma y b e tha t th e
tonic releas e wit h strike-sli p faultin g i s a major contributo r whil e for mechanism tha t control s th e generatio n o f th e corne r frequenc y i s
explosions belo w 30 0 k t block-drive n faultin g wit h revers e dip-sli p nearly material-independen t bu t tha t th e on e tha t control s th e elas -
motions i s the majo r contributor . Th e resul t o f th e inversio n proces s tic radiu s i s highl y material-dependent . I n either case , however , i t i s

10 11 1 1 1 ii , 1 i1 1—T—i— r 10
8 : (a ) 8 : (b)
6 6
<
4
5? -
SALMON
- 5? 4
• L
It 2 - • - jt2
=3
Hd 0
1 0 ',2 — •
D o £1 0
8
• •dB • —
o8
-SALMON

6 ye / D
B

4 cn
o
^4
M-M71.tuff

-
q> M-M71.tuff
A M—M71 .salt o
u M—M71 .salt
-o M-M71.shale - "2 M—M71 .shale
o D-G90.salt D-G90.salt
10' ii i i i ., , 1 ii i i i i 10 1
6 8 2 6 8 2 68
10' 10° 10 ' 10°
Overburden (Pa) Overburden (Pa )
Fig. 4 . Scale d radiu s v s overburden, (a ) Elasti c radius , (b ) Sourc e radius , (a ) i s Fig . 2 from Muelle r an d Murph y [1971 ]
and show s tha t dept h o r depth-relate d change s i n shot-poin t materia l propertie s ar e important . Muelle r an d Murph y
presented thei r dat a a s th e elasti c radiu s base d o n assume d constant s o f proportionalit y betwee n th e elasti c radiu s an d
the corne r frequency . Removin g assume d constan t fro m thei r dat a result s i n (b ) a reductio n i n th e variance ; th e tw o
SALMON value s ar e the n nearly th e same .
10 EXPLOSIO N SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTION

apparent tha t dept h o r som e depth-relate d propert y play s a signifi - frequencies would be expected t o be proportional t o the three-fourth s
cant role . power o f yiel d an d a t hig h frequencie s woul d b e proportiona l t o th e
As suggeste d above , th e apparen t dept h dependenc e see n i n one-fourth power .
Figure 4 a an d 4 b ma y b e du e t o som e othe r paramete r an d dept h It wa s found experimentally tha t neithe r scalin g la w fit the crate r
is jus t a surrogate . Larso n [1984 ] foun d i n Nugge t sandston e tha t data. Chaba i di d a regressio n analysi s o n chemica l explosion s rang -
the particl e motio n wa s alway s outwar d an d di d no t retur n whe n ing fro m 10 0 t o 1,000,00 0 l b o f TNT . H e foun d tha t th e dat a wer e
the sampl e wa s unconfine d bu t tha t i t di d retur n whe n confined . I n fit bes t whe n scale d b y 0.3±0.0 2 powe r o f energy. Bake r e t al . [1973 ;
other words , i n th e unconfine d cas e th e particl e velocit y wa s alway s chapter 11 ] studie d Chabai' s dat a b y combinin g th e tw o basi c di -
positive an d neve r negativ e a s expecte d fro m (25) . I n salt , o n th e mensionless terms , W 1 / 3 / ^ 1 / 3 ^ an d W 1^4/I<llAd wher e W i s a n en -
other hand , n o difference was observed; th e motio n behave d basicall y ergy dimension , d i s th e depth , K represent s th e dea d weigh t o f
as expected unde r bot h conditions . Clearl y th e corne r frequency, on e the material , bes t measure d b y pg, an d a represent s th e materia l
of th e parameter s whic h control s th e respons e i n (25) , i s dependen t strength. The y foun d tha t th e crater-radius , R c, dat a wer e fit ver y
on th e confinin g pressure fo r explosions i n sandstone bu t no t fo r salt. well b y
Figure 5 a show s tha t th e shear strength (i.e. , hal f th e differenc e i n
principal stresses ) o f sal t i s virtuall y independen t o f confinin g pres - d Vi/ 3
d' W
sure while that o f Nugget sandstone (Figur e 5b ) varies nearly linearl y
They sugges t tha t th e materia l strengt h i s bes t measure d b y pc 2, a n
with confinin g pressure, suggestin g tha t shea r strength , no t th e con -
easily determine d quantity , bu t i t coul d jus t a s wel l b e som e othe r
fining pressure , i s th e rea l controllin g parameter . On e can , therefore ,
measure. Fro m thi s analysis , th e author s conclude d tha t neithe r th e
see tha t th e corne r frequenc y an d th e correspondin g sourc e radiu s
gravitational effect s no r th e constitutiv e effect s ca n b e ignored . Fo r
could appea r t o b e depth-dependen t fo r som e materials .
the seismi c sourc e function , thi s i s a n interestin g result . I t ca n b e
The sourc e radiu s i s als o dependen t o n th e wave-spee d which , seen fro m (30 ) tha t dept h cancel s ou t an d tha t th e volum e scale s a s
in general , increase s wit h depth . Therefore , som e o f th e trend , an d yield t o th e 7/ 8 power . Thus , th e volum e ha s n o explici t dept h de-
perhaps som e o f th e varianc e i n Figur e 4 a an d 4b , ma y b e du e t o pendence an d th e yiel d scalin g i s remarkably clos e t o that commonl y
the wav e speed . Thes e observation s ar e no t t o sa y tha t dept h de- observed fo r seismi c amplitudes !
pendence i s no t important . I n fact , La y e t al . [1984 ] found tha t th e Working with smal l model s i n the laboratory , Larso n [1984 ] found
Helmberger an d Hadle y [1981 ] sourc e mode l i s bes t fit i f th e corne r
that cavit y volume s produce d b y explosions vary inversely wit h shea r
frequency parameter , K , scale s a s predicte d b y th e Mueller-Murph y
strength an d ar e dependen t o n confinin g pressur e onl y t o th e exten t
[1971] model. Clearly , th e factor s which contro l th e corne r frequenc y
that th e shear strength depend s o n confining pressure. I n salt, fo r ex-
are no t wel l understoo d an d mor e wor k i s needed .
ample, th e shear strength i s independent o f confining pressure, bu t i n
Nugget sandston e i t i s nearl y linearl y dependen t o n i t a s shown pre -
C. Inferences from Dimensional Analysis and Other Considerations
viously i n Figur e 5 . Thus , instea d o f pc 2 fo r a i n (27) , Larson' s wor k
As indicate d above , th e cavit y volum e shoul d b e a n importan t would sugges t tha t shea r strengt h b e used. Larso n further conclude d
scaling consideration . Th e sam e consideration s tha t appl y t o cavit y that relationship s suc h a s tha t o f Orpha l [1970 ] whic h ar e explicitl y
size shoul d als o appl y t o crate r volume . Therefore , th e dimensiona l dependent upo n dept h o f burial ma y work wel l in certain medi a (e.g. ,
analysis result s o f Chaba i [1965 ] an d other s ar e wort h reviewing . very wea k fluidlik e medi a o r in medi a where shea r strengt h increase s
Chabai identifie d fou r differen t set s o f scalin g laws . I f th e gravita - proportional t o depth) ; bu t extrapolatio n o f suc h a relation t o othe r
tional field strengt h i s not include d i n th e dimensiona l analyses , the n materials, an d i n particula r t o salt , woul d b e extremel y dangerous .
cube-root scalin g i s obtaine d whe n a n explosio n i s characterize d b y It i s also worth notin g tha t accordin g t o Crowle y [1970 ] cube-roo t
either a mas s dimensio n o r b y a n energ y dimension . I f gravit y i s in - scaling only applie s if , in additio n t o gravity , radiatio n effect s are no t
cluded in the dimensiona l analysis , the n cube-roo t scalin g i s obtaine d an importan t consideration . I f eithe r i s a significan t consideration ,
for crate r dimension s i f th e explosio n i s describe d b y a mas s dimen - then accordin g t o Crowle y scalin g i s n o longe r possible . I n addition ,
sion, bu t fourth-roo t scalin g i s obtaine d i f th e explosio n i s describe d Glenn [1990 ] show s tha t cube-roo t scalin g i s strictl y vali d onl y i f a
by a n energy dimension . Thus , i n the las t case , groun d motio n a t lo w point sourc e explosio n i s considered . Fo r a finite source , tw o addi -

Q.
CD

si
(/>

0.08 0.1 6 0.2 4 0.2 0. 4


Mean stress (GPa) Mean stress (GPa)

Fig. 5 . Shea r strengt h versu s confinin g pressur e [Larson , 1984] : (a ) sal t an d (b ) Nugge t
sandstone. I n sal t th e shea r strengt h i s independen t o f confinin g pressur e whil e i n Nugge t
sandstone shea r strengt h i s nearl y linearl y dependen t o n it .
DENNY AN D JOHNSON 1 1

tional parameters , th e mas s an d energ y pe r uni t volume , ente r th e original units , i n term s o f a n F-value correspondin g th e 2< r leve l o f
problem vi a th e initia l conditions . Glen n the n point s ou t tha t wit h variation i n lo g space , i.e. ,
nuclear explosives , th e experimental emplacemen t canniste r generall y 1 96<7
bears littl e relatio n t o th e yiel d an d show s ho w thi s manifest s itsel f F2a = 10 , (31 )
in th e amoun t o f interna l energ y deposite d i n a material . Holdin g
the sourc e volum e fixed , while varyin g th e yield , Glenn' s calculation s where cr is th e standar d deviatio n derive d fro m th e regressio n anal -
showed tha t cube-roo t scalin g i s onl y a crud e approximation . Thus , ysis. Th e F-valu e coul d jus t a s wel l b e define d a t th e lc r leve l b y
there ar e reason s wh y cube-roo t scalin g ma y no t b e appropriat e t o omitting th e 1.9 6 facto r i n (31) . Th e F-valu e i s frequentl y use d t o
the seismi c sourc e function . construct confidenc e interva l estimate s o f th e 'true ' valu e o f th e re -
sponse (e.g. , cavit y radius , seismi c moment , o r sourc e radius ) give n
a fixe d yiel d an d fixe d value s o f th e othe r parameter s i n th e model .
V. Ne w Directions : Chemical/Nuclea r Equivalenc e For example , i f F 2a = 1. 3 an d x i s th e predicte d valu e o f th e cavit y
radius, the n th e tru e cavit y radiu s ca n b e expecte d wit h 95 % confi -
There ha s lon g bee n a concer n tha t chemica l an d nuclea r explo - dence t o b e betwee n 1.3a r an d x/ 1.3.
sions can not b e scaled t o each other and that free-field measurements la. Cavity Size—Theory. Unde r th e assumptio n tha t th e mate -
are als o someho w differen t fro m measurement s mad e a t greate r dis - rial's shea r strengt h i s negligible , Nuckoll s [1959 ] derive d a solutio n
tances. Thes e concern s ar e addresse d i n this section . Ne w regressio n for th e cavit y radiu s
analysis results ar e reported fo r cavity size , seismi c moment , an d cor - l 3
ner frequency . Th e compilatio n o f dat a includ e previousl y publishe d Rc = CW l /Pl0l3\ (32)
and unpublishe d dat a from both nuclea r an d chemica l explosion s an d
where 7 i s th e adiabati c expansio n coefficien t o f th e cavit y gas , P o
from al l measuremen t regimes . Th e data , whethe r measure d i n th e
is th e overburde n pressur e (P o = pgh), an d C i s a functio n o f 7,
free-field o r a t teleseismi c distances , di d no t revea l an y difference s
the vaporizatio n pressure , an d o f a proportionalit y constan t relatin g
between chemica l an d nuclea r explosive s fo r th e basi c sourc e func -
energy t o th e produc t o f cavit y ga s pressur e an d volum e ( P V ~ E ) .
tion parameters .
Each of these parameters i s material-dependent. Haskel l [1961 ] found
A. New Regression Results an implicit , quasi-stati c solutio n t o th e cavit y proble m fo r a n elas -
tic, plasti c materia l whic h behave s accordin g t o th e Coulomb-Moh r
As described above , Muelle r and Murphy [1971 ] and Murphy [197 4 criterion, i.e. , th e shea r strengt h i s a linea r functio n o f th e confinin g
and thi s volume ] hav e presente d a theoretica l relationshi p o f seismi c pressure plu s a constant . Th e parameter s i n thi s solutio n ar e initia l
moment t o cavit y siz e an d hav e demonstrate d som e experimenta l cavity radius , elasti c radius , Lam e constants , overburden , 7, yield ,
evidence i n suppor t o f it . The y hav e als o show n tha t th e scale d cor - and shea r strengt h quantities . I n bot h cases , dept h enter s th e prob -
ner frequenc y i s depth-dependent . I n th e following , th e relationshi p lem b y wa y o f th e overburde n pressure .
of cavit y siz e t o seismi c momen t i s expande d t o includ e corne r fre - Boardman e t al . [1964 ] an d Higgin s an d Butkovic h [1967 ] esti -
quency. Th e analysi s consist s o f tw o phases . Initially , a n empirica l mated th e materia l dependen t constant , C , i n (32 ) fo r several mate -
model i s fi t t o th e dat a (cavit y radius , seismi c moment , an d sourc e rials. Boardma n e t al . assume d tha t 7 = 4/ 3 an d ha d dat a fro m 3 5
radius) t o determin e i f th e dat a ar e consisten t wit h th e theoretica l explosions availabl e whil e Higgin s an d Butkovic h evaluate d 7 a s wel l
yield scaling . Sinc e the data d o not contradic t th e theoretica l scaling , as C fo r several material s usin g 4 6 explosions . Bot h group s reporte d
the yiel d exponen t (coefficien t in log space) i s fixed at th e theoretica l excellent result s fo r thes e smal l dat a sets ; Boardma n e t al . ha d a 2(7
value. Ha d th e empirica l coefficien t bee n significantl y differen t fro m F-value o f abou t 1.1 5 t o 1.4 7 dependin g o n materia l whil e Higgin s
the theoretica l value , th e empirica l valu e woul d hav e bee n adopted . and Butkovic h ha d less tha n 1.22 , wit h 7 rangin g fro m 1.01 3 t o 1.14 2
The second phase of the analysis is to select the most parsimoniou s depending on source material. Higgin s an d Butkovic h conclude d tha t
model whic h include s th e effect s o f parameters , othe r tha n yield , cavity siz e i s independen t o f th e material' s shea r strength .
which explai n th e variatio n i n th e observe d data . Coefficient s for th e Closmann [1969 ] performe d a regressio n analysi s o n th e sam e 4 6
parameters include d i n th e mode l ar e estimate d usin g th e standar d nuclear explosions an d estimated th e coefficient s in the empirical cav -
regression techniqu e o f minimizing th e su m of squared difference s be- ity radius , yield , an d materia l propertie s relationship ,
tween th e observed dat a and the model. I n addition t o estimating th e
coefficients, two other output s of the regressio n analyse s wer e used t o
compare alternat e models . One , th e estimated standar d deviation , a , l o g ( R c / h ) = z 0 + \og(W l/3
/h*1/3) + z 2 log( H/K) + z 3 log(/i/Po) ,
of th e measure d variable s wa s use d t o compar e tw o model s wit h th e (33)
same numbe r o f parameters . Th e mode l wit h th e lowes t valu e o f <r
is preferred . Th e secon d output , th e significanc e level , p , associate d to b e 0.131 , 0.918±0.037 , -0.820±0.674 , an d 0.244±0.03 7 fo r x 0
with eac h parameter, wa s used t o test th e importanc e o f each param - through a? 3, respectively , wher e n i s Young' s modulus . Afte r col -
eter. I f the significanc e leve l i s low, e.g. , p < 0.05 , th e paramete r wa s lecting term s (33 ) become s R c o c W° 306 /h°161. H e di d no t repor t
considered t o explai n a significant amoun t o f th e observe d variatio n on th e statistica l significanc e o f thes e coefficient s bu t di d recogniz e
in th e measure d variabl e an d i s retaine d i n th e model . O n th e othe r that th e larg e standar d deviatio n o n x 2 di d indicat e a larg e uncer -
hand, i f the significanc e leve l i s large , e.g. , p > 0.05 , th e paramete r i s tainty i n its use . Ha d h e droppe d thi s pai r o f term s an d recalculate d
not considere d t o explain a significant amount o f variation abov e tha t the remainin g coefficients , h e ma y hav e foun d somewha t differen t
explained b y th e othe r parameter s i n th e mode l an d i s droppe d fro m yield an d dept h exponents . H e neithe r di d thi s no r di d h e offe r an y
the model . Th e fina l mode l consist s onl y o f statisticall y significan t justification fo r retainin g thi s term .
parameters. Other investigator s [Michaud , 1968 , Orphal , 1970 , Terhun e an d
All o f th e model s considere d belo w consis t o f product s o f param - Glenn, 197 7 an d Glenn , 1991 ] hav e attempte d t o includ e th e mate -
eters raise d t o som e power . Whe n writte n i n logarithmi c form , al l rial's shea r strength . Michau d simpl y modifie d (32) ,
but on e o f thes e model s becom e linea r wit h th e origina l exponent s
52 C
as coefficients . Th e rando m variatio n associate d wit h th e measure d Ftc (34)
variables, afte r fittin g th e mode l i n lo g space , i s expressed , i n it s (Po + C s ) 1 / 3 T
12 EXPLOSION SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTION

where C refer s t o th e emplacemen t geometr y ( C = 1 for a tampe d different fo r eac h materia l the n (32) , (34) , an d (35 ) predic t differen t
explosion) an d Cs i s a strengt h term . Orpha l derive d th e cavit y depth dependencies . Therefore , on e issu e t o b e addressed , i n addi -
size fo r a n elastic , plasti c materia l usin g th e Coulomb-Moh r yiel d tion t o whethe r th e dat a suppor t cube-roo t scaling , i s th e correc t
criterion an d a simplifie d cavit y pressur e assumptio n t o obtai n a n functional for m t o includ e shea r strength . Anothe r i s whethe r th e
explicit solutio n fo r th e cavit y radius , data suppor t differen t dept h dependencie s fo r eac h material . T o ad -
dress thes e issues , th e U S cavit y dat a an d geophysica l parameter s i n
Ci 1/3 the LLN L Nuclea r Tes t databas e [Howard , 1983 ] wer e used , supple -
Rc = w 1 (35)
((C 2 + P 0 ) " - C 2 ) 1 / : * mented wit h dat a fro m 4 Frenc h test s i n granit e an d 1 USSR tes t i n
salt [Lin , 1978 ] an d wit h dat a fro m laborator y experiment s i n sal t
where C\ i s a function o f vaporizatio n radiu s an d pressure , whil e C2 and sandston e [Larson , 1984] .
and n ar e differen t function s o f th e shea r strengt h parameter s an d As shea r strengt h i s no t on e o f th e parameter s i n th e database ,
Young's modulus . the secon d o f th e abov e question s canno t b e full y addressed . How -
Terhune an d Glen n [1977 ] performe d a paramete r stud y usin g 1 - ever, relationship s o f th e quasi-stati c for m (34 , 35 , an d 37a ) ca n
and 2-dimensiona l finit e difference s code s t o determin e a functiona l probably b e rule d out . Th e parameter s 7 an d Y o f (37a ) wer e
relationship o f cavit y siz e t o overburden , shea r strength , an d yield . found b y non-linea r regressio n analysis . Whil e th e valu e foun d for Y
They assume d tha t th e material' s shea r strengt h ca n b e modelle d b y (10 MPa ) wa s reasonable , th e on e fo r 7 (0.2 ) wa s not . Thi s shoul d
a combination o f the Coulomb-Mohr an d the von Mise's yield criteria , not b e to o surprisin g sinc e Glen n [1991 ] als o foun d tha t th e quasi -
i.e., th e shea r strengt h i s linearl y proportiona l t o confinin g pressur e
(Coulomb-Mohr) u p t o som e poin t bu t beyon d tha t i t i s constan t TABLE 2. Cavit y Radius
(von Mise's) . Th e result s indicate d tha t cavit y radiu s i s determine d
2.1 a = 0.073 4
by
N = 35 8
63 W7/24
F2 a = 1393

where Y i s the shea r strength . Th e yiel d exponen t o f 7/24 wa s deter - Parameter Coeff. Std. error P
mined b y plottin g th e differenc e betwee n th e fina l an d initia l cavit y Intercept 3.9906 0.3819 0.0000
sizes versu s yield . Fro m this , the y conclude d tha t th e yiel d scalin g W 0.3397 0.0021 0.0000
(7/24) o f Bake r e t al . [1973 ] applies . P 0.2433 0.1395 0.0820
Following Haskel l [1961] , Glen n [1991 ] foun d a quasi-stati c solu - H -0.1807 0.0273 0.0000
tion usin g vo n Mise' s yiel d criterion . Thi s solutio n i s als o a n implici t PO -0.2787 0.0295 0.0000
one. However , a n explici t solutio n i s possibl e i n th e cas e wher e th e GP -0.0020 0.0008 0.0188
cavity's fina l siz e i s muc h large r tha n it s initia l size , a s i n a nuclea r
explosion. Th e cavit y radiu s i s the n 2.2 a = 0.074 2
N = 35 8
Rc — C (37a) F2a = 1-393
L47r(p0 + f y F ) J
Parameter Coeff. Std. error P
where Intercept 4.1028 0.3843 0.0000
F = 1 + In
[1KB)].
and C depend s o n th e initia l cavit y size .
(376) P
H
0.2185
-0.1950
-0.2621
0.1408
0.0272
0.0293
0.1216
0.0000
0.0000
Po
Using (35) , Orpha l [1970 ] analyze d 17 2 explosion s bu t h e ha d GP -0.0024 0.0008 0.0041
estimates o f th e require d materia l properties , includin g 7, onl y fo r
broad categorie s o f materials . H e foun d tha t cube-roo t scalin g wa s 2.3 a = 0.115 1
not significantl y differen t fro m th e 0.2 9 obtaine d b y Hear d [reporte d N = 358
and used b y Muelle r an d Murphy , 1971 ] and tha t th e dept h exponen t F 2 a = 1.67 9
ranged fro m 0.0 8 t o 0.1 4 dependin g o n media .
Yield an d dept h exponent s ar e important quantitie s i n the seismi c Parameter Coeff. Std. error P
moment versu s yiel d (o r cavit y size ) relationshi p an d th e differenc e Intercept 4.8407 0.5959 0.0000
between 0.2 9 o r 0.30 6 an d 1/ 3 ca n b e important . Fo r example , th e P 0.0554 0.2183 0.7998
use o f Heard' s cavit y radiu s yiel d exponen t b y Muelle r an d Mur - H -0.2890 0.0422 0.0000
phy [1971 ] result s i n a n amplitude , yiel d scalin g exponen t o f 0.87 , -0.1527 0.0455 0.0009
PO
considerably les s tha n th e theoretica l valu e o f 1 . Therefore , thes e GP -0.0053 0.0013 0.0001
exponents shoul d b e a s wel l determine d a s possible . Sinc e Orphal' s
work wa s published , cavit y dat a an d som e correspondin g materia l
2.4 a = 0.074 1
properties dat a (bu t unfortunatel y no t shea r strength ) hav e becom e
N = 35 8
available o n nearl y twic e a s many explosions , therefore , th e empirica l
F 2 a = 1.39 7
cavity siz e versu s yiel d relationshi p wa s re-evaluated , incorporatin g
available materia l properties . Parameter Coeff. Std. error
lb. Cavity Size—Regression Analysis. Th e theoretica l relation - 0.1793
Intercept 4.1667 0.0000
ships (32) , (34) , (35) , an d (37a ) al l predic t a cube-roo t yiel d depen -
dency. Onl y th e finit e differenc e paramete r stud y o f Terhun e an d P -0.3848 0.0467 0.0000
P0 -0.2625 0.0292 0.0009
Glenn [1977 ] predict s a differen t yiel d dependency . O f thos e tha t
GP -0.0025 0.0008 0.0016
incorporate shea r strength , onl y (36 ) ha s i t a s a stand-alon e term ;
the other s al l hav e i t combine d wit h overburden . I f 7 i s significantl y
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Fig. 6 . Cavit y radiu s residual s versu s overburden . Th e sandston e an d th e unflagge d sal t dat a are from very small
laboratory chemica l explosion s [Larson , 1984] . N o clea r evidence i s seen t o suppor t a different dept h dependenc e for each
material an d n o clea r evidenc e i s see n tha t chemica l explosion s ar e differen t tha n nuclea r ones . A shea r strengt h and a
tamping facto r ar e probabl y require d t o explai n th e remainin g variance .

static solutio n approximate d th e dynami c on e only whe n th e cavity' s troduction t o thi s section , th e significanc e level s indicat e tha t al l th e
final radius was not muc h larger than it s initial radius . Thi s i s clearl y variables excep t densit y mak e a significan t contribution . Th e esti -
not the cas e for a fully tamped nuclea r explosion and , therefore , (37a ) mated yiel d coefficien t clearly suggest s cube-roo t a s oppose d t o 7/2 4
does not apply . A relationshi p incorporatin g shear strength a s in (36 ) scaling o f Bake r e t al . Nevertheles s bot h scalin g law s wer e teste d b y
is mor e likel y t o b e appropriate . running tw o additiona l models . Th e yiel d coefficien t wa s se t t o 1/ 3
To addres s th e yiel d scalin g issue , a log-linea r mode l simila r t o and 7/24 i n model 2. 2 and 2.3, respectively , an d th e other coefficients
(30) an d (33 ) wa s used : were re-evaluated. Th e results are shown in Table 2 . O f the two mod-
els. 2. 2 ha s a muc h smalle r standar d deviatio n an d correspondin g
log Rc = x 0 + xi lo g W + x 2 lo g p + x 3 lo g fi + x 4 log Po 4- x*GP, (38 ) F-value. Therefore , th e dat a d o support cube-roo t rathe r tha n Bake r
et al . scaling .
where GP i s the gas-filled porosity, i.e. , tha t portion, give n in percent, While th e significanc e leve l i n mode l 2. 2 suggest s tha t th e den -
of th e tota l volum e fille d wit h gas . Th e ga s porosit y wa s include d sity doe s no t mak e a s significant contributio n t o th e reductio n o f th e
because Butkovic h [1976 ] found , whe n investigatin g th e dispositio n variance ove r tha t o f th e othe r variables , it s coefficien t an d tha t o f
of the forme r cavit y material , tha t eve n 1 % gas porosit y ca n accoun t the shea r modulu s ar e nearl y th e sam e valu e bu t o f opposit e sign ,
for th e tota l cavit y volum e i n jus t a fe w cavit y radi i i f th e pore s suggesting tha t bot h o f the m coul d b e replace d wit h shea r wav e
are completel y crushed . Th e densit y an d shea r modulu s wer e in - velocity. Thi s possibilit y wa s teste d i n mode l 2. 4 an d wa s foun d
cluded becaus e a preliminary investigatio n o f cube-root scale d cavit y to fi t th e dat a equall y well . Sinc e 2. 4 i s a smalle r model , i t i s pre -
radii showe d tha t bot h i t an d ga s porosity coul d explai n muc h o f th e ferred ove r 2.2 .
variance. The residual s o f mode l 2.4 , show n i n Figur e 6 versus overburden ,
The intercept , an d coefficients , o f (38 ) wer e found an d ar e address th e dept h dependenc e an d chemica l versu s nuclear questions .
given i n Tabl e 2 a s mode l 2.1 . Base d o n th e criteri a give n i n th e in - If th e variou s material s hav e differen t dept h dependencie s i t i s no t
14 EXPLOSION SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTION

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Fig. 7 . Estimate d yiel d fro m (39 ) v s actua l yield . Th e ver y smal l chemica l explosion s (W < l x l O - 7 kt) are as well
estimated a s th e nuclea r ones . Th e reductio n i n th e varianc e du e t o (39 ) i s larg e a t nuclea r yield s greate r tha n about
1 k t bu t no t a t lowe r ones . Thi s i s probabl y du e t o measuremen t error . Th e hard-roc k explosion s randoml y overla y the
ones i n porou s roc k a s see n i n th e offse t wher e th e highl y porou s rock s ar e no t differentiated .

clearly evident . Th e hard-roc k material s exhibi t a s muc h varianc e comm.). Th e mos t significan t aspec t o f Figure 7 , however, i s that th e
as th e porou s ones . No r i s i t clea r tha t chemica l explosion s ar e dif - hard-rock explosion s randoml y overla y th e porou s ones .
ferent fro m nuclea r one s sinc e th e chemica l explosion s i n sal t appea r 2. Seismic Moments. I n Figur e 8 seismi c moment s ar e plotte d
to merg e wit h th e nuclea r one s a t hig h overburde n (take n t o b e th e against yield . Th e measurement s wer e mad e i n al l distanc e regimes ,
same a s confinin g pressur e i n thi s figure). Apparentl y t o explai n th e for both type s o f explosions, an d i n many differen t types of materials .
remaining varianc e i n Figur e 6, shea r strength , an d possibl y initia l No distinction i s made between th e different types of data and it is not
cavity size , mus t b e take n int o account . A s Glen n [1990 ] point s out , clear tha t the y ar e consistent wit h eac h othe r o r with yiel d scalin g t o
the emplacemen t canniste r siz e bear s littl e relatio n t o yield . There - the first power . T o unify the data , th e rati o of the measure d momen t
fore, a tampin g facto r a s wel l a s a shea r strengt h ter m ma y b e re - to th e theoretica l momen t wa s modelle d wit h
quired i n (38) . I f suc h informatio n coul d b e mad e available , (38 )
should b e appropriatel y modifie d an d re-evaluated . \og(Mo/Mt)= x 0 + xi lo g W + x 2 \ogfi + x 3 lo g P0 + x AGP, (40 )
Given mode l 2.4 , th e cavit y radius , yiel d relatio n i s 2
where M t = |7r pa R%. Th e coefficient s i n (40 ) wer e evaluate d wit h
o - 1.47x10- ' W l" and withou t th e dat a o f Ak i e t al . Thi s wa s don e becaus e o f th e
^~ ^ 0 . 3 8 4 8 p 0 . 2 6 2 5 ^Q0.0025G P ' concerns state d abov e tha t th e free-fiel d moment s ma y hav e bee n
estimated fro m dat a take n i n th e non-linea r regio n an d tha t th e
Several interestin g result s o f (39 ) ca n be see n i n Figur e 7 . Th e yield s other moment s ma y includ e effect s due t o non-isotropi c mechanisms ,
of the laborator y chemica l explosions ar e as well estimated a s those of e.g., tectoni c releas e o r drive n bloc k motions . Usin g th e sam e pro -
the nuclea r ones . Als o see n i s tha t th e varianc e abou t (39 ) i s larges t cedure outline d above , virtuall y identica l result s wer e foun d fo r th e
for the lo w nuclea r explosions . Thi s ma y b e du e t o th e measuremen t two cases . Th e shea r modulu s wa s no t foun d t o contribut e t o th e
error, estimate d t o b e abou t 1. 5 meters (N . R . Burkhard , LLNL , per . reduction i n varianc e whil e overburde n an d ga s porosit y were . I t
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Fig. 8 . Momen t v s yield . Th e smal l explosion s ( W < 0.00 1 kt ) ar e chemica l an d th e other s ar e nuclear . Th e dat a o f
Aki e t al . [1974 ] an d Patto n (thi s volume ) wer e previousl y described . Th e dat a o f Johnso n ar e fro m momen t tenso r
inversions o f surfac e dat a take n close-i n o n (1 ) th e smal l chemica l explosion s a t NT S [Johnso n an d McEvilly , 1990] ,
(2) chemica l explosion s fire d b y th e USG S i n a limeston e quarr y [McEvill y an d Johnson , 1989] , an d (3 ) tw o nuclea r
explosions a t NT S [Johnson , 1988] . McGar r an d Bicknel l [1990 ] too k thei r dat a bot h i n th e free-fiel d an d close-i n o n
the surfac e fro m chemica l explosion s i n tw o Sout h Africa n gol d mines . Th e dat a o f Denn y [1990 ] includ e SALMO N an d
free-field measurements o f chemica l explosion s a t NT S (unpublished) . Th e dat a o f Steven s [1986 ] ar e fro m measurement s
of teleseismi c surfac e waves .

was als o foun d tha t n o additiona l yiel d ter m i s required . Th e yiel d the differen t types , i t i s no t eviden t i n thes e figures . I n Figur e 9 ,
dependency containe d i n M t, firs t powe r fro m (39) , i s sufficient . Th e the chemica l explosion s ar e a s evenl y distribute d abou t th e simpl e
model obtaine d fo r th e seismi c momen t i s moment, yiel d regressio n lin e a s th e nuclea r ones , an d i n Figur e 1 0
the measuremen t regimes , likewise , see m t o b e compatibl e wit h eac h
1 0.3490 j Q—0.0269G P
M o= M M T P T (41) other.
It i s importan t t o bea r i n min d that , althoug h th e tota l numbe r o f
The reductio n i n varianc e du e t o (41 ) ove r a simple moment , yiel d measurements i s 86 , th e dat a se t i s no t larg e considerin g it s diversity .
relationship ca n b e see n b y comparin g Figur e 9 wit h Figur e 8 . Thi s It i s wel l know n tha t statistica l result s o n smal l dat a set s ca n b e mis -
comparison show s a ver y larg e reduction , especiall y a t th e ver y lo w leading an d th e F-value , i n thi s case , i s no t small . Therefore , thes e
yields wher e th e rang e i n ga s porosit y i s th e greatest . A larg e reduc - results shoul d no t b e take n a s a n unequivoca l demonstratio n o f th e
tion i s als o seen i n Aki' s dat a set . Figur e 9 demonstrates tha t ther e i s compatibility o f th e differen t dat a types . Mor e dat a ma y chang e th e
probably n o nee d t o trea t th e differen t kind s o f material s separately , picture. Nevertheless , ther e i s n o indicatio n o f a differenc e betwee n
as th e hard-roc k explosion s overla y th e porou s ones . the variou s type s o f data . Effort s should b e mad e t o enlarg e th e dat a
That th e differen t type s o f data , i.e. , chemical , nuclear , free-field , set and , especially , t o fil l i n th e hug e ga p nea r 1 kt .
close-in, regional , an d teleseismic , appea r t o b e consisten t ca n be see n 3. Corner Frequency/Source Radius. Th e dat a use d i n th e corne r
in Figure s 9 an d 10 . I f ther e wer e a n importan t differenc e betwee n frequency analysi s ar e show n i n Figur e 11 , wher e instea d o f corne r
16 EXPLOSION SEISMI C SOURC E FUNCTIO N

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Fig. 9 . Yiel d estimate d fro m (41 ) versu s actua l yiel d b y material . A s wit h th e cavit y radiu s results , th e hard-roc k
moments randoml y overla y thos e fo r porou s rocks . Als o th e chemica l explosion s ar e see n t o b e consisten t wit h th e
nuclear ones . Th e reductio n o f varianc e du e t o (41 ) ove r a simpl e moment , yiel d relationshi p ca n b e see n b y comparin g
this figur e wit h Fig . 8 . Th e 95 % confidenc e leve l F-valu e i s 6.3 4 fo r Fig . 8 whil e i n thi s figur e i t i s 2.34 .

frequency, sourc e radius , R s = /3/irf c, ha s bee n plotted . Thi s figur e with th e momen t data , th e fe w hard-roc k (Figur e 12 ) explosion s ran -
shows tha t th e differen t type s o f dat a appea r t o b e consisten t wit h domly overla y th e porou s one s wit h th e exceptio n o f th e on e i n sal t
each othe r an d wit h cube-roo t scaling . Thi s woul d no t b e th e cas e i f (SALMON). Also , a s wit h th e momen t dat a th e differen t dat a type s
attenuation ha d a n importan t effec t o n th e data . T o confir m cube - (Figure 13 ) appea r t o b e consistent . Finally , ther e ha s bee n con -
root scaling , th e rati o o f th e measure d sourc e radiu s t o th e cavit y cern tha t corne r frequenc y estimate s fro m dat a take n outsid e o f th e
radius wa s modelle d wit h free-field ar e contaminate d b y spal l [Vergin o e t al. , 1988] . Whil e thi s
phenomenon undoubtedl y occurs , i t doe s no t appea r t o b e a seriou s
\og(Rs/R=
c) xo + x 1\ogW + x 2\ogp + x 3fi + x 4\ogPo + x 5GP (42 ) problem, give n th e varianc e i n th e data .
This dat a se t i s hal f agai n large r tha n th e seismi c momen t se t
where R c i s give n b y (39) . N o additiona l yiel d ter m wa s foun d t o and, therefore , i t ma y provid e somewha t greate r confidenc e tha t n o
be required . Th e yiel d dependenc y containe d i n R c, cube-root , i s significant difference s betwee n th e variou s type s o f dat a exist . How -
sufficient. Bot h th e shea r modulu s an d th e overburde n wer e foun d t o ever, effort s shoul d stil l b e mad e t o enlarg e th e dat a se t an d t o fil l i n
make significan t contribution s t o (42 ) bu t densit y an d ga s porosit y the hug e ga p nea r 1 kt .
were not . Th e mode l fo r sourc e radiu s i s
k = 0 7245
B. Conclusions
' ^ ^ P „ - ° 2 8 9 7 . (43 )
Of th e sourc e mode l parameters , th e seismi c momen t an d th e cor -
The reductio n i n varianc e du e t o (43 ) ove r a simpl e sourc e ra - ner frequenc y ar e bette r know n tha n th e roll-of f o r th e overshoot .
dius, yiel d relationshi p ca n b e see n b y comparin g Figur e 1 2 wit h The empirica l cavit y radiu s formula , (39) , foun d i n thi s stud y i s
Figure 11 . Thi s compariso n show s tha t (43 ) reduce s th e varianc e significantly differen t fro m tha t use d i n th e Mueller-Murph y sourc e
considerably bu t no t a s dramaticall y a s i n th e momen t case . A s model an d lead s t o differen t yiel d scaling . Th e sourc e function' s mo -
DENNY AN D JOHNSON 1 7

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Yield (kt)

Fig. 10 . Yiel d estimate d fro m (41) versu s actua l yiel d b y measurement regime . Th e variou s regimes are indistinguishable
as the y ar e randoml y interspersed .

ment an d corne r frequenc y ar e both dependen t o n th e cavit y radius , reality, the n som e interestin g consequence s ca n be derived. I f the ma -
but i n differen t ways , an d ar e consistent wit h cube-roo t scalin g whe n terial propertie s ar e independen t o f dept h an d th e containmen t rule
the materia l propertie s ar e take n int o account . Al l thre e o f thes e requires that dept h be proportional t o the cube-root o f the yield, the n
source propertie s ar e see n fro m (39) , (41 ) an d (43 ) t o b e dependen t cavity radius , moment , an d corne r frequenc y woul d scal e a s W° 246 ,
on dept h o f burial . Unfortunatel y th e questio n o f whethe r dept h i s W 0 8 4 9 , an d W - 0 1 4 8 , respectively . A mor e realisti c pictur e fo r NT S
a surrogat e fo r shear strength , a s suggeste d b y Larson' s [1984 ] work , can b e forme d b y calculatin g th e sourc e functio n propertie s fo r al l
could no t b e addresse d a s shea r strengt h dat a i s no t availabl e o n the explosion s havin g th e require d materia l properties . Th e result s
a cas e b y cas e basis . However , Schoc k [1981 ] ha s presente d dat a of this samplin g o f NT S sugges t that , give n onl y th e yield , cavit y ra -
that sho w a rough correlatio n betwee n yiel d strengt h an d shea r wav e dius ca n b e estimate d t o withi n a factor o f 1. 6 wit h 95 % confidence .
speed, suggestin g tha t perhap s shea r wav e spee d i s a surrogat e an d Similarly, seismi c moment , corne r frequency , an d energ y ca n b e esti -
depth i s not . mated withi n a facto r o f 4.9 , 1.7 , an d 6.4 , respectively . T o obtai n a
No evidenc e wa s foun d i n thi s stud y t o sugges t tha t chemica l smaller F-value , th e materia l propertie s mus t b e tightl y controlled .
and nuclea r explosion s ar e significantl y different . I n fact , th e dat a The result s o f th e abov e calculatio n ar e show n fo r seismi c mo -
support th e conclusio n o f Killian e t al . [1987 ] who found from a com- ment an d corne r frequenc y i n Figure s 1 4 an d 15 , respectively . Th e
prehensive finit e differenc e stud y o f nuclea r an d chemica l explosion s slope i s seen t o chang e significantl y wit h increasin g yiel d i n bot h fig -
in a variety o f geologi c material s tha t n o difference s between th e tw o ures. Thi s i s due to th e material propert y change s with dept h (yield) .
sources exist s beyon d a rang e equa l t o twic e th e origina l siz e o f th e Given thi s larg e varianc e an d characte r o f the momen t plot , i t i s no t
chemical explosive . difficult t o se e ho w repeate d rando m sampling s o f thes e result s fo r
C. Implications a smal l numbe r o f explosion s coul d produc e greatl y differen t slopes .
The man y differen t observations , documente d above , ar e the n no t
Assuming tha t (39) , (41) , an d (43 ) ar e a perfect representatio n o f surprising.
18 EXPLOSION SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTION

Yield (kt)

Fig. 11 . Sourc e radiu s versu s yield . Th e smal l explosion s ar e chemica l one s whil e th e remainde r ar e fro m nuclea r
explosions. Th e dat a o f Bocharo v e t al . [1989 ] ar e fro m a singl e broadband , teleseismi c statio n an d wer e estimate d
from th e pea k o f th e particl e velocit y spectra . Th e dat a o f Denn y ar e fro m (1 ) free-fiel d an d close-i n measurement s o f
chemical explosion s a t NT S (unpublished ) an d (2 ) fro m peak s o f statio n average d particl e velocit y spectr a o f regiona l
measurements (unpublished) . Th e dat a o f Dowl a (per . comm. ) ar e fro m regiona l measurement s mad e b y fittin g th e P g
displacement spectr a wit h a second orde r model . McGar r an d Bicknel l [1990 ] estimated th e corne r frequencie s fro m th e
particle velocit y spectr a fro m free-fiel d an d close-i n surfac e measurement s describe d above . Thei r surfac e datu m wa s
omitted becaus e i t apparentl y suffere d a grea t dea l o f attenuatio n travelin g upwar d i n th e crust . Th e dat a o f Vergin o
et al . [1988 ] wer e fro m regiona l measurement s reduce d b y th e transfe r functio n technique , e.g . se e Denn y an d Goodma n
[1990].

VI. Summar y an d Recommendation s radius.


An interesting , worthwhil e exercis e woul d b e t o deriv e th e equiv -
The vibratin g spher e proble m provide s a goo d startin g poin t fo r alent radia l stres s for those few explosions wher e free-field radial par -
building a mode l fo r th e seismi c sourc e functio n o f undergroun d ex - ticle velocit y measurement s wer e mad e a t severa l ranges . Fo r thos e
plosions. However , littl e i s know n abou t th e basi c propertie s o f th e explosions whos e dat a ar e onl y i n th e non-linea r zone , th e result s
radial stres s an d elasti c radius . Instead , th e parameter s o f moment , would obviousl y b e fictitiou s bu t thei r progressiv e change i n shap e
corner frequency, overshoot, an d roll-off are estimated t o describe th e with rang e ma y b e enlightening .
source function . A sourc e radiu s ter m ca n b e define d fro m th e cor - In this study i t wa s found that th e seismi c momen t an d the corner
ner frequenc y bu t i t ha s n o know n relationshi p t o th e elasti c radiu s frequency ar e bette r know n tha n th e othe r sourc e properties , thoug h
except that , i n a fully tamped explosion , i t i s greater tha n th e elasti c not s o well know n tha t additiona l dat a would no t increas e confidenc e
radius, whil e i n a full y decouple d explosion , i t i s equa l t o th e elasti c in th e empirica l formulas . O n th e contrary , additiona l dat a shoul d
DENNY AN D JOHNSON 1 9

Yield (kt)
Fig. 12 . Yiel d estimate d fro m (43) versu s actua l yiel d b y material . A s wit h th e cavit y radiu s and moment results, the
hard-rock sourc e radi i randoml y overla y thos e fo r porou s rocks . Als o th e chemica l explosion s ( W < l x l O - 4 kt) are
seen t o b e consisten t wit h th e nuclea r ones . Th e reductio n o f varianc e du e t o (43) ove r a simpl e source radius, yield
relationship ca n be seen b y comparin g thi s figure with Fig . 11 . Th e 95 % confidence level F-valu e is 1.93 for Fig. 11 while
in thi s figur e i t i s 1.65 .

be acquire d t o improv e confidence . A n effor t should als o b e mad e t o sives suggest s tha t experiment s employin g chemica l explosive s coul d
better understan d ho w shea r strengt h shoul d b e factore d int o thes e be a n effectiv e mean s o f resolvin g th e remainin g sourc e functio n un -
empirical relationships , t o understan d th e trade-off s betwee n shea r certainties. Th e result s fro m chemica l explosion s are , i n fact , ver y
strength an d depth , an d to acquire shear strength information . Som e encouraging an d furthe r us e shoul d b e mad e o f suc h experiment s t o
of th e varianc e i n eac h o f th e empirica l relationship s could , also , b e gain experienc e i n a wider variet y o f materials. A n experimenta l pro -
due t o th e initia l sourc e volum e a s suggeste d b y Glen n [1990 ] an d gram designe d aroun d chemica l explosion s coul d remov e man y o f th e
information o n i t shoul d b e collecte d t o determin e it s impact . uncertainties an d answe r man y questions , includin g th e behavio r o f
What wa s no t foun d i n thi s stud y wa s als o significant . N o sig - different roc k type s a t lo w stresses .
nificant difference s betwee n hard-rock s an d porou s one s wer e foun d Acknowledgements. Howar d Patto n an d Pau l Richard s deserv e
beyond wha t i s accounted fo r by the shea r modulu s an d ga s porosity . special thank s fo r thei r suggestion s fo r improvin g th e organizatio n
Nor was any evidence found that chemica l explosions ar e significantly and content o f this paper. Jane t Ricc a created th e database, Amand a
different from nuclear explosions , i n agreemen t wit h th e finit e differ- Goldner helpe d ou t wit h th e regressio n analysi s an d Dic k Mensin g
ence calculation s o f Killia n e t al . [1987] . An d n o difference s wer e helped interpre t th e results . Th e man y suggestion s o f th e reviewer s
found i n eithe r th e momen t o r corne r frequenc y du e t o th e measure - were appreciate d an d man y wer e incorporated . On e anonymou s re -
ment realm , near-fiel d versu s far-field . However , th e hard-roc k dat a viewer especiall y prodde d th e author s t o d o a better job . Thi s wor k
set i s ver y smal l s o that th e possibilit y ma y stil l exis t tha t hard-rock s was don e unde r th e auspice s o f th e U.S . Departmen t o f Energ y b y
should b e treate d differentl y tha n porou s ones . Lawrence Livermor e Nationa l Laborator y unde r contrac t W-7405 -
The lac k o f significant difference s between th e tw o types o f explo - Eng-48. Fundin g wa s provide d b y th e DO E Offic e of Arm s Control .
20 EXPLOSIO N SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTIO N

Yield (kt)

Fig. 13 . Yiel d estimate d fro m (43 ) versu s actua l yiel d b y measuremen t regime . A s wit h th e momen t data , th e variou s
regimes ar e randoml y mixed .
DENNY AN D JOHNSON 2 1

Fig. 14 . Simulate d seismi c moment . (41 ) wa s evaluate d fo r al l th e event s i n th e databas e wit h th e require d materia l
parameters. Considerabl e variatio n acros s NT S shoul d b e expected . I t i s eas y t o se e ho w a smal l se t o f event s coul d
appear t o hav e a slope differen t tha n th e tru e slope .
22 EXPLOSIO N SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTION

Fig. 15 . Simulate d corne r frequency . (43 ) wa s evaluate d fo r al l th e event s i n th e databas e with the required material
parameters. A systemati c chang e i n slop e shoul d b e expecte d wit h increasin g dept h (yield) .
DENNY AND JOHNSON 2 3

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Mountain Earthquake , Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 72, 1329-1349 , 1982 . Werth, G . C. , an d R. F . Herbst , Compariso n o f Amplitude s o f Seismi c
Patton, H . J. , Seismi c Momen t Estimatio n an d th e Scalin g o f th e Waves fro m Nuclear Explosions i n Four Mediums, J. Geophys. Res.,
Explosion Sourc e Spectrum, this volume, 1991 . 68, 1463 , 1963 .
Peppin, W. A. , P-Wave Spectr a of Nevad a Test Sit e Events at Near and Werth, G . C. , R . F . Herbst , an d D. L . Springer , Amplitude s o f Seismi c
Very Near Distances: Implication s fo r a Near-Regional Body Wave - Arrivals fro m th e M Discontinuity , J. Geophys. Res., 67, 1587 ,
Surface Wav e Discriminant , Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 66, 803-825 , 1962.
1976. Wyss, M. , T . C . Hanks , an d R. C . Liebermann, Compariso n o f P- Wave
Perret, W. R., Free-Field and Surface Motion from a Nuclear Explosion Spectra o f Undergroun d Explosion s an d Earthquakes , J. Geophys.
in Alluvium: Merlin Event, Sandi a Laboratories , Albuquerque , NM , Res., 76, 2716 , 1971 .
FREE-FELD SEISMIC OBSERVATIONS FROM UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS

John R. Murphy

S-CUBED, Reston Geophysics Office, Reston, Virginia 22091-5353

Abstract. This paper presents a review of some of the characteristics Moreover, for a variety of reasons which will be illustrated in the
of the ground motion measurements which have been made in the near- following discussion, the interpretation of the recorded data in terns of
field of U.S. underground nuclear tests dating back to the RAINIER seismic source characteristics has often been ambiguous. For these
explosion in 1957. In particular, the complications involved in inter- reasons, the number of subsurface instrumentation programs has been
- -
re tine such data in terms of the seismic source characteristics of
underground explosions are addressed and examples are presented which
limited and, in fact, their frequency and sophistication have declined in
recent years. In this paper, an attempt will be made to provide an
-
illustrate the confounding effects introduced bv nonlinear medium overview of some of the available free-field data relevant to seismic source
response, source medium heterogeneity and interaction of the primary estimation for underground nuclear explosions and selected samples of
shock wave with the free surface above the shot wint. On the other hand, these data will be used to illustrate the variety of phenomena which
examples are also presented which demonstrate that, despite these influence the interpretationof these data.
difficulties, the source characteristicswhich have been inferred from these
near-field ground motion data have been shown to correlate remarkably Definitions
well with the regional and teleseismic observations in some cases.
Therefore, it is concluded that, although the available free-field seismic Consider the one-dimensional problem of a spherically symmetric
data are often incomplete and difficult to interpret, they can provide a explosive source acting in an infinite, homogeneous, elastic medium. If
valuable foundation for the development of seismic source models which the detonation point is taken as the origin of a spherical coordinate
can account for some important characteristicsof the ground motion data system and it is assumed that there exists a spherical surface of radius rel
observed from underground nuclear explosions. surrounding the detonation point outside of which infinitesimal strain
theory is applicable, then for r > re1 the equation of motion reduces to the
Introduction familiar one-dimensional wave equation in the reduced displacement
potential (RDP) 4:
Ever since the U.S. underground nuclear testing program was initiated
with the RAINIER explosion at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on
September 19, 1957, repeated attempts have been made to infer the
seismic source functions corresponding to such events through analyses of
measured near-field ground motion data. In principle, this would seem to where a is the compressional wave velocity of the medium. Now, for
be a relatively simple problem in that since both the locations and times outgoing spherical waves, equation (1) has a solution of the form $ =
of the explosions are known in advance, it is possible to design Nz) where z is the retarded time given by
instrumentation pl ,ns to measure any specific ground motion data which
might be required to establish or validate the seismic source models.
However, despite some early progress such as that reported by Werth et al.
119621 and Werth and Herbst [19631, it has now come to be recognized
that the practical problem of defining a generally applicable nuclear Furthermore, for r > re], the radial displacement Z is related to $ by
seismic source function and associated scaling laws from analyses of near-
field ground motion recordings is a complicated process which is still not
fully resolved.
One complicating factor which was recognized early in the testing
program is that surface measurements are usually complicated by
nonlinear free surface interaction effects and thus are not well suited to the
task of infemng seismic source characteristics. Consequently, programs
were initiated to make subsurface measurements near source depth, where
the influence of the free surface is less prominent These have &me to be
Thus, given a measurement of the radial displacement at any distance r >
known as "free-field" measurements and are the subject of the analyses
re1 in such a medium, the RDP can be found by integrating the differential
described in this paper. It should be noted that such measurements are
equation (4). which, under the homogeneous initial condition $(0) = 0,
very expensive and difficult to make and are not always successful.
leads to the solution
Z
Explosion Source Phenomenology a a
Geophysical Monograph 65
Copyright 1991 American Geophysical Union = r a e-" I Z ( q ) eTTldq
0
It follows from (5) that if the displacement at r approaches a permanent, Estimation of Explosion Seismic Source Functions
constant value, Zp, as T-S-, then the corresponding static value of the From Measured Free-Field Ground Motion Data
RDP, $(-), will be given by

$(-) = r2 zP (6)
In terms of equation (5). it would appear to be a straightforward matter
with a corresponding seismic moment defined as to estimate the explosion seismic source, or RDP, from ground motion
measurements taken at ranges lying beyond the transition to linear
material response (i.e., r > rel). This has not proved to be the case,
however, because the actual environments in which the explosions take
Now, by conservation of mass, the permanent radial displacement at a place are not infinite in extent, homogeneous, or perfectly elastic. While
distance r in an incompressible medium due to the creation of an it is difficult to generalize about the effects of these departures from the
explosively generated cavity which grows from a small initial simplifying model assumptions used in deriving equation (5).
vaporization radius to a final radius, rc, is given approximately by examination of selected free-field data does provide some insight into their
characteristics and relative importance. For example, Figure 1 shows the
locations of the subsurface instruments in relation to the local geologic
structure for the 5.3 kt SALMON explosion which was detonated at a
depth of 828 m in the Tatum salt dome in Mississippi on October 22,
1964. It can be seen from this figure that although all the instruments
from which it follows that were emplaced in salt, the medium is not even approximately
homogeneous, as evidenced by thc fact that a salt/anhydrite boundary lies
only a few hundred meters above the shot point. An obvious question
then is whether such a strongly layered source medium can be expected to
significantly modify the observations relative to those which would be
anticipated at the same ranges in a homogeneous medium. Some evidence
relevant to this issue is provided in Figure 2 which shows a comparison
of the vertical acceleration data measured at source depth at ranges of 318
and 744 m Ferret, 19681. Now for a spherically symmetric source in a
homogeneous medium, these components of motion would be expected
to be identically zero and, in fact, their amplitudes are quite small relative
Thus, under the assumption of incompressibility,equation (9b) provides a to those associated with the corresponding radial component motions.
relationship between the seismic moment, as inferred, for example, from However, the point of interest here is that the apparent duration and
analyses of long-period surface waves, and the measurable final radius of complexity of the signal clearly increases with increasing distance. This
the cavity produced by the explosion. is typical of measurements taken at depth and is an indication that
Considering the relationship between displacement atd RDP i q the reflections of the primary pulse from nearby inhomogeneities are indeed
frequency domain, it follows from equation (4) that if @ ( a )and Z(w) contributing noticeably to the observed motions. That is, at the longer
denote the Fourier transforms of @(T)and Z(T) respectively, then ranges the travel paths associated with the indirect, reflected arrivals are
more nearly equal to those associated with the directly induced motion and
consequently their amplitudes are comparable, giving rise to an
increasing complexity with range such as that illus~ratedin Figure 2.
Thus, there is a fundamental experimental design conflict in that, while it
is necessary to place the instruments at large enough range that they
and, consequently, the far-field displacement spectrum is given simply by provide data representative of linear material response, it is also required,
at the same time, that they be close enough to the source that the directly
induced component of the motion can be unambiguously resolved.
A more direct indication of the possible effect of reflected anivals on
the inferred RDP is provided in Figure 3 which shows the radial
4 components of acceleration measured from SALMON 200 m above (El l-
where @(o)is the Fourier transform of the reduced velocity potential, 20) and below (Ell-34) the shot elevation at a range of about 650 m
d @ ( ~ ) / d Thus,
~. the teleseismic P wave displacement is proportional to Ferret, 19681. It can be seen from this figure that the initial arrival is
the reduced velocity potential. Moreover, since by the initial value remarkably consistent on the two recordings with regard to both amplitude
theorem level and shape, indicating the symmetric nature of the primary radiation
from this explosion. However, on the record from station E l 1-20 there
lim iw $(w) = lim @(T) (12) is clear indication of a secondary arrival which appears to have no
w t o ~ t m counterpart on the record from the deeper station E l 1-34. Murphy [I9781
has identified this arrival as a rcflcction from the overlying salt/anhydrite
it follows that boundary and demonstrated that the relative amplitudes at these two
stations are consistent with this hypothesis. In any case, the amplitudes
b
lim @(o) = I$(-) (13) of the secondary arrivals at these stations appear to be small relative to
o+o those of the direct signals and it can be concluded that their effects on the
corresponding RDP estimates are not particularly significant for this
Thus, in the low frequency limit, the far-field P wave displacement explosion.
spectrum will approach a constant value which is proportional to the More dramatic evidence of the effects of medium heterogeneity is
static value of the RDP. provided by the data recorded from explosions in granite. For example, for
MURPHY 27

SALT

Fig. 1. Vertical section through the SALMON detonation point showing the relationship between the instrument locations and
the subsurface geology at the site.
15- -
12 - I El 1-20 -
-
9-
C"
6- -
g-
i= 0
3-
--
v- -
-
2 -3- -
-
cu -6- 4
a REFLECTED ARRIVAL
15- d

12- I
El 1-34
-
9- -
6- -
3- -
0 I -
-3- -

I' -6 I I
0.0 .1 .2 .3 .4
0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 TIME (SEC)
T, S E C O N D S
Fig. 3. Comparison of SALMON radial component acceleration
Fig. 2. Comparison of SALMON vertical component acceleration recordings measured 200 m above (Ell-20) and below (Ell-34) shot depth
recordings measured at source depth at ranges of 3 18 and 744 m. at a range of 650 m.
the 12 kt SHOAL (10/26/63) explosion in granite, ground motion data
were recorded at shot depth along three different azimuths at a common
range of about 590 m. Although the observed motions were clearly not
even approximately radial at these stations, the radial component
displacements were integrated to obtain the three approximations to the
RDP shown in Figure 4 [Weart, 19651. It can be seen that these three
estimates are wildly inconsistent, with the peak values of the potentials
varying by more than a factor of three and the steady state values of the
potentials indicating permanent radial displacements ranging from 0.3 cm
inward at station PMl to 4.0 cm outward at station PM3. Similarly
inconsistent observations were obtained from the PILE DRIVER
(06102166) and HARD HAT (02115162) explosions in granite at NTS
[Murphy, 19781 and probably are related to local block motion along pre-
existing zones of weakness in these highly fractured granitic masses. In
any case, it is clear that such data can provide little constraint on the
explosive seismic source function, and they provide a cautionary note
regarding the interpretation of data recorded along any one azimuth from
the source.
In spite of the various experimental difficulties, such as those briefly
illustrated above, much valuable free-field ground motion data has been
recorded during the course of the U.S. underground testing program.
Table 1 lists explosions conducted prior to about 1970 for which RDP
estimates have been estimated from subsurface recordings and published in
various post-shot reports and summary documents [e.g., Perret and Bass,
1975; Murphy, 1978; Murphy and Bennett, 19791. It can be seen that a
variety of different source media are represented, including salt, granite,
dolomite, sandstonelshale, wet and dry tuff and wet and dry alluvium.
Although additional data have been recorded since 1970, the great expense I I I I I I I 1
associated with fielding subsurface instrumentation arrays has generally 0 036 0.60 0.76 1.00 1.26 1.60 1.76

resulted in less complete data sets which typically do not extend to source 7 , SECONDS
depth and below. Thus, despite their limitations, the data of Table 1
represent a unique resource for evaluating the dependence of seismic source Fig. 4. Comparison of SHOAL reduced displacement potential estimates
coupling on emplacement medium and for the calibration of theoretical obtained from free-field data recorded at a common range along three
models of the explosion source. different azimuths.

TABLE 1. U.S. Nuclear Explosions For Which Reduced Displacement Potentials (RDPs) Have Bcen Reported
Event (Date) Medium Yield (kt) Depth No. of RDPs
(m)
RAINIER (09119/57) Tuff 1.7 274 3
FISHER (09119157) Alluvium 12.4 363 3
GNOME (12110161) Salt 3.1 366 1
HARD HAT (02/15/62) Granite 5.9 290 4
HOGNOSE (03115162) Alluvium L* 239 3
HAYMAKER (06/27/62) Alluvium 46 408 1
SHOAL (101'26163) Granite 12.5 367 3
SALMON (10122164) Salt 5.3 828 12
HANDCAR (1 1/05/64) Dolomite 12 402 11
MUD PACK (12116164) Tuff 2.7 156 3
MERLIN (02116165) Alluvium 10 296 5
DISCUS THROWER (05/27/66) Tuff (dry) 21 338 18
PILE DRIVER (06/02/66) Granite 61 457 5
GASBUGGY (12110167) SandstoneIShale 29 1292 4
HUPMOBJLE (01118168) Alluvium (dry) 7.4 247 1
PACKARD (01115169) Alluvium (dry) 10 247 1
* L indicates yield in the range from 0 to 20 kt
MURPHY 29

In some cases, the source characteristicsinferred from the recorded near-


source data have proven to be remarkably consistent with the more
distant seismic observations. For example, Figure 5 shows a comparison
of the seismic moments inferred by Tsai and Aki [I9711 and Aki et al.
[I9741 from analyses of long-period surface waves recorded from selected
YUCCA C - PAMUTE

NTS explosions with the corresponding moments estimated from the


measured final cavity radii for these events via equation (9b) using the
cavity radius values and shotpoint physical properties reported by Howard
[1976]. Given the uncertainties in both these estimates, the agreement is
surprisingly good, particularly for the lower yield events. As has been
noted before [Murphy, 19771, there does appear to be a consistent
tendency for the megaton leve! explosions, such as BENHAM and
BOXCAR, to be larger than those expected on the basis of the observed
final cavity radii. Although the cause of this discrepancy has yet to be
conclusively identified, Howard Patton, in another paper in this volume,
discusses evidence which suggests that it may be related to systematic
variations of tectonic release characteristics as a function of yield at NTS
patton, 19911. In any case, however, the data suggest that the long-
period seismic radiation from underground explosions can be reasonably
well predicted based on near source observations.
While similar comparisons in the short-period band are more
ambiguous due to uncertainties regarding effects, many
examples have been published which show a general consistency between
the seismic sources inferred from near-fielddata and the corr&ponding
regional and teleseismic P wave observations [e.g., Werth et al., 1962; Fig. 5. Ratios of seismic to near-field explosion moment estimates for
Murphy, 1977; Burdick et a]., 19841. One such example is provided by selected NTS events.
the GASBUGGY explosion data analyzed by Murphy and Archambeau
[1986]. A representative RDP inferred from the GASBUGGY free-field
observation near shot depth at a range of 468 m Ferret, 19681 is shown
in Figure 6 where it can be seen that it is in good agreement with the
Mueller/Murphy analytic approximation for an explosion of that yield
(29 kt) and depth of burial (1292 m) in shale [Mueller and Murphy,
19711. The extent to which this inferred seismic source is consistent with
the observed teleseismic data is illustrated in Figure 7 where the observed
GASBUGGY P waves at College, Alaska (COL, A = 36") are compared
with the synthetic P waves computed using the analytic approximation of
Figure 6 together with a reasonably well-calibrated propagation path
model [Murphy and Archambeau, 19861. It can be seen that both the
amplitude level and dominant period of the initial pulse is matched quite
closely, as is the large secondary P arrival which Murphy and Archambeau
[I9861 have correlated with a prominent spall closure observed on
recordings from surface stations located directly above the GASBUGGY
shotpoint.
More generally, observed free-field data such as those referenced in Fig. 6. Comparison of the observed GASBUGGY reduced displacement
Table 1 have been used in the development of explosion source scaling potential with that predicted by the Mueller/Murphy source model.
models in a variety of studies dating back to the early work of Werth and
Herbst [1963] and Haskell[1967]. Moreover, some of these models have Free Surface Interaction Effects: pP and Spall
subsequently been shown to provide consistent descriptions of the
dependence of the distant seismic observations on variables such as One of the most significant outstanding issues related to the definition
explosion yield, source medium and source depth. For example, the of the seismic source for underground nuclear explosions concerns the
Mueller/Murphy source model [Mueller and Murphy, 19711, which was interaction of the directly induced motion with the free surface above the
empirically calibrated using such free-field data, has subsequently been shotpoint. In the linear approximation, this incident P wave would
shown to account for the frequency dependent variations in the near- simply be reflected as pP, resulting in a teleseismic signal consisting of a
regional, regional and teleseismic data observed from underground direct P wave followed by a delayed pP pulse which is essentially a mirror
explosions at NTS representing a wide range of testing conditions image of P. In fact, however, it has long been recognized that for
[Murphy, 1977; 19891. Other explosion source models based on near- explosions at normal scaled depths of burial (i.e., h c 200 m/kt1l3), this
field observations which have been applied with some success to the free surface interaction is not even approximately linear. That is,
analysis of distant seismic data include those of von Seggern and reflection of the incident compressional P wave from the free surface
Blandford [I9721 and Helmberger and Hadley [1981]. Thus, it can be produces a downward traveling dilitational pulse @P) and at some depth
concluded that although the available free-field data are often incomplete the tensile stress associated with the onset of this pP pulse will generally
and difficult to interpret, they have provided a foundation for the exceed the sum of the tensile strength of the rock, the lithostatic stress
development of seismic source models which account for many of the and the compressive stress associated with the tail end of the upward
characteristics of the ground motion data observed from underground traveling P wave. At that depth, the rock will part and the overlying
nuclear explosions. material will fly up from the new surface in a process which is commonly
resulting from this process can be expected to be modified relative to that
which would be predicted on the basis of the simple linear model
[Springer, 19741. This expectation has been confirmed to the extent that
most analyses of short-period teleseismic P waves recorded from
underground nuclear explosions have concluded that the observed pP phase
is generally not a simple mirror image of P [e.g., Der et al., 1987;
Murphy. 19891. However, as is indicated by Thorne Lay in another paper
in this volume [Lay, 19911, important questions remain to be answered
regarding the frequency dependenceof these effects.
Given these uncertainties concerning the nature of pP, it would seem
natural to look for direct evidence in the observed free-field data.
However, this has not proved to be easy for several reasons. In the first
place, the amplitude of pP relative to that of the directly induced motions
can generally be expected to be quite small on radial component shot
depth recordings. Secondly, the late arrival time of pP at shot depth
constitutes a problem in that the instrumentation frequently fails soon
after the passage of the primary pulse. For these reasons, unambiguous
identification of pP at shot depth stations appears to have been
accomplished only for the 21 kt DISCUS THROWER explosion, which
was detonated at a depth of 338 m in tuff at NTS on May 27, 1966
[Murphy and Bennett, 19791. The locations of the DISCUS THROWER
shotpoint and selected free-field instruments with respect to the subsurface
geology at the site are shown in Figure 8, together with an approximation
of the pP propagation path to station 9D. Good radial component
recordings were obtained at the designated stations 9A and 9B in tuff and
these were processed by Perret and Kimball [I9711 to obtain estimates of
Fig. 7. Comparison of observed GASBUGGY P waves at station COL the RDP for this explosion. Since these two estimates were found to be
with synthetic computed by superimposing direct P with a secondary P quite consistent, they were averaged to obtain the smoothed, composite
phase generated by spall closure. RDP which is shown in Figure 9 togcthcr with a corresponding analytic
approximation. This simple analytic representation of the source has
denoted as spall. Since this spalled off plate of material typically remains been used in conjunction with plane wave transmission and reflection
in ballistic trajectory for periods on the order of 1 to 2 seconds, the coefficients to predict the pP arrival at station 9D. This prediction is
momentum trapped in this plate, which would otherwise contribute to pP, compared with the observed data from station 9D in Figure 10, where
is temporarily removed from the system. It follows that the pP phase both particle velocity time histories have been projected onto the pP ray
RANGE. M
100 200 300 400 500 600 700
I I 1

ALLUVIUM
100 - (1 9 1 7 0 0 Y/SEC

p 1.6 G Y / c u 3

200 -
TUFF

or (1 . 2 1 0 0 Y/SEC

p . 1.9 o u / c u 3

98

400 -
- SD

DOLOMITE

500
Fig. 8. Vertical section through the DISCUS THROWER detonation point showing the relationship between the
selected instrument locations and the subsurface geology at the site.
with the teleseismic observations of Murphy [I9891 and others for
explosions at NTS. This apparently unique clear observation of pP on
the shot depth stations for DISCUS THROWER may be related to the
fact that the spall radius reported for this event is anomalously small
[Perret and Kimball, 19711. That is, the surface reflected phase may have
been less perturbed than usual by spall in this case.
Another aspect of the spall phenomenon which has the potential to
influence the distant seismic observations is the delayed slapdown of the
spalled off plate of material. Estimates of the impulse delivered to the
surface by this spall closure are large enough that they led Viecelli [I9731
and later Murphy [I9771 to speculate that it might make a significant
contribution to the long-period surface waves observed from underground
nuclear explosions. Although Day et al. [I9831 subsequently showed that
the long-period contribution of spall is in fact negligible, questions
remain concerning its relative importance at shorter periods. As with pP,
Fig. 9. Comparison of the average observed (stations 9A and 9B) it would seem natural to look for direct evidence of spall closure induced
DISCUS THROWER reduced displacement potential with the analytic seismic waves in the observed free-field data. However, because they
approximation used for wave propagation simulations. share the same 0bse~ationalliabilities as pP (i.e., low relative amplitude,
late anival time), conclusive identification of spall-induced, short-period
seismic arrivals at shot depth stations has only been achieved for the 10-
kt MERLIN explosion, which was detonated at a depth of 296 m in
alluvium at NTS on February 16,1965 [Murphy and Bennett, 19791.
The locations of the MERLIN shotpoint and selected shot depth
instruments with respect to the subsurface geology at the site are shown
in Figure 11, where it can be seen that the propagation medium is
essentially homogeneous in this case. The radial component
displacements observed at these four shot depth stations are displayed in
Figure 12 [Perret, 19711, where it is indicated that they show evidence of
an unusual secondary signal (vertical dashed lines) which increases in
prominence relative to the direct signal with increasing distance from the
source. The diagnostic characteristics of this pulse are: (a) late arrival
time (-1.5 seconds), (b) relatively low frequency (-1 Hz), (c) moderate
horizontal phase velocity (-1800 m/s) and (d) nearly constant amplitude
over the range of observation. Murphy and Bennett [I9791considered and
rejected the possibilities that this amval might be a surface reflection or a
reflection from a deep interface. That is, the arrival times were shown to
RANGE. M

ALLUVIUM
-20 1 I a= $ 5 0 0 M/sEC
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.4 1 1.1) 2.0
T. SECONDS P= 1.7 GMICMa

Fig. 10. Comparison of observed (top) and simulated (bottom) pP


waveforms for DISCUS THROWER at station 9D. Vertical arrow
denotes predicted pP anival time.

path. Positive values in this figure correspond to motion out along the
ray path and, thus, the anival indicated by the vertical arrow is a Fig. 11. Vertical section through the MERLIN detonation point showing
dilitation. It can be seen from this figure that the predicted and observed the relationship between selected instrument locations and the subsurface
motions agree quite well with respect to arrival time, dominant frequency geology at the site.
and phase. Moreover, Murphy and Bennett [I9791 have found similar
agreement between the predicted and observed ground motions at a be too late to be correlated with a surface reflection and the observed
second, more distant DISCUS THROWER shot depth station, which horizontal phase velocity was shown to be too low to be consistent with
would appear to confum the fact that the identified arrival is pP. In fact, a deep reflection. However, an examination of the surface recordings from
similar projections of the recorded data from stations 9A and 9B also this explosion revealed a spall closure event which seems to satisfy many
show evidence of this arrival, which suggests that the RDP estimate of of the source constraints. These vertical acceleration time histories, which
Figure 9 is influenced to some extent by pP. However, due to differences were recorded on the surface at ranges of 30 to 152 m from ground zero,
in propagation path length and angle of incidence, the expected amplitudes are displayed in Figure 13 [Perret, 19711. It can be seen that these
of pP on the radii component recordings used to infer the RDP are less records are complex, showing evidence of multiple spall events. In
than 25 percent that of direct P, which suggests that any such effects general, there appear to be two prominent rejoin phases, the later of which
should be of second order. Note also from Figure 10 that the predicted becomes more dominant with increasing range. Murphy and Bennett
amplitude for this phase is somewhat larger than the observed, consistent [I9791 interpreted this phase as the time of closure at the greatest depth of
32 FREE-FIELD SEISMIC OBSERVATIONS

measure the explosion P wave source function, pP and spall-generated


ground motions. Thus, for example, the near-field instrumentation plan
for the 1966 PILE DRIVER explosion in granite at NTS included nearly
100 surface and subsurface gauges, some of which were buried at more
than twice the source depth. The objectives of this measurement program
were ambitious and, according to Hoffman and Sauer [1969], included the
following:
(1) To study surface spalling and its contribution to downward traveling
energy.
(2) To determine the source function for teleseismic signals along a line
bearing N58'E from the shot
(3) To investigate the ground motion transition across the Boundary fault
between granite and alluvium.
It can be seen that this list of objectives, which was formulated some 25
years ago, encompassed many of the explosion source coupling issues
which are still of primary concern today. Unfortunately, however, data

TlME (SEC)

Fig. 12. Radial component displacement waveforms recorded at four shot


d e ~ t hstations from the MERLIN ex~losion. Dashed vertical lines denote
the arrival times of the anomalous secondary signal.

significant spall and determined the closure times indicated by the dashed
vertical lines on this figure. It is evident that these closure times are
fairly constant over this distance range, averaging about 1.15 seconds,
and a simple calculation indicates that a P wave originating at this time
from a surface source would be expected to arrive at the shot level stations
at times very close to the observed arrival times of the phase under
investigation. Moreover, Steve Day has performed a series of
elastodynamic finite element simulations of this spall closure event and
demonstrated that it can account for some other important features of the
observations,including dominant frequency and horizontal phase velocity
[Murphy and Bennett, 19791. Thus, the evidence is strong that the
anomalous arrival observed on the MERLIN shot depth inslruments is due
to spall closure. This suggests that spall closure can indecd contribute
significantly to the short-period seismic signal, at least in some cases.

Discussion
TlME (SEC)
Subsurface and surface ground motion measurements have been made
in the near-field of U.S. underground nuclear tests dating back to the Fig. 13. Vertical component acceleration time histories recorded at the
RAINIER test in 1957. Moreover, some of these instrumentation plans surface above the MERLIN event. Dashed vertical lines indicate the
have been quite sophisticated and have included attempts to directly inferred times of spall closure.
MURPHY 33

recovery from these complex, expensive experiments has often been nuclear detonations, Part I. Seismic spectrum scaling, Bull. Seism.
disappointing and, consequently, the stated objectives have usually been Soc. Am., 61, 1675-1692, 1971.
only partially fulfilled. For example, on the PILE DRIVER test, only a Murphy, J. R., A review of available free-field seismic data from
handful of the nearly 100 deployed gauges provided useful data and none of underground nuclear explosions in salt and granite, Computer Sciences
these were from locations below shot depth [Hoffman and Sauer, 19691. Corporation, CSC-TR-78-0003, 1978.
Nevertheless, despite these difficulties, much valuable free-field data has Murphy, J. R., Network-averaged teleseismic P wave spectra for
been recorded during the c o m e of the U.S. testing program. In fact, as underground explosions. Part 11. Source characteristics of Pahute Mesa
has been indicated in this paper, in some cases, estimates of the source explosions, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 79, 156-171, 1989.
parameters determined from the observed free-field data have k n found to Murphy, J. R., Seismic source functions and magnitude determinations
correlate remarkably well with the distant seismic observations. Thus, for underground nuclear detonations, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 67, 135-
these data represent a unique resource for evaluating the dependence of 158, 1977.
source coupling on emplacement conditions and for the calibration of Murphy, J. R. and C. B. Archambeau, Variability in explosion body-
theoretical models of the explosion seismic source. wave magnitudes: An analysis of the Rulison/Gasbuggy anomaly,
Bull. Seism. Soc. Am.! 76, 1087-1113, 1986.
Acknowledgment. This research was sponsored by the Defense Murphy, J. R. and T. J. Bennett, A review of available free-field seismic
Advanced Research Projects Agency and was monitored by the Geophysics data from underground nuclear explosions in alluvium, t G , dolomite.
Laboratory under Contract F1%28-89-C-0026. sandstone-shale and interbedded lava flows, Systems, Science and
Software, SSS-R-80-4216. 1979.
References Patton, H. J., Seismic moment estimation and the scaling of the long-
period explosion source spectrum, this volume, 1991.
Aki, K., M. Bouchon, and P. Reasenberg, Seismic source function for an Perret, W. R., Free-field and surface motion from a nuclear explosion in
underground nuclear explosion, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 64, 131-148, alluvium: Merlin event, Sandia Corporation, SC-RR-69-334, 1971.
1974. Perret, W. R., Free-field particle motion from a nuclear eqlosion in salt.
Burdick, L. J., T. Wallace, and T. Lay, Modeling the near field and Part I , Project Dribble, Salmon event, Sandia Corporation, VUF-
teleseismic observations from the Amchitka test site, J. Geophys. 3012, 1968.
Res., 89,4373-4388, 1984. Perret, W. R. and R. C. Bass, Free-field ground motion induced by
Day, S. M., N. Rimer, and J. T. Cheny, Surface waves from underground underground explosions, Sandia Corporation, SAND-74-0252.1975.
explosions with spall: Analysis of elastic and nonlinear source models, Perret, W. R. and K. B. Kimball, Ground motion induced by a contained
Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 73, 247-264, 1983. nuclear explosion, Project 1 .la/1.2a, Operation Flint Lock, Discus
Der, Z. A., R. H. Shumway, and A. C. Lees, Multi-channel Thrower event, Sandia Corporation, POR-6400,1971.
deconvolution of P waves at seismic arrays, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., Springer, D. L., Secondary sources of seismic waves from underground
77, 195-211, 1987. nuclear explosions, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 64, 581-594, 1974.
Haskell, N. A., Analytic approximation for the elastic radiation from a Tsai, Y. B. and K. Aki, Amplitude spectra of surface waves from small
contained underground explosion, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 2583-2587, earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions,J. Geophys. Res., 76,
1967. 3940, 1971.
Helmberger, D. V. and D. M. Hadley, Seismic source functions and Viecelli, J. A., Spallation and the generation of surface waves by an
attenuation from local and teleseismic observations of the NTS events underground explosion, J. Geophys. Res., 78,2475, 1973.
JORUM and HANDLEY, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 71.51-67, 1981. von Seggem, D. and R. Blandford, Source time functions and spectra for
Hoffman, H. V. and F. M. Sauer, Shot Pile Driver: Free-field and surface underground nuclear explosions, Geophys. J., 31.83-97.1972.
motions, Stanford Research Institute, POR-4000.1969. Weart, W. D., Project Shoal: Free-field earth motion and spalling
Howard, N. W., The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Nuclear measurements in granite, Sandia Corporation, W - 2 0 0 1 , 1965.
Test Effects and Geologic Data Bank, Lawrence Livermore National Werth, G. C. and R. F. Herbst, Comparison of amplitudes of seismic
Laboratory, Livermore, CA, UCRL-78799,1976. waves from nuclear explosions in four mediums, J. Geophys. Res.,
Lay, T., The teleseismic manifestation of pP: Problems and paradoxes, 68, 1463, 1963.
this volume, 1991. Werth, G. C., R. F. Herbst, and D. L. Springer, Amplitudes of seismic
Mueller, R. A. and J. R. Murphy, Seismic characteristics of underground anivals from the M-discontinuity, J. Geophys. Res., 67, 1587, 1962.
MODELING NEAR-FIELD DATA AT NTS AND AMCHITKA

Don Helmbergcr, Lany Burdick, and Richard Stead

Geological and Planetary Sciences, Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91 125

Abslracl. The rcccnt JVE (Joint Verification Experiment), involving from instability causcd by block motions, data scarcity, and assorted non-
shots of roughly the same yield at test sites in the US and USSR, showed linear effects. A third class of data discussed here is commonly rcfcrred to
an offset in tclcscismic mcasurcd mb. This is gcncrally bclieved to bc as ncar-ficld data and consists of observations madc at the surface near the
causcd by diffcrcntial attenuation bcncath thc two test sites. However, epicenter, zero to 20 km.
part of this difference could bc caused by other factors such as variations Unfortunately, the ncar-in wavcform data are not simple and show
in the effective sourcc excitation or reduced displacement potential (RDP). widcly different characteristics from rcgion to rcgion, see Figure 1. The
In this review near-field seismograms from Amchitka and NTS arc two columns on the Icft are observations from two largc explosions at
investigated to determine their source characteristics where the yields are Amchitka. Note the obvious Raylcigh wave phase shifts expected
known indcpendently. To retrieve these RDP's requires separating out bctwccn the vertical and radial componcnts displayed in this data. The
wavcform distortions caused by complex local structures. Aftcr dcaling tangcntial motions arc gencrally weak for Amchitka shots indicating the
with thcsc crustal modeling problems we find distinct differences bctwcen apparcnl lack of strong tectonic release.
thcsc two test sites. Using a modified Haskcll source rcprcsentation given In contrast, the motions observed from BOXCAR displayed on the
by right indicate strong tangential motions and distorted Rayleigh waves.
cp(t) = %[l - e k t ( 1 + k t + (kt)2 / 2 - ~ ( k t ) ~ ) ] Although these records in the time domain suggest distinct differences
bctwcen thc two test sites. thc s~ectralurowrties of the radial comvoncnts
wc rcvicw estimates o r k, B, and cp, for both tcst sites rcquircd to model of MILROW and BOXCAR are quitesimilar. Orphal [1971], concludes
the P waveform data. that the Amchitka source functions follow the NTS scaling laws based on
this similarity. Another rather obvious observational difference between
If wc assumc that B = 1 we find comer frcqucncy (k)to bc 20% smaller
Amchitka and NTS events occurs in thc ratio of peak acceleration to
at Amchitka than at Pahutc. This implies a larger effective source
vclocity as indicated in Figure 2. Although BOXCAR is slightly larger
volumc at Pahute for thc same yicld. The scaling of cp, to yield indicates
in size it has peak accelerations considerably smaller than does MILROW.
about 30% strongcr coupling at Amchilka relative to Pahute. Assuming
However, their peak velocity measurements are quite close as can be seen
othcr source descriptions would not changc thcsc rcsults appreciably in the
by eye-ball integrating the two accclcration records displayed. The origin
frcqucncy range (0.5 to 5 Hz). Allowing the overshoot factor B to vary
timcs are also included with the obscrvcd records displaying a clear
and modcling broad-band information indicate that B for largcr events
indication of differences in upper-crustal structure. Thc apparent vclocity
(dccp) tcnds to drop relative to small events (shallow). This effect is
cxplaincd physically by allowing the explosion cavity to change shape, at Amchitka is roughly 15 to 20% highcr than at Pahute [Burdick et a].,
3 984bl.
going from oblate (pancakc) to prolatc with increased dcpth. This
phenomenon could have important implications considering that the BOXCAR vs AMCHITKA DATA
Soviets tend to use a rcduccd depth-to-yicld scale relative to that employcd CANNlKlN MILROW BOX CAR
by the U.S. 15.8 km 11.5 krn 16.2 km

Introduction

Modeling tclcscismic body waveforms from earthquakes has progressed


considerably in rcccnt years while corresponding progress in modeling
explosions has not. Thcre are still disagreements on the nature of the
cxplosion source with sevcral reprcscntations of RDP's available, with
differcnces in characteristic pcriods and ratcs of energy fall-off with
frcqucncy. There is, also, disagrecmcnt on the variability of source
functions from one test site to anothcr. It appears that tclescismic data
alonc can not resolve these issucs because of complications causcd by the
Earth's attenuation, and complex pP interaction, see Lay of this volume.
Free ficld data discussed by Murphy, also of this volume, contains the
lcast contaminatcd information with respect to propagation but suffers
I
-
5 sec

I
Fig. 1. Comparison of the vertical, radial, and transverse components of
Explosion Source Phenomenology velocity for BOXCAR (Pahute, NTS) with CANNIKIN and MILROW
Geophysical Monograph 65 (Amchitka Island). Note that the BOXCAR waveforms are significantly
Ccpyright 1991 American Geophysical Union more complex especially on the tangential component.
In this review we will discuss some forward modeling studies of near- 6.0 I I I I I 5.5
field waveform data in relationship to teleseismic data for the same events.
We find that NTS and Amchitka have different source function properties
for P-waves. The excitation of other crustal phases is not so clear but we 5.5 -
will examine some of the difficulties encountered in modeling whole
records in terms of crustal complexity. We will, also, address some of the
corresponding complications in teleseismic P-waveforms associated with 5.0 - x MILROW - 4.5
specific sites. A BOXCAR

Review of Basic Modeling

Modeling seismograms in the time domain usually begins with some


assumptions about the source description and earth model. Propagation of
- the earth model is treated by a linear time dependent
a wave field through
operator as is the source description. A synthetic is easily produced by a
convolution. Other operators containing information about attenuation or
instrumentation can be added as required. Following Haskell [1967], we
assume a power series solution for the source description or RDP:
X
J A X
3.0 -

VEL
The number of terms in the bracket indicates the sharpness of the
solution and rate of drop-off in the spectral domain. The displacement 2.5 -
X
x
A X
- 2.0
potential for a whole-space is given by $(R,t) = -cp(~)/Rand displacement A
by
2.0 - - 1.5
x
xx A

1.5 I I I I I X
1 .o
where T = t - R/a,retarded time.
Velocity is proportional to (d2 cp/dt2). Since Haskell was interested in
deriving an analytical expression for energy he placed the B factor
(controls over-shoot) in the fourth term in the power series, thus, Fig. 2. Comparison of the strong motion data from MILROW and
allowing (d2 cp/dt2) to be continuous. His solution decays like f-4. Von BOXCAR. The two observed accelerations start at the shot times
Seggrn and Blandford [I9721 proposed a source with only two terms and indicating the difference in travel time. The curves through the
a f-2 fall-off. Note that this produces a discontinuous velocity and acceleration points are the best fitting quadratic.
requires some small addition of attenuation to consmct near field velocity displayed in Figure 6.
synthetics. Equation (1) is the form used in a number of modeling studies In summary, the synthetic seismograms presented in Figure 5 show
involving near-field and corresponding teleseismic P-waves [Helmberger reasonable agreement with data at ranges greater than about 3 km where
and Hadley, 1981; Burdick et al., 1984b and others]. the material behaves elastically. At shorter ranges, spall develops and our
The objective of these studies is to compare the P and pP arrivals in idealized synthetics based on the wave-equation fail after the initial pulse,
near-field records such as displayed in Figure 1 with teleseismic P-waves. see Figure 4. Essentially, the material near the free surface is pulled apart
If q(t) can be determined locally, we can determine the effective by the downgoing tensional pulse (pP) and the surface layer enters a
attenuation by correcting the teleseismic P-waves for geometric spreading ballistic trajectory until it rcimpacts. The accelerations in Figure 4 show
and pP interference. Accuracy in this computation is controlled by our clear evidence of spall with its characteristic -1 g free fall. The so-called
ability to correct local data for propagational distortions caused by N-wave is apparent in the velocity traces. It is rather surprising that the
complex sttucture. material when it is under compression remains elastic as suggested by the
Figure 3 displays the construction of the local P-wave in terms of the peak velocity results displayed in Figure 6. We will address the spall
direct P, diving P, and pP appropriate for the Amchitka structure. The
phenomenon later in terms of a kinematic cavity model.
first column displays the direct upgoing P wave; the second contains the
P-field that started initially downward and then turned upward by the Scaling Relationships and Results
upper-crustal gradient. The third column contains their sum and the
fourth the sum after adding in pP. At the nearest distance the upgoing ray
The studies by Mueller and Murphy [I9711 and subsequent works by
dominates and pP has virtually no effect. At greater ranges the amplitude Murphy and his colleagues have established the basic scaling
of the diving P becomes stronger producing a change in overall P-wave relationships. This formalism is simply adapted to the RDP
shape. The pP phase begins to emerge at 7 km and becomes more parameterization expressed in (1).
pronounced with distance. At 7 km, pP reflects at nearly the halfway The basic argument is that Y (yield) is proportional ta cavity volume
distance of 3 km which is near the edge of the spa11 zone, see Figure 4. A
and, therefore, the cavity radius, rc, is related to Y by cube-root scaling:
profile of the early portion of MILROW 0bse~ationsis given in Figure
5(a) along with corresponding synthetics. A similar comparison for
CANNIKIN is displayed in Figure 5(b). These fits are not very
impressive, but given the intensity of these signals and the obvious
idealizations (linear and elastic theory), it is rather remarkable. Even more A slightly larger radius associated with the effective elastic radius is
remarkable are the fits to peak velocity predicted by this simple model as determined by re = C Y . /h.42
~ ~ where the exponent of h, the depth, is
HELMBERGER ET AL. 37

P - UPGOlkG P - DOWNGOING P P + pP
MlLROW SURFACE - STRONG MOTIONS

Velocity (21 I

3.5 k m

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1,me. i.ec1 Tome. l u c l

Fig. 4. Ground motion records at the surface displaying the MILROW


spa11 zone. The amplitudes of the first positive peaks and the horizontal
range from surface zero are indicated for each record.

TABLE 1. Layered Crustal Model

-2.5 a e c
v~
(km s-l)
vs
(km s-l)
P
(g cm-3)
Layer thickness
(m)

Fig. 3. This figure displays the interaction of rays which make up the
near-field P-waveform as it develops with distance. The first column on
the left is just the upgoing generalized ray, direct arrival. The next
column displays the diving path contribution. The third column contains
the sum. The results after adding in the phase pP is given on the right.
The traces in each row have the same start time.
determined by empirical means, see Mueller and Murphy [1971], and
depends on material properties. Assuming that cp,is directly related to (rc)
cubed yields

The COrner frequency k depends on .wurce strength such that the larger The results after Hartzell et al. [1984], and Burdick et al. [1984b] are:
the event the longer the source duration. Thus, k is inversely related to
re, Or C2 = 4.7 and C1 = 9.5 x lo8 (Amchitka)
(5)
C2 = 4.0 and C1 = 6.7 x lo8 (Pahute)

The two constants C1 and C2 can be determined by modeling near-field Thus, MILROW has a k of 9 and BOXCAR a lower k of 7. A
data. The other parameter in equation (1) is B which increases with depth comparison of these results for two yield levels is given in Figure 7 along
according to Von Seggern and Blandford [1972]. By restricting the with the Murphy [I9771 standard "wet tuff' for both Pahute and
modeling to the (P and pP) combination we lose the long-period Amchitka.
information. Essentially B and cp, trade-off such that it is not possible to The near-field modeling results suggest that the effective elastic cavity
distinguish between a large B, small cp, combination and a small B, large is larger for softer rocks by about 15% and that the seismic coupling is
cp,,see Burdick et al. [1984b]. Teleseismic short-period body wave data larger by about 30% for harder rocks. These results are compatible with
suffer from the same band-limitation problem [see Helmberger and the material constants discussed by Mueller and Murphy [I9711 when
Hadley, 19811. Thus, B has been fixed at one in comparing the source applied at the Amchitka site, see Stead [1989]. The difficulty is in
differences between Pahute and Amchitka. defining the material constants applicable to the effective cavity volume
j,$%4
CANNIKIN
(b)

~....&
A. km

rl5.8 +
2.5 s e c
SYN. 00s.

Fig. 5. A comparison of synthetics and MILROW observations is given on the left (a). The source parameters are: B = 1, k = 9,
cp, = 1.4 x 10" cm3, and depth of 1.2 km. The seismic parameters are given in Table 1. The CANNIKIN results on the right
(b) assume the same layered model with source parameters: B = 1, k = 6, cp,= 4.5 x lo1 cm3, and depth of 1.8 km.

in the presence of such large fluctuations in velocity logging seismograms.


determinations, see Figure 8. The same problem occurs at Pahute as
discussed by Murphy 119891. Crustal Models
A discussion of these comparisons for the Amchitka data is given by
Lay et al. [1984a] and for the Pahute data by Burger et al. [1987]. These Most close-in modeling studies involve rather idealized assumptions
studies address both the near-field data and teleseismic data and amplitude where the correction for path effects through complex geology is handled
off-sets caused by attenuation. In the period range (2 to .5) secs models, with a flat-layered model. Such a procedure worked quite well at
MM and HH are difficult to distinguish. Both source models give t* Amchitka, see Burdick et al. [1984b], but many mysteries persist.
estimates near .8 for the NTS data set, see Murphy [1989]. Murphy Specifically,why does the ratio of radial to vertical peak amplitudes vary
[I9841 obtains his t* estimate of .75 by spectral modeling where effective so much, and why does the Rayleigh wave to peak P-wave amplitude
"pP" is reduced relative to the time domain modeling by Burger et al. show so much variation from station to station. This subject was
[1987]. They obtain a t* = 1 for the Murphy source. At short periods recently reviewed by Vidale and Helmberger [I9871 with some simple FD
above 10 Hz the two models cross with the MM model predicting results displayed in Figure 10. The lower traces go with the flat-layered
stronger arrivals (f-2). This appears to be necessary in fitting records model and the upper traces are appropriate for the crustal idealization
from central Asia, see Bache et al. [1985]. At long period, the MM displayed at the top.
source models predict stronger M,'s which appears to be observed from The faulted model on the right is based on a geologic cross-section
Pahute events, [Given and Mellman, 19851. At Amchitka the surface from the blast to the various stations, compared to the flat-layered case,
waves are .5 units smaller than from Pahute [Von Seggem, 19731, and the Rayleigh waves in the faulted model are larger and earlier. The surface
there the HH model fits better. Allowing B to vary produces significantly waves are earlier because the fault has lifted faster material to the surface
better results at Amchitka as reported by Lay et al. [1984b], where deep and larger because the layers that dip down away from the source tend to
events take on smaller B's. convert body waves to surface waves. The body waveforms change in a
To obtain more of a broad-band picture of the RDP requires explaining less predictable fashion, since they consist of a fairly unstable
more of the near-field data. At NTS this proves difficult because of the combination of interfering anivals P and pP. The peak amplitudes of the
scattered nature of the surface waves as discussed earlier. Figure 9 body waves fluctuate somewhat but are quite stable.
displays the Almendro results as a typical example, where the initial P- The effect of a soft rock site next to a hard rock site is compared with
wave is the only stable portion of the observations. In the next section the flat-layered model on the left of Figure 10. The soft material has
we will address the effects of complex crustal structure on these near-field compressional wave velocity a = 2.0 kmls, shear wave velocity P =
HELMBERGER ET AL. 39

PEAK VELOCITIES IN
THE SPALL ZONE

MI LROW

Verticol (observed) Vertical (observed)


-Vertical + Rodiol (observed)
+ Rodial (observed) (theoretical)

-
1 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
Distance (km)

Fig. 6. The decay of the amplitude of the first velocity peak with horizontal range. The theoretical curves are the values predicted
-
by the ex~losionalone. The close ameement imvlies that nonlinear absorption is confined to d e e ~ within the earth while the
material is under compression.
1000 KT
I

Fig. 7. A comparison of the Mueller-Murphy and Helmberger-Hadley yield scaled RDP spectra at 1000 and 100 k t Helmberger-
Hadley spectra are shown for both Pahute Mesa and Amchitka.
40 MODELING NEAR-FIELD DATA AT NTS AND AMCHITKA

a1 P Velocity ( k m / s )

Depth

1 I CANNIKIN MILROW

b) Density ( g cm3)
2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6

Fig. 8. (a) P-velocity profiles showing well-log data from Perret [1973].
The heavy solid line is the sharp-boundary model listed in Table 1. The
light lines are the observed profiles for CANNIKIN and MILROW, shifted
2.0 and 5.0 km/s, respectively. (b) Corresponding density profiles.
Dashed line and light line are shifted 0.4 and 0.75 g cmP3, respectively.
Only the CANNIKIN density log is available.

1.0 km/s, and density (p) = 1.8 g/cm3; the hard material has a =
4.6 km/s, P = 2.3 km/s, and p = 2.3 g/cm3; and the rest of the layer,
which is 200 meters thick, has a = 3.4 km/s, P = 1.7 km/s, and p =
2.3 g/cm3. The amplitude at the soft site is a factor of 1.45 larger than
at the receiver in the same position in the plane-layered model. The
particle motion is also more vertical than in the flat-layered case for the
receiver at 7 km as the ray is refracted more toward the vertical due to the
greater velocity contrast. Reverberations and conversions in the slow
media may be seen 1 to 2 s after the initial pulse.
These experiments yield some variations that explain the magnitude of
misfits between synthetic and observations displayed earlier in Figure 5
but we do not know the hue upper crustal structure well enough to apply
such detailed site responses. However, the distortionscaused by the types Fig. 9. The upper map displays the location of stations relative to shot-
of crustal complexities displayed in Figure 10, while significant, are not point. The lower panel displays the comparisons of synthetics with data,
nearly as severe as those at NTS where shots are fired in basins filled with after Barker et al. [1985].
volcanic tuffs and semi-consolidatedalluvium. The upper panel of Figure
11 displays a cross-section of Yucca Flat from east-to-west along with a cases where the geometry is appropriate for various shots in Yucca
profile of finite-difference synthetics showing the strong effects on the Valley, see Stead and Helmberger [19891.
Rayleigh waves as they approach the edge of the basin. The angle of It appears that the coda occurring in many Yucca Flat events originated
basin termination has a strong attenuating effect on strong motions, from such effects, see Lynnes and Lay [1989]. The situation for Pahute
especially at shallow dips of thirty degrees or less. At Yucca Flat, the Mesa events is less clear but disturbed Rayleigh waves are generally
basin terminates in the west at a low angle which reduces Rayleigh wave apparent. Because of these complexities much of the source modeling of
amplitude about fifty percent (in periods roughly 0.5 to 2.0 s) as the near-in explosion data has been limited to the initial P-waves, as discussed
waves enter hard rock. The responses in Figure 11 ranging from 2 to earlier.
6 km display this effect where the locally trapped surface wave energy
leaks out the bottom of the model since the rays are no-longer beyond
critical angle. More Realistic Source Complexity
The dashed boundary at the bottom of the finite-differencebox forms an
interface to a Kirchoff integral technique allowing for teleseismic Seismic radiation from nuclear explosions can be described in terms of
calculations, see Figure 12. Sources near the middle of the basin produce at least three physical processes. These are radiation from the explosion
the most scattered Rayleigh wave energy. The lower panel compares itself, radiation from tectonic release, and radiation from spall. The
HELMBERGER ET AL. 41

w . ..
Receivers Rece~vers

Blast 8

2k m L

2 krn

Vertical
16
Radial

7
woVertical
9
7k-
Radial

5 sec 5 sec

Fig. 10. FD simulation of the effect of a fault with 1-km offset is given on the right. Synthetic velocity seismograms at ranges
of 7, 8, 10 and 12 km (heavy lines) are compared with those from the flat-layered model (light lines). Amplitudes are given in
cm/s. FD simulation of the effect of a soft rock site next to a hard rock site is displayed on the left. Synthetic velocity
seismograms at ranges of 7.8.10 and 12 km (heavy lines) are compared with those from the flat-layered model (light lines). The
soft and hard rock sites are at ranges of 7 and 8 km, respectively. Soft site material has a of 2.0 km/s, P of 1.0 km/s, and p of
1.8 g/cm3,and hard site material has a of 4.6 km/s, P of 2.3 krnls, and p of 2.3 g/cm3.
explosion part is usually expressed as an isotropic point, as discussed vertically, this quadruple should be well-approximated by a 4S0 dip-slip
earlier, the tectonic release as a superimposed double couple Wallace et double-couple. We say quadrupole-like because in 3-D the pattern is
al., 19831, and spa11 as a system of distributed forces [Day et al., 19831. radially symmetric, yet this is ideal for 2-D simulations. Double-couple
We will briefly comment on the first and third contributions in this sources are derived and discussed in Helmberger and Vidale 119881. When
section. scaled for RDP instead of moment, the double-couple may be added
linearly to the explosion result to produce the response from any
Asymmetric Sources ellipsoidal cavity in a radially symmetric medium, cavities ranging from
pancakes to pencils. The top trace at each station is appropriate for the H-
A variation on the simple explosion source description discussed earlier H source with our most realistic crustal model, see Figure 14. The next
is the inclusion of possible source asymmetry. The motivation for trace contains the observed waveforms for CANNIKIN and the bottom
investigating this effect is the large variation in the ratio of first-arrival two traces display a 40% correction for prolate and oblate asymmetries.
amplitude to Rayleigh-wave amplitude seen in the data, and evidence for Adding the prolate correction seems to greatly enhance the fit to the latter
variation in the B factor. Physical conditions that would lead to the portions of these observations. The MILROW observations displayed in
formation of asymmetrical cavities are readily postulated, for example, Figure 15 on the other hand look more symmetrical. We do not know at
bedding plane control or rapid vertical changes in material strength. The present if adding a 20 to 40% prolate correction will explain the Ms
correction for an ellipsoidal cavity requires the introduction of S-wave differential for these two events but this appears promising. Previous
radiation at the source, see Rial and Moran [1986]. Figure 13 is the attempts at explaining the Ms problem suggested changing B in the H-H
basis for the development of such a correction. The correction is model, B = 1.6 for longshot; B = 1 for MILROW: B = .6 for CANNIKIN
quadrupolelike,and for ellipsoidal cavities with a principal axis oriented [Lay et al., 1984al.
L,;
42 MODELING NEAR-FIELD DATA AT NTS AND AMCHITKA

mt j , io MUIC~ a * 15" a = 20.

sources 0 1 2 3
0

Radial Vertical

W F
I++"

15'
2

TX +" 3 4 $ 5 + v Y A 0 86

Fig. 11. Synthetic strong motion records appropriate for the model at the
top. These were records generated by the finite-difference method, and
include an RDP source with K = 12. B = 1 and TOO = 10l0. These are source 1 , 20°
only for source position 2 (of 0 to 3 displayed in Figure 12). and for the
stations shown. It is important to note that the peak amplitude drops
sharply across the boundary, that the duration of the Rayleigh wave is
reduced, and that the Rayleigh wave appears to lose relatively more of the PORTMANTEAU
lower frequencies as it crosses the basin boundary. This effect on local
Rayleigh waves is well documented by the many shots in various
locations across Yucca Flats, after Stead [1989].

Spall Effects

As discussed earlier, spa11 is clearly observed in the recordings less than


5 km in the MILROW data set. From the studies by Perret [I9731 on Fig. 12. Synthetic teleseismic records for Yucca Flats events are
down hole gauges it appears that the spall crack opened near a depth of displayed in the upper panel. A short period WWSSN response and a Q
250 meters and extended horizontally to perhaps 3 km for MILROW and operator with T* = 1 have been convolved into the records. The peak
at a depth of 375 meters with a radius of 5.4 km for CANNIKIN. These amplitudes are normalized to that for a flat layer response at a take-off
dimensions of a disk-shaped opening are large and it becomes easy to angle of 20°. The flat layer record shown is at 15". The important
create cavities larger than the explosion cavity itself. Slapdown occurs observation here is that moving the source 1 km within the basin is far
when this cavity closes generating strong P-wave radiation downward and more important than changing the take-off angle 5'. Direct comparison
upward. The physical picture is similar to that displayed in Figure 13 in of teleseismic records WWSSN;MAT) and these synthetics are shown in
the limit of a pancake volume where the radiated energy is related the lower panel. The &eatability of the scatteringresults is demonstrated
inversely to cavity curvature. The calculations by Burdick et al. [1984a] by KEELSON and OSCURO. These events are located close together and
indicate that this slapdown is not very efficient at creating short-period &e modeled well by the same syntheticrecord.
energy. Their results are summarized in Figure 16. Case A corresponds
to 100%efficiency while case B corresponds to 33%. Following their effects better is obviously important to interpretting regional data Broad-
interpretation of spall they attribute the energy generating the cavity as band modeling of regional surface waves appears to be a promising
due to pP. Essentially the down going wave generated by spall opening method of understanding spall as demonstrated by Patton of this volume.
cancels the original pP. Spall closing radiates a positive pulse downward
followed by a pP reflected phase. Assuming that energy radiated out the Conclusions
side behaves, also, like case B suggests relatively minor effects on near-
field records. However, a more realistic picture of spall closing is A review of the near-field seismograms obtained from Amchitka and
probably much more complex and probably involves a mixture of block NTS shots indicates striking differences. These differences appear to be
faulting as suggested by Masse [1981]. caused by local crustal structure as well as distinct source characteristics.
We have not identified any particular phase in the near-field Amchitka Amchitka seismograms contain organized Rayleigh waves with low-
records related to spall and since these records are relatively simple energy levels on the tangential components and are largely explainable in
compared to those at NTS maybe this simple spall model is useful in this terms of a flat-layered model. Introducing 2D variation in surface
situation. structure allowed some needed observed distortions in body wavdsurface
Attempts at modeling whole near-field observations at NTS produce wave ratios. In contrast, the NTS seismograms are complex containing
very complicated sources as reported by Stump [I9871 and Johnson strong three component arrivals with scattered surface waves. A review of
[1990]. They consistently fmd complicated source descriptions with more some Yucca events indicate that some of this scattered Rayleigh energy
than one comer frequency. The contribution of non-symmetric spall and arrives in the teleseismic mb window.
block motions to their results is not known but understanding these If we restrict our investigations to the fmt few seconds of motion on
HELMBERGER ET AL. 43

Cavity Displacements these recordings we can compare P and pP observations from both sites
and obtain differences in source characteristics. Amchitka events have
higher comer frequencies or sharper rise times relative to Pahute events by
Explosion Quadrupole about 20%. Seismic coupling is better at the harder rock Amchitka site
,
as well, roughly 30%. These results were obtained from the (f3)
Helmberger-Hadley model but the (f-2) models of Mueller-Murphy or
Von Seggem-Blandford work just as well, see Stead [1989]. A local
attenuation factor is required in the latter two models to remove the source
discontinuity in velocity; Q's of the order of 20 for NTS and 100 for
Amchitka will suffice.
Experiments in kinematic modeling of non-spherical explosions
suggests that large events (or deep) behave differentlythan do small events
(or shallow). Large events tend to have weaker teleseismic P-waves
caused by prolate cavities (pencil) while smaller events may have oblate
cavities (pancake). This may explain why mb's for small events appear to
Fig. 13. Development of a quadruple correction for cavity asphericity. be too large relative to their Ms, or physically for the reduction of
Cavity on left is ellipsoidal, with the long axis vertical. The arrow on overshoot (B-factor) with increasing yield Lay et al., 1984bl. Broad-band
the inside of the cavity represents the pressure acting on the cavity wall. near-field data and corresponding modeling is needed to resolve these
This pressure will radiate both P- and S-wave energy, as partitioned along issues.
and normal to the propagation direction. The resultant radiation patterns
are shown immediately to the right of the cavity. The P-wave pattern is In conclusion, it would appear that no RDP formalism is adequate for
elongate horizontally, because the increased radius of cavity curvature will explaining many explosions in a broad-band sense given the complex
amplify the P-wave energy, while decreased radius of curvature will spall interaction etc. Perhaps, every explosion needs to be modeled
diminish it. This result is further partitioned into an explosion and a separately as are recent earthquakes. For example, most modem studies of
quadruple. The size of the explosion should be that for a spherical cavity earthquakes discuss asperity distributionsrather than f-2 scaling.
of the same net volume as the ellipsoidal cavity. The quadruple is added
to this in varying amounts, depending on the amount of asphericity.

Fig. 14. Comparison of synthetic radial components against the CANNIKIN data. The upper trace is appropriate for a pure
spherical source. The second trace contains the observed waveforms. The lower two traces contain 40% prolate and oblate
contributions. Numbers indicate peak amplitude in cm/s.
44 MODELING NEAR-FIELD DATA AT NTS AND AMCHITKA

MOI
V R

n
10 krn
M03

Fig. 15. Comparison of synthetics for a spherical and aspherical cavity explosions (labeled Explosion, Prolate and Oblate) to data
from MILROW. The prolate and oblate cavity synthetics are made with a quadrupole correction for asphericity, both fixed at a
40% contribution. Peak amplitudes are in cm/s as displayed above each trace. Both radial (R) and vertical (V) components are
shown. The synthetics have been filtered with a T* = 0.05 operator and deuended to remove an exponential with time artifact of
the higher-order terms of the asymptotic source expansion, see Stead [1989].

WEAR FIELD RADIATION Thc Effects 01 Spall Rodiilion


From Fmite Source Models
7 . 0 km FROM SPALL 9 . 8 krn YlLROW CIHNIKIN

J,p
--
Rodooted S,mlklc
E~plorion

-I-- Spoll
* ll,,p
Jlr- +Y&l.

.
2 uc
A& fi
2.5 sec

Fig. 16 A comparison of teleseismic results are given in the bottom panel. The lower row displays the intercorrelation results for
MILROW and CANNIKIN, essentially the best fitting teleseismic picture of P, pP+ spall. Predictions from models A ( 100%
efficiency) and B (33% efficiency)are given for comparison. Theoretical predictions for model B are given in the upper panel,
after Burdick et al. [1989].
HELMBERGER ET AL. 45

Acknowledgments. This research was supported by the Advanced Lay, T., D. V. Helmberger, and D. Harkrider, Source models and yield-
Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense and was scaling relations for underground nuclear explosions at Amchitka
monitored by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory under the contract Island, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 74, 843-862, 1984b.
F1962889K0028. Contribution No. 4903, Division of Geological and Lynnes, C. S. and T. Lay, Inversion of P Coda for Isotopic Scatterers at
Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Yucca Flat Test Site, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 79, 790-804, 1989.
California. Masse, R. P., Review of seismic source models for underground nuclear
explosions, BUN. Seism. Soc. Am.. 71, 1249-1268, 1981.
References Mueller, Richard A. and John R. Murphy, Seismic characteristics of
underground nuclear dztonations; Part I, Seismic scaling law of
Bache, T. C., P. D. Marshall, and L. B. Bache, Q for teleseismic P waves underground detonations, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 61, 1675-1692,
from central Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 3575-3587, 1985. 1971.
Barker, J. S., S. H. Hartzell, L. J. Burdick, and D. V. Helmberger, Murphy, Seismic source functions and magnitude determinations for
Effective sourcefunctions for underground nuclear tests at Pahute Mesa underground nuclear detonations, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 67, 135-158,
from near-field modeling, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Pasadena, 1977.
CA, WCCP-R-85-02, 1985. Murphy, J. R., Network-averaged Teleseismic P-wave Spectra for
Burdick, L. J., T. Lay, and D. G. Harkrider, A convenient source Underground Explosions. Part 11.. Source Characteristic of Pahute
representation for spall, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Pasadena, CA, Mesa Explosions. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 79, 156-171, 1989.
WCCP-R-84-03,1984a. Murphy, Free-field seismic observations from underground nuclear
Burdick, L. J., T. Wallace, and T. Lay, Modeling the near-field and explosions, this volume, 1991.
teleseismic observations from the Amchitka test site. J. Geophys. Orphal, D. L., Seismic motion recorded from the MILROW detonation in
Res., 39, 4373-4388, 1984b. the distance range 7 to 377 km, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 61, 1467-
Burger, R. W., T. Lay and L. J. Burdick, Average Q and yield estimates 1471, 1971.
from Pahute Mesa Test Site, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 77, 1274-1294, Patton, H. J., Seismic moment estimation of underground nuclear
1987. explosions: A review of surface wave results and implications for the
Day, S. M., N. Rimer, and J. T. Cherry, Surface waves from underground source, this volume, 1990.
explosions with spall: analysis of elastic and nonlinear source models, Perret, W., Ground motion in the vicinity of the CANNIKIN nuclear
Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 34, 247-264, 1983. explosion, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, SLA-73 0043, 79
Given, J. W. and G. R. Mellman, Source parameters for nuclear pp., 1973.
explosion at NTS and Shagan River from observations of Rayleigh and Rial, J. A. and B. Moran, Radiation patterns for explosively-loaded
Love waves, Proceedings of the 7th Annual DARPAIAFGL Seismic axisymme@ic cavities in an elastic medium: analytic approximations
Research Symposium, May 6-8,1985 at the U.S. Air Force Academy, and numerical results, Geophy. J. R. astr. Soc., 86, 855-862, 1986.
Colorado Springs, CO, 1985. Stead, R., Finite differences and a coupled anlaytic technique with
Hartzell, S. H., L. J. Burdick, and T. Lay, Effective source functions for applications to explosions and earthquakes, PhD thesis, Caltech,
Pahute Mesa nuclear tests, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Pasadena, Pasadena, Calif., 1989.
CA, WCCP-R-83-3, 1984. Stead, R. J., and D. V. Helmberger, Numerical-analytical interfacing in
Haskell, N. V., Analytic approximation for the elastic reduction from a two dimensions with applications to modeling NTS seismograms,
contained underground explosion, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 2583-2587, Pure Appl. Geophys., 128, 157-193, 1989.
1967. Stump, B. W., Constraints on explosive sources with spa11 from near-
Helmberger, D. V. and D. M. Hadley, Seismic source functions and source waveforms, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 75, 361-377, 1987.
attenuation from local and teleseismic observations of the NTS events Vidale, J. E. and D. V. Helmberger, Path effects in strong motion
JORUM and HANDLEY, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 71, 51-67, 1981. seismology, in Methods of Computational Physics, Bruce Bolt, Ed.,
Helmberger, D. V., and J. E. Vidale, Modeling strong motions produced Academic Press, NY,267-319.1987.
by earthquakes with two-dimensional numerical codes, Bull. Seism. Von Seggern, D., Seismic surface waves from Amchitka Island test site
Soc. Am., 78, 109-121, 1988. events and their relation to source mechanisms, J. Geophys. Res., 78,
Johnson, L., Source characteristics of two underground Nuclear 2467-2474, 1973.
explosions, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 1990. Von Seggern, D., and R. Blandford, Source time functions and spectra for
Lay, T., The teleseismic manifestation of pP: problems and paradoxes, underground nuclear explosions, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc., 31.83-97,
this volume, 1991. 1972.
Lay, Thorne, L. J. Burdick, and D. V. Helmberger, Estimating the yields Wallace, T. C., D. V. Helmberger, and G. R. Engen, Evidence of tectonic
of the Amchitka tests by waveform intercorrelation, Geophys. J. R. release from underground nuclear explosions in long-period P waves,
astr. Soc., 78, 181-208, 1984a. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 73, 593-613, 1983.
FREE-FIELD AND FREE SURFACE GROUND MOTIONS FROM NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS, THEIR SPATIAL VARIATIONS,
AND THE CONSTRAINT OF PHYSICAL SOURCE MECHANISMS

Brian W. Stump
Department of Geological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275

Robert E. Reinke
Geodynamics Section, Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87117-6008

Abstract. Near-source waveforms from explosions detonated at the physical model allows prediction and extrapolation to new environments
Nevada Test Site (NTS) are reviewed. Data are separated into four types: where experimental data may not exist [Murphy, 19771. It provides
free-field strong (FFS), representative of the region where material correlation between data observed at different ranges such as near-source,
strength dominates; free-field weak (FFW), the region where weakly regional, and teleseismic [Taylor and Rambo, 19901. An empirical
nonlinear properties and transition from plastic to elastic response are approach to problems of discrimination and yield determination may be
important; free surface spall (FSS), where material tensile strength is adequate for limited conditions, but is not acceptable for the wide range of
important; and free surface elastic (FSE), where most seismic environments and distances that exist on the earth. The focus of this
observations begin. Data from Pahute Mesa (FSS & FSE), Rainier Mesa study is near-source data sets and their utility in physical source model
(FFW & FSE), and Yucca Flats (FSS & FSE) are specifically considered. resolution [Stump and Johnson, 1984; Johnson, 19881. Emphasis will
Each of the data types is explored as to its resolution of important be placed on the successes and failures in separating source and
physical processes in the source region and resultant seismic radiation. propagation path effects. Near-source is loosely defined for this study as
Specific attention is paid to the variability of these motions. Single and source-receiver separations of hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers.
scaled multiple explosion peak accelerations from Pahute Mesa and Yucca Explosions, unlike natural events, can be controlled. Time of
Flats show as much as a factor of 6-8 scatter with range. Large scatter in occurrence and location are determined by the experimenter, which allows
single explosion data suggests a propagation path effect while large for design of ground motion experiments whose expressed purpose is the
amplitudes for a scaled explosion from below the water table supports a characterization of seismic source properties [Stump and Reinke, 19871.
coupling difference between explosions. Data scatter decreases at long Not only can the elastic field be determined, but development of this field
periods as exemplified by long period moments which have a from the near-source region where the material is nonlinear can be
multiplicative error of 1.49 for Pahute Mesa. Numerical models of body documented. Quantification of the motion field in this environment
and surface wave propagation in realistic one-dimensional Pahute Mesa allows the linkage of seismic observations to measurements of pressure,
models indicate strong effects of velocity structure near the shot point for stress, and shock front propagation in the hydrodynamic, strongly
body waves traveling to the free surface at short offset (<2 depths of nonlinear, and weakly nonlinear regions. Each motion environment is
burial). Synthetic waveform difference between a site specific model and related to the yield of the explosion and material in which the explosion is
an average model decrease with increasing source-receiver offset or detonated. Comparison of yield estimates made from data within each
increasing period where near-source surface waves are emphasized. region is dependent upon a physical understanding of appropriate
Comparison of free-field and free surface data from the same explosion at cumulative physical processes.
Rainier Mesa supports significantly reduced scatter in free-field data. Seismic discrimination and yield determination studies rely upon
Removal of the weathered layer as a dominant effect in the free-field data regional and teleseismic data since most monitoring scenarios are limited
can explain the reduced scatter. Analysis of data spanning the transition to such data [Bache, 1982; Pomeroy et al., 1982; U.S. Congress, 19881.
from FSS to FSE regions indicates that explosion geometry plays a Physical source constraints provided by near-source data can be used as
strong role in the decay of free surface data. These data and extended consistency checks against models developed from regional and
reflectivity calculations appropriate for Pahute Mesa predict that strong teleseismic data where propagation path effects may be more severe
spall zone motions come from a region out to a free surface range just [Taylor and Rambo, 19901.
beyond one depth of burial for explosions with standard scaled depths of Near-source data sets discussed in this paper are from the Nevada Test
burial. Site (NTS) where materials such as loosely consolidated alluvium,
volcanic tuffs and rhyolites, granites, and other sedimentary rocks can be
Introduction found. Particular attention will be paid to the documentation of free
surface and subsurface ground motions recorded from a variety of
A physically based understanding of the nuclear explosion source explosions at NTS. These motions will be used to constrain the
function is necessary for improving discrimination between earthquakes equivalent elastic source function and size of the explosion. Special
and explosions as well as refining yield estimates for explosions. The attention will be paid to the spatial variability of such motions and
resulting errors in source strength estimates.
This paper begins with a division of the near-source motion fields
Explosion Source Phenomenology around the explosion followed by a review of previous work.
Geophysical Monograph 65 Observational data sets from Pahute Mesa, Yucca Flats, and Rainier Mesa
Copyright 1991 American Geophysical Union are introduced and explored. Wavefield modeling and source inversion are
48 FREE-FIELD AND FREE SURFACE GROUND MOTIONS

presented as the observational data are used to constrain physical processes [Patton, 19901and are useful in characterizing motions designated as FSS.
around the explosion. Implications and conclusions are given as Free-field decay rates are not strictly applicable since these motions
developed from data analysis. involve interaction with the free surface. Bernreuter et al. [I9701
developed a set of decay curves for free surface data. Patton [I9901 has
Near-SourceWaves discussed the utilization of these spall waveforms and their decay rates in
constraining the secondary seismic source from spall.
Ground motion around nuclear explosions can be observed at the free A second set of common free surface data involves measurements
surface where instrumentation is relatively inexpensive or at depth (free- designed to quantify effects on populated areas surrounding NTS [Hays,
field) where the effects of the free surface are a minimum. Both free-field 1974; O'Brien and Lahoud, 19821. These observations and models
(FF)and free surface (FS) data will be discussed in this paper. involve propagation distances of tens to hundreds of kilometers. A final,
For the purposes of our discussion the motion field around the small data set exists for free surface ground motion from just outside the
explosion is divided into five regions [Rodean, 1971, 19811. The spall zone to tens of kilometers [Stump and Johnson, 1984; Johnson,
strongest motions from contained explosions are found in the free-field 19881. These data sets have been used to constrain the equivalent seismic
hydrodynamic (FFH)region where shock waves propagate. The velocity source [Helmberger and Hadley, 19811. Such measurements are less
of this shock front is used to make yield estimates utilizing the expensive and easier to field than free-field measurements.
CORRTEX methodology [King et al., 19891. Moving farther from the This work is designed to compare and contrast the FFW, FSS, and
explosion one encounters a region of strongly nonlinear motions where FFE data sets for purposes of constraining different parts of the explosive
material strength dominates the response. This region is given the source function. Data sets, which have been separately studied in the
nomenclature FFS (free-field strong). Pressure and stress measurements past, are investigated as an integrated set. Each contains different
are typically used to characterize this region. A weakly nonlinear region information; for example FSS is dominated by interaction of the upgoing
is encountered as the motion field decays further. More subtle material stress wave with the free surface. An important part of this discussion is
properties such as the transition from plastic to elastic response become the identification of the variability of each data set. The goal is to
important. For free-field data we designate this region as FFW with the quantify how each different type of near-source data constrains the seismic
W for weak. source function.
As the motion field interacts with the free surface, tensile failure of
near-surface layers can result in ballistic motions or spall. This motion Observational Data
environment is designated as FSS (free surface spall). The spall process
extends to depth as the reflected tensile wave propagates back into the Data from three areas of NTS are reviewed including Pahute Mesa,
material. The cost of fielding subsurface gauges is often prohibitive, so Yucca Flats, and Rainier Mesa. In an attempt to emphasize the different
most spall data has been taken at the free surface [Patton, 19901. As physical processes leading to these motions the data is divided into that
waves propagate further, they transition to purely elastic/anelastic representcd by weakly nonlinear motions in the free-field (FFW), spall
motions which are designated as free-surface elastic (FSE). motions at the free surface (FSS) and elastic motions from the free surface
This paper will document motions within the FFW, FSS, and FSE (FSE).
regions from NTS explosions. Each of the motion fields will be
illustrated with specific examples from Pahute Mesa (FSS & FSE), Pahute Mesa (FSS & FSE)
Rainier Mesa (FFW & FSE), and Yucca Flats (FSS & FSE).
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) routinely makes three-
Previous Work component, free surface digital acceleration measurements within the spa11
zone of contained nuclear explosions. A typical array of accelerometers
Free-field and free surface ground motions and stresses have been for the AMARILLO explosion with accompanying acceleration records is
measured since the inception of underground testing. Free-field motions given in Figure 1. Spall zone accelcrograms are characterized by an initial
(FFS & FFW) have been used to assess the importance of material compressive wave bositive acceleration), -1 g dwell during free-fall
properties on strong ground motions. Such assessments are particularly (ballistic motion) following tensile failure, and a large spall closure signal
important when large engineering structures are placed close to the (positive acceleration). Dwell times for multiple kiloton explosions are
explosion. The tunnel shots in Rainier Mesa are an example of this type near 1 s as illustrated by the AMARILLO ground zero (GZ) record with a
of test. Measurements are often associated with these structures which dwell time of 0.65 s. The spatial effects of spall are illustrated in Figure
might bias free-field motions. Some of the earliest estimates of free-field 1 where acceleration records at free surface ranges of 15 m, 258 m, and
decay rates in alluvium, tuff, granite, and salt were summarized by 640 m are reproduced. Spall initiation time, identified by the start of -1 g
Wheeler and Preston [1%8]. Perret and Bass [I9751 extended the data sets dwell, increases with range while spall rejoin, designated by the impulsive
to include nuclear detonations in dry alluvium, dry tuff, wet tuff, and hard rejoin signal, decreases with range. Dwell time decreases from 0.65 to
rock (granite, salt, dolomite, and other sedimentary rocks). These studies 0.25 s over the observational range. As a result of the temporal and
focused upon attenuation of waveforms with slant range scaled by the spatial finiteness of the spall secondary source, its equivalent source
cube root of explosive yield. Germain [I9861 has reworked the Perret and function is peaked in the frequency domain [Day et al., 1983; Stump,
Bass analysis including more recent data. 19851.
Application of free-field data to calculation of seismic source functions Free surface, peak velocity measurements from FSS are summarized in
in the form of reduced displacement potentials for a number of materials Figure 2 where they are plotted against scaled free surface range (r =
was made by Werth and Herbst [I9631 followed by the analytic modeling ~ t k t l * ) . The data are derived through numerical integration from the
of Haskell [1967]. Murphy and Bennett [I9791 review free-field seismic original accelerograms. Six nuclear explosions (Table 1) from Pahute
data for alluvium, tuff, dolomite, sandstone-shale, and interbedded lava Mesa are represented in the plot. Data such as that displayed in Figure 2
flows. can be plotted against free surface range as done in the figure or slant
Near-source, free surface ground motion gauges have typically been range as suggested by Perret and Bass [I9751 or Patton [1990]. If
placed at ranges within 2 depths of burial (DOB) where recording propagation path effects dominate the motion field, then slant range is the
- -

equipment is located. The primary purpose of these gages is in assessing more appropriate variable. If free surface interaction is more important,
equipment survivability. These gages are usually within the spa11 zone thenfree swface range may be more appropriate. As source-receiver range
STUMP AND REINKE 49

Table 1. Event Characteristics


Event name Date NEIS mb
BACKBEACH 780411 5.5
SHEEPSHEAD 790926 5.6
NEBBIOLO 820624 5.6
CHANCELLOR 830901 5.4
CYBAR 8607 17 5.7
AMARILLO 890627 4.9

.
-
cn
-
Y GM1 - 640m(15m)
%,. 0 . 3 0 1. ... 1.. z._o. =..-
TIME (s)
Free Surface Range (m)
Fig. 2. Peak vertical velocity from the Pahute Mesa spall zone data
(Table 1) is plotted against scaled free surface range. The free surface
range is scaled by the cube root of the explosion yield while the peak
velocity values are unscaled. Power law models were fit to the data for
ranges less than and greater than 100 m/kt1I3. This free surface range
corresponds to approximately one scaled depth of burial, 122 m/kt113, for
NTS explosions.

emphasizes the strong impact geometry has on spall zone data. From GZ
to a free surface range of approximate1 1 DOB, velocity (acceleration and
displacement also) decays little ( I - O . ~ for velocity data) followed by a
faster decay at farther ranges This central region with little
spatial decay indicates that out to a free surface range equal to one DOB
there is little change in slant range. The implication of such decay
patterns is that the central portion of the spall zone will have nearly
constant escape velocities or momentum contribution to a free surface
Fig. 1. Three, free-surface vertical acceleration records from the nuclear range equal to 1 DOB. Beyond this range to the edge of the spall zone,
explosion AMARILLO. The slant ranges (GM4-9121% GM2-696111, motions decay rapidly, thus rcducing the spall contribution from this area.
GM1-640111) and free surface ranges from ground zero (GM4-15m, GM2- A second implication of this decay pattern is that strong variations or
258m, GM6-640111) are given. The horizontal time scale is 2.87 s. The asymmetries in the edge of the spall zone found from overhead
initial compressive wave reaches each successive station at greater time photography of the process may not be as important in the central region
while spall rejoin, indicated by the impulsive secondary signal, occurs at where motions decay little [Walker, 19821. This velocity data shows
earlier times for the farther stations. The surface geometry of the scatter of betwccn a factor of 3 and 5 for the explosionsrepresented.
accelerometer anay is given at the bottom of the figure. Moving outside the spall zone, a typical FSE anay for characterizing a
nuclear explosion is given in Figure 3a. The dimension of the array is on
increases relative to source depth, the two distance measures converge. the order of 10 km. Careful attention is paid to coverage in both range
The data are displayed as a function of free swface range in this case since and azimuth. Most gages are accelerometers although velocity transducers
this form emphasizes the s all zone which commonly extends to 2-3 are sometimes used at more distant ranges. Peak vertical accelerations
DOE3 range (244-366 m h ~ t on ~ the
~ ~scaled
) plot. This representation from a single explosion observed at a number of azimuths and ranges are
50 FREE-FIELD AND FREE SURFACE GROUND MOTIONS

ABoVE WATER T A B U

I BELOW WATER TABLE

SCALED RANGE (m)


Fig. 4. Peak accelerations from a number of Pahute Mesa explosions are
scaled by the cube root of yield and plotted against scaled free surface
range. All data is from outside the spall zone (FSE region). A large
amount of scatter (6-8) is observed in this data. There is some indication
of a coupling effect as the data from an explosion detonated below the
water table (solid squares) plots at the upper bounds of the data.

the highest accelerations. The physical mechanism for the scatter in these
data could either be different wave propagation effects (depth of burial,
proximity to interfaces, different source-receiver structures) or source
coupling effects. Large amplitudes for the source below the water table
loo0 10000
support a coupling effect. On the other hand, large scatter in the single
RANGE (m) explosion data (Figure 3b) suggests propagation path effects.
Scatter in observational data is freauency- - de~endent.
- The
Fig. 3. (a) A typical free surface instrument array for characterization of accelerograms used for the peak amplitude study (Figure 3b) are Fourier
the explosion source function. The accelerometers are all outside the spa11 transformed and long period spectral estimates are made and converted to
zone (FSE region) and designed to give good azimuthal coverage of the moment:
source. (b) Peak vertical accelerations are plotted against free surface
range (unscaled) for a single nuclear explosion. The large scatter ( 6 8 ) in
these observations with range is evident.
given in Figure 3b. Accelerations span over an order of magnitude in where p is density, R is slant range, a is compressional velocity, and QJ
amplitude and slightly less than an order of magnitude in range. A is the long period displacement spectral level. Since the data is from the
distinct amplitude decay with range is observed although it is obscured by free surface, a simple factor of two is introduced into the Ro estimate.
a factor of 6 8 scatter in peak accelerations. Problems with this simple interpretation of the free surface data include
The single explosion data can be compared to scaled peak accelerations the inability to separate body and surface waves in these data sets.
(FSE) from a number of Pahute Mesa explosions, one of which was Isotropic moments interpreted from vertical (Z), radial (It), and transverse
detonated below the water table (Figure 4). The same characteristics (T) data are given in Figure 5 (strictly speaking only Z and R should be
observed in the single explosion data are replicated in the multiple used). The scatter in moments from this single explosion is a factor of
explosion data set. There is an approximate order of magnitude scatter in 2-3, reduced from variations in peak acceleration. The fact that Z, R, and
peak acceleration data with the shot from below the water table exhibiting T moments all follow the same spatial pattern argues that the variation
STUMP AND REINKE 51

20 Changes in frequency content with propagation distance for data


summarized in Figure 3 are characterized by picking comer frequencies
from raw accelerograms. Acceleration spectra are interpreted in terms of a
long period rise that is used in the moment estimate, an intermediate
ZMOMENT frequency band in which acceleration spectra are flat, followed by high-
frequency decay (Figure 6). A first comer frequency is chosen at the point
g RMOMENT of transition from long period rise to the constant level at intermediate
frequencies. A second comer frequency is identified at the high-frequency
point where the acceleration spectra begin to decay. These two comer
TMOMENT
frequencies are plotted against sourcereceiver offset for a single explosion
in Figure 6. The first comer frequency changes little with range and is
estimated to be 1 Hz. This spectral characteristic is taken to be the source
comer frequency which is related to the source elastic radius. The second
comer shows a systematic decrease with range indicative of a propagation
path effects. Simple frequency independent attenuation operators:

suggest that a Q between 20-30 replicates this decay with range.


These frequency domain measures show less variation than the
amplitude information for this particular explosion. The flat acceleration
spectrum between the two comer frequencies (Figure 6) argues for a f t 2
high-frequcncy source model for this explosion. As sourcereceiver offset
increases, this intermediate high-frequency decay becomes obscured by
attenuation effects.

Yucca Flats (FSS & FSE)

Yucca Flats is a valley filled with alluvium at shallow depths


underlain by dry and wet tuffs. The basement consists of Paleozoic rocks.
A set of FSS data from the COALORA experiment is reproduced in
Figure 7. The depth and range of the spall phenomena is constrained with
this data. Spall extends in this case to a free surface range of 1 DOB
while the depth of the spall zone is estimated to be lf.2 DOB. Spall dwell
time increases near GZ as noted for Pahute Mesa data. Spall zone
accelerations are used to estimate escape velocities (after integration) of
RANGE (km) the spalled mass. Spall volume is delineated by the spatial distribution of
accelerograms. These data combined with the equivalent body force spall
Fig. 5. Seismic moments from the Pahute Mesa nuclear explosion model of Day et al. [I9831 are used to estimate an equivalent body force
(Fig. 3) were determined from observations at ranges between 2.1 to time history for the secondary source. The model predicts a peak force of
8.5 km. Moments were calculated from vertical (Z), radial (R) and 1.1 x 1016 dynes and a time duration of 0.6 s.
transverse (T) observations. The scatter in the moment estimates is a Peak acceleration data from this explosion which mark the transition
factor of 2-3, reduced from the scatter in peak accelerations given in from FSS to FSE are plotted against free surface range in Figure 8. As
Figs. 3b and 4. found for Pahute Mesa data, explosion geometry controls the gradual
decay of the data close to GZ followed by more rapid decays. Radial and
may be a propagation effect. Similar variations are found for moments vertical peak motions merge. Scatter in the peak motions is between a
estimated from near-source earthquake data [Archuleta et al., 1982; factor of 3-5 for the Yucca Flats single explosion data. This variation is
Fletcher et al., 19841. Following the methodology of Archuleta, average less than the single shot Pahute Mesa acceleration scatter.
log moments and their standard deviations are computed according to: Differences in wave shapes and spectra from COALORA are
documented with observational displacements at the 549 m range
displayed in Figure 9. Peak radial and vertical displacements vary by 30%
about the mean. Radial and vertical wave shapes are very similar at the
three azimuths. These characteristics argue for cylindrical or spherical

zl
symmetry in the source function. Transverse components in comparison
ns are much shorter in duration, delayed in time, and exhibit significant
std dev (log (Mo)) = [(&) {log ~ o - ilog ( M O ) I ~ fluctuations with azimuth including changes in first motion.
Displacement spectra are estimated from these records (Figure 9).
Envelope functions are fit to each spectrum which include a long period
The multiplicative error is defined according to: level, comer frequency, and high-frequency decay (Table 2). These data
show little variation in radial and vertical long period levels and a factor of
EM, = antilog [std dev (log (Mo))] (4) two increase in corner frequency for the transverse component
accompanied by reduced long period levels. Source spectral interpretation
The average moment for the vertical data in Figure 6 is 3.8 x dyne- of the above data supplemented by additional near-source gauges gives an
cm with a multiplicative error of 1.49. isotropic moment (R, Z) of 1.95 x 1021 dynes-cm (multiplicativeerror of
Z CORNER FREQ (I)
ZCORNERFREQ(2)

RANGE (km)
Fig. 6. Comer frequency interpretation from acceleration spectra of the same data used in Fig. 5. As shown in the
inset, two comer frequencies were measured. The first represents the transition from the rise in acceleration spectra at low
frequency to the flattening at intermediate frequencies. The second comer frequency marks the transition from the flat,
intermediate frequency region to the decay at high frequencies. The fist comer frequency (1 Hz) which is attributed to the
source is insensitive to range while the second comer decreases with range from 9 to 3 Hz. The flat spectra between the
two comers supports a f-2 s o m e model. The second comer frequency is attributed to attenuation.

1.36) and a deviatoric moment (T) of 3.97 x 1020 dynes-cm with the announced yield of less than 20 kt. The high frequencies decay
(multiplicative error of 1.44). The accompanying corner frequency as f-2, like the Pahute Mesa data and the Mueller-Murphy source model.
estimates are 1.82 for the isotropic spectra (1.12 multiplicative error) and A simple Brune's model is used for comparative purposes to interpret
3.28 for the deviatoric spectra (1.13 multiplicative error). As found for the transverse spectra in terms of stress drop and source dimension. These
Pahute Mesa spectral data, comer frequencies show less variation than estimates are applicable only for earthquake sources and may not be
moments. strictly applied to tectonically driven motions triggered by the explosion.
The isotropic comer frequency lies between a Mueller-Murphy model The parameters predicted by this model are given for comparison. The
prediction of 2.5 Hz for 1 kt and 1.7 Hz for 10 kt which is in agreement mean source radius is 124 m with a stress drop of 89 bars and an average
STUMPANDREINKE 53

\ '
\\A
\
\
19.830

'\ \ &
\ -, 1 2.24 g SPALL
- IS
\ 7-
0

0 NO SPALL I I
3.96 g 0 100 m

Fig. 7. Vertical cross-section displaying accelerograms from downhole and surface gauges within a range equal to two depths of
burial which constrains the spall zone. Solid circles represent vertical accelerometer records that show characteristic -1g dwell
indicative of spall. Solid and long dashed lines are two dimensional bounds on the spall zone.

displacement of 33 cm. These displacements calculated from the radiated

.
10
wavefield are similar in size to displacements observed on faults and
bedding planes found upon re-entering tunnels surrounding nuclear
ZAcC'g's'
explosions at Rainier Mesa [Kennedy. 19841. The equivalent elastic radii
RAcC'g's'
¤ for 1 and 10 kt explosions are predicted to be between 133 and 202 m.
The deviatoric source radius falls near the lower bound of the equivalent

-- '1
C elastic source radius.
As seismic waves propagate within Yucca Flat valley, differences
8
-brJ

2
N
3
v
!."
" 1
H 0
between radial, vertical, and transverse waveforms and spectra disappear.
Displacement records and spectra at the 5.16 km distance are given in
Figure 10. The duration of ground motion has grown from 1-2 s at 549
m to nearly 20 s at 5.16 km. The transverse motion is the largest of the
three components and comparable in frequency to the other two
d components. Spectral differences found at the closest ranges and attributed

."
1-
to deviatoric/isotropic source processes have disappeared at this distance.
-u
Rainier Mesa (FFW & FSE)
0.

Data from the free-field can be us@ to constrain coupling of explosive


energy into the linear regime. It is used in the calculation of the
representative seismic source function known as the reduced displacement
Free Surface Range (km) potential [Murphy and Bennett, 19791. As noted by Murphy [19891,
existing free-field data is often complicated by complex geological models
between explosion and receiver. Much of the existing free-field ground
Fig. 8. Peak vertical (solid squares) and radial (open squares) acceleration motion data base is also associated with underground structures.
plotted against free surface range (unscaled) for the COALORA explosion Instruments are primarily fielded to document survivability levels for
at Yucca Flats. This data like that for Pahute Mesa in Fig. 2 spans the these structures and not free-field motions necessary for seismic source
transition from the free surface spall (FSS) to the free surface elastic characterization.
(FSE) regions. An experiment was designed to quantify the seismic source of a
54 FREE-FELD AND FREE SURFACE GROUND MOTIONS

Fig. 9. Vertical (Z) and transverse (T) displacements spectra along with the displacement waveforms from the COALORA
explosion. The three stations (GM7, GM8, GM9) are all at a free surface range of 549 m. Peak displacements for each waveform
are given in cm. A simple spectral model consisting of a constant long period level, high frequency decay (f-"), and a comer
frequency (fc) is fit to the spectral data.
Rainicr Mesa explosion using free-field (FFW) and free surface (FSS & [I9751 for wet tuff, R - ~ (acceleration).
. ~ ~ Waveforms show an azimuthal
FSE) gauges (Figure lla). Free-field measurements were made with effect in wave shape with two accelerometers to the NE having longer
three-componentaccelemmetcrs located to minimize geological effects as durations than gauges to the NW. Duration of motion also increases with
well as document the transition of the motion field into the elastic range as noted by Murphy [1989]. Another mcasure of propagation
rcgime. Free-surface gauges were fielded so that comparisons between the complexity is the ratio of radial to vertical peak accelcration (free-field)
two data sets could be made. The radial, free-field data is reproduced in which is 5.1 for the closest gauge (193 m) and decreases to 1.8 for the
Figure I l c with absolute amplitudes compared to the free-surface data in farthest gauge (887 m).
Figure I lb. Amplitude data indicates a smoothly decaying acceleration Comparison of free-field, radial, peak acceleration (open square) and
and velocity field which follows model predictions by Pcrrct and Bass free-surface, peak acceleration (solid square) indicates increased scattcr for
STUMP AND REINKE 55
Table 2. COALORA Spectral Interpretation free-surface data. The single source scatter in free-surface data is similar to
Station Range DC f, Slope that from Pahute Mesa. Free-field scatter is much reduced which might be
(m) (cm-s) W) a reflection of the fact that receivers have been moved away from the
weathered zone. At approximately 800-900 m, free-field and free surface
GM7Z 612 0.30 1.8 2
data merge with no factor of two amplification at the free-surface. This
GM7R 612 0.36 2.1 2+ observation is only an apparent discrepancy since free surface data
GM7T 612 0.09 4.0 4 displayed in Figure 1l b are gauges from outside the spall zone (triangles
GM8Z 614 0.30 1.6 2 in Figure 13a) and as such represent oblique rather than normal free
GMIR 614 0.36 1.8 2 surface incident angles.
GMIT 614 0.10 3.5 2+
Wavefield Modeling and Inversion
GM9Z 612 0.34 1.8 2+
GM9T 612 0.30 3.5 3+
FSS to FSE transition

The transition from FSS to FSE is identified by a region of gradual


peak amplitude decay to a range near 100 m/kt1I3 followed by more rapid
decay at greater ranges for both Pahute Mesa (Figure 2) and Yucca Flats
(Figure 8). These data argue that explosion geometry has a dominant
effect on ground motions. An elastic numerical modeling exercise is
undertaken for this transition region at NTS in an attempt to quantify
wave propagation effects and develop an understanding of free-surface
motion decay rates. The velocity model, HOLE, used in this exercise is
given in Figure 12a and is developed from emplacement hole data at
Pahute Mesa (Table 3). A second average velocity model developed by
Leonard and Johnson [1987], LJ,is given in the figure for comparison.
The explosion source is placed at a depth of 616 m just above a poorly
welded tuff that shows reduced P wave velocity.
Full wave synthetics using the modified reflectivity methodology
[Miiller, 19851 are computed. Vertical and radial velocity waveforms
between 0.1 and 3.0 km are reproduced in Figure 12b. Waveforms are
multiplied by r1 to balance amplitudes for viewing. Figure 13 displays
FREQUENCY (hz) the peak synthetic velocities plotted as a function of scaled range where
the explosion yield is taken to be 150 kt for the source depth of 616 m.
Vertical waveforms show little decay to approximately 100 m (scaled
range) with increased decay beyond this free surface range. Least squares
fit to amplitude data result in a spatial decay of f l . 1 5 to a scaled range of
100 m/kt1I3 while the decay rate at greater ranges is r-1.30. These
theoretical results compare to Pahute Mesa observations (Figure 2) that
decay as and r-1.22 and indicate that elastic wave propagation
effects which include attenuation match the observation transition. Data
and models imply that spall momentum contributions from the region
inside of 100 m/kt1I3 range may be dominant due to increased spatial
decay at greater ranges.

Spa11 Ballistic Model

Velocities and displacements are derived from acceleration observations


within FSS region for the Pahute Mesa data. These measurements as
well as spall dwell time are interrelated for a gravity controlled process. A
gravity driven or ballistic model of the spall process predicts the
following relation will hold between peak velocity at failure and peak
displacement:

Fig. 10. Vertical (Z), radial (R) and transverse (T) displacements and Peak displacement is plotted against velocity at failure (spall initiation) in
displacement spectra at the 5.16 km source-receiver range for COALORA Figure 14. The relationship predicted by equation 6 is designated by open
are displayed. The Z and R spectra are arbitrarily scaled by factors of 100 squares. Observational data follow the slope of predictions but
and 10 so that all three can be compared. Where the Z and T spectra displacements are as much as a factor of two bigger than predictions
showed significantly different spectral levels (Qz > QT) and comer throughout the data set
frequency ( f c >~ fez) at 549 m (Fig. 9). at 5.16 km both spectral levels Although large displacements may be a result of bias introduced in the
and comer frequencies for all components are identical. integration procedure in deriving these values, the consistency of large
56 FREE-FIELD AND FREE SURFACE GROUND MOTIONS

(b)
Iml 3

Im:
.
UaUAUtrs.

I
uau~ c c n

- .
-
O D .
U
D

% 10:
c)

B3 ;
I
:

-
...I.
I -
1m lml 1 m
SLANT RANGE (m)

I I I I I I
0.00 0.12 023 0.35 0.46 0.58 0.70
Time (s)

Fig. 11. (a) Plan view of the instrument array for a combined free-field (solid circles) and free surface (open circles and all
triangles) ground motion experiment at Rainier Mesa, NTS. (b) Comparison of the peak radial accelerations in the free-field
(open squares) and at the free surface (solid squares). A marked increase in data scatter is noted for the free surface data.
(c) Normalized free-field radial velocity waveforms from the experiment.

displacements for a number of shots at a variety of motion levels argues scatter in the near-source region is a result of lateral variations in the
against this interpretation. Alternatively, departure from a purely geological structure at NTS. There are strong vertical variations in
gravitational spall model may be explained by viewing spall as a velocity in addition to lateral variations. Figure 12a displays the velocity
continuous rather than a simple, discontinuous process. Even though log developed from an emplacement hole at Pahute Mesa (HOLE) and
peak velocity indicates failure, spalled material may still receive long contrasts it with an average model developed by Leonard and Johnson
period input from material below thus boosting displacements over those [I9871 from inversion of near-source travel-time data (LJ). The site
predicted by a simple ballistic model. More data supplemented with specific velocity model shows strong low velocity zones (LVZ)
numerical modeling is needed to investigate this point representative of poorly welded tuff units. Differences in synthetics
developed from the average and site specific velocity models are
Velocity Model EffecrslData Scatter investigated to determine how much detail must be included in the
velocity model. A set of numerical trials will be discussed using the site
Scaled acceleration and velocity data from Pahute Mesa (Figure 5) specific velocity model with sources just above, in, and below a LVZ
show considerable scatter. A number of authors have argued that such such as that which exists below 616 m (HOLE) in Figure 12a. This
STUMP AND RE- 57

(a)
PAHUTE MESA P VELOCITIES

DEPTH (km)

SYNTHETICS (R**l) - VERTICAL RADIAL (R**l)

OFFSET (0.1-3.0km) OFFSET (0.1-3.0km)

Fig. 12. (a) The P wave velocity model interpreted from emplacement hole data at Pahute Mesa (solid squares,
Table 3) contrasted against an average Pahute Mesa velocity model (open circles) developed by Leonard and
Johnson (1987). (b) Vertical and radial synthetic velocity records developed from the site specific velocity model
using the extended reflectivity modeling technique. The synthetics calculated for the free surface ranges of 0.1 to
3.0 lan have all been scaled by free surface range (rl) to balance amplitudes for display.

numerical experiment will help determine the effect of material properties in these calculations have a constant moment with a source time function
around the explosion on near-source wavefields. appropriate for a 150-kt explosion. A simple separation of dominant
A number of researchers [Vidale and Helmberger, 1987; Johnson, body and surface wave contributions is found by low-pass filtering the
1988; Stump and Johnson, 19841 have noted the importance of both body data at 1 Hz to emphasize surface waves and high-pass filtering the data at
and surface waves in near-source waveforms. Although distances over 1 Hz to focus on body waves. Peak velocities are picked from synthetics
which observations are made in this study are relatively short ( G I 0 km), for comparison between the various models.
the shallow source depths (200-1000 m) lead to these effects. The The site specific velocity model (HOLE) is first investigated with
modified reflectivity method [Muller, 19851 is employed in seismogram sources above the LVZ (616 m), in the LVZ (665 m), and below the LVZ
synthesis to include both body and surface wave contributions. Sources (750 m) (Figure 12a). The body wave data (Figure 15) shows strong
58 FREE-FIELD AND FREE SURFACE GROUND MOTIONS

1 First Z Peak
0 Z VEL HP (hole7E*hn)

Z VEL HP(LJdl6m)

Free Surface Range (m) RANGE (km)


Fig. 13. Peak vertical velocities from Fig. 12b plotted against scaled free Fig. 15. Peak vertical body wave velocities (f > 1 Hz) in the FSE region
surface range. Source depth for the synthetics in Fig. 12b was appropriate for extended reflectivity synthetic seismograms utilizing the HOLE
for an explosion of 150 kt and so the free surface ranges were scaled by velocity model (Fig. 12a) for source depths of 616 m (above a low
this yield. As done for the Pahute Mesa data displayed in Fig. 2, power velocity zone, LVZ), 668 m (in LVZ) and 750 m (below LVZ). Also
law decay models were fit to the synthetic amplitudes for ranges less than included are peak vertical body wave velocities (f > 1 Hz, LJ 616 m)
and greater than 100 m/kt1I3. generated from the average Pahute Mesa model of Leonard and Johnson
(1987).
amplification (factor of 2) for body waves directly above a source when
the explosion is above the LVZ. For a 150-kt shot the spall zone extends
to an approximate lateral range equal to 2 DOB which includes this region
of enhanced amplification. For the source in or below the LVZ little
variation is observed. Differences between the three models disappear as
source-receiver offset increases and downgoing energy becomes more
important Surface wave synthetics below 1 Hz show small differences
between the three models.
Comparison of peak body wave amplitudes for a 616-m-deep explosion
in the average Pahute velocity model of Leonard and Johnson [I9881 are
also given in Figure 15. Differences between the two models are less
than those observed for sources above and below a LVZ.

Moment Tensor Inversions

Inverse modeling of observed explosion waveforms offers another


method of making source estimates. Moment tensor inversions of
COALORA data (Yucca Flats) are completed in an attempt to utilize the
complete FSE data in a manner which gives stable source estimates in
spite of demonstrated amplitude variability. The following representation
is used in these inversions:

Velocity ( m / s )
where Un(f) are the frequency domain representation of the observations,
Fig. 14. Peak displacements and velocities from a number of spall zone Gnij(f) are the Green's functions or wave propagation effects accounted
observations of different explosionsare plotted against one another. For a for with extended reflectivity solutions, and Mij(f) are the components of
gravitationally controlled process peak displacement is related to velocity the moment tensor.
according to equation 6. This relation is displayed as open squares in the Many different stations are utilized simultaneously in these studies in
figure. On average for a given peak velocity the observed peak an attempt to minimize the effect of data scatter. Both absolute
displacements are greater by a factor of two than that predicted by the amplitudes and wave shapes are modeled with fits completed in the
gmvitational model. frequency domain. Characteristic comparisons between observed and
STUMPANDREINKE 59

modeled ground motions give correlation coefficients that range from 0.7 MOMENT RATE TENSOR (M)
to 0.9 in the time domain. The moment tensor that was determined in
this inversion is given in Figure 16. The source is dominated by the -
isotropic component. The initial pulse is symmemc and is followed by a
secondary, long period contribution, largest on the M j j component, the
M:2 M!31 4.39~!0~'d~ne-crn/s

vertical dipole. The size of this secondary force moment is in general


agreement with the equivalent elastic force model of spall developed from
data within the spall zone (Figure 7). Off-diagonal moment tensor
elements are a factor of 5-10 smaller than diagonal elements supporting
the small scalar deviatoric source estimates discussed earlier. Peak
isotropic moment is 7.9 x 1020 which is nearly a factor of 3 smaller than
scalar moments estimated from spectra at 549 m. The scalar moment
interpretation of the 549 m spectra assumes a simple propagation path
effect with no way to return downgoing energy to the free surface while MOMENT TENSOE (M)
inversions utilize Green's functions which return downgoing energy to the
surface and lead to reduced moment estimates.
Constrained explosion source estimates are made in an attempt to
investigate bias from single station measurements. The source is
assumed isotropic and a single, three-component set of observations are
invertcd for the time history, T(f), and strength, Mkk, of the source:

Each instrument location around the explosion yields a source estimate


much like standard scalar estimate although equation 8 allows for Fig. 16. Moment rate (M) and moment (M) tensors from an inversion of
inclusion of more complex propagation path effects. A moment for each the COALORA observational data. The 1 and 2 directions are in the
station was determined with this methodology for COALORA. The horizontal plane while the 3 direction is vertical.
average of all these single station moments is 6.8 x 1020 dyne-cm, close
to the value of full moment tensor inversions and significantly smaller Table 3. Velocity Model for Holea
than simple scalar moment estimates. Using equations 3 and 4 to Depth P Vel S Vel Density Qp QS
quantify scatter in these estimates, the multiplicative error is 1.6, close (km) (kmls) Qmls) (&cc)
to that of the scalar moments determined from displacement spectra.
0.000 1.00 0.58 1.70 50.00 22.22
Conclusions 0.100 2.20 1.27 2.10 50.00 22.22
0.350 3.00 1.73 2.20 50.00 22.22
A number of near-source data sets from explosions have been used to 0.350 1.00 0.58 1.70 50.00 22.22
constrain the explosion source function. The study has included free-field 0.400 1.00 0.58 1.70 50.00 22.22
data collected at shot level, free surface data from within the spall zone.
0.450 1.00 0.58 1.70 50.00 22.22
and free surface data from outside the spall zone. Data from explosions at
Rainier Mesa, Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flats NTS were included. 0.500 3.50 2.02 2.40 50.00 22.22
The Rainier Mesa data illustrate the increased variability of free surface 0.616~ 3.50 2.02 2.40 50.00 22.22
observations compared to those made in the free-field (at shot depth). 0.630 3.50 2.02 2.40 50.00 22.22
Little free-field data 0 scatter was found about the spatial decay rate 0.630 2.50 1.44 2.10 50.00 22.22
predicted by Perret and Bass [I9751 for wet tuff. The free surface data 0.700 2.50 1.44 2.10 50.00 22.22
(FSE) from the same explosion had a factor of 6-8 scatter. This
0.700 3.52 1.99 2.40 100.0 44.44
observational result illustrates the impact of weathered, near-surface layers
on ground motions and indicates difficulties that might be encountered by 1.000 3.70 2.03 2.40 100.0 44.44
making source estimates from limited amounts of free surface data. 2.000 4.37 2.29 2.40 100.0 44.44
Observational data from within the spall zone (FSS) transitioning to 4.000 5.25 3.03 2.40 100.0 44.44
the elastic region (FSE) was analyzed for a number of Pahute Mesa
a Linear interpolation used between depth points except in case of
explosions. These data illustrate the strong impact source geometry has
repeated dcpths which signifies a discontinuity in velocity.
on peak motions and, possibly, spall as a secondary seismic source.
b Source depth.
From ground zero, directly above the explosion, to a lateral free surface
range equal to 1 DOB peak velocity data shows little deca r0.13. support the conclusion from the Rainier Mesa data that the weathered
Beyond this range the data decays much more rapidly, rl.~$: Simple layer at the earths surface can have significant impact on near-source
elastic, reflectivity calculations for a layered Pahute Mesa structure with observations. There is an indication in the scaled data that the one shot
appropriate Q (Table 3) replicate this decay pattern. The data and these from below the water table has higher accelerations than the other
numerical results suggest that momentum within the spall zone, which is explosions. Synthetic near-source reflectivity calculations were
available for a secondary seismic source, may be most affected by spall investigated for realistic plane-layered Pahute Mesa structures. Velocity
processes in the lateral range extending to 1 DOB for standard containment contrasts at depth near the explosion gave body wave amplitude
depths. fluctuations as large as a factor of 2 directly above the explosion. These
Observational peak acceleration and velocity data from within the FSE differences decreased with increasing source-receiver offsets. Despite
region for Pahute Mesa show a scatter as large as a factor of 6-8 for both strong velocity contrasts near the source the ground motion fluctuations
a single explosion and a number of scaled explosions. These observations did not approach the factor of 68 observed in the data. The observational
60 FREE-FIELD AND FREE SURFACE GROUND MOTIONS

data argues that lateral variations in the velocity structure (weathered Fletcher, J., J. Boatwright, L. Harr, T. Hanks, and A. McGarr, Source
zone), not taken into account by the synthetics, may have a strong parameters for aftershocks of the Oroville, California, Earthquake,
contribution to the ground motions. Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 74, 1101-1123, 1984.
The scatter in the free surface data from Pahute Mesa is apparently Germain, L. S., Perret and Bass Revisited: I-Hard Rocks; 11-Wet Tuff,
frequency dependent as exemplified by the determination of long-period Defense Nuclear Agency, Washington, DC, DNA-TR-86-407, 1
October 1986.
moment Spectral moment estimates showed greatly reduced variation for
Haskell, N. A., Analytic approximation for the elastic radiation from a
a single explosion, a factor of 2-3. Free-surface data document the contained underground explosion, J. Geophys. Res., 72,2583,1967.
stability of the source comer frequency followed by a second higher Hays, W. W., Prediction of Ground Motion Characteristics of
frequency comer which decreases in frequency with increasing source- Underground Nuclear Detonations, Environmental Research
receiver offset. This second comer is attributed to attenuation and gives Corporation, Las Vegas, NV, NVO-1163-239, 1974.
an average Q value for Pahute Mesa between 20 and 30. At small, near- Helmberger, D. V. and D. M. Hadley, Seismic source functions and
source ranges where the source and attenuation comers separate the data attenuation from local and teleseismic observations of NTS events
indicates a f-2 high-frequency source model. At greater source-receiver JORUM and HANDLEY, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 71, 51-67, 1981.
ranges source and attenuation comers are difficult to separate and cloud the Johnson, L. R., Source characteristics of two underground nuclear
f-2 source interpretation. explosions, Geophys. J.,95, 15-30, 1988.
Data fmm Yucca Flats were used to illustrate the relative deviatoric and Kennedy, R. P., Mighty EpicDiablo Hawk block motion program, in
DARPAIAFOSR Symposium on the Physics of Nonisotropic Source
isotropic source contributions. Simple spectral interpretations of Effects from Underground Nuclear Explosions, Defense Advanced
obse~ationsat source-receiver distances of 2 km or less give deviatoric Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA, DARPA-GSD-
source estimates from transverse motions that are 5-10 times smaller than 8203lAFOSR-NP-8201, 1984.
isotropic source estimates from vertical and radial motions. Transverse King, D. S., B. E. Freeman, D. D. Eilers, and J. D. Johnson, The
spectra interpreted as a Brune type model give a deviatoric source radius effective yield of a nuclear explosion in a small cavity in geologic
which is at the lower bound of the equivalent elastic source radius for the -
material: Enhanced cou~lingrevisited. J. Geoohvs.
A . . Res.. 94. 12375-
explosion. As found for the Pahute'Mesa data, spectral differences 12385, 1989.
between the radial, vertical and transverse spectra decrease with range. At Leonard. M. A.. and L. R. Johnson. Velocitv structure of Silent Canvon .
5 km all three components of motion give spectra that are identical in caldera, ~ e v a d aTest Site, ~ u l l . . ~ e iS s~. C Am.,
. 77, 597, 1987.
shape and strength, indicating the strong effects of scattering and Miiller, G., The reflectivity method: A tutorial, J. Geophys., 58, 153-
attenuation. 174, 1985.
Full wave modeling via moment tensor inversion are compared to Murphy, J. R., and T. J. BennettJ Review of Available Free-Field
Seismic Data from Underground Nuclear Explosions in Alluvium.
simple spectral interpretation of free surface, near-source data. These
Tuff, Dolomite, Sandstone-Shale, and Interbedded Lava Flows,
results indicate that the scalar spectral interpretation for isotropic moment System, Science, and Software, La Jolla, CA, SSS-R-80-4216, 1979.
may be biased high by as much as a factor of 3. This bias is a result of Murphy, J. R., Free-field observations from underground nuclear
the free surface interaction and the generation of surface waves not taken explosions, in Proceedings of the DOElLLNL Symposium on
into account in the scalar moment estimates. Explosion-Source Phenomenology, Lake Tahoe, California, 14-16
Data from the free-field and free surface have been used to constrain the March, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA,
explosion source function. Contributions from the isotropic explosion, CONF-890398, pp. 75-91, 1989.
tectonic stress release or driven motions and spall have been documented. Murphy, J. R., Seismic source functions and magnitude determinations
Data from Rainier Mesa indicate the superiority of free-field data in for undermound nuclear detonations. Bull. Seis. Soc. Am... 67.. 135-
making source estimates. Spa11 zone motions offer opportunity for 158, 1977:
O'Brien, L. J., and J. A. Lahoud, Analysis of Ground Motions Recorded
constraining this secondary, seismic source and indicate a strong
from Underground Nuclear Explosions on Pahute Mesa, Adaptronics,
geometrical effect At near-source distances strong trade-offs can develop Inc., McLean, VA, DOE/NV/1005 2-1, 1982.
between source estimates and the effects of attenuation and scattering. Patton, H. J., Characterization of spall from observed strong ground
The advantage of near-source data sets is the ease at which experiments motions on Pahute Mesa, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 80,, 1326-1345,
can be designed to separate these source and propagation effects as 1990.
documented by this review. Perret, W. R. and R. C. Bass, Free-Field Ground Motion Induced by
Underground Explosions, Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM,
Acknowledgments. This work was done under support from Defense SAND74-0252, 1975.
Advanced Research Projects Agency under contract F19628-89-K-0025 to Pomeroy, P. W., W. J. Best, and T. V. McEvilly, Test ban treaty
Southern Methodist University (BWS), Department of Energy Source verification with regional data-A review, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 72B.
Region Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (BWS), and Air S89-S129, 1982.
Rodean, H. C., Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation, in
Force Geophysics Laboratory (RER). Identification of Seismic Sources--Earthquakes or Underground
Explosion, E. S. Husebye and S. Mykkeltveit, Eds., D. Reidel
Publishing Co., 1981.
Archuleta, R. J., E. Cranswick, C. Mueller, and P. Spudich, Source Rodean, H. C., Nuclear Explosion Seismology, U.S. Atomic Energy
parameters of the 1980 Mammoth Lakes, California, earthquake Commission, 1971.
sequence, J. Geophys. Res., 87,45954607, 1982. Stump, B. W., and L. R. Johnson, Near-field source characterization of
Bache, T. C., Estimating the yield of underground nuclear explosions, contained nuclear explosions in tuff, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 74, 1-26,
Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 72B, S131-S168, 1982. 1984.
B e r ~ e u t e r ,D. L., E. C. Jackson, and A. B. Miller, Control of the Stump, B. W., and R. E. Reinke, Experimental seismology: In Situ
dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosions, in source experiments, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 77, 1295-1311, 1987.
Proceedings of Symposium on Underground Explosions, 14-16 Jan Stump, B. W., Constraints on explosive sources with spall from near-
1970, Las Vegas, Nevada, Report Conf-700101, Vol 2, 979-993, source waveforms, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 75, 361-377, 1985.
1970. Taylor, S. R., and J. T. Rambo, Near-source effects on regional
Day, S. M., N. Rimer, and J. T. Cheny, Surface waves from underground seismograms: An analysis of the NTS explosions PERA and QUESA,
explosions with spall: Analysis of elastic and nonlinear source models, submitted to J. Geophys. Res., 1990.
Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 73, 247-264, 1983. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Seismic Verification
STUMP AND REINKE 61

of Nuclear Testing Treaties, OTA-ISC-361 (U.S. Government Printing 8203lAFOSR-NP-8201, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,
Office, Washington, DC, May 1988) Arlington, VA, 1982.
Vidale, J. E., and D. V. Helmberger, Path effects in strong motion Werth, G. C., and R. F. Herbst, Comparison of amplitudes of seismic
seismology, in Seismic Strong Motion Synthetics, Bruce A. Bolt, waves from nuclear explosions in four mediums, J. Ceophys. Res..
Ed., Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1987. 68, 1463-1474, 1963.
Walker, J. J., Analysis of TV records for ground motion characterization, Wheeler, V. E., and R. G. Preston, Scaled Free-Field Particle Motions
in DARPAIAFOSR Symposium on the Physics of Nonisofropic from Underground Nuclear Explosions, Lawrence Livermore Radiation
Source Effects from Underground Nuclear Explosions, DARPA-GSD- Laboratory, Livermore, CA, UCRL-50563, 1968.
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF STOCHASTIC GEOLOGIC INFLUENCES ON NEAR-SOURCE GROUND MOTIONS

Robert E. Reinke
Geodynamics Section, Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87117-6008

Brian W. Stump
Department of Geological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275

Abstract. Analysis of accelerograms recorded at the same ranges but study the effects of random geologic inhomogeneity upon small-scale
multiple azimuths from small-scale (5-100 Ibs) high explosive spatial variability in ground motion. This paper will discuss the results
experimentsrevealed wide (as large as 20 dB in the amplitude modulus of of these tests, which were conducted in a dry alluvial geology, and the
the Fourier transform) variations in response for frequencies higher than implications of random geologic variability for the interpretation of near-
3 M Hz. Additional experiments were performed which ruled out source source ground motions.
asymmetry or instrumental irregularity as the cause of these variations. This paper deals specifically with small explosive experiments, with
The observations suggest that scattering by geologic inhomogeneity is travel paths a few tens of meters in length, and random media scale
responsible for the frequency-dependent spatial variability in ground lengths on the order of a fraction of a meter to a few meters in length.
motion. Modeling of the physical processes responsible for this Several recent discussions in the literature, however, suggest that random
variability requires a statistical description of the subsurface heterogeneity. geologic variability exerts a significant influence on the complete
One set of experiments was designed to accomplish this. Cone spectrum of seismic wave propagation from the near-source to teleseismic
penetrometer testing was employed to directly probe the subsurface where ranges and frequencies. A quantitative understanding of the influence of
a set of high explosive experiments was performed. High-resolution geologic heterogeneity on wave propagation is necessary for users of
surface seismic surveys were performed at the site to characterize the seismic data in both the explosive source and earthquakecommunities.
deterministic and stochastic wave propagation effects. A statistical
description of the subsurface is being developed from this data set and will Initial Experiments
be used in a simulation of wave propagation in random media. Although
this paper deals specifically with travel paths a few tens of meters in One of the early experiments which we performed was the m y Test
length and random media scale lengths on the order of a fraction of a meter Series (ARTS). The objective of these 5-pound tests was to study the
to a few meters in length, other examples in the literature suggest that ground motion effects of superposition of multiple charges in various
random geologic variability exerts a sig"ificant influence on the-complete spatial patterns [Stump and Reinke, 19881. The plan was to analyze the
spectrum of wave propagation from the near-field to teleseismic ranges data in a totally deterministic fashion-i.e., assume that the difference in
and frequencies. waveforms from one azimuth to another would be relatively small. A
single charge experiment, ART 2 (Figure I), which included
Introduction measurements at multiple azimuths at the same range, was performed as a
test of this assumption. When the data were compared from one azimuth
Small, well-controlled, in situ explosive experiments provide an to another, variations as large as a factor of 10 were found at frequencies
opportunity to isolate and study individual aspects of the source- above 30 Hz (Figure 2). A "Huddle Test" in which the accelerometers
propagation problem. Over the course of the past few years the Air Force were placed in a closely spaced group was conducted to verify that the
Phillips Laboratory has conducted a number of small-scale high explosive instrumentation was not a problem. An additional set of experiments in
experiments in an effort to better understand the physics involved in the which five 5-pound charges were detonated in sequence on the same test
generation of ground motions by explosive sources. One of the lessons bed utilizing the same gage array provided convincing evidence that
learned from these ground motion experiments is that random geologic scattering by geologic heterogeneity and not source asymmetry was
variations have a significant influence on experimental results and that responsible for a significant portion of the variability [Reinke and Stump,
any attempt to model these small explosive events must take into account 19881. Analysis of data from these tests showed that the degree of
these stochastic effects. The goal of these experiments is an increased variability in the ground motion data as a function of frequency was very
understanding of the explosive source. This requires a separation of similar for all five detonations, confirming that geologic heterogeneity
propagation path effects from source effects. Neglect of the effects of was the source of the spatial variability in ground motion. Another
random spatial variability in propagation paths may lead one to draw experiment in the series was aimed at defining the dependence of variation
incorrect conclusions regarding the results of experiments. Several of the in the seismic wavefield with range. This test included accelerometers at
tests, ranging in size from 5 to 100 pounds, were designed specifically to 10- and 30-m ranges. The results indicated an increase of variability with
range [Reinke and Stump, 19881.

Craps Experiments
Explosion Source Phenomenology
Geophysical Monograph 65 Additional tests were conducted to further constrain the relationship
Copyright 1991 American Geophysical Union between stochastic variations in geologic material properties and ground
motions. This test series, designated CRAPS for coherence for Range
and Array Farameters, consisted of four 100-pound detonations fired in
sequence on the same test bed using the same gage array (Figure 3). In
order to investigate the linkage between subsurface heterogeneity and
spatial variability in ground motions, an extensive subsurface exploration
effort was conducted in conjunction with this test series. This work
source included high-resolution seismic surveys, cone penetrometer testing, and
drilling and sampling. In particular, the cone penetrometer investigation
was designed to directly probe the subsurface material throughout the
testbed. The site characterization effort, which will be discussed in more
detail later, revealed extensive random spatial variability in material
properties.
Ground motions from the CRAPS tests were recorded at ranges of 10,
source A receiver 20, and 30 m (Figure 3). A 100-pound explosive charge covered by a
sand berm (the berm served to suppress the airblast) was detonated in a
Fig. 1. Experimental layout for the ART 2 test event. A cross-sectional surface tangent configuration. The first charge was detonated on the
view of the explosive charge emplacement is shown at left. To the right surface of in situ material. The resulting crater was then excavated,
is a plan view of the test bed. leaving a pit which was filled with uniform sand for the remaining three
detonations of the test series (Figure 4).
VERTICAL

ACCELEROMETERS
GROUND ZERO
- SEISMIC SURVEY
0 20 40 60 80 100 LINE (1 m interval)

FREOUENCY (HZ)
Fig. 3. Plan view of the CRAPS experiment. Each seismic refraction
survey line was composed of 72 geophones spaced at I-m intervals. The
seismic source was located at the ground zero point

I
Sand
, ,m
. reB
100 Ibs. C-4
---- oO
RADIAL
- 90' -
10 meters
--
760
5 ........ 180'
Sand~lt/ 2m
+
10 meters

- accelerometers
(3 component)
Fig. 4. Cross-sectional view of the CRAPS experimental layout.
Accelerometers were located at 10-, 20-, and 30-m ranges.

StochasticDeterministic Ground Motion


Waveform Analysis

Figure 5 shows a set of vertical accelerograms from one of the early 5-


FREOUENCY (HZ)
pound experiments, ART 2. Waveform differences, both in amplitude and
phasing, are easily identified, especially in the high-frequency data (>40
Fig. 2. Vertical and radial Fourier acceleration spectra for the records Hz). Techniques for quantifying these differences and relating them to the
obtained on multiple azimuths for the ART 2 experiment geology are needed. An elementary way of characterization,based upon
ARTS 2 VERTICAL (ACC) ARTS 2 R A D I A L (ACCELERATION)

UNFILTERED 4-POLE LOW PASS 4-POLE HIGH PASS


UNFILTERED 4-POLE LOW PASS 4-POLE HIGH PASS 30 hr 4 0 hz
30hz 40h1
)
j?"
1
................ ..................... ;,;,.: ,>-.,.-.-..........0"
....iiiii" ,..~,.,, .................. :.;-.,;
. >
;-.--........
I
:
,.,."
..;..............
:::, , ! 0 .
, .I ;:F
., i

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-we

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, , , ,.
, I

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,,,,
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.... . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . .180"

+.
... . : .: ;. .... ....:.
. .. . .. . .

216"
-j,--216~

:j 'i 4 I ,,'., $

---,, >,i;g,;, ,/;.,;- ......... ii,;,


--.. -...,..........-....,!:?,;
:, ................ 288' .:I:, 4 ;J ; ?.-, ...,.....-. 4 %
; , 1 :,.- ,.,> - .--.- ....>$6i; .,. 288"
.,I..&
I'
7
" " 'J ::$
,,
:: \'
,( 1, O 1S ' :;
,,
0.5sec
, , : I

'0 1:
: !$
\f I '
"
I I

0 ohs

Fig. 5. Vertical and radial waveform sets from the various azimuths at the 20-m range. Low- and high-pass filtered waveforms
are shown in addition to the unfiltered waveforms.

the observations such as those in Figure 5, is the computation of Fourier


amplitudes for the set of waveforms. The amplitude spectra computed for
the set of waveforms (Figure 5) are given in Figure 2. These spectra were
computed using the complete waveforms shown in Figure 5 and a where $xy(o) is the cross-power spectrum, $xx(o), $yy(w) are the
rectangular window. The individual spectra correlate well to frequencies as power spectra of the two time series, and o is the circular frequency. As
high as 3 W 0 Hz and diverge widely at higher frequencies. We can is well known Foster and Guinzy, 1967; Jenkins and Watts, 19681,
examine these data more quantitatively by treating the set of spectra as a smoothing must be applied to the spectra prior to estimation of the
statistical ensemble and computing the mean and standard deviation as a coherency in order to minimize variances at each frequency.
- For the
function of frequency. Figure 6 shows an example of such a coherency estimates computed here, a 4-point lag window was applied to
representation for the set of spectra shown in Figure 2. The f lo band is the s~cctra~ r i o rto estimation of the coherency factors. The com~uted
fairly narrow (2-3 dB) below 30 Hz, then widens rapidly for higher coherencies for the ART 2 station pairs are shown in Figure 7. The
frequencies (20 dB). In doing this we have made the assumption that the coherencies for the vertical and radial components are higher than might
spatial variation of spectral amplitudes at each frequency is described by a be intuitively expected after examination of the spectral plots in Figures 2
normal distribution. It should be noted, however, that a log-normal and 6.
distribution may be more appropriate. The amplitude at a particular Observed ground motion spectra from explosions are peaked and so
frequency may be considered to be the result of a number of scatterers absolute motions at different frequencies can vary by several orders of
acting on the signal along the travel path. The influence of each scatterer magnitude (Figures 2 and 5). In order to compare the variation in one
is likely to be proportional to the amplitude of the signal. Cramer [1961, frequency band to another a relative measure known as the coefficient of
p 2201, suggests that in such cases the log of the function rather than the variation (CV) is introduced [Bethea et al., 19851. The CV analysis is
function itself is normally distributed. For our case, however, the scatter applied to spectra for all of the waveforms recorded at the same range.
of the spectra in Figure 2 compares well with the flo bounds in Figure 6 This technique has been employed to study the ground motions recorded
computed assuming a normal distribution. on the CRAPS experiments. Amplitude spectra were computed at each
Another approach to quantifying the observed variation in waveforms range using the entire waveforms and rectangular windows. The set of
is to compute the coherency between station pairs, thus quantifying phase spectra recorded at each range were treated as ensembles. The mean and
differences. This method of characterization was employed by standard deviation were computed as a function of frequency. The standard
McLaughlin et al. [I9831 for a set of small-scale-array data from a nuclear deviation was then normalized with respect to the mean (CV = alp) so
explosion at the Nevada Test Site. The coherency is defined by that a CV value of 1 represents a standard deviation equal to the mean.
- COHERENCE WITH 0
' DATA

z
750

67.5 .

-m 600'

-
U 525.

7.5 . ;I
I

10 20 ?sO 40 50 60 70 80 90 IOOIHERTLI

FREQUENCY

FREOUENCY
228im,
lw
U
o

0.0
0 50
Frequency
100 Hz

T Fig. 7. Coherencies between the 0" waveforms and waveforms recorded at


the other azimuths for the ART 2 experiment

FREOUENCY

Fig. 6. Mean (solid lines) and standard deviation (dashed lines) of the
ART 2 spectra.

Figure 8 is an example of the set of acceleration spectra from the 10-rn


range on the f i s t CRAPS experiment. As in the ART experiment, the
spectra correlate well to 30 Hz and then diverge widely. Figure 9 presents
a comparison of the vertical spectral CVs for the first 3 (data from the
fourth CRAPS test have not been included here since several gages did not Frequency (Hz)
operate successfully) CRAPS experiments as recorded at the 10-m range
and 1-m depth. The CV values reflect the scatter seen in the spectral plots Fig. 8. Set of spectra for the six vertical velocity waveforms obtained at
with small values from 5 4 0 Hz (CV < 0.25) then rising to values near 1 the 10-m range and 1-m depth for the CRAPS I experiment.
- CRAPS I
- CRAPS I - - - CRAPS II
-- c w s Ill
CRAPS I1
O
- CRAPS 111

Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
Fig. 9. Comparison of coefficient of variation curves for the CRAPS I,
CRAPS 11, and CRAPS 111 experiments. The curves shown here were
obtained from the 10-m range, 1-m depth, vertical velocity spectra, and 1- Fig. 10. Comparison of mean vertical velocity spectra for the 10-m range
m depth. and 1-m depth for the CRAPS I, CRAPS 11, and CRAPS I11 test events.
at 75 Hz. The CVs are remarkably similar for the three events although Soviet Union, for example), it will never be possible to directly probe the
there are some high-frequency (>SO Hz) differences between the in situ earth's crust to depths of tens of kilometers to obtain first hand
experiment and the two following detonations which occurred on the information regarding the appropriate statistical distribution governing the
surface of the backfill pit. This similarity in scatter for the three events geologic media through which regional waves propagate. The situation is
supports the interpretation that random geologic heterogeneity and not quite different, however, for shallow, small-scaleexplosive experiments in
some other influence is the dominant factor responsible for the observed alluvium. Experiments of this sort provide a test of wave propagation
azimuthal variability in ground motion spectra from the 10m range on the theory in random media not possible in most areas of seismology or
first CRAPS experiment. geophysics.
After a glance at the data scatter in Figure 8 one might be led to the A primitive attempt at correlating subsurface information with
conclusion that it would be very difficult to learn anything about the observed variability in the wavefield was made for the Art 2 experiment
source at frequencies higher than 20 to 30 Hz. In contrast, however, discussed previously. In an effort to quantify the nature of the subsurface
Figure 10 presents a comparison of the mean vertical acceleration spectra heterogeneity at the test site, 18 boreholes were drilled within the confines
for the first three CRAPS experiments. These spectra are remarkably of the test bed. Standard penetration tests were performed in each hole.
similar. Observed at the 10-m range there is less than a 20% variation for The SPT involves determining the number of hammer blows required to
the two backfill shots out to frequencies of 400 Hz. Subtle variations do drive a sampling tube a unit distance. This blow count is related to the in
exist between the first test (detonated in situ material) and the following situ density and compressive strength of the subsurface material [Terzaghi
tests (fired in the backfilled crater pits). At the 10-m range, the first test and Peck, 19671. The set of SPT data suggested a scale length of about
has 40% higher amplitudes at the long ( ~ 2 0Hz) periods. The high- 2.0 m. These data were obtained, however, with a sampling interval of
(>20 Hz) frequency amplitudes for the in situ detonation are reduced by as about 0.6 m so that shorter wavelength variations are obviously aliased.
much as a factor of 2 over the following tests. These differences may An extensive subsurface site characterization effort was part of the
result from the in situ cratering process although the exact physical CRAPS test series. This investigation employed a variety of techniques
mechanisms remain to be identified. Overall, this spectral comparison including high-resolution surface refraction surveys, cone penetrometer
shows that the variations in the mean spectra from shot to shot are much testing, and drilling and sampling.
smaller than the azimuthal variability for a single shot which is as high Cone penetrometer testing, a technique often used by the Civil
as a factor of 5. Engineering community for the estimation of subsurface parameters,
offers a method by which unconsolidated materials may be directly probed
Site Characterization Tools to obtain an estimate of the appropriate statistical classification of the
subsurface. The cone penetrometer is a slender cone-tipped rod which is
The ARTS and CRAPS experiments established that the observed forced into the soil. A strain gage in the cone tip measures the force on
scatter in ground motion data is the result of geologic inhomogeneity. A the cone as a function of depth. The frictional force on the cone sleeve is
physical understanding of the observed spatial variation in ground motion also measured as a function of depth (Figure 1I). Cone penetrometers are
requires a quantitative relationship between subsurface material properties often used to obtain estimates of the in situ density and degree of
and observed ground motion characteristics. Any ground motion model compaction [Holtz and Kovacs, 19811. Rohani and Baladi [I9811 describe
which incorporates scattering, whether it be the simple Born techniques for relating cone penetrometer data to a full geologic material
approximation [Aki and Richards, 1980, pp. 722-796; Reinke and model. The cone offers the opportunity to obtain a spatial sampling of
Stump, 19881 or an elaborate finite difference simulation [Frankel and subsurface materials at small-scale lengths. This data can then be used to
Clayton, 1986; Toksoz et al., 19891 requires a statistical description of produce experimental autocorrelation functions for the material. For the
subsurface material properties. Most wave propagation studies provide no CRAPS experiment, two types of cone penetrometer devices were used, a
alternate method for characterizing these statistical distributions. Except full-sized cone, which was utilized to make measurements to depths of 6
in very limited instances (the deep drill hole on the Kola Peninsula in the or 7 meters with data sampling intervals of 3.05 cm, and a mini-cone
ELECTRIC CABLE

DIGITAL LANALW

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20 TON CAPACITY CPT TRUCK 15TON ELECTRIC FRICTION


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Fig. 11. Drawings of the cone penetrometer truck and cone pe:metrometer tool. (Courtesy of the Earth Technology Corporation).

which was utilized to make measurements at intervals of 1.27 cm to An extensive high-resolution surface seismic survey was performed on
depths of 2 meters. The test bed sampling pattern is shown in Figure 12. the CRAPS test bed [Bogaards, 19891. The intent of the survey was to
Some of the cone holes were closely spaced in linear and rectangular aid in defining the limits of the deterministic and stochastic wave
arrays in order to obtain a statistical characterization of the variability in propagation regimes at the site. The simplest deterministic model usually
the horizontal direction; other arrays were designed to obtain the average assumes that velocities change only in the vertical direction. Our initial
gross geologic layering across the extent of the entire test bed. The cone stochastic model is classified as a distribution of inhomogeneities
penetrometer holds great promise as a tool for quantifying the vertical superimposed upon this velocity-depth profile and is characterized in terms
variability in the statistical sense but estimation of the horizontal of heterogeneity scale length and velocity contrast [Aki and Richards,
variability is more difficult since movement of the cone through the soil 19801. A set of surface seismic surveys were designed and implemented
disturbs a region about 10 cone diameters (the large cone diameter is 4.37 for the resolution of both the onedimensional deterministic model as well
cm; the mini-cone, 1.90 cm) in radius. The cone hole spacing, therefore. as the stochastic effects. The field technique involves the retrieval of full
must be larger than these distances in order to obtain unbiased wave seismogramsat closely spaced intervals.
measurements. Figure 3 shows the layout of the full wave refraction survey performed
A subsurface cross-section constructed from 19 cone holes along the at the CRAPS test site prior to detonation of the full-scale test. The goal
1801360radial (Figure 12) is shown in Figure 13. The contours indicate of this particular experiment was the characterization of the top 20 m of
cone tip pressure as a function of depth and range while the solid vertical the site which resulted in spreads of 72 m in length with geophones
lines denote the locations of cone test holes. A gross layering system is spaced at 1-m increments. Eight radial refraction lines emanating from a
visible in the cross section. Superimposed on this layering is a central source were recorded. The deterministic velocity model was
significant amount of random spatial variability in material properties. constrained by each one-dimensional arm of the survey. High resolution
The cone data is used to produce an experimental material autocorrelation f-k analysis, first amval time inversion, as well as surface wave analysis
function which is compared to theoretical curves in Figure 14. An effort were all used to construct a layered deterministicmodel.
is underway to use the complete set of cone data to develop a statistical The stochastic portion of the interpretation was performed by treating
model of the subsurface variability at the CRAPS test site. This involves the eight observations at each range as a statistical ensemble. Frequency
the comparison of theoretical autocorrelation functions with domain mean and variance estimates were made. The mean normalized
autocomlations of the data. For purposes of illustration, Figure 14 variance or CV was then used as a measure of lateral variability in
compares autocorrelations of the data from several cone holes with waveforms (Figure 15). At low frequencies (<30 Hz) the CV values are
theoretical curves for the exponential distribution. For the limited data set small (c.4) reflecting little spatial variation in the wavefield. As either
shown here, the experimental autocorrelations are bounded by the 0.1-m frequency or range increase, the CV increases approaching 1 at the longer
and 0.5-m scale length curves. Other distributions such as the Von ranges and higher frequencies. In Figure 15 it is evident that the frequency
Karman and Gaussian distributions have also been used to describe at which a given CV level occurs decreases exponentially with range.
geologic heterogeneity. [Frankel and Clayton, 19861. Several exponentially shaped striations can be seen in the CV range-
REINKE AND STUMP 69

CRAPS TESTBED YcCORY ICK RANCH, NY

k"
N

13 deg

SCALE
0 5 15 25 meters
u

LEGEND
CONVENTIONAL CPT
SEISMIC CPT
0 DRILL HOLE
135
MINIATURE CPT 5x5 ARRAY

34 deq 57' N. 106 deg 34' 30' Y ll80 ' MINIATURE CPT 8x8 ARRAY
Fig. 12. Plan view showing the relationship of the cone penetrometer test holes to the CRAPS experiment testbed.
frequency plot. This information can then be utilized in constraining the km from a ML = 5.6 nuclear explosion, strong incoherent signals were
stochastic site model. found above 5 Hz on all components. Vernon et al. [I9851 discuss
The results of the stochastic interpretation of the high resolution earthquake seismogram cohercnce for a nine-station array with an
seismic survey can aid in predicting the behavior of the full-scale interstation spacing of 50 m located near the Pinion Flat observatory in
explosive experiment. This point is validated in Figure 16 which California. Several events with magnitudes between 3.0 and 4.2 and
compares the CV obtained at the 20-m range from the full wave seismic hypocentral distances ranging from 10 to 50 km were analyzed. For this
survey and that determined from data recorded al the same range in the full- data set, P waves were found to be coherent to 25 to 35 Hz, with S waves
scale CRAPS explosive event. The correlation between the seismic coherent to 15 Hz. Mcnke et al. [I9901 discuss the cohcrcncc of regional
results and the CV from the full-scale test is good. The stochastic site signals recorded at small- (96-200 m spacing) scale arrays on hard rock
characterization technique can be uscd to estimate the variability in the sitcs in New England. They found that the spatial cohercnce at these array
full-scale explosive test. sites was on the order of one-sixth to one-half of a wavelength. Strong
scattering occurred near the arrays even though they were placed in sites
Modeling and Implications which appeared to be quite homogeneous. Vidale ct al. [I9901 found a
lack of azimuthal symmetry and a large degree of incoherence in small-
The results of these ground motion experiments and the site scale array observations of aftershocks of the Loma Prieta earthquake.
characterization demonstrate the need for the separation of stochastic and The results of our small field experiments, together with the very
deterministic wave propagation effects when interpreting the results of limited discussion of similar efforts found in the literature, demonstrate
small-scale field tests. Similar degrees of spatial variability in ground that these stochastic geologic effects pose a potentially serious problem
motion have been found at other sites. McLaughlin ct al. [I9831 discuss for our current methods of analyzing and modeling ground motion data.
the station-to-station waveform cohercnce for near-source explosion For the purposes of illustration let us suppose that CRAPS had been a
accc.lcrogr;~rnsrecorded on a nine-element m a y at Palrute Mesa, Nevada small-scalehigh explosive test conducted in the conventional manner with
Test Site. For this away (100-m interclement spacing), at a range of 6 the intent of validating a p'articular calculational model of explosively
STUDIES OF STOCHASTIC GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCES

CONE TIP PRESSURE 180/360 CONE PRESSURE


(Kc/cM8)
POSITION m
-72.00 -57.00 -42.00 -27.00 -1 2.00 3.00 18.00 33.00 48.00 63.00

Fig. 13. Cross section of cone tip pressure as a function of depth and range for a north-south line through the center of the
CRAPS experiment testbed. The solid vertical lines indicate the locations of cone penetrometer holes. The plot gives an idea of
the heterogeneity present beneath the CRAPS testbed. (The depth scale is exaggerated.)

event. As seen in Figure 17, there is a significant degree of variability in


the character of the waveforms from one azimuth to another, Danicularly
-THEORETICAL. at the higher hquencies. The question for our deterministic a h y s i s now
----- becomes: Which waveform is the right one? Furthermore, even if we
could decide upon a "right" waveform which we would then attempt to
model we would be doing the wrong physics since we employed a
uniform plane layered geology in the code. A better representation of the
wave propagation phenomena would be best described by random spatial
variability in geologic properties superimposed upon a plane layered
model.
Once a good statistical model of the subsurface variability is
established at a site of interest it must be incorporated in some way into
ground motion models. Some workers have performed finite element or
finite difference simulations of wave propagation through media with
random spatial variability in material properties [Frankel and Clayton,
DEPTH (meters) 19861. Others have approached the problem by means of analytical
solutions. Flatte and Wu [I9881 present a review of such modeling
Fig. 14. Theoretical exponential autocorrelation curves for scale lengths efforts. Reinke and Stump [I9881 applied a simple solution based on the
from 0.10 to 3.0 m compared with autocorrelations of the cone tip Born approximation in an attempt to model the frequency at which ground
pressure b m several holes. motion incoherence first occurred in small-scale field experiments.
Modeling of ground motion excitation and propagation by means of
induced ground motion. Typically, gages would not have been fielded on techniques such as these is required to define the influence of spatial
multiple azimuths as shown in Figure 3.. but instead would have been variability in material properties. These numerical experiments will
placed on at most two azimuths due to funding limitations. In order to require development of a methodology to incorporate what is leamed from
develop, improve, or verify the calculational model we would attempt to stochastic field characterization efforts into physical models of ground
match the output of the calculation with the recorded waveforms. Various motion excitation and propagation. At the Phillips Laboratory, efforts are
parameters of the calculation would be varied in an attempt to accomplish currently underway to perform near-source, finite difference simulationsof
this task. The recorded waveforms which we obtained from one or two small buried explosive experiments using a spatially random non-linear
azimuths would not, however, present a complete picture of the physics material model. Infamation from the extensive site characterization effort
involved in the field experiment. Figure 17 presents the complete set of performed for the CRAPS experiments is being incorporated into the
waveforms obtained form the 10-m range and 1-m depth on the CRAPS model.
REINKE AND STUMP

GOEFFZCIENT ar wt~xarro~
WHEEL f5

Nt= Z849 Nut TE?


N t ud-2848 Nu od- B
TI FE T~~PER=RECT~NOLE
f3RY. TflPER-RECTRNGLE
C i r c u l n r array C 8 3

36. SE1&18 22.8400


Array Birtancrs M
Fig. 15. Coefficient of variation plot for the amplitude spectra of records from the high-resolution seismic survey. The
horizontal scale is range in meters, the vertical scale is frequency in Hz, the shadings denote coefficient of variation levels.

CRAPS -
SEISMIC --------

-
Frequency (Hz)
75 100

Fig. 16. Comparison of coefficient of variation values obtained from the


20-m range for the high resolution seismic survey with the coefficient of
variation curve obtained form the CRAPS I waveforms recorded at the
same range.
- - 0.25 seconds

Fig. 17. Plots of the vertical accelerograms recorded at the 10-m range
and 1-m depth for the CRAPS I experiment
72 STUDIES OF STOCHASTIC GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCES

Discussion and Conclusions and Scientists, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 698 pp., 1983.
Bogaards, M., Characterization of Whole Wave Seismograms in the
The results of these small-scale experiments have demonstrated that Shallow Weathered Zone, Masters Thesis, Southern Methodist
heterogeneity in geologic materials exerts a significant influence on the University, Dallas, Texas, 1989.
results of small-scale high explosive experiments, at least for the dry Cramer, H., Mathematical Methods of Statistics, Princeton University
alluvial site where the experiments were conducted. Considering that this Press, Princeton, 575 pp.,1961.
particular site in general is thought to have a fairly uniform near-surface Flatte, S. and R. Wu, Small-scale structure in the lithosphere and
geologic composition, the degree of azimuthal variation observed from asthenosphere deduced from anival time and amplitude fluctuations at
these small tests is remarkable. It is clear that for this site, deterministic NORSAR, J. Geophys. Res.. 93,6601-6614, 1988.
interpretations of the data cannot be made above 35 Hz. Effective Foster, M. and N. Guinzy, The coefficient of coherence: its estimation
techniques for dealing with the data above this spectral region are still and use in geophysical data processing, Geophysics, 32, 602-616,
under development. Attempts are being made to include the results of a 1967.
stochasticldeterministic site characterization Drocess in finite difference Frankel, A. and R. Clayton, Finite difference simulations of seismic
models of explosive experiments. Future experiments of this type will scattering: Implicationsfor the propagation of short-period seismic
-
rauire that stochastic site characterization and modeling considerations be waves in the crust and models of crustal heterogeneity, J. of Geophys.
incorporated into the experimental plan. Res.. 91,6465-6489, 1986.
Although this paper has dealt specifically with small-scale events, it Holtz, R., and W. Kovacs, An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering,
seems likely that the same phenomenology is at work for large events Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 733 pp., 1981.
with longer travel paths and lower frequencies. A number of recent array Jenkins, G. and D. Watts, Spectral Analysis and Its Applications, Holden-
studies in the literature report observations of similar phenomena at a Day, San Francisco, 525 pp., 1968.
variety of sites and geologies. In a qualitative sense all of these Mclaughlin, K., L. Johnson, and T. McEvily, Two-dimensional array
observations have roughly equivalent coherence-separation distance measurements of near source ground accelerations, Bull. Seismol.
relationships. The upper hequency threshold for coherence of waveforms Soc. Am., 73, 349-376, 1983.
recorded by elements separated by a few tens of meters is 15-30 Hz; for Menke, W., A. Lemer-Lam, B. Dubendorff, and J. Pachecho, Polarization
separation distances of a few hundreds of meters the coherence threshold and coherence of 5-30 Hz wavefields at a hard rock site and their
drops to 5-10 Hz. Some of the stochastic site characterization techniques relevance to velocity heterogeneities in the crust, Bull. Seismol. Soc.
described in this paper could be useful in defining near-surface stochastic Am., 80,430-449, 1990.
site response effects for small-scale arrays. Reinke, R. and B. Stump, Stochastic geologic effects on near-field ground
motions in alluvium, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 78, 1037-1058, 1988.
Acknowledgments. Funding for these projects was provided by the Air Rohani, B. and G. Baladi, Correlation of Mobility Cone Index with
Force Weapons Laboratory Independent Research Program. Additional Fundamental Engineering Properties of Soil, Miscellaneous Paper SL-
support was provided by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under 81-4, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 1981.
Grant AFOSR-84-0016 to Southern Methodist University. We are Stump, B., and R. Reinke, Experimental confirmation of superposition
indebted to Dr. Art Guenther, former Chief Scientist of the Weapons from small-scale explosions, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 78, 1059-
Laboratory, for his support and encouragement. Mark Bogaards performed 1073, 1988.
the high-resolution seismic survey analysis as part of his Masters Thesis Terzaghi, K., and R. Peck, Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, John
at SMU. The work could not have been accomplished without Al Wiley and Sons, New York, 729 pp., 1967.
Leverette's field instrumentation efforts. Robert Goerke directed the cone Toksoz, M., A. Ben-Menahem, E. Charrette, A. Dainty, and R. Gibson,
penetrometer field testing. Kent Anderson assisted in analysis of data Seismic Wave Propagation, Attenuation and Scattering over Regional
from the CRAPS experiments. Kerim Martinez constructed the cone Distances, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Technical Report, GL-
penetrometer cross section. Audrey Martinez prepared some of the figures TR-89.0329, 1989.
and provided helpful discussion. Constructive suggestions were received Vernon, F., J. Fletcher, L. Haar, T. Bolswick, E.Sembera, and J. Brune,
from two anonymous reviewers. Spatial coherence of bodywaves from local earthquakes recorded on a
small aperture array, EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 66, 954,
References 1985.
Vidale, J., 0. Bonamassa, and S. Schwartz, Array studies of ground
Aki, K., and P. Richards, Quantitative Seismo1ogy:Theory and Methods, motions using aftershocks from the Loma Prieta Earthquake, Seismol.
W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 2 vols., 932 pp., 1980. Res. Letters. 61, 24, 1990.
Bethea, R., B. Duran, and T. Boullian, Statistical Methods for Engineers
YIELD ES'I'IMATION USING SHOCK WAVE METIIODS

Frederick K . Larr~b',Bruce W . Callen, and Jererrliall D. S~illivan

Department of Physics and I'rogram in Arm Control, Disarmarnent,, and Intcrnat,ional Sccurily
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urt~ana,Illinois 61801

Abstract. The yields of underground nuclear explosions can be es- explosion can therefore be estimated by comparing rrleastirements of
timated using shock wave methods. These methods make use of the these quantities with a model of the evolution of the shock wave in
fact that the strength of the expanding shock wave produced by an the ambient geologic medium. Allhough in principle the yield can
underground explosion increases with the yield. We first discuss the be estimated from measurements of the post-shock particle speed or
basis of shock wave yield estimation methods, including the proper- pressure, in practice constructing and emplacing transducers t o mea-
ties of shock waves in rock, the evolution of the shock waves produced sure these quantities and obtaining reliable measurements has proved
by underground nuclear explosions, and the dependence of the e v e difficult. For this reason, U. S. efforts to develop shock wave yield
lution on the properties of the ambient medium. We then describe estimation methods have for the past 15 years emphasized techniques
several techniques that have been developed in the United States for sensing the posztzon of the shock front as a function of time and
t o measure the shock front position as a function of time, including for analyzing such position measurements t o obtain a yield estimate.
the so-called CORRTEX technique. Finally, we consider several of Hence, in the present review we focus primarily on this approach.
the algorithms that have been used to derive yield estimates from We begin in $2 by summarizing some of the relevant properties of
measurements of the shock front position as a function of time, the shock waves in rock and reviewing the phases of an underground nu-
application of these algorithms t o low-yield explosions, and the ex- clear explosion. We then introduce a simplified model and use it to
~ e c t e daccuracy of shock wave methods. illustrate how the shock wave produced by a spherically-symmetric
point explosion would evolve. Finally, we discuss the more complex
evolution of the shock waves produced by actual underground nu-
1. Introduction clear tests. In $ 3 we explain the CORRTEX technique currently used
by the United States to measure the position of the shock front as
Shock wave methods have long been used to estimat,e the yields a function of time. In $ 4 we describe several of the algorithms that
of nuclear explosions, both in the atmosphere (see, for example, Se- have been used t o derive yield estimates from shock front position
dov [1946, 19591 and Taylor [1950a, 1950bl) and underground (see, measurements, the application of these algorithms to low-yield e x p l e
for example, Johnson, Iliggins, and Violet [1959]; Nuckolls [1959]; sions, and the expected accuracy of shock wave methods. Our con-
Butkovich [1965]). Shock wave methods were introduced as a treaty- clusions are summarized in 56. For a discussion of the implications
monitoring tool in the original 1976 Protocol of the Peaceful Nu- of using shock wave methods to monitor present and possible future
clear Explosions Treaty (PNET), which explicitly established such limitations on underground nuclear testing, see Lamb [1988].
methods as among those that could be used to monitor the yield of
any salvo of underground explosions with a planned aggregate yield 2. Shock Waves from Underground Nuclear Explosions
greater than 150 kilotons (kt) [U. S. Arms Conlrol and Disarmarnent
Agency, 1990al. T h e United States and the Soviet Union have re- In this section, we summarize briefly the general properties of shock
cently ratified new verification protocols for both the P N E T and waves in rock, describe the phases of an underground nuclear e x p l e
the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) that allow the use of shock sion, and discuss the evolution of the spherical shock wave produced
wave yield estimat,ion methods for explosions having a planned yield by a point explosion in a uniform solid medium. Finally, we describe
greater than 50 kt (the texts of these protocols may be found in U. S. the sometimes quite complex shock waves in rock produced by actual
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency [1990b]). nuclear tests.
In this article, we review shock wave yield estimation methods and
their application t o nuclear test monitoring. Such methods make Shock Waves i n Rock
use of the fact t h a t the strength of the shock wave produced by an
underground nuclear explosion increases with the yield of the e x p b Shock waves in rock behave differently from shock waves in air,
sion, other things being equal. As a result, the speed of the shock primarily because the atoms in rock are close together and interact
front and the particle speed and pressure just behind it are greater strongly (see Zel'dovich and Raizer [1967], pp. 685-705), that is, the
at a given radius for explosions of greater yield. The yield of the equation of state is fundamentally different.
Elastic and plastic waves.-The strength of a shock wave can be
characterized by the peak pressure that it produces. Weak shock
'Also, Deparlrnrnt of Astronomy waves and acoustic waves in rock propagate at a constant speed,
the so-called elastic wave speed (see Zel'dovich and Raizer [1967],
Explosion Source Pl~enomeuology pp. 741-746)
Geophysical Monograph 65
Copyright 1991 American Geophysical Union
74 YIELD ESTIMATION USING SHOCK WAVE METHODS

Here K O and Go are the bulk and shear moduli, respectively, of the This relation is called the IIugoniot. I t is not the thermodynamic
rock in its standard state, and po is the mass density. The speed cl path followed by a fluid element during shock compression, but rather
is also sometimes called the longitudinal sound speed. For granite, the locus of all final states (p, V) that can be reached by shock com-
I<o x 36 G P a and Go % 32 G P a [Holzer, 19651 giving cr % 5.5 kms-' pression from a given initial state (PO,Vo). The final thermodynamic
for po = 2.65 Mgm-3. state depends on the strength of the shock wave.
Shock waves that are strong enough t o produce a peak radial stress By analogy with the equation that relates the pressure of a fluid
p l greater than the critical shear stress p,,jt of the rock cause the after adiabatic compression t o the specific volume after compression
rock t o become plastic (for granite, p,,it is about 4 G P a for high and the pressure and specific volume before compression, relation (4)
strain rates [Holzer, 19651). Such waves are called plastic waves. The is sometimes called the "shock adiabat". However, the "shock adia-
speed of a plastic wave increases with its strength. The weakest such bat" is not an isentrope, since shock compression of a fluid increases
waves propagate at the low-pressure plastic wave speed [Zel'dovich its entropy (the stronger the shock wave, the greater the increase in
and Raizer, 1967, pp. 741-7461 the entropy). Thus, the Hugoniot curve crosses isentropes, as shown
in Figure 1. The final pressure pl produced by shock compression is
a function of two parameters, such as po and Vo, as well as the final
specific volume Vl, whereas the pressure p along an isentrope is a
function only of the specific volume and the entropy (see Zel'dovich
which is determined by the compressibility of the rock in its standard and Raizer [1967], pp. 49-50 and 705-710).
state. T h e speed co is also sometimes called the bulk sound speed. The Hugoniot may also be expressed as a relation between D and
Since only the bulk modulus contributes t o co, it is necessarily less u l , that is
than cf. For solid granite, co % 4kms-'. D = D(ul). (5)
If a plastic shock wave is strong enough that the shear strength of
the rock can be neglected, it is called a hydrodynamic shock wave. If, To see that this implies a relation of the form (4), note that in the
further, a shock wave is s o strong that the speed of the wave front frame in which the undisturbed rock is a t rest conservation of mo-
is much greater than the acoustic wave speed in the undisturbed mentum across the front of a hydrodynamic shock wave implies
rock, the pressure behind the wave front is predominantly thermal
pressure, and the ratio of the density just behind the wave front t o
the density just ahead of the front is close t o its limiting value, it is
called a strong shock wave (see Zel'dovich and Raizer [1967], pp. 685- Using relation (5), D can be eliminated from equation (6) in favor
705). As discussed below, shock waves in hard rocks such as granite of u l , p l , PO, and Vo. The post-shock particle speed ul can then
are strong only when the peak pressure pl is 2 1 T P a . be eliminated from equation (3), giving a relation of the form (4).
Shock compression.-The equation of state of a rock may be writ- Figure 2 shows a Hugoniot for solid quartz expressed in this way. The
ten as a relation between the pressure p, the specific volume V = l l p , step in the curve at ul % 2 kms-' reflects a phase transformation that
and the specific internal energy E . Before the shock front arrives, the occurs a t about 40 GPa. Hugoniots for granite are generally similar
rock is a t rest with specific volume Vo, specific internal energy € 0 , t o this quartz Hugoniot, although they differ in detail. In general,
and pressure po. As the shock front arrives, the pressure rises rapidly the Hi~goniotof rock in the field depends on the bulk density, grain
and the rock is severely compressed. We denote .e specific volume, density, chemical composition, fracture pattern, porosity, and water
specific internal energy, and pressure just after the shock front has
passed by Vl, €1, and p l , respectively. The changes in these t h e r m e
dynamic variables occur over such a small distance that the shock
front often may be approximated as a mathematical discontinuity.
Henceforth we shall assume, unless otherwise stat,ed, that the shock
wave is strong e n c ~ g hthat i t is hydrodynamic.
The curve on the equation of state surface p = p(V, t ) that is rel-
evant for determining the thermodynamic state of rock subjected t o
shock compression may be seen as follows. Although the shock wave
produced by an underground nuclear explosion evolves with time,
the time scale of this evolution is much longer than the time required
for the shock front t o pass through a given fluid element. Thus,
the change in the thermodynamic state of a given element as the
shock front passes through it may be found by considering a steady
shock wave with the instantaneous speed of the actual shock wave.
In t h e frame in which the unshocked material is at rest, conservation L I I I
of mass, momentum, and energy across the front of a steady shock "0
wave give (see Zel'dovich and Raizer [1967], pp. 45-50 and 705-710) Specific Volume
Fig. 1. Hugoniot (labeled H ) for a hypothetical non-porous material
initially in the state (po, Vo) (dot) and several isentropes (labeled by
their entropies S1 < S:! < S3) for the same material. All final states (pl,
where D and ul are, respectively, the speed of the shock front and VI) that can be reached via shock compression from (po, Vo) lie along
the particle speed just behind the shock front. When combined with H. The stronger the shock wave, the smaller the final specific volume
the equation of state t = t(p, V), equation (3) gives the pressure just and the higher the final pressure. The Hugoniot crosses isentropes of
behind the shock front in terms of the specific volume just behind the increasing entropy as the final specific volume decreases, showing that
front and the pressure and specific volume just ahead of the front, the entropy of the final state increases with the strength of the shock
that is, wave. The vertical dashed line indicates the limiting specific volume
P1 = P H ( ~ ~ , Pv0).
O, (4) for a strong shock wave in this material.
LAMBETAL. 75

TABLE 1. Approximate IIugoniots for Granite and Wet T u P

ROC^ PO (Mg m-3) A (kms-'1 B LI (m) L150 (m)

Granite 2.67 2.80 1.45 3.8 20


Wet tuff 1.95 1.45 1.62 7.0 37

"The parameters p a , A, and B are from Moss [I9881 and were obtained by
fitting a Mie-Griineisen equation of state to tabulated equations of state
[King et al., 19891 for quartz and wet tuff at high pressures. L, and Llso
are characteristic shock wave transition radii (see eq. [12]) for 1 kt and
150 kt explosions.

speed co. However, the large-ul relation usually is not valid for small
u l , and hence A usually does not equal co. In granite, for example,
A is about 3kms-' whereas co is about 4 k m s - I .
Even if the IIugoniot is not linear over the range of ul that is of in-
terest, a curve consisting of piecewise-linear segments of the form (7)
may serve as a practical approximation t o H ( u l ) for many purposes.
Post-shock particle speed (km s-1) Release.-After the shock front has passed, the pressure falls and
the fluid expands. This is often referred t o as "release". For a shock
Fig. 2. Re1at)ion between shock speed D and particle speed ul just front of given strength, the curve on the equation of state surface that
behind the shock front for solid quart,z. The curve is a piecewise-linear describes the evolution of the thermodynamic state of the material
approximation by Lamb, Callen, and Sullival~[1990] to Hugoniot data during release is very nearly an isentrope, since heat conduction is
compiled by King e t al. [1989] from Al'tshnler el al. [1977], Chung and almost always negligible. This curve is therefore frequently called the
Simmons [1969], McQueen, Fritz, and Hopsou [1977], Wackerl~[1962], release adiabat (see, for example, Murri e t al. [1974]).
and Ragan [1984]. Note thc approximat,e linearity of the IIugoniot at,
large 1 1 1 . Thc st,ep in the curve at ul % 2 krn s-' rcflects a phase Phases of an Underground Nuclear Explosion
transforma.tio~~ that occurs at about 40 GPa.
For present purposes, the time development of an underground
content, and may differ from the Hugoniots of the small samples that nuclear explosion may be divided into three phases (see Glasstone
can be tested in laboratories. and Dolan [I9771 or Germain and Kahn [1968]):
For some rocks, the Hugoniot a t high particle speeds (high pres- Initial phase.-The energy released by a nuclear explosion initially
sures) may be adequately represented by a linear relation of the form emerges as nuclear radiation, fission fragments, and thermal elec-
(see Zel'dovich and Raizer [1967], pp. 705-710) tromagnetic radiation. The temperature in the nuclear charge rises
steeply, reaching l o 7 K within a microsecond or so. At the very earli-
est times, energy is carried outward by the expanding weapon debris
and radiation. As a result, the vaporized nuclear charge and nearby
for some constants A and B. As shown below, the ambient pressure rock form a bubble of hot gas in which the initial pressure is of order
po is negligible compared t o pl for all depths and times of interest 1 0 T P a . The enormous pressure in the bubble causes it to expand
here. Relation (7) then implies that rapidly, creating a cavity and driving a shock wave into the rock sur-
rounding the emplacement canister. The radial stress produced by
the shock wave greatly exceeds the critical stress a t which the rock
becomes plastic. Thus, t o a good approximation the strength of the
rock can be neglected and the rock can be treated as a fluid. During
the initial phase the evolution of the explosion can be followed using
(see Zel'dovich and Raizer [1967], pp. 705-710). Table 1 lists values
of A , B, and po for granite and wet tuff that were derived by fitting
a Hugoniot of the form (8) t o high-pressure equations of state for
Hydrodynamic phase.-Within -
the equations of hydrodynamics and radiation transport.
10-loops, depending on the de-
sign and yield of the nuclear charge and the composition and distri-
similar materials. bution of the matter surrounding it, the outward flow of energy via
For Hugoniots of the form (a), the ratio pllpo of the material den- radiation becomes unimportant and the explosion can be described
sity immediately behind the shock front to the material density ahead by the equations of hydrodynamics alone. At this point the explosion
of the shock front increases with the strength of the shock wave until enters the (purely) hydrodynamic phase. As the shock wave expands,
it reaches a certain value ( p l p ~ ) , , , =
~ ~(VolV),,, = B / ( B - 1). Once it weakens. Eventually, the radial stress produced by the shock wave
the shock has become this strong, any further increase in its strength is not much greater than the critical stress of the rock. At this point
does not produce any increase in the ratio plpo. For this reason, the the rock can no longer be treated as a fluid and the hydrodynamic
densit.y ratio (p/po),, is referred t o as the limiting density ratio. For phase of the explosion ends.

- -
the granite IIugoniot listed in Table 1, the limiting density ratio is
3. Peak pressures 1-10TPa are required to achieve density ratios
near the limiting value. For extremely strong shock waves, changes
Final phase.-The final radius R, of the cavity produced by an
underground nuclear explosion depends somewhat on the depth of
the explosion and the composition of the surrounding rock, as well
in material properties caused by ionization, relativistic corrections to as the yield. For a burst of yield W, a useful approximate expression
the electron pressure, and radiation affect the Hugoniot and alter the is [Terhune et al., 19791
limiting density.
If a single linear D vs. ul relation adequately describes the Hugo-
niot at large ul and if this relation could be extrapolated t o small
u l , the constant A would correspond to the low-pressure plastic wave The cavity reaches its final radius in about 90 (W/1 kt)'I3ms [Ter-
76 YIELD ESTIMATION USING SHOCK WAVE METHODS

hune e t al., 19791. the Hugoniot. This requirement is sidestepped in the model by as-
Even after the compression wave is no longer hydrodynamic, the suming that f is independent of R.
The factor f is independent of R for self-similar shock waves (see
-
rarefaction wave that follows is still strong enough t o fracture rock.
Intense fracturing typically occurs out t o a radius 3R, [Terhune
e t al., 19791. Beyond this point, the degree of fracturing caused by the
below) but need not be independent of R for shock waves produced by
actual underground nuclear explosions [Lamb, 1987; Lamb, Callen,
expanding shock wave drops dramatically until, at -- 5R,, fracturing and Sullivan, 19901. Nevertheless, shock wave radius and particle
essentially stops. (Rarefaction waves caused by reflection of the shock speed d a t a from actual underground nuclear tests as well as from
wave from the surface or collapse of the roof of the cavity may cause computer simulations of such tests indicate that relation (10) with f
fracturing beyond this radius.) The shock wave then continues t o constant is fairly well satisfied for explosions in quartz and wet tuff
expand nearly elastically, eventually evolving into the leading wave until relatively late times [Lamb, 1987; Moss, 1988; Lamb, Callen,
of a train of elastic (seismic) waves. and Sullivan, 19901. T h e best value o f f t o use for explosions in a
In the remainder of this section we focus on the evolution of the given rock can be determined by fitting the post-shock particle-speed
shock wave during the hydrodynamic phase and somewhat beyond. relation (10) (or the relations for the shock speed, shock front radius,
and post-shock pressure that follow from it) t o data from numerical
Approzimate Model simulations or actual underground explosions in that rock. For shock
waves in quartz and wet tuff, f =0.53 provides a relatively accu-
For pedagogical purposes, it is useful t o consider the shock wave rate description of the evolution during the hydrodynamic phase and
that would b e produced by a spherically-symmetric explosion in a somewhat beyond [Moss, 1988; Lamb, Callen, and Sullivan, 19901.
uniform medium before confronting the full complexity of the shock For simplicity, let us assume that the Hugoniot of the medium can
waves produced by actual underground nuclear tests. The shock wave be adequately represented by a single linear relation of the form (7)
produced by such an idealized explosion is spherically-symmetric at over the whole range of ul of interest. Then co = A. Therefore, in
all times. Even so, tracking accurately the change in the thermody- the following discussion we refer t o A as the low-pressure plastic wave
namic state of an element of rock as it undergoes shock compression speed. Given the ansatz (lo), the Hugoniot (7) can be rewritten as
and release requires knowledge of the equation of state of the rock [Lamb, 1987, 19881
over a wide range of densities and internal energies. Such an equa--
tion of state is usually quite complicated, and often can be presented
only in tabular form. Hence, for pedagogical purposes it is also use-
ful t o consider first a simpler, more approximate description of the
behavior of rock subjected t o a shock wave. where
In fact, the basic features of the evolution of the shock wave
produced by a spherically-symmetric explosion in a uniform solid
medium are illustrated by a simple analytical model. This model was
proposed by Lamb [1987], who showed that it is exact for strong, self- is a characteristic length that separates the region where D oc
similar shock waves and that the shock-front radius vs. time curves =
from the region where D A. Typical values of L for 1kt and 150kt
it predicts agree fairly well with d a t a from several underground explosions in granite and wet tuff are listed in Table 1 for the values
nuclear tests and numerical simulations of underground nuclear of A and B given there.
explosions. The model was proposed independently by Moss [1988], Given the shock-front radius & at the time to at which the e x p l e
who showed that the particle-speed vs. radius relationship it predicts sion becomes purely hydrodynamic, the first-order differential equa-
agrees fairly well with d a t a from underground nuclear explosions tion (11) can be integrated t o obtain a simple, closed expression
and numerical simulations. A detailed description and assessment of for R(t), from which one can calculate D(t), ul(t), pl(t), and pl(t)
the model has been given by Lamb, Callen, and Sullivan [1990], who [Lamb, 1987; Moss, 1988; Lamb, Callen, and Sullivan, 19901. This
find that the model provides a remarkably accurate description of model shows in a qualitative way how the evolution of the shock wave
the motion of the shock front throughout the hydrodynamic phase. depends on the yield of the explosion and the Hugoniot of the rock.
Without loss of generality, the particle speed ul just behind the As an example, the peak pressure, peak density, and radius of the
shock front can be related t o the hydrodynamic yield W of the ex- shock front at various times are listed in Table 2. for 1 kt and 150kt
plosion and the radius R of the front via the expression
TABLE 2. Shock Wave Evolution in Granitea
Pressure Density 1 kt Explosion 150 kt Explosion
(GPa) p ) Time (ps) R (m) Time (ps) R (m)
where f is a dimensionless factor that generally depends on the equa-
tion of state of the ambient medium and the radius of the shock front.
An important assumption of the model is that f is independent of
the shock front radius R for all shock front radii of interest.
In this model, the compression of the ambient medium at the shock
front is treated exactly, via the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions
and the Hugoniot of the medium. In contrast, the rarefaction that
occurs as a shocked fluid element is left behind is treated only approx-
imately, via the parameter f . The value of this parameter depends on
the density, velocity, and specific internal energy distributions within "For the model of a spherically-symmetric, point explosion described in
the shocked volume. These distributions, and thus f , could be deter- the text. The Hugoniot (7) was used, with the values of A and B given
mined from a full hydrodynamic simulation of the shock wave evolu-
tion. However, such a simulation requires knowledge of the equation
-
in Table 1. The phase transformation that occurs when the post-shock
pressure pl is 30-40 GPa (see Fig. 2) has been neglected. The post-shock
density pl is expressed in terms of the limiting density p,,, of granite (see
of state for substantial ranges of pressure and density, not just along text), which is 9.4 Mgm-3 for this Hugoniot. From Lamb [1988].
LAMBETAL. 77

point explosions in granite. (A point explosion is one in which a (see Table 2). We denote the shock front radius at which this occurs
large amount of energy is released instantaneously in an infinitesimal
volume.) For simplicity we have assumed that both explosions are - -
by &. For a 1 kt explosion in granite & is l m , whereas for a
150 kt explosion R, is 5 m.
purely hydrodynamic after the initial energy release at time t = 0. Over most of the transition interval, the thermal pressure just be-
The corresponding initial condition for equation (11) is R = 0 at hind the shock front is not much greater than the cold pressure of
t = 0. As discussed below, the hydrodynamic phase ends in granite the compressed rock, although the speed D of the shock front is still
when the post-shock pressure pl has fallen to about 4GPa. Thus, the much larger than the low-pressure plastic wave speed A. In this inter-
pressure po of the overburden, which is 20 MPa at the depths that val, the motion of the shock wave is more sensitive to the properties
are relevant here (51 km), is negligible compared to pl throughout of the medium than it is in the strong shock interval. For example,
the hydrodynamic phase of the explosion. the motion of the shock front in the simplified model discussed above
More generally, the model can be used to obtain a closed-form depends on A as well as B and po during the transition interval. Con-
expression for R(t) for any piecewise-linear Hugoniot D(u). Thus, sequently, more knowledge of the ambient rock is required in order
the model can be used with more realistic Hugoniots like that shown to make accurate yield estimates using data from this interval.
in Figure 2. When currently available Hugoniot data is used, the As the shock wave expands and weakens, the minerals in the rock
model predicts post-shock particle speeds and pressures, shock-front behind the shock front may undergo polymorphic transitions. For
speeds, and shock-front radii that agree quite well with data from example, the mineral constituents of granitic rocks appear to undergo
underground nuclear explosions and with numerical simulations of
such explosions [Lamb, Callen, and Sullivan, 19901. -
several polymorphic transitions when the peak post-shock pressure
falls below 30-40GPa (see Fig. 2).
When the shock speed falls below the elastic wave speed cc, the
Characteristic Intervals shock wave splits into an elastic wave followed by a plastic wave
(see Zel'dovich and Raizer [1967], pp. 741-746). In granites, this is
During the hydrodynamic phase, the shock wave produced by a
spherically-symmetric point explosion in a uniform medium evolves
-
expected t o occur when the peak pressure has fallen to 20-30 GPa
(see Butkovich [1965], Holzer [1965], and Fig. 2). Since the plastic
differently in the strong-shock, transition, and low-pressure plastic- wave slows as it weakens whereas the elastic wave travels at the nearly
wave intervals. constant speed cc, the plastic wave falls further and further behind
Strong-shock interval.-Initially, the speed of the shock front is the elastic wave. This twewave structure is clearly seen in laboratory
much greater than the speed of sound in the undisturbed rock, the experiments on small samples of granite and other rocks. Whether
pressure behind the shock front is predominantly thermal pressure, it persists in rock in the field is not as certain.
and the ratio of the density immediately behind the shock front to The elastic precursor raises the pressure of the rock t o p,,.it, which is
the density ahead of the front is close to its limiting value. Thus, the % 4GPa for granite [Holzer, 19651, and accelerates it. The following
shock wave is strong.
The shock wave produced by a point explosion in a uniform
medium is self-similar as long as it remains strong (see Zel'dovich
moving at -
plastic shock wave therefore propagates through rock that is already
1-lOms-l. However, the speed of the plastic shock
wave is at least co, which is several kms-' (see above). Thus, even
and Raizer [1967], Chap. I and XII; Sedov [1959]; Barenblatt [1979]). after the shock wave has split, the acceleration of the rock by the
In such a motion, the distributions with radius of the pressure, elastic precursor can usually be neglected and low-pressure plastic
density, and particle velocity evolve with time in such a way that wave taken to propagate at the plastic wave speed relative to the
only the scales of the distributions change, while their shapes remain undisturbed ambient medium, as was done in writing eq. (6).
unaltered. For such a strong, self-similar shock wave, the radius as Low-pressure plastic wave interval.-As the shock wave expands
a function of time depends in a simple way on the properties of the and weakens further, the thermal pressure behind the shock front
medium and the yield of the explosion. This simple radius vs. time becomes a small fraction of the total pressure and the shock speed D
curve could be used to estimate the yield of actual underground approaches the low-pressure plastic wave speed A. At a certain radius
nuclear explosions, if there were an interval of strong, self-similar Rpw (- L), the shock speed has fallen t o 1.2 times the low-pressure
motion and if data from this interval could be obtained. plastic wave speed and we say that the shock wave has entered the
low-pressure plastic wave intervaL2 For an explosion in granite, this
For example, the simplified model described above predicts that
the radius of the shock front produced by a point explosion satisfies
[Lamb, 1987, 19881 - - -
occurs when the peak pressure has fallen t o 15 GPa, corresponding
to a peak density ratio 0.4 times the maximum (see Table 2). For a
1 kt explosion in granite Rpw is 5 m, whereas for a 150 kt explosion
-
Rpw is 30 m.
For the simplified Hugoniot of equation ( l l ) , the low-pressure plas-
tic wave interval corresponds to R 2 3 L. In this interval,
during the strong-shock interval (R << L). This expression illustrates
the more general result that the radius of a strong, self-similar shock
wave varies as the two-fifths power of the time since the beginning of
the explosion, independent of the properties of the medium. In the where the constant is determined by the motion in the strong shock
simplified model, the radius of the shock front depends only on po and transition intervals.
and B, for a given choice of f . When the peak pressure in the plastic wave is no longer much
Unfortunately, as explained below, strong, self-similar motion does greater than the critical shear stress p,,it, the shear strength of the
not develop in actual underground nuclear tests, given current testing rock can no longer be neglected in treating the evolution of the plastic
practices and the yields permitted by the TTBT. shock wave. In granite, for example, p,,;, is % 4GPa, and hence the
Thansition interval.-As the shock wave expands, it weakens and hydrodynamic approximation begins to fail when the peak pressure
slows, and the peak pressure and density drop. When the the peak behind the plastic wave falls below about 15 GPa, which occurs soon
density ratio has fallen to 0.8 times the limiting value, we say that after the shock wave has split. For granite, the hydrodynamic zone
the shock wave has entered the transition interval.' For an explosion extends about 5 (W/l kt)'I3 meters from the center of the explosion
-
in granite, this occurs when the peak pressure has fallen to 1T P a (see Table 2).
Underground Nuclear Tests Agency, 1990bl. The T T B T protocol also requires that any pipe or
cableway connected to an explosive canister pass through a "choke
The evolution of the shock wave produced by an actual under- section" designed to restrict the flow of energy out of the canister.
ground nuclear test is generally more complex than the evolution The distortion of the shock front caused by a canister, open pipe,
just described. For one thing, the shock wave is produced by an as- or cableway of a given size is less for higher-yield than for lower-
pherical source of finite size rather than a spherically-symmetric point yield explosions, since the hydrodynamic zone extends further from
source. For another, natural or man-made geological or geophysical the canister and emplacement hole for a higher-yield explosion (re-
structures near the emplacement point may significantly distort the call that the hydrodynamic zone extends about 5 (W/l kt)'I3 meters
evolution. from the center of the explosion). Moreover, higher-yield charges
Test geometries.-In preparation for a nuclear test, one or more nu- usually are not exploded in tunnels.
clear explosives are customarily placed in each container or covering. The shock wave produced by a test involving multiple explosive
These containers are called explosive canisters. Explosive canisters as canisters could be very complex, creating a daunting verification
long as 1 2 m with diameters as large as 3 m a r e permitted in the stan- problem. For this reason the T T B T protocol specifies that a test
dard test geometries defined in the recently adopted T T B T verifica- involving multiple explosives can be considered to have a standard
tion protocol [U. S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 1990bl. geometry only if the explosives are placed in a single canister or the
Larger canisters may be used in nonstandard tests. positions of the explosive canisters and their detonation times are
Any drill-hole, shaft, adit, or tunnel in which one or more explosive arranged so that a shock-wave yield estimate can be made for each
canisters, associated cables, and other equipment have been installed canister separately.
is called an emplacement hole. Emplacement holes may be vertical Even the shock wave from a test having a standard geometry and
shafts drilled deep into the ground, horizontal tunnels carved into the conducted in a uniform medium may not be completely spherical
sides of mesas or mountains, or large underground cavities (see U. S. at the relatively small distances where hydrodynamic measurements
Congress [1989], pp. 15-18).3 The standard vertical and horizontal must be made. For example, the hydrodynamic zone of a 150 kt ex-
geometries defined by the T T B T verification protocol allow the use of plosion in granite extends only about 20m from the center of the ex-
vertical emplacement holes with diameters up to 4 m and horizontal plosion. Shock front position measurements must therefore be made
emplacement holes with cross sections as large as 5 m by 5 m. Tests
with planned aggregate yields less than 35 kt may be conducted in
- 10-20m from the center of the explosion in order to be usable in
hydrodynamic yield estimation algorithms. These distances are com-
cavities as large as 20,000 cubic meters (the radius of a hemispheri- parable to the dimensions of the largest explosive canisters allowed in
cal cavity with this volume is about 20m). Nonstandard tests may standard test geometries. Thus, even the shock wave from astandard
be carried out in larger emplacement holes or cavities if the parties test may be somewhat aspherical in the region where hydrodynamic
agree on verification measures [U. S. Arms Control and Disarmament measurements are made.
Agency, 1990bl. Historically, about 90% of U. S. nuclear tests have The shock wave from an underground nuclear explosion cannot be-
been conducted in vertical shafts; the remainder have been conducted come self-similar until it has enveloped a mass of rock much greater
in tunnels or cavities. than the mass of the nuclear explosive and canister, and energy trans-
Cableways and cables as well as open or partially-open pipes are port by radiation is negligible [Barenblatt, 1979, Ch. 21. The radius
typically installed in the emplacement hole to carry signals or radia- Ro at which this occurs is necessarily larger than the radius of the
tion away from the explosive canister or canisters. There have been emplacement hole or cavity and depends on the design of the nuclear
as many as 250 or more such cables and pipes in recent U. S. nuclear charge and surrounding equipment. Unless there is a range of radii
weapon tests. Once the explosive canister, diagnostic equipment, satisfying Ro << R << Rd, where & is the radius at which the tran-
pipes, and cables have been positioned in the emplacment hole, the sition interval begins, the shock wave will not have time to become
emplacement hole is stemmed with sand, gravel, and plugs (if it is self-similar before entering the transition interval. Since Ro is 2 2 m
vertical) or grout (if it is horizontal) in order to prevent escape of for current U. S. practices and allowed yields, no such range exists in
radioactive gases (for an example of a stemming plan for a vertical granite even for explosions as large as 150 kt, as shown by the data
shaft, see Glenn et al. [I9831 or Glenn et al. [1986]; for an example in Table 2. Thus, the simplicity of estimating yields from an interval
of a filling plan for a horizontal tunnel, see U. S. Congress [1989], of self-similar motion cannot be realized. Furthermore, the structure
p. 43). For tests conducted in tunnels, an ancillary tunnel (called of the shock wave in the hydrodynamic measurement zone is more
the bypass drift) is constructed parallel to the emplacment tunnel sensitive to the properties of the source than it would be if it were
to allow access to the room in which the nuclear explosive is to be evolving from a self-similar wave.
placed and to other parts of the tunnel system close to the time of For example, even if the shock waves produced by two nuclear
the test. After the nuclear explosive has been positioned, the bypass tests with the same yield were spherically symmetric at all radii,
drift is filled with grout. they could have different speeds at a given radius, because the ef-
Source effects.-Unless impeded, vaporized weapon debris and ra- fective site of the shock wave source could differ from one explosion
diation would fill many meters of the emplacement hole soon after to another. Moreover, the design and composition of the nuclear
the nuclear charge is detonated, producing a shock wave that would explosive and canister affects the equation of state of the effective
be highly aspherical initially (see Lamb [1988]). As such a shock hydrodynamic source, which is different from the equation of state
wave expands, it tends to become more spherical if the surrounding of the surrounding rock. As a result, the fraction of the total device
medium is uniform. However, the shock wave will remain significantly energy that couples to the shock wave can vary from one device t o
aspherical until it has propagated a distance from the center of the another. Indeed, Moran and Goldwire [I9901 have shown that the
explosion greater than the length of the source. Such an aspherical yields of spherically-symmetric explosions inferred from data taken
shock wave would make accurate yield estimation much more difficult in the hydrodynamic measurement zone may differ from the actual
than for a spherical shock wave, particularly if shock front position yields by 20%, for hydrodynamic sources that they present as models
data were obtained from only one set of sensing cables (see below). of the hydrodynamic sources produced by nuclear explosions. Similar
For this reason, the T T B T verification p r o t o c o l ~ ~ s t r i cthe
t s di- results have been obtained by Callen, Fiedler, Lamb, and Sullivan [in
mensions of explosive canisters and any attached canisters contain- preparation].
ing diagnostic equipment [U. S. Arms Control and Disarmament Inhomogeneities in the ambient medium.-In addition to its depen-
LAMBETAL. 79

dence on the properties of the source, the evolution of the shock wave satellite hole requires sophisticated drilling capabilities in order to
produced by an underground nuclear explosion will be affected by any make sure that the satellite hole maintains the proper separation
natural or man-made structures in the surrounding medium. In or- from the nuclear charge emplacement hole at the depth of the nuclear
der to identify potentially disturbing structures, the TTBT protocol charge (see below and $4). Conversion of the uncrushed cable length
requires that the testing party provide a geological and geophysical to the position of the shock front is more complicated if the cable is
description of the test location, including the depth of the water table, placed in a satellite hole than if it is positioned in the emplacement
lithographic descriptions of each formation, and any known geological hole. On the other hand, the satellite-hole geometry reduces the
or geophysical discontinuities within the hydrodynamic measurement intrusiveness of the method and "jetting" and other phenomena that
zone. The protocol also requires the testing party to make available can crush or short sensing cables ahead of the hydrodynamic shock
the planned cross-sectional dimensions of each emplacement hole in front. In the discussion that follows, we shall assume that the sensing
each hydrodynamic measurement zone as well as a description of the cables have been placed in a satellite hole unless otherwise stated.
materials that will be used to stem each such emplacement hole. In The satellite-hole geometry is shown in Figure 3a.
order t o minimize the effects of voids on the evolution of the shock If a sensing cable is strong enough that it is not crushed by the
wave, the protocol requires that the locations and volumes of all voids elastic precursor (if present) or other unwanted signals, but weak
within the hydrodynamic measurement zone be determined, using enough that it is crushed by the pressure peak at the hydrodynamic
methods such as electromagnetic measurements, radar, and acous- shock front, the cable will be electrically shorted or its impedance
tic sounding; any voids within the hydrodynamic measurement zone substantially changed near the point where the hydrodynamic shock
with volumes greater than ten cubic meters and any voids near the front intersects it. As the shock front expands with time, the length
emplacement hole with volumes greater than one cubic meter must of cable from the electrical equipment to the nearest point at which it
then be filled with dense stemming material. has been crushed is measured, as shown in Figure 3b. If the path of
Explosions of nuclear charges in vertical shaft or tunnel complexes the sensing cable relative to the center of the explosion is known and
or in cavities may be accompanied by complicated (and unantici- the time at which the explosion began can be determined, then the
pated) energy flows and complex shock wave patterns. In order to length of the uncrushed cable can be used to determine the position
minimize these effects, the T T B T protocol specifies that if a test in- of the shock front along the path traced by the sensing cable, as a
volves explosions in more than one emplacement hole, no more than function of the elapsed time since the beginning of the explosion.
one such hole may depart from the standard vertical or horizontal In order to sample a substantial portion of the hydrodynamic mea-
configuration. If a test is to be conducted in a cavity, the protocol surement zone for explosions with yields near the 150 kt limit of the
gives the verifying party the right to measure the shape and volume TTBT, the sensing cable must pass within -10m of the center of
of the cavity. the explosion. For this reason, the T T B T protocol requires that for
standard tests, the axis of any satellite hole must be located 1 1 53 me-
3. Measuring Shock Waves ters from the axis of its associated emplacment hole throughout the
hydrodynamic measurement zone. For standard vertical tests with
As noted in the Introduction, the evolution of the shock wave pro- yields near 150kt, this requires drilling the emplacement and satel-
duced by an underground nuclear explosion can in principle be mea- lite holes t o depths 2 650 m while maintaining a lateral separation of
sured using either sensing elements or transducers (see Holzer [1965]). about 10m.
In the present context a sensing element is any switch, cable, or cable Voids or excavations near the satellite hole can distort the shock
segment that provides data on the position of the shock front as a front, causing the sensing cables to be crushed in complex patterns.
function of time, whereas a transducer is a device that converts a For this reason, the T T B T protocol requires that for standard tests,
physical property of the shock wave, such as the radial stress, strain, any void that is near a satellite hole and that has a volume greater
or particle speed, into a recordable signal. In practice, constructing, than one cubic meter must be filled with dense stemming material.
emplacing, and obtaining reliable data from transducers has proved
Experimental CORRTEX Experimental CORRTEX
difficult. equipment recorder equipment reandex
For this reason, U. S. efforts to develop shock-wave yield estima-
tion methods have for the past 15 years emphasized sensing elements.
This approach is also the one that the TTBT protocol allows for
shock-wave monitoring of nuclear tests with standard vertical or hor-
izontal geometries. Hence, in the present section we focus primarily
on shock-front sensing techniques. The TTBT protocol allows the
use of transducers as well as sensing elements for monitoring tests
with nonstandard geometries [U. S. Arms Control and Disarmament
Agency, 1990bl.

Use of Sensing Cables

One way of measuring the position of the shock front is to place


an electrical sensing cable near the site of the explosion and then
measure the point where it is being crushed at a given time by the
pressure peak at the shock front. The crushing point is measured
by electrical equipment attached to the cable but positioned a safe
distance from the explosion. This technique has been utilized in the
United States since the early 1960s. Fig. 3. Schematic drawings illustrating (a) placement of a shock front
Sensing cables may be inserted in the emplacement hole before it sensing cable in a satellite hole and (b) progressive shortening of the
is filled or placed in one or more "satellite holes" that have been cable by the expanding shock front produced by a nuclear explosion.
drilled or excavated nearby specifically for this purpose. Use of a From Lamb [1988].
80 YIELD ESTIMATION USING SHOCK WAVE METHODS

Also, a satellite hole must be at least as close to its associated em- to the crushing point or about 0.05m in the distance t o the crushing
placement hole as t o any other holes or excavations. For standard point.
horizontal tests, the axis of a satellite hole must be at least 6 m from
any other drilled or excavated cavities or holes, in order to minimize Determining the Shock Front Position us. Time
the disturbing effects of such holes. Moreover, if drilled, a satellite
hole must have a diameter of no less than 0.3m and no more than In order to understand how the evolution of the shock front pro-
0.5 m; if excavated, it must have a cross section no greater than 2.5 m duced by an underground explosion can be followed using OORRTEX
by 2.5 m. Similar restrictions apply to satellite holes for nonstandard or SLIFER measurements, it is helpful to consider first an idealized,
tests [U. S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 1990bl. spherically-symmetric explosion in a uniform medium and a single

-
If hydrodynamic methods are to be used to monitor a lOkt low-
threshold test ban, the sensing cable will have t o pass within 4 m of
the center of the explosion in order to sample a substantial portion of
sensing cable in a satellite hole that is relatively straight within the
hydrodynamic measurement zone.
After the nuclear charge is detonated, the spherical shock front
the hydrodynamic measurement zone. For a standard vertical test ge- produced by the explosion expands away from the center of the ex-
ometry, this would require drilling vertical emplacement and satellite plosion (see Fig. 3b). Some time elapses before the shock front begins
holes to depths 2200 m while maintaining a 4 m lateral separation to crush the sensing cable. This time depends on the distance be-
between them. tween the center of the explosion and the point where the cable is
Sensing cables with crushing strengths ranging from as little as closest to the center of the explosion.
3 MPa to as much as 3 GPa have been used [Schmitt and Dick, 19851. At the instant of first crush, the length of uncrushed cable decreases

-
However, even cables with crushing strengths as high as 3 G P a can
be crushed by the elastic precursor in granite, since pc,it is 4 GPa.
Thus, once the shock wave has split, the length of uncrushed cable
discontinuously from its original length to the length to the point of
first crush (see Fig. 4). As the shock front continues to expand,
the crushing point nearest the electrical recording equipment moves
may indicate the position of the elastic precursor rather than the po- steadily along the cable, reducing its uncrushed length. If the time
sition of the trailing hydrodynamic shock front [Virchow et al., 1980; at which the explosion began and the path of the cable relative to
Deupree et al., 19801. If so, the sensing cable will not provide data the center of the explosion are both known, the radius of the shock
about the position of the hydrodynamic shock front [Holzer, 19651. front as a function of the time since the beginning of the explosion
If the data is incorrectly interpreted as showing the position of the can be calculated from the recorded change in the length of the cable
hydrodynamic shock front, the estimated yield of the explosion will as a function of time.
be erroneously high. In some cases the cable may be crushed by the Accurate knowledge of the time at which the nuclear charge was
elastic precursor in some regions and by the plastic wave in others. detonated is required in order to determine accurately the shock front

-
Thus, use of sensing cable data from regions where the peak pressure
of the shock front has fallen below 20 GPa requires special care.
Further information on the use of sensing cables may be found in
radius as a function of time. For this reason, the T T B T protocol re-
quires the testing party to provide the verifying party with an electri-

the U. S.-Soviet agreement on the conduct of the 1988 Joint Verifi-


cation Experiment [U. S. Department of State, 19881.

Measuring the Length of the Sensing Cable

During the 1960s and 1970s, the position of the crushing point
was measured in the United States using a technique called S L I F E R ~
[Heusinkveld and Holzer, 1964; Holzer, 19651. In this approach, the
cable is used as the inductive element of a resonant oscillator. As the
cable is progressively crushed, the frequency of the oscillator changes.
By knowing the propagation velocity of electromagnetic signals in the
cable and the frequencies of the oscillator that correspond to at least
two cable lengths, one can convert measurements of the change in
oscillator frequency during the explosion to estimates of the change
in the length of the cable.
In the late 1970s, an improved technique for measuring the
length of sensing cables, called CORRTEX~, was developed [Virchow
et al., 1980; Deupree et al., 1980; Storey et al., 1982; Los Alamos
Natl. Lab., 19861. In this approach, a sequence of electrical pulses -looI I I I I I
is sent along the cable at preselected time intervals. At the crushing 0 2 4 6 8 10
point, these pulses are reflected back along the cable to the recording T i e (ms)
equipment. By knowing the speed at which the pulses propagate Fig. 4. Curve of uncrushed cable length vs. time derived from
along the cable, the round-trip travel time of each pulse can be CORRTEX satellite-hole data collected during an underground nuclear
converted into an estimate of the length of uncrushed cable at the explosion. The cable length remains constant until the shock front ar-
time the pulse was reflected. rives at the satellite hole at about 1.7 ms, at which time the cable is
Current (CORRTEX 111) equipment can store up t o 4,000 data crushed about 30 m from its original end. The cable length then de-
points. Pulse separations from 10 ps to 90 ps can be selected in 10 ps creases steadily as the crushing point moves along the cable, except for
steps, giving a record of the changing cable length that is 40ms to discontinuous downward jumps at the point labeled 1, 2, and 3, which
360ms in length. The pulses typically propagate down and up the are produced by fiducial loops in the cable (see text). The feature in
sensing cable at about 2 x lo5 kms-'. A typical uncertainty in the the curve at about 2.7 rns is not expected for a spherically symmetric
round-trip travel time during a nuclear explosion is 500ps, corre- shock front; its cause is not known to the present authors. The curve
sponding to an uncertainty of about 0.1 m in the round-trip distance was kindly supplied by the Los Alamos CORRTEX group.
LAMB ET AL. 81

cal pulse corresponding to the time of detonation, with an accuracy crush by the time the crushing is detected. An error of this magnitude
of & l ps, for each explosion. If this electrical pulse is not received, in determining the point of first crush could introduce an error of 50 kt
the time of detonation can still be estimated from the time at which in estimating the yield of a 150 kt explosion. This uncertainty can
the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) caused by the nuclear explosion ar- be reduced by using the SLIFER technique to determine the point
rives at the CORRTEX recorder. The CORRTEX technique is less of first crush, or by placing many CORRTEX cables in each satellite
affected by electromagnetic signals produced by the explosion than hole and staggering the times at which pulses are transmitted down
were earlier techniques. In order to prevent the pick-up and recording the cables.
of electromagnetic signals that could reveal sensitive nuclear design If the explosion is not spherically symmetric, due to the test ge-
information t o the verifying party, the TTBT protocol provides for ometry or the presence of natural or man-made inhomogeneities in
installation of "anti-intrusiveness" devices in each cable running from the surrounding medium, reconstruction of the evolving shape of the
a satellite hole t o any recording facility of the verifying party. shock front becomes more complicated and can be quite difficult, es-
As discussed in $4, an error of 1 m in the measured radius of the pecially if there is only one satellite hole, since there will then be
shock front will cause an error of about 50 kt in the yield estimate, for data only about the motion of the crushing point nearest the record-
yields near 150 kt. Thus, accurate knowledge of the path of the sens- ing equipment along asingle path in three-dimensional space (no data
ing cable relative t o the center of the explosion is required in order can be collected from the cable beyond the point of first crush, where
to make an accurate yield estimate. The paths of the emplacement the behavior of the shock wave may be significantly different). The
and satellite holes can be determined by directional surveys, geode- reconstruction problem is particularly difficult for nuclear explosions
tic measurements, depth measurements, and distance measurements. in vertical shaft or tunnel complexes or in cavities, which may be
The paths of sensing cables within the satellite hole must also be accompanied by complicated (and unanticipated) energy flows and
known accurately. If, for example, the cable wanders within the hole complex shock wave patterns.
and this is not taken into account, the length of the cable crushed by In the context of treaty-monitoring, problems of this kind can
the shock wave will be greater than the distance along the satellite be reduced by cooperative agreements. Thus, for example, the
hole traveled by the shock front, causing the the speed of the shock T T B T verification protocol [U. S. Arms Control and Disarmament
wave and therefore the yield of the explosion to be overestimated. Agency, 1990bl allows the verifying party to use up to six sensing
The path of a cable within the satellite hole can be fixed by creating cables in each of three satellite holes drilled or excavated at different
fiducial loops in the cable at predetermined points; such loops will azimuths, in order t o monitor a nonstandard test. In addition, the
cause the length of uncrushed cable to decrease discontinuously as verifying party may use transducers to measure the peak pressure
the shock front passes over them (see Fig. 4). Using these jumps, the or other properties of the shock front, in addition to its position as
cable length measurements can be adjusted for systematic errors. a function of time. The verifying party may also request a reference
Although the paths of the satellite and emplacement holes can be test carried out in accordance with a variety of yield, canister,
determined relatively accurately, the position of the center of the and placement requirements, in order t o calibrate seismic yield
explosion within the explosive canister usually will not be accurately estimation methods. Finally, an explosion with a planned aggregate
known t o the verifying party in advance of the test. In principle, the yield greater than 35 kt can be carried out in a cavity only if both
center of the explosion could be offset from the axis of the explosive parties agree on verification measures.
canister by a substantial fraction of the 1-1.5m canister radius and
could be located either near the top or near the bottom of a 12m- 4. Yield Estimation Algorithms
long canister. Such a large uncertainty in the position of the center of
the explosion would lead t o a very large uncertainty in the estimated Once measurements of the length of the sensing cable have been
yield of the explosion. converted to estimates of the position of the shock front as a function
In practice, the position of the center of the explosion relative to of time, the yield of the explosion can be estimated by applying an
the axis of the explosive canister can often be determined from the algorithm, by which we mean a particular procedure for comparing
shock front position data, if the explosion is spherically symmetric. the shock front position data with a particular model of the motion
Furthermore, if the satellite hole is essentially straight and parallel of the shock front. Because shock wave yield estimation methods are
to the emplacement hole and extends well past the nuclear charge evolving as research continues, the description of yield estimation
emplacement point, the position of the center of the explosion along algorithms given here should be viewed as a status report.
the axis of the explosive canister can be determined from cable length We first describe the components of a yield-estimation algorithm
measurements, since its position is the same as the position of first and then discuss the weighting of shock-front-position data, includ-
crush on the sensing cable (see Fig. 4). In part to make sure that the ing heavier weighting of data in the so-called "insensitive interval".
location of first crush can be determined, the TTBT protocol requires Next we summarize the conditions under which explosions satisfy
that for a test configuration to be standard, each satellite hole must "cube-root scaling" and describe yield estimation algorithms that
extend beyond the end of the associated emplacement hole by at least are based on this scaling. These include the power-law algorithm,
30 and 15m, respectively, for vertical and horizontal emplacement similar-explosion scaling, algorithms based on analytical models, and
geometries. simulated-explosion scaling. All assume that the explosion is spheri-
The discrete character of CORRTEX cable-length measurements cally symmetric and that the ambient medium is uniform. When this
can lead to a significant uncertainty in determining the point of first is the case, the shock wave is spherically symmetric and the propa-
crush, since the cable crushing point moves along the cable at very gation of the shock front can be described by a radius vs. time curve.
high speed just after the shock front first reaches the cable. For If the explosion is aspherical or the ambient medium is nonuniform,
example, if the satellite hole is 10m away from the emplacement the evolution is more complicated and detailed numerical modeling
hole and the yield of the explosion is 100 kt, the shock front will be may be required, as discussed at the end of this section.
moving at about 10 kms-I when it reaches the sensing cable. Hence,
even if the CORRTEX equipment is set to make measurements every General Features
l o p s , the radius of the shock front will increase by 0.1 m between one
CORRTEX pulse and the next. IIowever, in the most unfavorable case A yield estimation algorithm consists of (1) a model of the motion
the shock front will have moved 1.4m away from the point of first of the shock front that depends on the yield and (2) a procedure
82 YIELD ESTIMATION USING SHOCK WAVE METHODS

for comparing the model with shock-front-position data t o derive a another similar rock, s o that the insensitive interval is not sharply
yield estimate. The procedure normally includes a prescription for defined.
weighting the d a t a when comparing it with the model. For example, The existence of an insensitive interval for this collection of media
if the model describes the shock wave evolution more accurately at is not well understood from a fundamental physical point of view.
some times than a t others, d a t a taken during the time when it is However, work by Lamb, Callen, and Sullivan [1989, and in prepa-
more accurate should be weighted higher than d a t a taken a t other ration; see also Callen, Lamb, and Sullivan, 19901 indicates that the
times. A simple weighting procedure would be t o assign unit weight existence of an insensitive interval for this collection of silicates is a
t o d a t a collected during a certain interval and zero weight to data consequence of a particular correlation among the physical proper-
collected outside it. A more sophisticated procedure would be to ties of these rocks. Lamb e t al. have also described a procedure for
assign weights that gradually increase and then decrease with time determining in advance whether an insensitive interval exists for a
in an optimal way. At a minimum, weights should be chosen t o given collection of media. Previously, whether such an interval exists
eliminate d a t a corrupted by non-hydrodynamic effects of the kind could be determined only from nuclear test experience or numerical
discussed in $3. simulations of the evolution of shock waves in all the media in the
Given the uncertainties in the ambient medium of nuclear weapon collection.
tests that are typically encountered, it is usually appropriate to give Knowledge of whether an insensitive interval exists and, if so, its
a higher weight t o d a t a collected during the swcalled "insensitive position and extent is especially important when attempting t o use
interval" (see Lamb [1988]). This interval is so-named because ob- the power-law algorithm, since this algorithm gives relatively accu-
servations have shown that the radius of the shock front produced rate yields only if such an interval exists and only if the d a t a used
by a nuclear explosion of given yield is relatively insensitive to the come from this interval. IIowever, exploitation of any insensitive in-
medium in which the explosion occurs during a certain interval in terval is also important for optimal use of other algorithms. Given
time and radius toward the end of the transition interval, for e x p b typical uncertainties about the physical properties of the geologic
sions in the particular geologic media for which the United States has medium surrounding the nuclear explosive, assigning more weight to
good experimental d a t a or theoretical models [Bass and Larsen, 1977; data taken during the insensitive interval will improve the precision
Lamb, 1988; Lamb, Callen, and Sullivan, 1989, and in preparation; of any yield-estimation algorithm, even if the model employed in the
Callen, Lamb, and Sullivan, 19901. These media include the dry al- algorithm provides a relatively good description of the evolution of a
luvium, partially saturated tuff, saturated tuff, granite, basalt, and shock wave in rock outside as well as within the insensitive interval.
rhyolite a t the nuclear test sites the United States has used. These
media are mostly silicates and almost all are located a t the Nevada Scaling Algorilhrns
Test Site. For explosions in these media, the radius of the shock front
appears t o depend only weakly on the medium during the insensitive A11 scaling algorithms assume that the explosion is spherically sym-
interval, despite the fact that phase transitions and shock wave split- metric and that the ambient medium is uniform. As noted above, the
ting occur in some of these media within the insensitive interval. As shock front is then spherical and its evolution can be described by
shown in Figure 5, the radius of the shock front in one rock grad- a shock-front radius vs. time (RVT) curve. Scaling algorithms as-
ually approaches, crosses, and then gradually deviates from that in sume further that the RVT curve scales with the cube root of the
yield. In addition to the central role of cube-root scaling in scaling
algorithms, most of the very limited quantity of RVT data from un-
derground nuclear explosions that have been made publicly available
have been scaled so that the apparent yield is 1 kt, on the assumption
that cube-root scaling is valid, in order t o protect the confidentiality
of the original data. We therefore begin our description of yield-
estimation algorithms with a brief discussion of cube-root scaling.
Cube-root scaling.-In its usual form, cube-root scaling assumes
that if R = g ( t ) is the RVT curve produced by a 1 kt explosion in a
given medium during the hydrodynamic phase, the curve produced
by an explosion with a yield of W kt in the same medium is given by

It is frequently assumed, incorrectly, that this scaling follows from


the hydrodynamic equations alone. Actually, in order to determine
whether the RVT curves of two nuclear explosions scale with the
cube-root of the yield, one must examine not only the hydrody-
namic equations, but also the jump conditions across the shock front,
the equation of state of the ambient medium, and the initial d a t a
Time (ms) (that is, the pressure, density, and internal energy profiles a t the
time the explosion becomes purely hydrodynamic). Previous anal-
Fig. 5. Typical shock front radius vs. time curvrs for 100 kt explosions yses [Rrode, 1968; King e t al., 19891 have neglected one or more of
in two different silicate rocks found a t thc Ncvada Test Sitc. Note the these considerations.
"insensitive interval" near 1.6 ms during which the two curves lie close The RVT curves produced by different point explosions in the
to one another. Experience has sliown that radius vs. time curves for same medium are congruent during the hydrodynamic interval,
other silicate media found a t IJ. S. test sites also lie close to these curves once they have been scaled using equation (15) [King et al., 1989;
near 1.6 1 s . Because the curves gradually approach each other, cross, Callen, Fiedler, Lamb, and Sullivan, in preparation]. However, the
and then gradually deviate from one another, the insensitive interval is RVT curves produced by different hydrodynamic sources of finite
not sharply d r f i n ~ d . s i z e s u c h as the effective sources produced by underground nuclear
LAMB ETAL. 83

explosionsscale exactly only if the sources have the same equation


of state and their masses, radii, and initial pressures scale appro-
priately with their yields [Callen, Fiedler, Lamb, and Sullivan, in Granite model
preparation]. These requirements usually are not satisfied by nuclear Power law formula
weapon tests. Thus, for most nuclear weapon tests, cube-root scaling
is a t best only approximately valid, even during the hydrodynamic
interval. The numerical simulations of Moran and Goldwire [1990]
show that cube-root scaling may be in error by 20-30% in yield
during the hydrodynamic interval for hydrodynamic sources that
they present as models of the hydrodynamic sources produced by
dimerent nuclear explosives and test geometries. Callen, Fiedler,
Lamb, and Sullivan [in preparation] reach similar conclusions, based
on their numerical simulations of underground explosions. Despite
the approximate nature of cube-root scaling for underground nuclear
tests, yield estimation algorithms that assume this scaling often
work quite well (see Lamb, Callen, and Sullivan [1990]). Further
investigation of t h e domain of validity of cube-root scaling is needed.
Power-law algorithm.-This is the simplest yield-estimation algo-
rithm currently in use. The power-law algorithm assumes that the
expansion of the shock wave produced by an underground nuclear
explosion can be accurately modeled by a simple power-law formula
that does not depend on the medium in which the explosion occurs
(see Bass and Larsen [1977]). The power-law formula is

.0001 .001 .01 .1 1 10 100 1000


where R is the radius of the shock front in meters, W is the yield
of the explosion in kilotons, t is the elapsed time since the beginning Time (ms)
of the explosion in milliseconds, and a and b are constants. For- Fig. 6. Comparison of the power-law formula (16) with a model of
mula (16) has no theoretical basis, in contrast t o the power-law for- the evolution of a shock wave is granite produced by a spherically
mula for the radius of a strong, self-similar shock wave; it is instead symmrtric point explosion with a yield of 62 kt, showing the agree-
a purely empirical, approximate relation based on the observation ment of the formula with the model during a portion of the transition
that in many cases RVT data from cables in the emplacment holes interval and thc deviation of the formula from the model a t earlier
of U. S. nuclear tests fall close t o relation (16) for a short time after and later times. The effect of the phase transformation a t 30 G P a is
they are no longer disturbed by non-hydrodynamic signals. The fact included in the model. From Lamb [1988].
that formula (16) only approximates the actual RVT curve for a brief
time is demonstrated by Figure 6, which compares it with a detailed is an insensitive interval for the collection of rocks being considered
model of the evolution of the shock wave produced in granite by a and if the constants in the formula have been chosen appropriately,
spherically-symmetric point explosion with a yield of 62 kt. the yield estimates near the bottom of the distribution should ap-
According t o the assumption on which the power-law algorithm is proximate the actual yield of the explosion. This is the case for the
based, the values of a and b in equation (16) do not depend on the Piledriver estimates, which lie near the 62kt official yield near the
medium (because of this and the fact that it has frequently been used bottom of the "U".
a t Los Alamos National Laboratory, eq. [16] is sometimes referred to In making the final yield estimate, only RVT d a t a that fall within
as the "Los Alamos Universal Formula": see Heusinkveld 119821).
L >,
The a certain narrower interval (sometimes called the "algorithmic in-
values of the constants a and b are typically determined by fitting terval") are used. The procedure used t o select this interval varies
equation (16) to a selected interval of RVT data from a collection tremendously from group t o group. Often there is no set protocol.
of nuclear explosions. If only data from the insensitive interval for Instead, the d a t a t o be used are selected by eye, on the basis of ex-
the particular collection of media being considered are used, the data perience. Heusinkveld [1979, p. 131 says that invest,igators at Los
can be approximated by a single curve, as explained above. However, Alamos found that the power-law formula (with the a and b val-
different individuals and groups have found different best-fit values ues cited above) agrees best with RVT field d a t a during the interval
of a and b for different collections of data. Even the values used 0.16 w 1 l 3 ms t o 0.6 w ' I 3 ms after the beginning of the explosion,
by a single group have changed with time by amounts that have where W is the yield of the explosion in kilotons. More recently, the
caused yield estimates t o change by tens of percent. For illustration interval of best agreement has been cited as 0.1 t o 0.5 scaled ms [U. S.
in this article, we use the values of a and b suggested by Bass and Congress, 19881. Indeed, these intervals roughly correspond t o the
Larsen [I9771 and IIeusiukveld [1979, 19821, namely 6.29 and 0.475, insensitive interval identified by Lamb, Callen, and Sullivan [1989,
respectively. and in preparation; see also Callen, Lamb, and Sullivan, 19901. One
In the usual form of the power-law algorithm, formula (16) is used possible protocol would be to use only radius vs. time d a t a from
to derive a yield estimate W, from each of the shock-front radius and a prescribed interval of scaled time in the final yield estimate (see
time measurements R, and ti over a broad interval that is thought to Lamb [1988]). Because the beginning and ending clock times of any
include the insensitive interval. Due to the departure of the power- prescribed interval in scaled time depend on the yield, use of such
law formula from the actual RVT curve at both early and late times a protocol requires that an iterative procedure be followed t o esti-
(see Fig. 6), the sequence of yield estimates Wi typically forms a mate the yield of an explosion of unknown yield. For definiteness, we
U-shaped distribution, as illustrated by the yield estimates for the take the algorithmic interval t o be 0.1 to 0.5 scaled rns throughout
Piledriver explosion in granite, which are shown in Figure 7. If there the present article. Table 3 lists the time and radius intervals that
84 YIELD ESTIMATION USING SHOCK WAVE METHODS

indeed be explained in part if these intervals were within the strong


shock region and if the motion were self-similar. The formula for
the radius of the shock front would then be a power-law function of
time and the exponent of t would b e exactly 0.4 (see eq. [13]). In
reality, however, the shock-wave motion is not self-similar during the
intervals used in the power-law algorithm for current test geometries
and the yields permitted by the T T B T . In fact, the shock wave is not
even strong during this interval, since the shock speed is only a few
times the low-pressure plastic wave speed while the peak pressure is
much less than the pressure required t o achieve the limiting density
ratio. Indeed, t h e exponent of time usually used in the power-law
algorithm, 0.475, is significantly greater than the exponent 0.4 that
characterizes a strong, self-similar shock wave [Heusinkveld, 1979,
p. 13; Lamb, 19881. As explained above, the relative insensitivity of
the radius of the shock front t o the medium during the algorithmic
interval appears t o be due t o a particular correlation among the phys-
ical properties of the rocks in the collection being considered [Lamb,
Callen, and Sullivan, 1989, and in preparation; Callen, Lamb, and
Sullivan, 19901.
0 T h e sensitivity of an individual yield estimate t o an error in the
0 1 2 3 4 5 inferred location of the shock front depends on the position of the
Time (ms) d a t a point within the algorithmic interval and the yield of the ex-
plosion. For example, the sensitivity dW/dR, as determined from
Fig. 7. The sequence of yield estimates obtained by applying the power-
equation (16), varies from 13 kt m-' a t the beginning of the interval
law formula t o SLIFER d a t a from the Piledriver explosion in granite.
t o 5.9 k t m-' a t the end of the interval, for a 10 kt explosion, and
Note the U-shaped distribution of the yield estimates, which is due t o
from 58 t o 27 kt m-' , for a 150 kt explosion.
the failure of the power-law formula to describe accurately the actual
radius of the shock front as a function of time over any extended in- The power-law algorithm does not work well for all test geome-
terval. The yield estimates near the bottom of the "U" are close t o tries and all media. This is illustrated in Figure 8, which shows
the official yield, which is 62 kt. The interval between the two vertical the yield estimates obtained by fitting equation (16) t o good-quality
bars is the algorithmic interval defined in the text, for a yield of 62 kt. SLIFER d a t a from a typical low-yield explosion in alluvium. The
From Lamb [1988]. shock-front radius and time measurements for this event were mul-
tiplied by w-'I3 before being made publicly available. As a result,
TABLE 3. Measurement Intervals for the Power-Law Algorithma the apparent yield should be 1kt, if cube-root scaling is valid. (The
name of this event and its official yield remain classified.) The yield
Yield (kt) Time Interval (rns) Radius Interval (m)

'Corresponding to 0.1 to 0.5 scaled ms after the beginning of the explosion


(see text). From Lamb [1988].
correspond t o this interval in scaled time, for several yields.
Proper use of the power-law algorithm requires that shock-wave
sensing cables be placed close enough t o the center of the explosion
that they sample the insensitive interval and that only data from this
interval be used in the final analysis, since the shock wave evolution
model used in the algorithm approximates the actual evolution of the
shock wave only during this interval, if a t all.
I t has sometimes been argued incorrectly that the interval in scaled
time used in the power-law algorithm lies in the strong shock interval
and that the relative insensitivity of yield estimates t o the properties
of the medium during the algorithmic interval stems from this. (For
example, according t o the U. S. Department of State [1986a, 1986b], 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1
"The accuracy of the method is believed t o be relatively, but not Time (scaled ms)
wholly, independent of the geologic medium, provided the satellite
hole measurements are made in the 'strong shock' region . . .".) This Fig. 8. Yield estimates derived by applying the power-law formula (16)
misconception apparently has arisen a t least in part because the in- to SLIFER d a t a from a low-yield explosion in alluvium (note the offset
terval formerly used to estimate the yields of nuclear explosions in of the vertical axis from zero). If the power-law algorithm and cube-root
the atmosphere using hydrodynamic methods is within the strong scaling were valid, the yield estimates would form a U-shaped distribu-
shock region. tion with a minimum near 1 kt. Difficulties in applying the power-law
T h e relative insensitivity of the radius of the shock front t o the algorithm t o low-yield explosions in alluvium are not uncommon. From
medium during the intervals used in the power-law algorithm would Lamb [1988].
LAMBETAL. 85

estimates given by the power-law algorithm range from 0.30 to 0.82 kt Simulated-explosion scaling.-The basis of secalled simulated-
and do not form a U-shaped distribution. The average of the yield explosion scaling is the same as that of similar-explosion scaling,
estimates that lie within the algorithmic interval is about 0.6 kt. The namely, the fact that the RVT curves of shock waves produced by
overall appearance of the yield vs. time curve shows that the assump- different nuclear tests in the same medium frequently are quite
tions of the algorithm are not satisfied. similar during the hydrodynamic interval, once they have been
Similar-ezplosion scaling.-As noted in the discussion of cube-root scaled using equation (15).
scaling, the RVT curves of shock waves produced by point explosions In simulated-explosion scaling, the yield of an explosion of un-
with different yields but in the same uniform medium will coincide known yield is estimated by scaling the RVT curve from a numerical
during the hydrodynamic interval, once they have been scaled using simulation of an explosion in a similar medium so that it follows the
equation (15) (see, for example, Fig. 10 of Holzer [1965]). Even for RVT data measured during the explosion of interest (see, for example,
nuclear tests-which certainly are not point explosions-the scaled Figs. 10, 11, and 13 of Holzer [1965]). Thus, the simulated-explosion-
RVT curves frequently agree closely for events in similar media. This scaling algorithm is identical to the similar-explosion-scaling a l g e
is the basis of the "similar-explosion" scaling algorithm. In this al- rithm, except that data from a computer simulation is used in place
gorithm, the yield of an explosion of interest is estimated by scaling of data from a reference explosion. This has the advantage, from a
RVT measurements from a reference explosion of known yield in a treaty-monitoring viewpoint, of allowing the verifying party to con-
similar medium so that they agree with the RVT measurements made struct a reference explosion via numerical simulation if it does not
during the explosion of interest. Unlike the power-law algorithm, the have access to field data from a similar explosion but does have a
similar-explosion-scaling algorithm can make good use of data taken good model of the equation of state of the ambient medium.
outside the insensitive interval, since the ambient media of the ex- A potential difficulty with simulated-explosion scaling is that the
plosion of interest and the reference explosion are assumed to be equation of state of the ambient medium constructed from laboratory
identical. measurements made on small samples may not accurately reflect the
Similar-explosion scaling generally works well if the ambient me- equation of state of the rock in the field. In part for this reason,
dia of the two explosions are very similar. Occasionally, applica- computer simulations that generate reference explosions for use in
tion of this algorithm has led t o an unexpectedly large error in the simulated-explosion scaling algorithms often make use of "generic"
derived yield, presumably because the ambient media were not as equations of state, which are based both on laboratory measurements
similar as had been thought (see Holzer [1965]). Usually, however, and shock wave data from actual underground nuclear explosions.
similar-explosion scaling provides an accurate yield estimate. Its For example, a "quartz" equation of state may be used to simulate
main disadvantage from a treaty-monitoring viewpoint is that the explosions in hard silicate rocks, such as granites, while a "wet tuff"
verifying party may not have access to data from nuclear explosions equation of state may be used to simulate explosions conducted below
in a medium similar to that in which the test in question is being the water table in a variety of tuffs.
conducted. Like the similar-explosion scaling algorithm, the simulated-
Analytical modeling.-Another possible approach to yield estima- explosion scaling algorithm can make use of data taken outside the
tion uses analytical models of the shock wave evolution, such as insensitive interval.
those proposed by Heusinkveld [1979, 19821, Lamb [1987, 19881 and
Moss [1988], and Axford and Holm [1987]. Detailed numerical modeling
The analytical model of Lamb and Moss (see $2) treats the prop-
erties of the ambient medium and the motion of the shock front in a All the algorithms discussed up to this point assume that cube-root
simplified way that nevertheless includes the most important effects. scaling is accurate. However, as we have previously noted, nuclear
The result is a relatively simple analytical expression for the radius tests typically violate the conditions required for cube-root scaling to
of the shock front as a function of time. The model also gives simple hold exactly. This is particularly true for those tests defined as non-
expressions for the post-shock pressure, particle speed, and density. standard by the T T B T protocol. Such tests may have large explosive
Such a model is a useful tool for studying the evolution of shock canisters or lines of sight without choke sections, may be conducted
waves in geologic media and the dependence of the evolution on the in vertical shaft or tunnel complexes or in large cavities, and may
ambient medium. lead to significant transport of energy via radiation even at relatively
The model of $2 can also be used to derive relatively accurate large distances from the center of the explosion (see, for example,
yield estimates from RVT data, if the required physical properties King et al. [1989]). Even if a test has a standard vertical or horizon-
of the ambient medium are known. For example, Lamb, Callen, tal geometry, the presence of a geological or geophysical discontinuity
and Sullivan [1990] have shown that the model gives yield estimates in the hydrodynamic measurement zone may cause a deviation of the
for U. S. underground nuclear tests conducted in granite, basalt, shock wave from spherical symmetry (see Lamb [1988]); violations of
and saturated wet tuff that are within 10% of the official yields of the other conditions that are required for cube-root scaling t o be an
these events, when realistic Hugoniots and RVT data from only the accurate approximation may occur as well.
hydrodynamic interval are used. At present, detailed numerical simulations using t w e and three-
Like the similar-explosion-scaling algorithm but unlike the power- dimensional finite-difference or finite-element hydrodynamic codes
law algorithm, yield-estimation algorithms based on the model of $2 are the only way one can model nuclear tests in which transport
can make use of data taken outside as well as inside the insensitive of energy via radiation is important in the shock-front measurement
interval, since the model describes the evolution of the shock wave zone, in which shock wave evolution in this zone is significantly af-
throughout the hydrodynamic phase. The model can also be used to fected by the physical properties of the hydrodynamic source, or in
estimate the uncertainty in the yield caused by lack of knowledge of which the ambient medium is significantly inhomogeneous. Numer-
the properties of the ambient medium, and is more convenient than ical simulations are also the only way one can model shock wave
numerical simulations for analyzing how shock wave evolution is af- evolution beyond the hydrodynamic zone, although in this zone the
fected by changes in the physical properties of the ambient medium. predictive power of present constitutive relations for geologic media
For this reason, the model was used by Lamb, Callen, and Sulli- and present computer codes is limited.
van [1989, and in preparation; see also Callen, Lamb, and Sullivan, In addition t o the difficulties sometimes encountered in modeling
19901 in their investigation of the physical origins of the insensitive accurately the equation of state of the ambient medium, which have
interval. already been discussed, numerical simulations of explosions in shaft
or tunnel complexes, in media with voids or geophysical discontinu- Accuracy of Shock Wave Methods
ities, or in cavities also have t o confront the difficulties involved in
treating accurately the interaction of a shock wave with sharp bound- What accuracy can be expected from routine monitoring of the
aries between different rocks or between rocks and air. yields of underground nuclear tests using shock-wave methods? In
In algorithms based on detailed numerical modeling, a new simu- our judgment, shock-wave methods have not yet been studied in the
lation must be run for each yield considered. Hence, estimating the United States as widely or as thoroughly as seismic methods. Fur-
yield of even a single nuclear test can be computationally intensive. thermore, very few of the studies that have been carried out have
It may he possible to use d a t a taken within a shaft or tunnel com- been published in the open literature. For example, the results of the
plex or cavity, if radiation transport and shock wave propagation 1988 Joint Verification Experiment carried out by the United States
within the complex or cavity can be accurately simulated. It may and the Soviet Union have still not been made available to the public,
also be possible t o use data from beyond the hydrodynamic zone, if even though they are fully available t o both governments. The status
reliable constitutive relations are available for the ambient medium. of shock-wave methods in the Soviet Union is even less clear, with
Obviously, algorithms that make use of such data are not purely hy- essentially n o information available in the open literature. Given the
drodynamic. very limited information available in the open literature, it is all but
impossible t o present here a meaningful assessment of the probable
Low- Yield Explosions accuracy of shock-wave methods when used as a treaty-monitoring
tool. Nevertheless, the most likely sources of systematic and random
Tamped underground nuclear explosions as small as a few kilotons error can be identified.
produce shock waves that evolve in the same way as those produced Variations in the contents of the explosive canister can cause sys-
by larger-yield explosions. However, because the hydrodynamic zone tematic errors in yield estimates based on shock-wave methods. For
for such low-yield explosions ends much closer to the explosive canis- example, Moran and Goldwire [I9901 have shown, as noted earlier,
ter than it does for tests with yields 2 50 kt, the effects of the canister, that the yields of spherically-symmetric explosions inferred from data
cableways, and open lines of sight on the evolution of the shock front taken in the hydrodynamic measurement zone may differ from the
are generally more important. Moreover, low-yield tests can be and actual yields by 20%, for the hydrodynamic sources they present as
often are set off a t shallow depths in softer material, such as alluvium, models of the sources produced by different nuclear explosives and
or in tunnels or cavities. T h e shock waves produced hy such explo- test geometries. T h e conclusions of Moran and Goldwire [1990] are
sions can differ markedly from the models of spherically-symmetric supported by the numerical simulations of Callen, Fiedler, Lamb, and
shock waves in hard rock that are used in mcst hydrodynamic yield Sullivan [in preparation], who also find that the characteristics of the
estimation algorithms. Moreover, the shock waves produced by such source can affect yield estimates based on hydrodynamic algorithms.
explosions have been observed to differ from test to test. These dif- Since the contents of the explosive canister are unlikely t o be known
ferences are potential sources of error in the yield estimate. t o the verifying party, such differences are a source of uncertainty for
Serious practical, operational, and engineering problems also arise hydrodynamic yield estimates made under treaty-monitoring condi-
in trying t o use hydrodynamic methods to estimate the yields of tions.
explosions with yields of a few kilotons. For one thing, the sensing In addition t o systematic errors caused by differences between the
cable must be placed very close to the nuclear charge in order to assumed and actual properties of the hydrodynamic source, any dif-
sample the hydrodynamic zone. Drilling emplacement and satellite ferences between the actual and assumed geological and geophysical
holes 4 meters from one another t o the depth a t which the explosive properties of the surrounding medium will cause systematic or ran-
canister is emplaced (2200 m), which would he required in order t o dom errors in the yield estimate. For example, incorrect assumptions
use hydrodynamic methods t o monitor a lOkt test in a standard about the average properties of the ambient medium, including the
vertical geometry, is a t or beyond the capabilities of current drilling equation of state of the rock, would bias the yield estimate, decreas-
t e ~ h n i ~ u eIn
s.~
horizontal tunnel geometries, the need t o take d a t a ing its accuracy, whereas variations in the properties of the medium
so close t o the center of the explosion would force placement of the on small scales would cause scatter in shock-front position measure-
sensing cable so close t o the tunnel wall that the motion of the shock ments, decreasing the precision of the yield estimate [Lamb, 19881.
front along the sensing cable would probably be significantly distorted Large-scale geological or geophysical structures within the hydro-
by the tunnel. dynamic measurement zone can also affect the yield estimate. For
The need t o make measurements close t o the center of the explosion example, the alluvial deposits a t the NevadaTest Site are weakly con-
would also necessitate more stringent restrictions on the dimensions solidated erosion products of the surrounding mountains with phys-
of explosive canisters, cahleways, and open lines of sight, in order t o ical properties that vary widely. Layers of gravel, the residues of
assure accuracy. Such restrictions might be deemed an unacceptable ancient stream beds, are often encountered in drilled holes. While
interference with test programs. Finally, because the shock front most shock-front position measurements a t NTS behave as expected,
must be measured a t much smaller radii, any errors in surveying the an occasional test has produced irregular data that defy simple ex-
emplacement and satellite holes or in determining the time of the planation. Such results have been attributed to spatial variations in
explosion and the point of first crush are more important than for the ambient medium [Holzer, 19651. As another example, dissolution
larger-yield explosions. cavities may be present in the carbonate rocks of the Soviet Northern
I t is possible that some of these difficulties could be alleviated by Test Site on the island of Novaya Zemlya. Such cavities, if located
developing models and algorithms that would allow routine use of within the hydrodynamic measurement zone and unrecognized or un-
shock wave position d a t a taken a t distances beyond the hydrody- filled, could significantly distort the shock front, thereby biasing the
namic interval, although current experience with such data is not yield estimate.
very encouraging. In any case, these and other potential solutions Man-made structures within the hydrodynamic measurement zone
t o t h e problems that would be encountered in monitoring low-yield can also cause systematic errors in the yield estimate, if they are
tests using hydrodynamic methods have not yet been carefully and not adequately filled or modeled. Such structures may include ver-
thoroughly studied. Thus, a t the present time hydrodynamic yield tical shafts or horizontal tunnels as well as cavities. Other potential
estimation methods could not be used with confidence to monitor sources of bias include errors in determining the time of detonation
compliance with threshold test bans in which the threshold is less and the position of the center of the explmion and in determining
than several tens of kilotons. the paths of the sensing cables relative t o the center of the explosion.
LAMBETAL. 87

SLIFER data have been collected from sensing cables positioned produced by an underground explosion increases with the yield of
in the nuclear explosive emplacement hole for many tens of under- the explosion. At present, the most accurate yields are given by
ground nuclear tests, and from sensing cables positioned in satellite algorithms that use only data collected within the hydrodynamic
holes for several tens of tests [U. S. Congress, 19881. CORRTEX data zone, which extends -5 (W/l kt)'I3 meters from the center of the
has reportedly been collected from sensing cables positioned in the explosion.
-
emplacement hole for 100 nuclear tests, and from sensing cables
positioned in one or more satellite holes for a dozen or so tests [U. S.
" .
The evolution of the shock wave within the hvdrodvnamic zone
depends on the properties of the source and the nature of the sur-
Department of State, 1986a; 1986b; U. S. Congress, 19881. A very rounding geologic medium. When hydrodynamic methods are used
small fraction of the SLIFER data has been released publicly, most of under treaty-monitoring conditions, the verifying party's lack of in-
it only after having been scaled (assuming the validity of cube-root formation about the contents of the explosive canister introduces an
scaling) so that the apparent yield is 1 kt (see Heusinkveld [I9791 and uncertainty in the derived yield that may be about 20% for tests
Heusinkveld [1982]). At present, all CORRTEX data remain classi- conducted in standard geometries. Any errors or uncertainties in de-
fied. termining the time of the explosion or the position of the shock front
According to the U. S. Department of State [1986a, 1986b1, hy- relative to the center of the explosion or in modeling the equation
drodynamic yield estimates have fallen within 15% of radiochemi- of state of the ambient medium and the effects of any natural or
cal yield estimates (at the 95% confidence level), for historic tests man-made geological or geophysical structures will increase the un-
with yields greater than 50 kt conducted in the geologic media of the certainty of the yield estimate. For standard tests with yields greater
Nevada Test Site. According to these same reports, hydrodynamic than several tens of kilotons conducted in ambient geologic media for
methods are expected to have an uncertainty of a factor of 1.3 at the which the verifying party has direct experience or good theoretical
95% confidence level when used under treaty-monitoring conditions models, the uncertainty in yield estimates may be as small as 30%.
at the Soviet test sites near Shagan River to monitor explosions with Nuclear tests conducted in cavities or in vertical shaft or horizontal
yields greater than 50 kt. However, some scientists familiar with hy- tunnel complexes typically produce more complicated shock waves.
drodynamic methods believe that the uncertainty could be somewhat Hence the uncertainty in the estimated yield of such a nonstandard
larger (see U. S. Congress [1988], appendix on CORRTEX). test is likely to be greater than for a test conducted in a standard
While one may hope that the uncertainties will turn out to be as vertical or horizontal geometry.
small as 30%, only time and experience will show what the uncer- .,
The aleorithms that have been used to extract vield estimates from
tainties actually are. This is especially so because the U. S. nuclear shock-wave measurements within the hydrodynamic zone vary in ac-
community does not yet have experience with monitoring tests in ge- curacy and reliability. Even the best hydrodynamic algorithms may
ologic media such as the frozen carbonate and silicate rocks at the not always be more precise than seismic algorithms, especially if re-
Soviet Northern Test Site on Novaya Zemlya Island, or in monitoring gional as well as teleseismic phases are used in constructing the seis-
nuclear tests involving complex geometries, substantial cavities, or mic yield estimate [Hansen, Ringdal, and Richards, 19901. Shock-
multiple explosions at Soviet test sites. wave yield estimation algorithms are not affected by the large-scale
It has been claimed in Congressional hearings on T T B T and features of the test site or the geophysical properties of the earth
PNET verification and elsewhere7 that hydrodynamic methods beneath it, as seismic algorithms are, but shock-wave algorithms are
are "direct" whereas seismic methods are not. In fact, both hy- more affected than seismic algorithms by local structures that disturb
drodynamic and seismic methods estimate the yield indirectly, by the evolution of the shock wave, such as tunnels, shafts, and voids,
measuring the ground motion produced by the explosion. In both and geological and geophysical discontinuities. Thus, for explosions
methods, the important events are: (1) production of a signal by with yields greater than several tens of kilotons, shock-wave methods
the exploding nuclear charge, (2) propagation of the signal t o points can complement seismic methods. The yields of such underground
more or less remote from the detonation point, and (3) detection nuclear explosions can therefore be estimated more accurately by
of the signal by sensors at the remote points. Relevant questions combining the two methods than by using either method alone.
for both methods include how the size of the signal varies with Acknow1edgemenls.-It is a pleasure to thank T . Ahrens, D. Eilers,
yield, how well the propagation of the signal is understood, and how R. Geil, M. Heusinkveld, R. Hill, B. Leith, and G. Miller for helpful
accurately and precisely the signal can be measured. discussions of shock wave propagation and yield estimation. The
It has also been asserted that use of hydrodynamic methods in and authors are also grateful to T. Ahrens and W. Moss for carefully
of itself eliminates the possibility of systematic error or "bias" (see, reading a draft of this review and suggesting numerous improvements.
for example, the testimony of J . H. McNally in U. S. Senate [1987], This work was supported in part by DARPA through the Geophysics
pp. 27 and 99-101). If what was meant is that hydrodynamic meth- Laboratory under contract F-19628-88-K-0040.
ods do not suffer from "regional seismic bias", the statement is true
but trivial, since regional seismic bias obviously is not relevant to
non-seismic yield-estimation methods. On the other hand, if what Notes
was meant is that hydrodynamic methods do not suffer from bias in
lThe motion of the shock wave changes only gradually and so the
the sense of systematic error, the statement is obviously false. Both
point at which it is said to enter the transition interval is purely
hydrodynamic and seismic yield estimation methods are subject to
systematic as well as random errors. Relevant questions are the ex- conventional. Throughout the present article we use the convention
that the transition interval begins when the peak density ratio falls
pected sizes of the errors, and whether they are so large as to be of
to 80% of its limiting value.
concern.
2Again, the motion of the shock wave changes only gradually and
5. Conclusions so the point a t which it is said t o enter the low-pressure plastic wave
interval is purely conventional. Throughout the present article we
Shock-wave yield estimation methods were developed by the use the convention that the low-pressure plastic wave interval begins
United States and the Soviet Union primarily as tools for estimating when the shock speed falls to 1.2 times the low-pressure plastic wave
the yields of their respective nuclear tests. These methods make speed.
use of the fact that the strength of the expanding shock wave 31n order t o prevent seepage of radioactive gases to the surface, the
depth of burial (DOB) of U. S. tests is at least 120(W/1 kt)'f3m. Condensed Matter, Y. M. Gupta, ed., pp. 639-644, Plenum, New
This requires a DOB of at least 650m for a 150 kt explosion. When York, 1986.
the DOB given by this relation would be relatively small, or in media Hansen, R. A,, F. Ringdal, and P. G. Richards, The stability ofrms
with a substantial water content, the actual DOB is increased in Lg measurements, and their potential for accurate estimation of
order to assure containment of radioactive gases. The actual DOB of the yields of soviet underground nuclear explosions, Geophysics
an explosion at the Nevada Test Site is normally not less than 200m. Laboratory (Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass.), Rep. GL-TR-90-
See U. S. Congress [1989], pp. 35-37. 0061, February 1990.
4~~~~~~ is an acronym for Shorted Location Indicator by Fre- Heusinkveld, M., and F. Holzer, Method of continuous shock front
quency of Electrical Resonance. position measurement, Rev. Sci. Inst., 35, 1105-1107, 1964.
5~~~~~~~ is an acronym for Continuous Reflectometry for Radius Heusinkveld, M., Analysis ofSLIFER data from underground nuclear
versus Time Experiments. It is a misnomer, since the sampling in explosions, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Rep. UCRL-
time is discrete. 52648, 1979.
Heusinkveld, M., Analysis of shock wave arrival time from under-
'During preparations for the 1988 U. S.-Soviet Joint Verification ground explosions, J . Geophys. Res., 87, 1891-1898, 1982.
Experiment (see U. S. Department of State [1988]), the Soviets stated Holzer, F., Measurements and calculations of peak shock-wave pa-
that they did not have the technology to drill satellite and emplace-
-
ment holes to the required depth (presumably 650 m) while main-
taining a horizontal displacement within the tolerance (presumably
rameters from underground nuclear detonations, J. Geophys. Res.,
70, 893-905, 1965.
- 10 m) required by the United States. As a result, the United States
flew its drill rig and crew to the Soviet test site. See C. P. Fbbinson,
Johnson, G. W., G. H. Higgins, and C. E. Violet, Underground nu-
clear detonations, J. Geophys. Res., 64, 1457-1470, 1959.
King, D. S., B. E. Freeman, D. D. Eilers, and J . D. Johnson, The
Testimony before the Subcommittee on Arms Control, International effective yield of a nuclear explosion in a small cavity in geologic
Security, and Science, House Committee on Foreign Affairs, June 28, material, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 12375-12385, 1989.
1988. Lamb, F. K., An approximate solution for ground shock propagation,
7See U. S. Senate [1987]; R. B. Barker, at pp. 8, 19, and 89-90; University of Illinois Program in Arms Control, Disarmament, and
D. A. Vesser, at p. 94; S. R. Foley, at p. 11; J . H. McNally, at pp. 27 International Security, Rep. WP-2-87-2, February 1987.
and 99-101; H. A. Holmes, at pp. 5 and 108. See also Robinson [1990]. Lamb, F. K., Monitoring yields of underground nuclear tests using hy-
drodynamic methods, in Nuclear Arms Technologies in the 1990s,
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NONLINEAR ATTENUATION EFFECTS OUTSIDE THE ZONE OF MACROSCOPIC FAILURE

Brian P. Bonner and B. J. ~ a n a m a k e rLawrence


,~ Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550

Abstract. Laboratory evidence unambiguously shows that the power between 2 and 8 Hz, greater than expected for second-order models
mechanical response of rock at low confining pressure is nonlinear, with reasonable attenuation corrections for the travel path [Taylor et al.,
meaning that attenuation is strain-amplitude-dependent, for strains 19881. Attenuation of wavefields in dome salt requires strong attenuation
between -10-6 and those sufficient to cause permanent damage, 1&3 to (Q-I = 0.05) in the near-source region [Trulio, 19851. Both reversible
10-2. We compare the magnitude of nonlinear attenuation for soils, nonlinear attenuation due to frictional sliding and irreversible attenuation
microscopically cracked granite, and macroscopically fractured granite. A caused by plasticity of the salt may contribute to the observed strong
compilation of data for attenuation in soils from the civil engineering attenuation. Credible alternative explanations for each of these
literature documents the strong nonlinear response in these materials over observations have been proposed. High frequencies can also be removed
the strain range 10-6 to 10-3. Nonlinear soil response would be most at the source, usually by requiring finite source rise times or important
important in near surface layers. We show direct evidence that fatigue spall-related effects. However, amplitude-dependent attenuation is
microcracking resulting from high-frequency and ultrasonic measurement observed without ambiguity in laboratory experiments [Gordon and Rader,
techniques may lead to systematic overestimatesof nonlinear attenuation. 19711 and must be considered in evaluating seismic signals from
New data for attenuation due to sliding on a single macrofracture in explosion sources.
granite shows that large attenuation (up to Q-1 = 0.1) can occur at strains The main goal of this paper is to collect and summarize laboratory
of 5 x 1 0 4 at low normal stress. Measurable nonlinear response results which demonstrate the existence and magnitude of the nonlinear
attributable to the fracture persists to strains near 10-6 and to normal response for intact rocks, soils, and fractured rock. New results for granite
stresses corresponding to overburden pressures at typical burial depths for damaged by fatigue microcracking and for macroscopically fractured
underground explosions. granite are also included. These data are useful for determining the relative
importance of various competing effects which contribute to pulse
Introduction broadening and attenuation near explosion sources.

As an outgoing stress pulse travels away from an explosive source, the Nonlinear Effects in Rocks
material response changes with range. Amplitude decays more rapidly
near the source, until finally at some distance the stress pulse attenuates at The Stress-Strain Relation
a constant rate appropriate for small strains less than -10-6. The region
in which "reversible" nonlinear response (mainly frictional sliding) occurs The strength of nonlinear effects can be evaluated for rocks by
is loosely defined by strains between 1 w 3 to 10-6 and is farther away approximating the stressstrain relation by a polynomial in strain:
from the source than the region in which irreversible macroscopic damage
(e.g., brittle failure and pore collapse) occurs. 0 = M ~ +E M ~+E
. . . MnEn
~ (1)
Both field observations and laboratory experiments are consistent with
the existence of a near-source region of strain-amplitude-dependent where o is the stress, E is strain, and Mn is a generalized modulus. For
(nonlinear) attenuation. For example, source comer frequencies computed small strains the resmnse is dominated by the first tern and Hooke's Law
from finite-difference simulations of material response are systematically is adequate. As the strain increases, higher-order terms become more
higher than those inferred from teleseismic observations [Rimer and important. By evaluating successive derivatives with respect to strain (or
Cherry, 1982; Archambeau, 19851. The simulations include only equivalently, pressure or stress), values can be assigned to the "higher
hydrodynamic and irreversible effects of compaction and failure, neglecting order elastic constants," which provide a quantitative measure of nonlinear
the region of reversible amplitude-dependent attenuation. Attempts to effects. The strain sensitivity of the moduli for earth materials can be
include amplitude dependence in modeling close-in source effects in dome two orders of magnitude higher than for other solids such as metals, so
salt require dramatic nonlinear attenuation to match observations over the nonlinear effects can be relatively important. However, strain sensitivity
strain range down to [Minster and Day, 19861. Evidence for the diminishes as confining pressure is applied. Pressure dependence of the
importance of amplitude-dependent effects is also seen in field data. strain sensitivity suggests that the primary underlying causes of the
Spectral discriminants for low-yield events at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) strongest nonlinear response are material imperfections such as fractures,
show that explosions are deficient in high frequencies relative to microfractures, and open grain boundaries. Nonlinear processes associated
earthquakes. For example, small explosions show excessive roll-off of with movement of dislocations may also play a significant role when
effects due to cracks are not important.
l ~ o wat Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of
Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 Laboratory Evidence of Nonlinearityfor Rocks

Although direct measurement of higher-order elastic constants is


Explosion Source Phenomenology feasible, amplitude-dependent attenuation is an even more direct indication
Geophysical Monograph 65 of nonlinear response. Attenuation is generally observed to be amplitude-
Copyright 1991 American Geophysical Union
independent at low strains, and then to increase once a threshold is of soils to predict the response of structures to strong ground motion.
surpassed. A linear approximation of the form However, these data must be used with care, because the conventions for
data reduction differ from those used in seismology. In Figure 2, data for
soils with different conditions of saturation and confining pressure from
Seed et al. [I9861 and polycrystalline salt (data from Tittmann as reported
is usually adequate to fit the amplitude dependence of attenuation in the by Minster and Day [1986]) are ploued along with the sandstone data (ss)
nonlinear regime. The first term is weakly dependent on frequency for dry from Figure 1. Although the attenuation tends to be higher for the
rocks at low temperature and strongly dependent on the presence of unconsolidated materials, the range of slopes, y , for soils overlaps that
adsorbed volatiles on internal surfaces, which changes with ambient for competent rocks. Increased confining pressure suppresses
humidity. Strain sensitivity appears in Eq. (2) through the linear nonlinearity, particularly for the soils. Pressure of 0.5 MPa (5 bar) is
coefficient y and is a function of rock type, microstructure (crack density, sufficient to reduce y for dry sand to values typical of sandstones.
porosity, grain size), confining pressure, and volatile content. Strain Amplitude-dependent attenuation is relatively small but measurable for
sensitivity y can range from near 0 to 1000. Figure 1 is a compilation of confined salt and intact granite, and can lead to very high attenuation
data in the nonlinear range replotted from Mavko [I9791 for various rocks. values in sedimentary rocks and soils.
There is a trend to higher attenuation and strain sensitivity that loosely
correlates with higher crack porosity and lower modulus. Attenuation for Consequencesfor Wave Propagation
low-porosity limestone is the least strain-sensitive and the largest effect
occurs in sandstone cemented by a weak mineral such as clay, calcite, or The analysis of nonlinear motions is highly developed and has found
amorphous quartz. Many of these measurements were made at high audio wide application in physics and engineering [Stoker, 19501. Distinctive
and ultrasonic frequencies using the resonant bar or pulse transmission effects are predicted for waves propagating in nonlinear solids, including
method. The cyclic loading inherent to these methods can lead to generation of harmonics and subharmonics, mixing which produces a
overestimates of nonlinear attenuation. Gordon and Davis [I9681 point beam at the difference frequency between two input beams, and other
out that Q - ~for several rock types is timedependent above the transition intermodulation effects. Johnson, Shankland, and colleagues have
strain where attenuation becomes amplitude-dependent. This time recently demonstrated that the frequency, amplitude, and angular
dependence is attributed to fatigue damage from cycling at high frequency relationships predicted by the theory of nonlinear wave propagation for
during measurement and is not an intrinsic effect. New data directly wave mixing are upheld by laboratory experiments with granite and
demonstrating the effect of fatigue damage on attenuation of granite will sandstone [Johnson et al., 1987; Johnson and Shankland, 19891. We note
be presented later in this paper. that the nonlinear response of the rocks used for these experiments is
likely to be in the low and intermediate range when compared to the dam
Nonlinear Soil Properties compiled in Figure 2.
Many of the field measurements aimed at observing nonlinear effects
Unconsolidated soils typically have highly nonlinear responses and have been performed in the Soviet Union. Beresnev and Nikolaev [I9881
strong attenuation for swains Soils engineers determine damping show evidence for harmonic generation in the seismic frequency range

sandstone
.(Winkler. et 81.. 1979)
anorthosite
(Gordon 8 Davis. 1968)

pyroxenite
(Gordon 8 Davis, 1968)

,,
,,
,
,
,
,,,
0.005 - , granite
/
, (Gordon 8 Rader, 1971)
-...- quartzite
. . - - - (Gordon 8 Davis, 1968)
+...-

_-. - - -. -.. :- I-
L - :- L -I-.
. :- :- :-. 1-:-. 1-.:-. :
:-~
0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .limestone
. . . . . (Peselnick . . . . . . 1961)
. . . . . 8 . Outerbridge, . . .

E (microstrains)

Fig. 1. Attenuation as a function of strain amplitude for several rock types. The slope of each line is the
strain sensitivity y. y varies from 4 for limestone up to -lo3 for sandstone and is a function of rock
type, microstructure, confining pressure, and volatile content.
BONNER AND WANAMAKER 93

medium sands

i ,-T
_ _, - _ .
- , - -T
, , - -,
, . , , , , , , , , , , , ,

E (microstrains)
Fig. 2. Attenuation as a function of strain for soils, clay, and salt. Data for sandstone (ss) from Fig. 1 is
shown for comparison. Confining pressure suppresses the nonlinearity of the unconsolidated materials.

using ground vibrator sources for paths of up to 2 km. Higher harmonics inherently nonlinear loss mechanism [Stacey et al., 19751. Mavko [I9791
increase in relative magnitude up to several tenths of the fundamental for generalized the sliding model to include arbitrary crack morphologies and
the longest paths. They also report transfer of power from high to low showed that sliding could, in general, explain the observed strain
frequencies when their source was amplitude-modulated. They attribute dependence of attenuation (Figure 1). Stewart et al. [I9831 proposed a
these observations to nonlinear response of the near-surface, low-velocity variation on the sliding model based on Hertzian contact theory to explain
layer. Transfer of energy to higher frequencies by harmonic generation the decrease in nonlinear attenuation that occurs with increasing confining
would result in higher near-source attenuation, assuming that spatial pressure. Agreement with experiments at ultrasonic frequencies was
attenuation increases linearly with frequency (Q is frequency-independent). acce table, predicting that attenuation decreases with pressure (p) as
Amplitude modulation of a seismic source may also directly deplete high P4l5 -
frequencies by wave interactions in the nonlinear region. Other models based on dislocation dynamics have been proposed to
Andrews and Shilien [I9721 computed finite-difference forward explain nonlinear response observed in metals and other materials. Mason
simulations of explosions in various rocks to estimate the consequences [I9691 proposed that the motion of dislocation kinks produced losses
of low-amplitude nonlinear effects. Their results predict that radiated consistent with experiments on crustal rocks with reasonable dislocation
energy shifts to lower frequencies when passing through the nonlinear densities. Furthermore, Mason's model fits the frequency dependence of
region, changing the apparent spectral characteristics of the source. Sear's [I9801 salt data, although the magnitude of the observed
Subharmonic generation is consistent with the theory of nonlinear attenuation requires dislocation densities inconsistent with independent
vibrations. These calculations assumed a nonlinear attenuation of Q-I = measurements. Dislocation models generally predict smaller nonlinear
0.01, appropriate for a relatively modest nonlinear effect. Assuming a effects than those associated with cracked solids, but might be significant
linear background attenuation (QO-l) of -0.003 at strains of and for materials, such as salt, in which crack healing due to plastic flow and
smaller, equation (2) predicts y = 60 for calculated strains of l(r-4. The precipitaton are important.
data in Figures 1 and 2 show that much stronger effects than those
modeled by Andrews and Shilien are possible and simulations using New Results
currently available numerical methods (see Minster and Day [I9861 for a
good discussion) would be appropriate to estimate the consequences for
inversion for source parameters.
In this section, we report a series of new experiments using a torsional
Mechanisms oscillator (Figure 3) to investigate amplitude-dependent effects in fractured
and intact rocks. Oscillators of this type have been used to determine
Sliding on microcracks and open grain boundaries has long been attenuation for rocks [Brennan, 1981; Berckhemer et al., 19821 and are
recognized as a possible source of observed seismic attenuation [Ide, similar conceptually to devices commonly used in polymer rheology
19371. Quantitative models which described attenuation due to sliding Ferry, 19801. Our apparatus differs from others in that it allows the
a ~ ~ e a r eindthe 1960s Walsh, 1966, Gordon and Davis, 19681. These application of uniaxial loads along the symmetry axis of the sample to
models accounted for the apparent frequency-independence of attenuation in investigate the effect of normal stress. In a more conventional apparatus,
laboratory observations and also demonstrated that sliding on cracks is an specimens must be jacketed to exclude the pressure medium in order to
94 NONLINEAR ATENUATION EFFECTS

Electromagnetlc proximity detectors which determine the motion of arms extending from
Driver the torsion column both above and below the sample. Displacements
nearer to the fixed end depend only on the elastic deformation of the
Collets aluminum torsion bar and are proportional to torque. Displacements
measured above the sample are proportional to sample strain. By taking
the complex ratio of displacement time histories for the two sensor
positions along the torsion rod assembly, we can compute both the shear
modulus and shear attenuation as a function of frequency and amplitude.
Bas Base The shear attenuation is proportional to the phase lag between torque and
shear strain and the shear modulus is proportional to the ratio of the
maximum torque and shear strain. The apparent contribution of the
apparatus to background attenuation is determined by measuring the phase
I
Compression
Eddy Current
Proximity Detectors lag for an aluminum alloy sample with Q ~ - 10-5. ~
Features particular to the torsional geometry of the experiment should
Nut
be considered during interpretation of the data. Shear strain is nonuniform
for torsion, increasing linearly with radius. Strains reported here are the
mean for the entire sample. Nonlinear effects occur preferentially in the
TORSIONAL OSCILLATOR high strain region, which is nearest to the outside surface. The low-
Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the torsional oscillator. The oscillator frequency forced oscillation method avoids the ambiguous attenuation
operates at frequencies between 0.01 and -100 Hz, at strains between measurements resulting from asymmehical displacement peaks that occur
and 1 6 , and allows the application of uniaxial loads. in resonant bar experiments at high strains Winkler et al., 19791.

increase the confining pressure above ambient. Therefore, measurements Fatigue Damage of Granite
cannot be made at pressures lower than that required to "seat" the jacket to
the specimen, typically 10 MPa for metal jackets. We are able to Figure 4 shows the shear attenuation (cp = Q ~ - ~at )1 Hz as a function
measure attenuation at much lower normal stresses because we can apply of strain amplitude for Sierra White granite before and after about 12 days
stress without confining the specimen. of continuous cycling at first 1 and hen 10 Hz at an average strain of 3 x
The oscillator operates at fre uencies between 0.01 and 100 Hz at
o-%
No resolvable change in attenuation occurs while the sample is
strains ranging from to 1 . Samples are solid right cylinders (9 cycled at 1 Hz during the first two days. After cycling at 10 Hz for the
by -20 mm) which are twisted by supplying a sinusoidal voltage to the following 10 days, an increase of about 50% in attenuation is discemable
electromagnetic assembly which drives a permanent magnet attached to at a strain of 3 x The strain sensitivity y after the total lo7 cycles
the sample column. Displacements are measured by eddy current has increased by a factor of 3 to 5 as a result of fatigue damage. The
Sierra White granite 1 Hz
0.01 4
0 BEFORE CYCLING
AFTER CYCLING /
/
/
/
1 y = 240
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

. /* /
- 0

/.
/ /
/

-
/

-6 y = 70
/ 0
,
0
. /O-
.< 0

Fig. 4. The nonlinear component of attenuation for Siena White granite at 1 Hz before and after lo7 cycles
at strains of 3 x l r 5 . The strain sensitivity y has increased by a factor of 3 to 5 as a result of fatigue
damage during cycling.
BONNER AND WANAMAKER 95

increase in y is not accompanied by large increases in the background cores of Sierra White granite, and then fractured them by bending to
low-strain linear attenuation. There is no evidence in the data for inherent produce tensile surfaces. All fractures are approximately perpendicular to
frequency dependence of the attenuation, before or after cycling. We the core axis, and are "mated" for best fit before measuring modulus and
therefore attribute the increase in y to increased crack porosity resulting attenuation, although the faces shift under low loads. Several features of
from fatigue. the testing procedure are important for interpreting the experimental
All data was collected under room humidity conditions. Increases in results. First, the sample must be preloaded with some normal force
atmospheric moisture can lead to increases in observed phase angle at high (0.1-0.2 MPa) to limit displacements to within the range of the
audio frequencies [Tittmann et al., 19751 and we see evidence for this at proximity detectors. Second, the current in the driving coils never
low frequencies in our experiments. Attenuation after cycling plotted in reverses direction, but only varies in magnitude with time so that the
Figure 4 has been corrected for changes in humidity relative to the torque applied to the specimen oscillates about a positive value. The bias
conditions before cycling by matching attenuation values at low strains. on the torque causes a small average displacement from the starting
We have not investigated the effect of humidity or of average stress level "mated" position of the joint. Further experiments are necessary to
on the growth of fatigue cracks. If stress corrosion cracking is an determine the effect of joint displacement on sliding attenuation.
important mechanism for crack extension, humidity would have an Although the twist of the assembly is concentrated in the fractured region,
important effect. Measurements of fatigue at higher stresses near failure we assume that twist is distributed uniformly through the sample for
indicate that stress level and humidity can be important, depending on the calculations of the shear strain.
relative contributions of static and cyclic fatigue [Martin and Durham, Both the shear modulus and attenuation are dramatically affected by the
1975; Scholz and Koczynski, 19791. fracture when compared to the properties of the intact rock. The changes
Most laboratory determinationsof attenuation had been made with the are largest for low normal loads and high shear strains. Reductions in the
resonant bar method at high audio or ultrasonic frequencies. Comparable shear modulus are plotted in Figure 5. Modulus decreases of -40% occur
numbers of cycles can be applied in the first few minutes of a with the minimum normal stress, 0.2 MPa. For the highest normal
measurement, leading to systematic overestimates of the nonlinear stress (17 MPa), the shear modulus is comparable to that for the intact
component of attenuation for materials susceptible to fatigue damage. rock at the lowest shear strains (5 x
modulus by 5% for shear strains of 5 x 10- .2 while the joint lowers the

The Effect of Macroscopic Fractures The attenuation as a function of shear strain for a range of normal
loads is plotted in Figure 6. Damping by sliding on the fracture is highly
Frictional loss has been proposed as a plausible attenuation nonlinear and is a function of normal stress. For low values of normal
mechanism for rocks with microcracks [Walsh, 19661. Intuition suggests stress, y can approach values comparable to those for soils (see Figure 2).
that motion along macroscopic fracture surfaces is also highly dissipative. Loads of 17 MPa are sufficient to reduce y to values comparable to those
Recent Hopkinson bar results for high-rate deformation of intact and we measured for intact Sierra White granite prior to fatigue cycling. Even
fractured Berea sandstone by Brown et al. [I9901 confirm this suggestion, at average strains of 5 x 1 w 7 we were not able to detect the transition to
although the attenuation of the porous matrix is also very high. In order the amplitude-independentmechanism that usually dominates attenuation
to determine the attenuation due to a single fracture, we first prepared in rocks exposed to ambient atmosphere.
Fractured Sierra White granite 1 Hz
1 .oo < -.
.0
,
---- -4 load=17 MPa

15
-. .-, *
.
k
\

\
\
\

- - * 3.0 MPa
kL.
,
\\
d m
Q-
, .
\ '
\ ' ....- - - -
\
1
\

o 2.0 MPa
\
\
. --_-- .. \ - - - - /
a 1.0 MPa -
A

0.5 MPa '

+ --.
.-.
.... A 0.2 MPa

E (microstrains)

Fig. 5. Shear modulus for fractured Sierra White granite for a range of uniaxial stresses as a function of
shear strain measured at a frequency of 1 Hz.
Fractured Sierra White granite 1 Hz
0.080
load =0.5 MPa
(y = 820)
.
/
/
/

/
/
/
/
/. 1.0 MPa -

/
/ /
/ / a 2.0 MPa
/ /
/ /
/ ' - /
/
/
' /
/
" /

/
4
"

'-/
/,
,
/
/
/

,
, . 3.0 MPa

/ /Y , /

65' ,.- ,

- _ _ - s 17MPa
(Y = 70)

& (microstrains)

Fig. 6. Nonlinear attenuation for fractured Sierra White granite for a range of uniaxial stresses as a function
of shear strain at a driving frequency of 1 Hz. Strain sensitivity y varies between 70 and 820 depending on
the uniaxial stress.

Discussion -lo3. It may be that part of the discrepancy between the Minster and Day
model and field observations may be due to attenuation resulting from
Nonlinear attenuation can be as large as 0.1 (Q = 10) for strains in the block motion caused or triggered by the Cowboy event, although our data
range of 10-5 to in unconsolidated soils and fractured rock. Because suggest that this offers only a partial explanation. Strong effects of
of the large volume of near-source material subjected to strains between plastic deformation, attributed to material failure or work hardening near
1(r3 and nonlinear effects should be considered in evaluating source the shot point, may also contribute to anomalies observed for explosions
properties at regional and teleseismic distances. The new laboratory data in salt [Wortman and McCartor, 1991; Glenn, 19901.
which we have presented for fractured rock, as well as data for soils from It should be possible in principle to design field experiments capable
the literature, can be used in forward modeling efforts to evaluate the of detecting nonlinear effects. Measurements of the decaying wavefield in
relative importanceof nonlinear material response. the region of strain from 1 e 2 to could detect range-dependent
Laboratory experiments must be evaluated with caution. Fatigue attenuation, which is direct evidence of nonlinearity. In practice, it is
damage that occurs during the measurement can increase the strain difficult to obtain unambiguous evidence by this method because
sensitivity of attenuation by a factor of 3-5 for Sierra White granite. It is heterogeneities and multipathing become important at these distances.
likely that the nonlinear component of attenuation may often have been Observations of effects predicted by the theory of nonlinear wave
overestimated by high-frequency measurements as reported in the propagation such as transfer of energy to lower frequencies, or harmonic
literature. We also note that the strain field is nonuniform for our generation, would be the most convincing evidence of nonlinear response.
experimental geometry. Peak attenuation can be underestimated by a Observations should be designed to detect upgoing rays, which would be
factor of 3-5 for torsion [Minster and Day, 19861. affected most by a nonlinear response because of the decreasing overburden
The overburden pressures for typical contained explosions at NTS pressure above the source. Waves leaving the source region during spall,
range from 2 to -15 MPa. For this pressure range, nonlinear response is when overburden stress is reduced by the reflected wave, might show
possible for explosion-induced strains in the range of 1 e 3 to strong effects. Because overall effects of nonlinearity on seismic wave
particularly along prexisting planes of weakness or joints. Our data for propagation accumulate with distance [Beresnev and Nikolaev, 19881, the
fractured granite suggest that pressures of -20 MPa are necessary to strongest effects may occur at some distance from the source.
suppress the nonlinear component of attenuation for strains down to
lo4. There is strong direct evidence that block motion occurs in the
vicinity of underground explosions [Bedsun et al., 19871. When relative Acknowledgments. The authors would like to thank Steve Taylor and
motion occurs between blocks, nonlinear attenuation can occur. In Marvin Denny for many helpful discussions. A careful review by an
attempts to model the effect of nonlinear attenuation on wave propagation anonymous reviewer improved the manuscript. Support from the Office
in salt, Minster and Day [I9861 found that high values of y, 3 x lo3, of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. S. Department of Energy is gratefully
were required to match the field data for the Cowboy event Laboratory acknowledged. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S.
data for unfractured salt indicate much lowery. The highest values of y Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under Contract
which we observe for fractured granite at the lowest normal load is only W-7405-Eng-48.
BONNER AND WANAMAKER 97

References in the earth's crust proportional to frequency, J . Geophys. Res., 74,


49634966, 1969.
Andrews, D. J., and S. Shilien, Propagation of underground explosion Martin, R. J. and W. B. Durham, Mechanisms of crack growth in quartz,
waves in the nearly elastic range, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 62, 1691- J. Geophys. Res., 80, 48374844, 1975.
1698, 1972. Mavko, G. M., Frictional attenuation: an inherent amplitude dependence,
Archambeau, C. B., Comments on non-linear strain dependent losses in J. Geophys. Res., 84,47694775, 1979.
the near source region of (coupled and decoupled) explosions, Proc. Minster, J. B., and S. M. Day, Decay of wave fields near an explosive
DOE Cavity Decoupling Workhop, Pajaro Dunes, July 29-31, 1985. source due to high-strain, nonlinear attenuation, J. Geophys. Res., 91.
Bedsun, D. A., B. L. Ristvet, and E. L. Tremba, A summary of No. B2,2113-2122, 1986.
observations of block motion for explosive events in rock, Defense Peselnick, L. and W. F. Outerbridge, Internal friction in shear and shear
Nuclear Agency, Washington, DC,Technical Report DNA-TR-87- modulus of Solenhofen limestone over a frequency range of lo7 cycles
227, 1987. per second, J. Geophys. Res., 66, 581-588, 1961.
Berckhemer, H., W. Kampfmann, E. Aulbach, and H. Schmeling, Shear Rimer, N., and J. T. Cherry, Ground motion predictions for the Grand
modulus and Q of forsterite and dunite near partial melting from forced- Saline experiment, S-CUBED topical report, Vela Seismological
oscillation experiments, Phys. Earth Plan. Int., 29, 3 W 1 , 1982. Center Rept. No. VSC-TR-82-25, 1982.
Beresnev, I. A., and A. V. Nikolaev, Experimental Investigations of Scholz, C. H., and T. A. Koczynski, Dilatancy anisotropy and the
nonlinear seismic effects, Phys. Earth Plan. Int.. 50, 83-87, 1988. response of rock to large cyclic loads, J. Geophys. Res., 84, 5525-
Brennan, B. J., Linear viscoelastic behaviour in rocks, in Anelasticity in 5534, 1979.
the Earth, F . D. Stacey, M. S. Paterson, and A. Nicholas, Eds., Sears, F. M., Analysis of microcracks in dry polycrystalline NaCl by
Geodynamics Series, Vol. 4, pp. 13-22, American Geophysical ultrasonic signal processing, Ph.D. Thesis, University of California,
Union, Washington, DC, 1981. Berkeley, 357 pp., 1980.
Brown, J. A., J. D. Blacic, C. T. Aimone, and R. D. Dick, Stress Wave Seed, H. Bolton, R. T. Wong, I. M. Idriss, and K. Tokimatsu, Moduli
Propagation and Attenuation in Sandstone at High Strain Levels, in and damping factors for dynamic analyses of cohesionless soils, J.
The Brittle-Ductile Transition in R o c k s T h e Heard Volume, A. G. Geotechnical Eng., 112, No. 11, 1986.
Duba, W. B. Durham, J. W. Handin, and H. F. Wang, Eds., Geophys. Stacey, F. D., M. T. Gladwin, B. McKavanagh, A. T. Linde, and L. M.
Monogr. Ser., Vol. 56, American Geophysical Union, Washington, Hastie, Anelastic damping of acoustic and seismic pulses, Geophys.
DC, 1990. Surveys. 2, 133-151, 1975.
Ferry, J. D., Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers, 641 pp., Wiley, New Stewart, R. R., M. N. Toksoz, and A. Timur, Strain dependent
York, 1980. attenuation: observations and a proposed mechanism, J. Geophys.
Glenn, L. A., Strain hardening in salt--results of the Salmon experiment, Res.. 88, 546-554, 1983.
J. Energy Resources Tech.. 112, 145-148,1990. Stoker, J. J., Nonlinear vibrations in mechanical and electrical systems,
Gordon, R. B., and L. A. Davis, Velocity and attenuation of seismic Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, 273 pp., 1950.
waves in imperfectly elastic rock, J. Geophys. Res.. 73, 3917-3935, Taylor, S. R., N. W. Sherman, and M. D. Denny, Spectral discrimination
1968. between NTS explosions and western United States earthquakes at
Gordon, R. B., and D. Rader, Imperfect elasticity of rock: Its influence regional distances, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 78, 1563-1579, 1988.
on the velocity of stress waves, in The Structure and Physical Titunann, B. R., J. M Curnow, and R. M Housley, Internal friction
Properties of the Earth's Crust, J. G. Heacock, Ed., Geophys. Monogr. quality factor Q > 3100 achieved in lunar rock 70215, Proc. Lunar Sci.
Ser., Vol. 14, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 1971. C o g . 6th. 3, 3217-3226, 1975.
Ide, J. M., The velocity of sound in rocks and glasses as a function of Trulio, J. G., Source Spectra and Attenuation from Cavity Decoupled
temperature, J. Geol., 45,689, 1937. Events, Proc. DOE Cavity Decoupling Workshop, Pajaro Dunes, July
Johnson, P. A., T. J. Shankland, R. J. O'Connell, and J. N. Albright, 29-31, pp. V-177, 1985.
Nonlinear generation of elastic waves in crystalline rock, J . Geophys. Walsh, J. B., Seismic wave attenuation in rock due to friction, J.
Res., 92, 3597-3602, 1987. Geophys. Res.. 71,2591-2599, 1966.
Johnson, P. A., and T. J. Shankland, Nonlinear generation of elastic Winkler, K., A. Nur, and M. Gladwin, Friction and seismic attenuation in
waves in granite and sandstone: continuous wave and travel time rocks, Nature, 277,528-531, 1979.
observations, J. Geophys. Res.. 94, 17,729-734, 1989. Wortman, W., and G. McCartor, this volume, 1991.
Mason, W. P., Internal friction mechanism that produces an attenuation
REVIEW OF ATTENUATION IN SALT AT MODERATE STRAINS

William R. Wortman and Gary D. ~ c ~ a r t o r l

Mission Research Corporation, P.O. Dr,awer 719, Santa Barbara, California 93102

pulses in salt in the modcrate strain regime of 8 .


Abstract. Experimcnts which reflect the attenuation of pro agating
to 10- , whlch
As we shall see in this article, there is strong evidence of nonlinear
attenuation in the rangc of moderate strains (sometimes called high-
corresponds roughly to rangcs of 100 to 10,000 meters from an explosion strains), which we define here as strains from 10-3 to lo4 which occurs
with a yield of 1 kt, are reviewed. A transition from nonlinear to linear at roughly 100 to 10,000 m from a 1-kt explosion, which extends well
behavior occurs in this interval. This regime is important for monitoring outside the usual region, or "elastic radius," where equivalent seismic
of nuclear test treaties since models for linear source functions are sources are defined. Thc effect of this nonlinear attenuation, for which the
normally defined inside it. Salt is of interest since it can be readily mined attenuation depends on the amplitude of the disturbance and not just the
to produce decoupling cavities. Data from explosive sources, nuclear and material properties, betwccn ranges showing highly nonlinear structural
chemical field and small-scalc laboratory tests, resonant bars and changes and ranges with linear strains lcvels (roughly is not well
ultrasonic pulse methods are summarized. The experiments are diverse in understood. There is a substantial body of data on attenuation in salt
their character and frequency and no single experiment covers the which can bc brought to bear on this question. Salt is also particularly
nonlinear-linear transition. However, the totality suggests that interesting because it is relatively easily mined to produce cavities which
attenuation in salt does decrease dramatically ovcr the moderate strain could serve to decouple clandestine tests pvernden et al., 19861. For both
regime. A full physical description does not exist although shear failure of these reasons, salt is a medium for which the seismic response is
or yielding can account for some effects. important. In this article we shall indicate the nature and results of
experiments which have been done in salt. There are three types of
Introduction experiments which have provided useful attenuation data in salt. These
are: explosive source generated pulse propagation, either in the field or t'le
Seismic monitoring of underground nuclear tests requires that laboratory; ultrasonic pulse propagation; and resonant bar excitation.
properties of distant seismic signals bc related to the yield of the The explosive source technique is obviously most directly related to
explosive source. In general, providing this relation requires finding the the question at hand. It consists of placing a set of motion sensors at
material response to explosive loading under an extreme range of various ranges and orientations relative to a source to cover the amplitudes
conditions. The rock next to the cxplosive device is vaporized out to of interest. As a practical matter, there are limits on the number of
about 10 meters for a I-kt cxplosion. Somewhat beyond this the rock is sensors which can be used due to the available volume of uniform
melted and crushed. Out to a range of many tens of meters the rock is medium. The result is a set of time domain pulses measured at a discrete
visibly cracked. All these effects are highly nonlinear. Fortunately, it is set of sensors which can be ordered according to range from the source to
not necessary to provide first principles calculations of this behavior in the sensor. When the effects of orientation, instrument response and
order to monitor nuclear tests. Subsurface ground data have been taken spherical divergence are removed, the change of the pulse with range
which can be used to define the pulse from explosions in a variety of reflects the results of any attenuation. For linear attenuation described by
media outside thc highly nonlinear regime. These data, along with some a Q operator, the multiplicative change in amplitude in the frequency
supporting theoretical calculations for interpolation,can be used to define domain with a range change, 6r, goes like
an equivalent seismic source at the range where the data were taken. This
bypasses many uncertainties from complex material behavior under
extremes of temperature and pressure. It is common to assume that the
resulting source, which is typically defined at a few hundred meters, can where c is the phase speed. For linear mechanisms, Q-I can be
be propagated further to seismic receivers assuming that the medium is interpreted as the fractional energy loss per cycle over 4n:or the tangent of
strictly linear, although not elastic with attenuation described by a linear the phase angle between the stress and strain. Through the above relation,
Q operator, while taking into account the intervening geologic structure. generally referred to as using the spectral ratio method, Q is a common
With this, the computed waveform properties can be compared with those measure of attenuation even if the mechanism is not known to be linear.
observed to estimate yicld and depth. This technique is the fundamental Using this measure, a Q as a function of frequency can be estimated for
approach to monitoring nuclear test treaties. every pair of records.
Ultrasonic pulse propagation using a planar geomeby can also be used
to estimate a Q from (1). A sample, usually with a linear dimension of a
few centimeters but large compared with the pulse wavelength, is placed
'NOW at Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, between a pair of plates. One plate is pulsed with a finite source
Dallas, TX 75275 waveform while a transducer at the receiver plate detects the transmitted
pulse. The timing of the received pulse allows determination of
Explosion Source Phenomenology propagation speed while the spectral ratio of the transmitted and received
Geophysical Monograph 65 pulses fixes Q. Both compressional and shear pulses can be measured by
Copyright 1991 American Geophysical Union this method. The requirement of a reasonable apparatus and sample size
100 REVIEW OF A'ZTENUATION IN SALT

limits this technique to ultrasonic frequencies.


The resonant or oscillating bar method does not involve pulse
propagation. It measures the response of a damped resonant system to a
harmonic driver, for which the damping element is the material under
study. Typically a cylindrical rod approximately 10 cm in length is
loaded with appropriate weights to give a resonant frequency as low as
practical, often a few hundred hertz. The system is then driven in torsion
or flexure modes and its resonant response determined as the driver
frequency is scanned across the spectrum. The resulting response given as
an amplitude as a function of frequency determines the damping of the
system. The half power bandwidth of the resonance curve divided by the
resonant frequency is Q-l.
It must be pointed out that the concept of Q is confined to linear
attenuation. If there are nonlinear effects, Q may well not be a robust
description which allows a meaningful comparison of different
experimental results or a useful me& of applying the results of
experiments. The danger of blind use of experimental Q will be
illustrated in this article. -

Experimental Attenuation Data Available For Salt

Explosive S o u r c e d u c l e a r

Salmon. The nuclear explosion Salmon (5.3-kt) event took place in a


natural salt dome in Mississippi in 1964 at a depth of 828 meters. A ,O'L - - - P
comprehensive set of approximately 83 near-field measurements at 16 loe
S L A N T RANGE lmmtersl
10'
inshument stations was planned, both at surface and subsurface locations
at ground ranges from 166 to 744 meters lperret, 19671. A parallel set of Fig. 2. Perret's [I9671 Salmon peak radial particle velocities versus range
measurements was carried out by SRI [Eisler and Hoffman, 19661. A from 18 sensors.
rather consistent set of near-field subsurface measurements including
scaled ranges from 95 to 425 mkt1I3 resulted. The single component The Salmon data have been discussed by several authors. The original
acceleration and velocity instruments provided measurements of a range of experimenter, Perret [1967], gives an extensive description of the
peak strains from about 4 x 10-3 to 2 x lo4 with dominant frequencies experimental details. He indicates that the peak acceleration, velocity and
from 1 to over 10 Hz. A representative set of particle velocity records displacement data all tend to fall off in a fairly uniform manner with
[McCartor and Wortman, 19851 is shown in Figure 1. range. The peak radial velocity falls off like range to the -1.876 k 0.049
power as shown in Figure 2. This decay rate, which is well in excess of
the -1 power for geometrical far-field elastic fall off, is an indication that
there is some attenuation mechanism in operation but it is not necessarily
an indication of nonlinearity.
Rogers [I9661 described the Salmon free-field data and compared the
results with finite difference calculations. These comparisons generally
show agreement with the magnitude of the pulses but the waveforms are
noticeably different. This indicates that the models of highly nonlinear
material behavior based on prior experiments in salt were within reason,
but these mechanisms generally cease to be important at the ranges of the
Salmon data. This article was a part of a Journal of Geophysical Research
issue [Volume 71, No. 14, 19661 with a sequence of articles on the
Salmon event
McCartor and Wortman [I9851 analyzed a selected sequence of the
Salmon free-field records for the purpose of finding clear evidence of
nonlinearity with this data set alone. It was found that these data require
an effective Q which increases significantly with increasing frequency and
which has a value of about 5 in the dominant frequency range from 5 to
10 Hz. This is consistent with Trulio [quoted by Larson, 19821
indicating that the Salmon data for decay of peak velocity with range are
consistent with an effective Q of about 3 in the 0.5 to 5 Hz range for
strains near lo4. Figure 3 shows a typical effective Q found using the
spectral ratio of free-field records from 166 and 660 meters from the shot
point. Examination of a series of Q estimates from 5 record pairs over
this same range, shown in Figure 4, does not show clear evidence of
decreasing attenuation with range. The extreme range record pairs
attenuation estimates appear to differ by about 20%. decreasing with
Fig. 1. Salmon particle velocity records at 166, 225, 276, 318,402 and range, but this is the same level as the uncertainties. The Salmon elastic
660 m, in that order from left to right WcCartor and Wortman, 19901. precursor which leads the Salmon pulses has been accounted for by
WORTMAN AND MCCARTOR 101

101
1 10 100
Frequency (Hz)
Fig. 3. Salmon Q estimated from the 166 and 660 m sensor pair
[McCartor and Woman, 19901.
McCartor and Wortman [I9901 by a partial shear failure which
permanently reduces the shear modulus when the strain ex& a threshold
of about lo4. Rimer and Cherry [I9821 have shown that it is possible
to reproduce much of the Salmon data, including the precursor, using a
shear strength limit which is variable.
Gupta and McLaughlin [I9891 analyzed Salmon and Sterling data and
concluded that the effective Q at Salmon strains appears to be mildly
strain dependent and strongly frequency dependent. The mean apparent Q
in the 1-25 Hz range is about 7 and it appears to increase mildly with
increasing range. -The result for attenuatign is reflected in modified Q
function called Q. This is defined as Q = Q + f dQ/df which is a
measure of the spectral slope change. The behavior found is shown in
Figure 5. Gupta and McLaughlin argue that the decrease in attenuation
with range is significant and this indicates that the behavior is nonlinear.
The attenuation decreases sharply with increasing frequency. Denny
[I9901 reports that the source spectra characteristics of Salmon and
Sterling indicate that the Salmon pulses are nonlinear to beyond 700 m.
Sterling. The nuclear explosion Sterling (0.38-kt) event took place in
1966 in the Salmon cavity, which was approximately spherical with a
radius of 17 meters. This was the second half of the decoupling test and
the same instrumentation was used. The waveforms observed are
generally noisy and less cohesive than for Salmon. Sterling data
[Sisemore et al., 19691 are at lower strains than Salmon due both to lower
yield and decoupling. Sterling peak velocities indicate a strain range of
3x to 7 x Some analysis of these data by Springer et al.
[I9681 suggested that there was significant near-field attenuation. A more
recent analysis by Glenn et al. [I9871 corrects some errors in the previous
work and indicates that the observed Sterling near-field pulses are in good
agreement with elastic theory. Gupta and McLaughlin [I9891 used a
spectral ratio method to determine the attenuation over sensor pairs. They
find that the average Q is approximately 200 to 400 and shows no evident
dependence on frequency or range. These last two papers suggest that the
Sterling strains have reached a transition to a linear low attenuation at I

small strains, near 1w5. Langston [I9831 has noted that SV waves 100
generated by Sterling, apparently due to induced normal faulting rather Frequency (Hz)
than cavity asymmetry, showed attenuation with range which was Fig. 4. Salmon Q's estimated from adjacent sensor pairs between 166 and
significantly different from l/r. He finds that Q of 35 is indicated at 660 m [McCartor and Woman, 19901.
strains of about lop5 and there is a mild tendency or Q to increase with
[ !
range, and so with decreasing strain. If it is assume that there is no
contribution to attenuaticw from compression, the corresponding P-wave refraction in a polyhalite layer below the shot, the normal moderate speed
Q will be approximately 70, although there is no direct evidence to tie the signal then appears followed by a plastic wave with a speed which
two modes together for this particular case. diminishes with decreasing strain. Some of the acceleration records are
Gnome. The Gnome explosion (3 kt) took place in the Salado salt clipped so it is difficult to use the details of the waveform to characterize
layer at a depth of 360 meters [Weart, 19621. Above the salt there were the attenuation. Weart indicates that the peak velocity falls off like range
strata to a depth of about 200 meters consisting of diverse lithology. to the -3.56 power out to 100 meters and then like the power -1.36 out
Analysis of the data from eight sensors sites located horizontally from the to the last sensor at 477 meters. It is suggested that the elastic 7mne has
shot point at ranges of 62 to 477 meters indicates that there are three been reached at this extreme range but no evidence beyond the amplitude
distinct arrival times. The high speed initial signal appears to be from variation with range is given.
102 REVIEW OF ATTENUATION IN SALT

determine the effective Q between the stations. By selecting pairs with


internal consistency and by correcting the records for obvious anomalies,
they found a set of Q estimates as a function of peak strain or range. The
result is shown in Figure 7 as compared with the result of Minster and
Day [1986]. Not surprisingly, the results are similar and they show that
across the strains available in the Cowboy data there is a substantial
decrease in attenuation with decreasing strain.
Cowboy Trails. Cowboy Trails [Workman and Trulio, 19851 was a
series of field tests in a salt dome using chemical explosives of
approximately 200 pounds. The single and dual explosions were
monitored with free-field ground velocity sensors. The ranges of the
sensors, which wcre varied over the ten events, covered from 0.388 to
over 11.3 km/kt1I3. They were set to attempt to define the transition to
clearly linear behavior. Due to problems with sensors and noise, the
Cowboy Trails experiments did not fully accomplish their goals.
However, the results indicate that the propagation of explosively driven

4
pulses in dome salt remain inelastic though not necessarily nonlinear)
out to scaled ranges of 11.3 km/ktl/ . The exponent of peak velocity
power law decay with range is -1.46 f .05 which is somewhat slower
than that seen in the Cowboy data (which were for higher strains). An
analysis by Trulio (private communication) suggests that the scaled
Fig. 5. Salmon Q estimates with range [Gupta and McLaughlin, 19891. Cowboy Trails data show a decreased attenuation with range and frequency
Vertical bars show a standard deviation. Horizontal bars indicate the which is not inconsistent with scaled Salmon and Co;.boy results. The
separation of the sensors used for that estimate. scatter of the data is fairly large so it is difficult to draw stronger
conclusions.
Explosive S o u r c e M h e m i c a l Livermore 1982 Small-scale Experiments. The experiments of Larson
119821 for small chemical explosions, yields of 0.63 to 291 kJ, in pressed
Cowboy. The Cowboy series of chemical explosions took place in a salt have provided pulses over scaled ranges from approximately 10 to
salt dome in Louisiana in 1 9 5 9 4 0 [Murphey, 19611. The explosions had 250 ~ n / k t l / ~The
. dominant range of frequencies covered was from about
a range of yields from 10 to 2000 pounds of TNT,some of which were 104 to lo5 Hz and the ratio of peak particle velocities to compressional
carried out in cavities for decoupling tests. Each shot was sampled by sound speed (which is comparable with the strain) went from about 10-I
from two to seven particle velocity sensors. The scaled ranges for the to less than 1 v 3 . Data from thrce sensors at increasing ranges for a
coupled or tamped experiments wcre from about 200 to 3000 m/kt1l3 and single shot, taken in pairs, indicate increasing values of from 12 to 25
the corresponding peak strains were from a few times 1 e to about 1 v 5 . with increasing range for ranges from 30 to 70 m/kt 1 2. This would
The dominant frequencies were 10 to 100 hertz. Murphey observed that suggest that the response was nonlinear. Another experiment consisting
the peak velocity with scaled range (ran e ~ ~ i e l d ldata
/ ~ ) all lie near a of a simultaneous pairs of shots, was used as a direct superposition
smooth curve and they fall off like r-1.6f, as shown in Figure 6. This experiment. It was found that the resulting response was consistent with
indicates first that the data scale and second that the material behavior is that determined by linear addition of the two pulses at a range of
not elastic.
Minster and Day [1986] examined the Cowboy tamped data and
investigated the attenuation required to reproduce the observed variation of
peak velocity and displacement with scaled range. They conclude that an
effective Q which is strain dependent with the frequency-independent form

can satisfactorily reproduce the both peak velocity and displacement. Here
Qo = 100 is the small strain Q, E is the peak strain and y = 3 x 103 is
an empirical constant. This form was chosen to be consistent with somc
theoretical nonlinear mechanisms at high strains while reducing to modest
anelastic attenuation at small strains. The resulting attenuation is
consistent with scaling since it dcpends only on strain which scales. Note
that the effective Q at the largest strains from Cowboy is then less than
10.
Trulio [private communication] has examined somc scalcd Cowboy
data and concluded that the attenuation is frequency dependent, decrcasing
with increasing frequency. Q values of 12.5 and 32 are found at Salmon
equivalent frequencies of loll2 and 10 Hz, found by scaling thc Cowboy
data. The frequency dependence is roughly Q = l/f. He observes that
this dependence is inconsistent with linearity and scaling indicating that
Cowboy attenuation is nonlinear.
Wortman and McCartor [I9891 have used tamped Cowboy records to
attempt to determine the character of the attenuation. Thcy chose record Fig. 6. Cowboy peak particle velocity data versus scaled range [Murphey,
pairs from the same shot and applied the spectral ratio method to 19611.
WORTMAN AND MCCARTOR 103

' 8 "

Cheniical explos~ve
LX04 and PETN

Chemical explosive
low density TNT

o Nuclear explosive
1
Scaled Range (rn/ktit3)
Fig. 8. Salt peak particle velocity data versus scaled range [Larson,
19821.

Appendix C] have reproduced the waveforms and attempted to find the


attenuation. Aside from an apparent increase of Q with frequency, little
I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I can be concluded.
ID-' 104 lo-=
PEAK STRAIN Nonexplosive Sources
Fig. 7. Cowboy Q estimates with range from Wortman and McCartor
[I9891 and Minster and Day [1986]. Vertical bars show the variation of Q
Ultrasonic Pulse Attenuation. New England Research (NER)
laboratory ultrasonic pulse propagation experiments [Coyner, 19871 used
over an order of magnitude in frequency about the dominant frequency.
strains from less than 1 6 to more than l(r5. Compressional and shear
Horizontal bars indicate the separation of the sensors used.
ultrasonic pulses consisting of about two cycles at 100-200 kHz were
168 m/ktlD as would be expected from a linear medium. Still it is not propagated through samples. Attenuations were calculated using a
clear just how nonlinear effects would be manifest in this experiment of spectral ratio technique with an aluminum sample used for calibration.
rather narrow pulses without knowing the character of any nonlinear Variation of the attenuation with peak strain amplitude and confining
behavior. That is, the apparent agreement with superposition for pulses pressure were determined. For dome salt it was found that over a strain
with large strains may very well not directly negate the possibility of any range of 5 x to 3 x 10-5 and for confining loads of either 0.1 or
son of nonlinear behavior. Still, on the basis of this experiment, Larson 1 MPa, the P-wave attenuation is nearly constant and can be described by
concludes that the propagation is linear beyond 168 m ~ k t l / ~He . also a Q of about 20. For S waves, the Qp is also nearly constant and it has a
indicates that the attenuation is strongly inelastic inside this range and value of about 60. The results are shown in Figure 9. With the possible
that the magnitude of this inelasticity decreases with both range and exception of the largest strains for S waves, there is no particular evidence
frequency. By variation of the confining pressure, he finds that the of nonlinearity in these data alone although the attenuation is large. The
propagation is independent of confinement at least up to 32 MPa. Larson P-wave attenuation is about a factor of three larger that that of S waves
combined his data with that from other salt experiments to further extend suggesting that the conventional assumption of dominant losses from
Trulio's [I9781 assertion that peak velocity data for explosively driven shear mechanisms is not the case. It should be noted that these confining
pulses in salt scales remarkably well. This is shown in Figure 8 which pressures are small compared with those for underground sources.
contains data from experiments with over 10 orders of magnitude in yield.
Larson also provides a direct comparison of scaled waveforms for his Multicycle Laboratory Experiments
experiment and a Salmon pulse which shows a significant similarity.
Livermore 1987 Small-scale Experiment. In 1987 Larson [I9891 Resonant Bars. Tittmann [1983] has taken laboratory data on the
canied out an additional laboratory experiment using a 0.622-kJ chemical absorption of the energy in multiple cycle oscillations of halite rods.
explosion in mined dome salt. The cylindrical sample was sliced into Both dome salt and pressed salt samples were used. These resonant bar
layers perpendicular to the axis. Sixteen sensors were then inserted at experiments measure the width of the resonance peak for cyclic motion at
eight ranges and the layers were cemented together. A explosive source frequencies from about 90 to 500 Hz induced in mechanically loaded salt
tamped in a hole on one side then produced peak particle velocities from samples. They were canied out for both torsion and flexure modes with
1 m/s to 4 x loe3 m/s. The experiment was not very successful. A wak strains from lop5 to Pressure variation studies were carried
variety of problems with the samples caused irregularities in the out using jacketed samples in pressurized chambers allowing pressures up
waveforms which made analysis difficult. Wortman and McCartor [1989, to 124 MPa. The effects of humidity variation were also determined.
flexure
,. 80 -

$ 70-

-
0 5
z torsion
E3 - 0
SO - LOAD

LOAD
n
-
1 MPa

. I MPo
P WAE

.
.-I - -
20 - LOAD - 1. MPo s WAE
--m--
10 - LOAD - L
. 1 MPo
--a
0
-7 -8 -5 -4 -3
LOG STRAIN AMPLITUDE

Fig. 9. Q in salt for P and S wave ultrasonic pulse experiments [Coyner,


19871. Fig. 10. Resonant bar Q estimates versus strain for three pressures for
The results for pressed salt indicate that attenuation is dependent on all both flexure (solid) and torsion (open) [Tittmann, 19831.
parameters which were varied. Attenuation decreases with increasing
frequency and increases with increasing humidity. At ambient pressure, Sierra White granite ( 1 Hz)
for strains below 2 x the attenuation is only weakly nonlinear while
above this it is strongly amplitude dependent. In the low strain region : uncyclea s a m p l e
Q's for extension and torsion are about 500 and 1000,respectively.
A a f t e r 1 0 x 1 0 ~cycles
For dome salt the results are somewhat different. Nonlinear behavior
persists to very low strains For any significant confining
pressures the threshold strain for nonlinear behavior increases to about 2 x
lo4 but the attenuation is then essentially independent of pressure up to
at least 68 m a . The attenuation increases slightly with increasing
frequency; 1M increases by a factor of about two from 80 to 480 Hz. The
high behavior app&s to stabilize at the quoted levels only after a

I
period of adjustment of hours suggesting that crack healing strengthens
the samples under pressure. An illustration of the strain dependence is
shown in Figure 10.
Tittmann points out that the attenuation in these multicycle
experiments after the hundreds of cycles required, especially for high
strains, may reflect changes or damage in the material resulting from
s t r a i n amplitude
previous cycles. Measurements made then may then not correspond to
behavior for a single pulse. Tittmann gives no data on this subject but it Fig. 11. Variation of attenuation with strain for cycling in Sierra white
has been investigated experimentally by Bonner et al. [I9891 although not granite [Bonner et a]., 19891.
with salt. The difference in attenuation between uncycled granite and
samples with lo7 cycles, attributed to fatigue damage, is shown in It is perhaps not so remarkable that this scaling should hold near the
Figure 11. This suggests the possibility that Tittmann's experimental explosions since the initial pulse character is not determined by
strain dependence may actually be the result of damage from cycling. In attenuation. Rather the scale of the explosively generated cavity is fixed
any case, Tittmann's attenuation for salt is significantly less than that by the cube root of ratio of the density to the yield. Given the
suggested by the other experimentsdescribed in this article. propagation velocity, this spatial scale will determine a temporal scale,
both varying as the cube root of the yield.
Summary Of Salt Attenuation The more interesting result is that the pulses continue to scale as they
propagate out into the medium at strain levels, less than 1w3, for which
While there is a substantial body of data for attenuation of signals in there are no gross changes in the medium. If the attenuation suffered is
salt, the results are rather diverse. It appears that attenuation is a function intrinsic to the medium, or linear, the associated Q must be independent
of many factors including strain, frequency, humidity, number of cycles, of frequency in order for the results to obey cube root scaling. This is
source of salt samples and character of experiment. It is difficult, if not clear from the form shown in (1) for the attenuation operator. If scaling
impossible, to combine the various experimental results into a cohesive holds, the expression orIcQ must scale. The combination o r has units
pattern, let alone a constitutive relation. However, there is some degree of velocity which scales while c is constant. Therefore Q must scale but
of consistency which we shall now attempt to define. it can only a function of frequency since the medium is assumed uniform
It is most striking that the data from explosive sources roughly satisfy and linear and the only function of frequency which scales is a constant.
simple cube root scaling for peak velocities, if not for all details of the In general, for either linear or nonlinear effects, the fact that the
waveforms. This means that if the lengths and times are all scaled by the experimental results cube root scale indicates that the medium must have
cube root of the yield then, to a remarkable degree, all tamped explosive no inherent scales of length or time (in the range of scales of the
source experiments give approximately the same pulses at any scaled experiments)so any constitutive relation must be rate independent.
range. Salmon, Cowboy and small-scale laboratory velocity pulses all scale
WORTMAN AND MCCARTOR 105

well but they also all indicate that the effective Q extracted is strongly
frequency dependent. To illustrate this clearly, consider Figure 12 which
shows unscaled estimates of Q as a function of frequency for pairs of
records from Salmon and Cowboy at approximately the same peak strain.
Note that the two functions of frequency are quite distinct but they are
quite similar when scaled relative to their respective comer frequencies.
The comer frequency, of course, scales with the cube root of the yield \ COWBOY
which says that the scaled effective Q's are nearly the same. This has
been observed both by Trulio (private communication) and by Wortman
and McCartor [1989]. This clearly says that the attenuation is not just a
function of the medium but it must depend on amplitude or shape of the
pulse. In other words, the attenuation must be nonlinear, at strains above
Since the behavior is nonlinear, there is no benefit in using a Q
description. In fact, the use of Q often serves to confuse the fundamental
problem of finding a physically meaningful constitutive relation at
moderate strains. I I # I 1 I I I l l I I I l l
In spite of the fact that moderate strain attenuation is almost certainly 10 1W 1WO
FREQUENCY (Hz)
nonlinear, it is possible to use effective Q estimates to combine data by
taking the effective Q at the dominant frequency. This effective Q gives a Fig. 12. Unscaled Salmon and Cowboy Q estimates as a function of
measure of the magnitude of attenuation. It is much more difficult to frequency [Wortman and McCartor, 19891.
combine attenuation information from explosive pulses and multicycle
experiments since the effective Q will generally be a function of the
details of the experiment. If a proper constitutive relation were known, a
comparison could be made. However, no such relation is known.
Ignoring this substantial problem, the data from all the experiments
discussed in the text of this paper can be expressed as effective Q and
0
compared as a function of peak strain. Figure 13 gives all these data on a
/

single plot. The strain range available is from about 1 e 3 to 1 c 8 . A


With a single exception, the trend of this collection of data is for a -/
A
LAB EXPLOSION

decrease in attenuation with decreasing peak strains. The Salmon, higher


strain Cowboy and small-scale explosion data give Q's of the order ten.
The Cowboy and Sterling data suggest that Q's are well over one hundred
by strains of 1 c 5 . The resonant bar results (which seem to consistently

I-
show lower attenuation than other experiments) have Q's of several _._---
___---
, "- - - -
A. -
hundred but show an increase as strains auuroach 1 c 5 . The New England ___.._ * * -_
RESONANT B e - ;::"
---- -.
Research ultrasonic pulse experiments are the exception as they give a Q _
____
_ _..
- .-
_ -- - - - -
< ,

indeuendent of strain. However, these exueriments were carried out with


no confinement. Furthermore, recent work on other media [K. Coyner,
private communication] suggests that this experimental technique may be 1o - ~
0- STRAIN
strongly influenced by scattering from normally existing inhomogeneities
in the samples. This scattering from structure comparable with the Fig. 13. All available salt attenuation data as a function of peak strain,
ultrasonic wavelength may depend strongly on frequency so the taken at the dominant frequencies of the various experiments including
attenuation results would not be relevant to the lower frequency pulse Salmon (0McCartor and Wortman [I9851 and Gupta and McLaughlin
propagation problem. [19891), Sterling (* Gupta and McLaughlin [1989]), Cowboy
Taken as a whole, the salt data indicate that attenuation is strong and ( 0 Wortman and McCartor [I9891 and - - - Minster and Day [1986]),
nonlinear for strains greater that For smaller strains the attenuation .
ultrasonic pulse (. - Coyner [1987]) and resonant bar (- - - Titunann
appears to become small and linear. The peak strain of 1 e 5 occurs at a [1983]). See Fig. 10 for resonant bar parameters.
scaled range of approximately 3 km/kt1I3. M hy [I9781 indicates that
an elastic radius for salt is less than 5M m k T 3 based on analysis of that the same parameters also provide a reasonable description of other salt
stabilization of RDP's of nuclear explosions. This contrasts with the fact data. The work hardening model provides a variable yield strength Y
that other measurements quoted in the current article indicate that the which is given by
effective Q is less than 10 and apparently nonlinear. When a source
function is defined at this small radius the subsequent propagation out to
sufficiently large ranges, where the totality of the data indicates the
behavior is linear, will have an effect which is not currently understood. There are only three free parameters since the limiting yield strength,
There are no completely satisfactory descriptions of the nonlinear YLim, is constrained by other experiments. In this model the initial yield
behavior of salt in the moderate strain regime. Without a physical strength, Yo, is rather low. The harding and softening parameters e l and
constitutive relation, it is difficult to remove the uncertainty in the e2 as well as Yo are used to fit the data. The yield strength initially
effective seismic source function. There are two conjectures which have increases as inelastic energy, E, is absorbed by the shear failure in a
been put forth to account for Salmon data. manner quadratic in this inelastic energy. The yield strength is a measure
Rimer and Cheny [I9831 have noted that a reasonable fit to the of the maximum potential energy which can be held in shear in the
Salmon data, including attenuation and precursor, can be obtained by use medium. When addition shear stress is applied to a medium at its yield
of a constitutive relation combining a limiting yield strength with limit, the work goes into inelastic energy which then is taken to alter the
quadratic work hardening and softening. Cherry and Rimer [I9801 find yield limit in this model. As indicted by Figure 14, there are some
106 REVIEW OF ATTENUATION IN SALT

(which also is consistent with cube root scaling), strongly suggest that
shear failure plays a strong role in the nonlinear behavior of salt at
moderate strains. While these models hint at the character which is
required for a robust constitutive relation for salt at moderate strains, the
issue is clearly not resolved.

Acknowledgments. This work was sponsored, in part, by the Defense


Advanced Research Projects Agency and monitored by the Geophysics
Laboratory under contract F19628-89-C-0040 .
References

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attenuation and implications for the seismic source, Proceedings of the
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lo4. Note that for small strains below this threshold there will be no McCartor, G. D. and W. R. Wortman, Nonlinear attenuation mechanisms
loss. This value of Q is much less than that expected for very small in salt at moderate strain based on Salmon data, Mission Research
strains but it is still more than the 5 to 10 seen for Salmon attenuation. Corp., Santa Barbara, CA, AFGL-TR-89-0013.1988.
It will produce a sharply changing effective Q at a threshold strain in the McCartor, G. D. and W. R. Wortman, Analysis of Salmon near-field data
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WORTMAN AND MCCARTOR 107

Murphy, J. R., A review of available free-field seismic data from J. Ceophys. Res., 73, 5995, 1968.
underground nuclear explosions in salt and granite, Computer Sciences Tittmann, B. R., Non-linear wave propagation study, Rockwell
Corp., Falls Church, VA, CSC-TR-78-0003, 1978. International Science Center, Thousand Oaks, CA, SC5361.3SAR.
Perret, W. R., Free-field particle motion from a nuclear explosion in salt. 1983.
Part I.Project Dribble, Salmon Event, Sandia Laboratory, Albuquerque, Trulio, J., Simple scaling and nuclear monitoring, Applied Theory, Inc.,
NM, W - 3 0 1 2 , 1967. Los Angeles, CA, ATR-78-45-1, 1978.
Rimer, N. and J. T. Cherry, Ground motion predictions for the Grand Weart, W. D., Particle motion near a nuclear detonation in halite, Bull.
Saline experiment, S-Cubed Corp., La Jolla, CA, USC-TR-83-25, Seis. Soc. Am., 54, 981, 1962.
1982. Workman, J. W. and J. G. Tmlio, Cowboy Trails: Analysis of gauge
Rogers, L. A., Free-field motion near a nuclear explosion in salt: Project records for peak velocity and wavespeed, Physics Applications, Inc.,
Salmon, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 3415, 1966. Los Angeles, CA, PAI-FR-0119-2, 1985.
Sisemore, C. J., L. A. Rogers, and W. R. Perret, Project Sterling: Wortman, W. R. and G. D. McCartor, Nonlinear seismic attenuation
Subsurface phenomenology measurements near a decoupled nuclear from Cowboy and other explosive sources, Seismic Coupling of
event, J. Geophys. Res., 74,6623, 1969. Nuclear Explosions, D. B. Larson, ed., Defense Advanced Research
Springer, D., M. Denny, J. Healy, and W. Mickey, The Sterling Projects Agency, Arlington, VA, UCRL-21086, Vol. 2, 1989.
experiment: Decoupling of seismic waves by a shot-generated cavity,
TKE TELESEISMIC MANIFESTATION OF pP: PROBLEMS AND PARADOXES

Thorne Lay

Institute of Tectonics and C. F. Richter Seismological Laboratory, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064

Abstract. Energy radiated upward from underground nuclear explosions nuclear explosion can produce rcmarkablc accelerations and ground
has a coniplex interaction with thc free surface that strongly influences the velocities at the free surracc. For example, the <5Mt explosion
seismic wavefields rccorded at teleseismic and regional distances. This CANNIKIN produced surfacc vcrtical accelerations varying from 17 to
interaction, differing from that for earthquakes primarily due to the much 3.2 g at horizontal ranges of 0.3 to 3.4 km from the shotpoint, and
higher strains and strain rates involved, is essential to understand for both corresponding peak ground velocitics of from 946 to 233 cm/s [Burdick et
explosion yield estimation and for discriminating earthquakes from al., 1984bl. The initial compressional pulse of acceleration in these
explosions. Reflection of explosion P wave energy from the free surface, close-in recordings (Figure la) is followed by a ballistic interval
which produces the pP phase, involves frequency-dependent. non-lincar characterized by -1 g accclcration (corresponding to the surface rock
processes that are intimately linked to surface spallation. Attempts to breaking and flying into thc air). This terminates with high-frequency
characterize the teleseismic DP arrival using a variety of time series pulses as the airborne material impacts (i.e. slapdown). This complex
analysis procedures have yielded seemingly inconsistent results, which can surface interaction involves a lenticular zone of spallation, in which rock
be attributed lo a combination of limited bandwidth, neglected
- frequency
- - failure occurs at depth whcn the downgoing tensional stress wave
dependence, and unresolved trade-offs with source time function, receiver resulting from rcflection at the free surface @P) exceeds the sum of the
and attenuation effects. Recovery of broadband ground displaccmcnt, now upward compressional stress, the lithostatic stress, and the tensile strength
viable with modern inslrumcntation, is resulting in more robust of the rock. Spallation is commonly obscrved [Springer, 19741, and may
characterizations of the pP and spallation arrivals; however, the intrinsic involve several discrete surfaces of parting at depth Eisler et al., 19661.
trade-offs with source parameters and attenuation remain. Numerical The initial vertical peak ground velocitics within the spall zone can
procedures to account for the non-linear interactions, surhce topographic actually be well explained by elastic theory [Burdick et al., 19851, which
effects, and shallow crusval heterogeneity are enabling a more complctc implies the existence of significant rock strength under compression;
modeling of the free surface interaction. however, the subsequent tensional spallation phenomena clearly involve
inelastic and nonlinear processes. At distances slightly beyond the spall
Introduction zone, the surface vertical velocity recordings have much smaller peak
velocities, and the entire P waveform can be well modeled using elastic
Seismic waves from undcrground nuclear explosions provide a reliable wave propagation theory (Figure lb). In these signals the major arrivals
means for identifying and cstimating the yield of such tests, which is are the P wave turning below the source and the pP reflection from the
critical for nuclca- test treaty monitoring. The precise knowledge of free surface (the downward spike in the synthetic and obscrved wave~orms
explosion timing and location has also allowed explosion seismic waves in Figure lb). For these rccords the pP rcflection point is several
to play a major role in imaging the dccp interior structure of Earth. The kilometers horizontally from the shotpoint, and the distributed spall
characteristics of undcrground tests that are most distinctive relative to source does not appear to produce a coherent high-frequency arrival, which
natural earthquakes are thc shallow burial depths of explosions and the allows the successful elastic modeling. At regional distances, there is
(ideally) spherical symmetry of the initial radiation from the source. The evidence for corresponding pPn arrivals [Burdick et al., 19891, and it does
proximity to the surface and symmetry of radiation lead to strong appear that spall contributes to Pn and Lg phases [Taylor and Randall,
intcrfwence between the downgoing P wave energy and the compressional 19891. At teleseismic distances, the pP arrival will more directly sample
wave reflected off of the surface (pP), which arrivcs within a second after the zone just above the shotpoint, where the downgoing pP will
the direct P. The free surface reflection reverses thc scnsc of motion of pP encounter the disturbed medium around the explosion cavity, and where
relative to P, producing deslructive inlcrfcrcncc between these signals for spallation is most pronounced and can potentially constructively interfere
frequencies less than about 0.5 Hz and modulation of the higher frequency to give coherent teleseismic arrivals.
spe.ctrum, which in turn provide inany of the distinguishing characteristics The upgoing P energy from a nuclear explosion is partitioned into pP,
of explosion seismic signals. However, this interference is complicated pS, spallatiort and slapdown phases, as well as surface wave excitation and
by nonlinear surface effects on the pP reflection. It has thus been a long anelastic losses. The upgoing radiation itself may deviate from an
standing problem to fully characterize the pP reflection and its isotropic wavefront if there is significant pre-stress in the vicinity of the
complexity. source, or if an earthquake is triggered by the explosion--effects which are
Understanding the pP surface reflection from nuclear explosions requires considered elsewhere in this monograph. Understanding the pP phase is
consideralion of seismic wave interaction with the free surface above the required for constraining the source depth, for appraising any bias on the
source. The upgoing compressional wave produced by an underground body wave magnitude resulting from constructive or destructive
interference, and for assessing how upgoing energy is partitioned in the
Explosion Source Phenomenology seismic wavefield, which may reveal source region properties [e.g. Gupta
Geophysical Monograph 65 and Blandford, 19871. Systematic differences in pP delay times between
Copyright 1991 American Geophysical Union source regions may also provide a means for characterizing the source
110 TELESEISMIC MANIFESTATION OF pP

- OTRONO UOTIONS
laI CANNIKIN SURFACE

ACCELER&IIOW 12) VELOCITY I 2 1


II I CANNIKIN

I
++
SYN. 06s.
2.5 a e c

I
Fig. 1. (a) Surface vertical accelerations and velocity recordings from the spall zone for CANNIKIN. (b) Surface vertical velocity
synthetics and observations for CANNIKIN from distances beyond the spall zone. From Burdick et al., 1984bl.

medium, which is critical for yield estimation. The question that thus domain spike trains for teleseismic distances, to the extent that crustal
arises is what is the telcseismic manifestation of pP? This article will structure can be approximated by a set of horizontal layers. Of course,
review the seismological investigations of teleseismic pP for underground some distortion due to frequency dependent reflection coefficients
explosions to synthesize our understanding of this complex free surface accompanying non-linear effects or complex scattering structures may
interaction. actually be required. It is critical to recognize the complete tradeoff that
Throughout the following discussion of teleseismic investigations of exists between the multiplicative filters. Any attempt to estimate S(w) is
the pP phase, it is useful to keep in mind the linear filter representation of subject to limitations in our knowledge of E(w), R(o) and Q(w). All
a teleseismic signal spectrum: existing methodologies for estimating pP behavior, whether frequency
domain or time domain, involve assumptions about one or more of these
parameters, and much of the inconsistency in published pP characteristics
reflects differing assumptions underlying, and sometimes obscured by, the
where w is angular frcqucncy, U(w) is the far field P wave displacement processing.
spectrum, E(w) is the far-field explosion source spectrum (generally
assumed to not vary with take-off angle from the source, although Long-Period Constraintson pP Characteristics
departure from spherically symmetric radiation has sometimes been
suggested), I(w) is the instrument response, Q(w) is the attenuation There have been twenty years of extensive research on teleseismic P
operator, and G(w) is the total Earth propagation response. The Earth waves from underground explosions directed at quantifying the pP anival,
response for teleseismic signaIs is often approximated by: but unlike the situation for earthquakes, relatively little progress has been
made by analyzing long-period body waves. Usually, when considering
long-period body waves, simple assumptions about propagation effects are
adequate to determine gross properties of the source. Ideally, a purely
where S(w) is the source region transfer function, including the direct P isotropic explosion should produce a teleseismic P wave comprised of
arrival, pP, crustal reverberations near the source, and any secondary only a direct compressional P phase, and a slightly delayed dilatational
arrivals associated with spall; R(o) is the receiver region transfer function pP phase. Given the shallow burial depths of all explosions, the time
including crustal reverberations beneath the receiver; and ro is a geometric between pP and direct P, TO,should be only 1 s or less, and at teleseismic
spreading term. The transfer functions are expected to correspond to time distances the elastic pP surface reflection coefficient, a,should be close to
-1.0. In this ideal case, we can assume S(t) = 6(t) + a 6(t - zo). The However, peaking of thc tcleseismic explosion P wave spectra may also
destructive interference of thcse two arrivals should greatly reduce the be attributed to overshoot of the source time function, which requires the
amplitude and increase the dominant frcqucncy contcnt of the P waves pressure on the boundary of the elastic zone surrounding the explosion
recorded on long-period instruments (10-15 s pendulum periods) relative cavity to be more impulsive than step-like [Molnar, 1971; Wyss et al.,
to earthquake signals, which tend to have deeper sources and strong 1971; Miillcr, 19731. Overshoot of the source function has been
additional sP arrivals. suggested in many studies of ncar-field and even teleseismic data, and
P arrivals on long-period WWSSN instruments for large explosions cannot be dismissed as a possibility. This remains a fundamental trade-off
(Figure 2) are in fact very distinctive from P waves from earthquakes with between S(w) and E(o). Some progress has been made by combining
comparable mb (mea~urcdncar 1 s period). The explosion arrivals are low body wave and surface wavc constraints on the broadband source spectral
amplitude, resemble diffcrcntiatcd instrument responses, and are depleted content, but difficulties rcmain in independently determining overshoot of
in low-frequency contcnt rclative to earthquake signals, which serves as the source function [Lay ct al., 1984bl. It is likely that both overshoot
the basis for some discrimination procedures for large events [Molnar, and pP interference contribute to the depletion of long-period energy in
1971; Wyss et a]., 1971; Hascgawa, 1972; Helmberger and Harkrider, teleseismic P waves. Rcgardless of the precise mechanisms for the drop
1972; Shumway and Blandford, 1978; Burdick and Helmberger, 1979; off in long-period spectral levels, the net result is that most explosion P
Burdick et al, 1984al. In the frequency domain this is manifested as a wave observations are made using high-frequency instrumentation. Thus,
peaking of the explosion P wave spectra at periods near 2-3 s for megaton the rest of this review will concentrate on pP results obtained using short-
size shots, with a rapid dccrcase in spcctral levels at longer periods. period and broadband seismograms.
Peaking of the explosion spccua is readily explained by interference
with a strong pP arrival, if we assume that the source time function (the
time history of pressure applied on the source elastic radius) for long- High-Frcqucncy pP Analysis Procedures
period radiation is essentially a step-function. If the pP anival has an
elastic reflection, the lelcscismic P spectrum will be modulated by a factor This review of teleseismic short-period P wave analyses is organized to
of (1 + a2 + 2a c o ~ o z ~ ) 'where
/ ~ , o is angular frequency. For a = -1, roughly parallel the history of technique development and application.
and zo = 1.0 s this modulation factor will have a maximum value at a We will first consider proccdurcs that utilize only the amplitude or power
period of about 2 s. For a step source time function, the far field spectra, then time-domain waveform and differential waveform modeling
spectrum (given by the dcrivative of the source time function convolved procedures, and finally the variety of deconvolution techniques which are
with the modulation term) is directly proportional to this modulating presently giving the most uscful results. At their core, all methodologies
factor, and hence, proportional to w at low frequencies. The spectrum is exploit the spectral intcrfcrcnce produced by multiple arrivals in the
thus expected to drop off at long periods from the peak near 2 s, as is signal, but they vary widcly with respect to assumptions about the source
observed. radiation, attenuation, and Earth transfer functions.

Explosions
Fault less Rpr Car
SHA OGO
COL

Greeley
OXF

Rorteqo Mtn Earthquakes


ATL
Seattle
GEO
South America
LPA

Fig. 2. Comparison of WWSSN long-period P recordings for three NTS events: GREELEY, BOXCAR, and
FAULTLESS, and three earthquakes: Borrego Mountain, California (April 9, 1968). Peru (April 13, 1963). and
Seattle (April 29, 1965), all having mb = 6.2-6.5. Arrows indicate minute marks. Note the high-frequency
character of the P arrivals for the explosions relative to the earthquakes. [From Molnar, 19711.
112 TELESEISMIC MANIFESTATION OF pP

Power Spectrum Techniques amplitude spectrum requires a parameterization of the source time function
and attenuation filter. These spectra were fit with pP arrival values of a
The underlying assumption for most amplitude or power spectrum ranging from -0.4 to 4 . 7 1 and z values from 1.12 to 1.18 s, and
procedures is that the pP and any other secondary arrivals are delayed, slapdown arrival values of a ranging from 0.67 to 0.85 with delays of
undistorted echos of the direct P arrival with relative arrival times and 1.92 to 1.94 s. Time domain comparisons based on the spectral fitting
amplitudes to be determined. For the two arrival approximation described are shown on the right, indicating that omission of the phase spectra in
in the previous section, the displacement power spectrum will have the the modeling has not led to significant loss of timing information. Note
modulation factor [ l + a2+ 2 a cos(a.ro)], which for negative values of that the primary spectral scallop is well matched, but even the three
a (as expected for pP) predicts that spectral nulls will occur at frequencies source model provides a marginal fit to the higher frequency spectra.
of fn = n/.ro, n = 0,1,2,3, ..., while positive values of a (as might be This, in part, stems from the simplified version of S(t) used, in which
associated with slapdown) predict spectral nulls at frequencies fn = crustal reverberations near the source are ignored, as well as from ignoring
[(2n + 1)/2]/.r0. Identification of spectral nulls and their frequency receiver complexity.
spacing is thus an obvious procedure by which to attempt to characterize An extension of the direct power spectral modeling technique that
the pP arrival. reduces the potential error from incorrect attenuation assumptions and
For some events, such as CANNIKIN (Figure 3) the strong spectral unknown receiver complexity, involves ratioing the spectra from two
scalloping can be well matched by a three arrival spike train, where the nearby events recorded at a common station (Figure 4). and stacking the
third spike has the same polarity as direct P and can be attributed to a ratios from various stations to enhance the signal to noise ratio [King et
slapdown arrival [Bakun and Johnson, 19731. This modeling of the al., 19721. Assuming perfect cancellation of the attenuation, instrument,
and receiver effects, the stacked ratios for events i and j give the
following:

The ratios can then be modclcd assuming spike trains for the two events
simultaneously, with diffcrences in the source functions explicitly being
inverted for as well. The procedure clearly works best if the source
functions and depths are very different, otherwise the information about
each parameter is lost in the ratioing procedure. Any common attributes
of the source such as overshoot tend to be lost as well.
Numerous applications of these power spectrum techniques have been
performed [e.g. Cohen, 1970, 1975; King et al., 1972, 1974; Kulhanck,

FREQUENCY (Hz)
Fig. 3. Observed spectral modulus (solid line) and least-squares fit of a Fig. 4. Average spectral ratio of MILROW/LONGSHOT using stations
three spike model (dashed line) for CANNIKIN are shown on the left. KNUT, RKON, LCNM, and HNME. The dashed lines indicate the
The corresponding time domain traces are shown on the right. [From standard deviation of the average. The time window was 5 s. [From King
Bakun and Johnson, 19731. et al., 19721.
LAY 113

1971; Bakun and Johnson, 1973; Flinn et al, 1973; Shumway and problems arising from tradeoffs between the assumed attenuation and
Blandford, 19781, with it being quickly recognized that the implied pP source models, but does help to statistically remove the station influence.
delay times and amplitudcs were inconsistent with the known overburden Assuming that the station terms sum to zero projects any common effects
velocities and elastic free surface reflection coefficients. Systematically, onto the source model, so a large number of observations must be used in
the pP delay time is longcr than expected and the amplitude is smaller. this technique. If pP does not have the same time dependence as P, or if
The presence of a clear third arrival for the two large Amchitka explosions other phases arrive within the time interval encompassed by P and pP,
(MILROW and CANNIKIN) led to the idea that the missing pP energy both the timing and amplitude estimates for pP can be biased, as is true of
was being converted into the even more delayed "slapdown" arrival. all modeling procedures. If there is significant variation in the pP timing
The most recent amplitude spectrum procedure is that of Murphy et al. between stations the spectral nulls in the network averaged spectra could
[I9891 and Murphy [1989], which attempts to achieve a separation of be smeared out, leading to an underestimate of true pP amplitude, and
E(w) and R(w) by using a suite of events recorded by a suite of stations. further smoothing of the nulls results from using multiple narrow band
A linear regression model is used to simultaneously determine average filters to estimate the spectra.
station correction factors and station-corrected,network averaged P wave Given the tendency for spectral modeling procedures to result in
spectra, under the constraint that the station correction factors at each anomalously low amplitude pP phases which are delayed beyond the
frequency sum to zero. The procedure is to compute the spectral elastic predictions, one must qucstion the model assumptions used in the
amplitude in a sequence of frequency bands, o k , by using narrowband various spectral scalloping proccdures. While it is quite reasonable to
filters for station j from event i. Then the regression models minimizes anticipate that some pP energy has bcen lost to the spallation process, and
residual error, eij(wk), in a least squares sense for the instrument corrected the downgoing pP reflection will encounter a very disrupted medium,
spectra: which may have lower average P velocities than the initial overburden, it
is certainly not clear that the resultant pP waveform will any longer
resemble a simple echo of the direct P arrival. Remember that this is a
fundamental assumption in all of the spectral fitting procedures. While
where the station correction factors, R j ( ~ k ) describe
, the systematic, we will return repeatedly to this question, it is instructive to consider
frequency-dependentdepartures at station j from the average propagation Figure 6. Two-dimensional finite difference calculations that attempt to
effects (such as average Q(wk)) of the network. Once the receiver effects account for nonlinear pP reflcction processes consistently predict a
are separated, corrections for attenuation and modulation effects associated frequency dependent pP reflection coefficient that is significantly smaller
with Si(ok) are removed to obtain Ei(mk). Examples of this procedure than the elastic value [Bache 19821. Even small departures from elastic
for NTS events are shown in Figure 5, and it is again apparent that low theory will obscure spectral nulls that the techniques described above are
pP amplitudes (A) are obtained, along with large pP delay times relative designed to find. The resulting time domain waveforms for the two
to the expected values of 0.60.9 s. This procedure does not eliminate the calculations in Figure 6 are virtually identical, which suggests the
difficulties to be encountered in the next section where waveform
modeling procedures are dcscribcd.

Waveform Modeling Techniques


A significant disadvantageof the power spectrum procedures is that they
all require spectral caventry on the signal, involving windowing,
tapering, and transforming the signal. The degree of spectral scalloping is
window dependent, thus high resolution of the pP parameters may be
difficult to obtain. As a result, many studies have attempted to model the

CHESHIRE
C -3.5 I Y / S L C
".
A . 0.1.
q.00 "

ESTUARY
c-...Km/ -= /"J
.
I 0.31
TO. t.W S I C

1 1 10
Frequency (Hz)
Fig. 6. Far-field displacement spectra for a one-dimensional finite
difference model with elastic pP reflection processes, and a two-
Fig. 5. Comparison of normalized observed (solid) and theoretical (dotted) dimensional (axisymmetric) model with non-linear pP reflection process.
network-averaged P wave spectra for Pahute Mesa explosions. The The source was a 20 kt explosion at a depth of 1000 m in a geology like
spectra on the left are corrected for pP and attenuation, while those on the that at the PILEDRIVER site. Note that the scalloping of the spectra is
right show the fitting of optimum pP amplitude (A) and relative delay very different, with the elastic pP arrival producing strong spectral nulls,
time ( T ~ )The
. theoretical source spectra involve a yield and source depth while the non-linear model does not. The synthetic teleseismic P wave
scaled model which uses the indicates source velocity, c. [From Murphy, (including a KS36000 instrument response) is virtually identical for the
19891. two sources, and is shown at the right. [Bache, 19821.
114 TELESEISMIC MANIFESTATION OF pP

pP-P=O.92 sec pP- P.1.15 se:


SP LP SP LP

.
'G
.

JG 'G
?:F33 .I+
'

-
0 5
"I.$

I0 sec
Fig. 9. Comparison of observed short and long-period P waves for
CANNIKIN with synthetics for a range of attenuation parameters (t*).
The synthetics were generated using a near-field source model, a = -.9,
and TO = 1.15 s. From Burdick et a]., 1984al.

Fig. 7. Synthetic short-period and long-period explosion signals for a


common source model and attenuation function, but with varying pP lag
time and relative amplitude. [From Burdick et a]., 1984al.
SP

SP
WWSSN

LRSM
7 F -
fl-
+
q/12-
a) Pahute Mesa c) N. Novaya Zemlya
10/21/67
5.65

Id\ ALMENDRO
5.96 .

b) Amchitka d ) S.Novaya Zernlya


LONGSHOT

0.1 I 10
sec I b Frequency (Hz.)
Fig. 8. Stacked envelopes of WWSSN short-period recordings for Fig. 10. Synthetic seismograms and amplitude spectra for two models for
explosions in several different test sites. The complexity of the main event MILROW, which illustrate the trade-offs between parameters. The
peak for Pahute Mesa events indicates the delayed pP and strong spa11 synthetics on the left and the solid line spectra are for an wP2 source
arrivals for this test site relative to the Novaya Zemlya sites. Detailed model, with t* = 0.7 s, and a pP reflection coefficient modified from the
consideration of the individual seismograms can ideally quantify the elastic model by a factor F = 0.5 + 0.5 exp [-(w/21r)~].The synthetics
associated pP parameters, which then reflect the emplacement medium. on the right, and the dashed spectra are for an w-3 source model, with
[Lay and Welc, 19871. t* = 1.0 s, and an elastic pP reflection coefficient. [From Cornier, 19821.
time domain waveforms directly, exploiting the phase information to Carpenter, 1966, Hasegawa and Whitham, 1969; Hasegawa, 1971; Bache
emphasize the early time window of the signal containing the pP arrival. et al., 1975; Bache et al, 1979; Burdick and Helmberger, 1979; Lundquist
The synthetics in Figure 7 suggest the potential time domain resolution et al., 1980; Helmberger and Hadley, 1981; Burdick et al, 1984a;
of pP parameters that could be obtained by comparison with observations, Mellman et al., 19851.
while Figure 8 demonstrates that time domain information does clearly These waveform modeling studies differ primarily in the degree to
contain gross information about different test site pP properties. which they utilize indcpcndcnt constraints on one or more of the various
Complete waveform modeling comes with the cost of having to specify filters required to synthesize the time domain waveform. For example,
many parameters including the transfer functions at the source and Hasegawa [I9711 and Mcllman ct al. [I9851 utilize dctailed crusd transfer
receiver, the source model, and the attenuation model, as well as requiring functions to account for R(w), while Hclmbcrger and Hadley [I9811 and
a measure of waveform fit that is sensitive to the pP parameters 1e.g. Burdick et al. [1984a] constrain the source spectrum, E(o), by modeling
near-field records, and constrain Q(o) by matching absolute amplitudes of
teleseismic signals. Figure 9 shows synthetic and observed waveforms
ADE-OBSERVED SOURCE INTERCORRELATION for event CANNIKIN from Burdick et al. [1984a], where the pP
parameters were selected by matching the general shape of the P
waveforms for a large set of stations, allowing for variation in attenuation
between stations. No explicit accounting for receiver effects was involved
in this analysis since a global sct of stations was utilized. The pP delay
times inferred from this modeling are very compatible with spectral
analysis results; howevcr, the pP amplitudes are closer to the elastic
prediction for this time domain modeling. It is not clear whether this
inconsistency is a result of inadequate parameterization of the time domain
modeling or biases in the spcctral carpentry procedures.
Time domain modeling of the entire waveform is, of course, also
subject to many trade-offs in the pP parameterization. Figure 10 shows a
calculation by Cormier [1982], in which virtually identical waveforms are

-
0
sec
5 10
produced by trading off frequency dcpcndence of the source model, the
attenuation operator, and the pP reflection coefficient. In this noise-free
example, only spectral analysis could differcntiate between the models.
Recognition of these strong trade-offs led to the development of higher
Fig. 11. Example of intercorrelation of seismograms recorded at resolution time domain tcchniqucs, which strive to remove receiver and
WWSSN station ADE for Amchitka events MILROW and LONGSHOT. propagation effects from the problcm by determining inter-event transfer
The observations are each convolved with E(t)*S(t) for the other event to functions that exploit the differential waveform information [Filson and
equalize the waveforms. S(t) in this case involves just the P and pP Frasier, 1972; Mellman and Kaufman, 19811.
arrivals, with the pP parameters being adjusted to optimize the equalized The most extensively dcvclopcd of thc rclative waveform procedures is
waveform agreement [From Lay et al., 1984al. called intercorrelation [Lay et al., 1984a. 1985; Lay, 1985; Burger et al.,

cs+
sec
0 5 10
Fig. 12. Equalized waveforms for the optimal MILR0W:CANNIKIN intercorrelation for S(t) with three spikes for
each event. In this case the source functions were determined by modeling near-field records. The top trace in each
pair is a MILROW observa-tion convolved with the CANNIKIN E(t)*S(t), which is shown below (Cs), and the
lower trace is the CANNIIUN observation at the same station convolved with the MILROW E(t)*S(t), which is also
shown below (Ms) From Lay et al., 1984al.
MASTIKASSERI INLETIKASSERI 19861. In this procedure, seismograms from a given station for two
a events at the same test site are equalized by parameterizing S(t) for each
event as a spike & i n , and correcting for differences in the source functions
arising from yield scaling. Figure 11 illustrates the convolution of each
observed trace with E(t)*S(t) for the other event. The propagation effects
in the mantle and near the receiver, abng with the instrument response,
NAO
are intrinsically accounted for by this procedure. The principal parameters
are the spike train sequence, here chosen to involve only the P and pP
anivals, with the pP amplitude and delay time to be determined by
making the intercorrelated seismograms as similar as possible. The
choice of source function is not as important as for direct forward
modeling, because it is the difference in mrce function between events
which influences the equalization. The major limitation of this procedure
- is again in the specification of a spike train for the source region transfer
function, along with the fact that the optimization of spike parameters is
NB4
. only viable with thrce or fewer spikes in each S(t).

/k-fi,\::!
In practice, the intercorrelation procedure is applied to a large set of
stations simultaneously for two or more events. Typic. results are
NB5 shown in Figure 12, where three spike versions of S(t) have been used to
equalize MILROW and CANNIKIN waveforms. These spike trains are
, ,
FREQUENCY (1171
I ,
rREQUFNcY (11')
- shown after convolution with the respective source functions in the traces
labeled Ms and Cs. Note that the second spike, pP is comparable in size
to the thud, upward, spike, which corresponds to the 'slapdown' anival.
Fig. 13. Comparison of spectral ratios for pairs of Pahute Mesa events at In this study b a y ct al., 1984a1, the source functions were independently
several NORSAR channels with predicted ratios using pP parameters from constrained by near-ficld modcling, to hy to minimize the trade-offs with
intercorrelation [Der et al., 1979bl. Note the poor agreement at pP parameters. While the preferred pP delay times are in very close
frequencies above 1 Hz. agreement with spectral rcsults, especially those obtained by the network

EKA MILROW YKA CANNlKlN

EKA CANNlKlN GBA CANNlKlN

4/+*
--J, pP 0
u
5 10s
P

PP
"

\&,+*7%w
'9

Fig. 14. Short-period and derived broadband recordings for MILROW and CANNIKIN, from four UK array
beams. In each case the top trace is the short-period event beam, the second trace is deconvolved ground
motion, and the thud trace is the ground motion corrected for attenuation assuming t* = 0.15. As
corresponds to the third anival which has positive polarity. [From Douglas et al., 19871.
LAY 117

YKA 8/4/79 averaging techniques such as the spectral magnitude method of Murphy et
al. [1989], the amplitudes tend to be closer to elastic than in other
methods. Unfortunately, there is a trade-off with the third spike
amplitude. The intercorrelation technique is intrinsically most sensitive
to differences in pP parameters between the events, so it is possible that
the baseline pP amplitudes are biased high; however, the resulting source
models do provide good matches to the observed waveforms.
An im~ortantcharacteristic of the intercorrelation method for
determining pP parameters is that it intrinsically emphasizes the lower
freauencies in the waveforms, because of the convolutional smoothing.
~h;s, it is reasonable to interpret the resulting pP parameters as being
appropriate for the longer periods, with frequency dependence of the pP
reflection coefficient likely to give smaller pP amplitudes in procedures
which emphasize the higher frequencies. This is supported by Figure 13,
which compares spectral ratios of source models obtained by
intercorrelation with spectral ratios of actual data [Der et a]., 1987bl.
While the lowest frequency spectral peak and null are in reasonable
0.00 1.00 agreement, the higher frequency observations do not show the regular
Time (sec) beating predicted by the results obtained for spike trains. This particular
comparison is somewhat misleading, because it compares event averaged
Fig. 15. An example of L1 deconvolution of YKA broadband displace- results with single sensor results, and because a long window of 25.6 s
ment data for a Shagan River event of August 4, 1979. The deconvolved was used to compute the spectral ratios. The intercorrelation results only
wavelet used has a t* = 0.35 and a von Seggem-Blandford time function. apply to the first 5 s of the waveform, and it is well known that later P
The resulting spike train is shown in the middle, and a reconstituted coda shows less scalloping [Lynnes and Lay, 19881 than the early P
waveform is shown at the bottom. m m Mellman et a]., 19851. waveform. Nonetheless, it appears that the spike-train approximation is
simply too restrictive to adequately model the pP phase at high frequency
by either time or frequency domain techniques.

Deconvohtion Procedures

Ideally, one would like to make as few assumptions about S(o) as


possible, for a frequency dependent pP reflection could require a very
complex parameterization. A variety of deconvolution procedures have
been utilized to characterize pP, several of which involve very few
assumptions about S(w), although trade-offs with receiver, source
function, and attenuation uncertainties remain. At the heart of most
deconvolution procedures is the desire for bandwidth extension, usually
accomplished by removing bandlimiting filters such as instrument
response. Signal bandwidth is critical to a complete interpretation of the
pP arrival in either the time or frequency domains. Frasier [1972],
Burdick and Helmberger [1979], Lyman et al. [1986], Douglas et al.
[I9871 and Stewart [I9881 have used time or frequency domain
deconvolution to remove the instrument and assumed attenuation effects
from teleseismic explosion P waves. The hope is that the resulting
signal is not overwhelmed by R(w), so that E(w) S(w) can be isolated.
When array data are available, initial stacking of the signals can reduce the
effects of heterogeneity in R(w), but does not eliminate any common
effects.
Examples of the deconvolution of array data are shown in Figure 14,
where short-period recordings have been deconvolved to first remove the
instrument response, and then an attenuation filter. Ideally, the final trace
should be E(o) S(o), with little effect from R(w). It is interesting to
compare these functions with the intercorrelation results from Figure 12.
In general, the close agreement of the results, particularly if the different
array deconvolutions were further stacked to better suppress R(o),
supports the simple three spike version of S(w) adopted in the
intercorrelation procedure. However, it is clear that the pP phase does

Fig. 16. Mean impulse trains (solid lines) and standard deviation (dashed
lines) obtained by averaging 4 impulse trains deconvolved from LRSM
-I
0
I I
I
I
2
I

Seconds
I
3 -.
I I
5 recordings for MILROW (top) and CANNIKIN (bottom). From Bakun
and Johnson, 19731.
118 TELESEISMIC MANIFESTATION OF pP

Joint EKA YKA \VRA GDA


Deconvolu~ion A=47" nr=309" A=68" ar=6" A=85" nz=1?8" A=36O az= 181"

u
4.0 SEC

Fig. 17. Source functions obtained by combined and individual array multi-channel deconvolutions for events at the
Degelen test site [Der et al., 1987al These functions should represent E(t)*S(t) alone.

have some complexities, notably broadening, which suggest a frequency and matched filtering are other procedures for characterizing the source and
dependent arrival. receiver spike trains [Cohcn, 1970; Flinn et al, 1973, Douglas et al,
To further characterize the details of S(o), the broadband seismogram 19721. Another procedure for extracting the propagational impulse train
can be deconvolved by an assumed source model, E(w). Extracting the is homomorphic deconvolution [Cohen, 1970; Bakun and Johnson,
source wavelet can be done by a variety of procedures, one of which is 19731. Results of applying this procedure to remove instrument, source
shown in Figure 15, where L1 deconvolution of the source wavelet (along and attenuation effects for MILROW and CANNIKIN are shown in Figure
with instrument and attenuation) has been performed by linear 16. Note that the pP and 'slapdown' phases are very similar to the results
programming, with the constraint that the resulting S(w) has a minimum in Figures 12 and 14.
number of spikes [Mellman et al., 19851. Note the complex transfer The latest deconvolutional approach, which involves few assumptions
function which is obtained, which is a combination of source and receiver about S(o), and explicitly strives to eliminate R(o) involves multi-
effects. This procedure is only as reliable as the choice of E(w) and Q(o), channel maximum likelihood iterative deconvolution of a suite of events
and assumes intrinsic spikiness of the transfer functions. Autocorrelation recorded at an array of stations [Der et a]., 1983, 1987a,b, 1989;

Deconvolved Source Functions Deconvolved Source-Time Functions


EEKTS Events Recorded at EKA NTS Events Recorded at NORSAR

4
-
t* = 0.45
VSB removed VSB not removed

qF 780611 KASSERI

-wv -bJ-- 6501 15


w
4.0 SEC
(Presumed Cratering Event)

Fig. 18. Source functions obtained by multi-channel deconvolution of


East Kazakh explosions when the explosion source is removed, leaving
-4.0 SEC
STILTON

S(t) (left), and when it is not removed, leaving E(t)*S(t) [Der et a]., Fig. 19. Source functions obtained by multi-channel deconvolution of
1987al. The arrows indicate the P and pP arrivals. The question marks Pahute Mesa (NTS) events for frequency independent attenuation (left) and
indicate the lack of a clear pP anival for the presumed cratering event frequency dependent attenuation (right) models [Der et al., 1987al.
119

-
*
LAY

4b-.." HANDLEY

Fig. 20. Comparison of source functions [E(t)*S(t)] obtained by the ground motion restitution method of
Lyman et al. [I9861 (left) and the multi-channel deconvolution method of Der et al. [1987a] for four Pahute
Mesa events recorded by the EKA array. The former method places greater weight on recovering the long-
period component, and does not factor out frequency dependent receiver effects. Note that the pP arrival is
more apparent in the longer period deconvolutions, and at higher frequencies is low amplitude (marked by
the question marks).

Degelen (U.S.S.R.) test site (Figure 17) illustrates the resulting source
functions for joint and separate analysis of several arrays. No E(o) was
deconvolved in this case. Thus, these functions presumably represent
E(w) S(o) alone, to the degree the receiver effects have been successfully
removed. Note that the joint array deconvolutions are greatly simplified
relative to the individual array results. This requires either variations in
the source radiation with take-off angle and azimuth or incomplete
suppression of receiver effects in the separate deconvolutions. If one
accepts the technique assumptions, one can infer that these events have
very small pP arrivals, unless they are in some way obscured by the
source function and interference with the direct P arrival. The small
amplitude of pP may be associated with cratering of the surface for these
events. Deconvolution procedures of this type are essential for
investigation of events that may involve cratering, which will have a
particularly complex surface interaction [Gupta et al., 19881.
Figure 18 illustrates the effect of specifying a source model for E(o),
and deconvolving it in the multi-channel procedure. The Von Seggem-
Blandford (VSB) source model is only one of several parameterized models
H that can be used, so there is still a direct trade-off with the source model.
1 sec Overshoot of the source model can strongly affect the ground displacement
Fig. 21. Bandpass filtered synthetic seismograms for a explosion signal overshoot, which is used to estimate the parameters of the pP arrival.
with P and pP arrivals, with a frequency-dependent pP reflection coef- Figure 19 illustrates the effect of using a frequency independent
ficient. Note how the apparent pP amplitude, indicated by the overshoot, attenuation model (constant t*) versus a frequency dependent attenuation
differs depending on the frequency band of the trace. [Der et al., 19891. model (t*(f)). While the effects can be subtle, as for INLET, they can
also be significant for the pP parameters as for STILTON.
The deconvolutions for Pahute Mesa events in Figure 19 indicate little
overshoot of the ground motion (small pP arrivals), and indeed Der et al.
Shumway and Der, 19851. This procedure initiates by estimating each [I9891 assign pP an amplitude of zero for these events. Intercorrelation
source term E(w)S(o) by stacking over the suite of observations for an for these events has suggested nearly elastic pP amplitudes [Lay, 19851,
event, then using the average source terms to deconvolve each observation and the spectral stacking results of Murphy [I9891 give intermediate
and stack the various observations for a given station. The estimated values for pP amplitudes, but almost the same delay times as for
station terms are then deconvolved from the data, and the procedure is intercorrelation. Can frequency dependence of pP reconcile these
repeated until convergence. In most applications Q(o) and E(o) are inconsistencies? The situation actually becomes more confused when
specified. The effective separation of source and receiver terms hinges Figure 20 is considered. This shows determinations of the broadband
upon variations in the source terms from event to event. Any common source functions [E(t)*S(t)] for four large Pahute Mesa events determined
features in the spectra between events can be placed either at the source or by the separate deconvolution procedures of Lyman et al. [1986], and Der
at the receivers, with this procedure tending to attribute common terms et al. [1987a]. The results are from the same data at the EKA array, but
(predominantly longer period components) to the receiver functions. the deconvolutions of Lyman et al. [I9861 exhibit strong overshoots,
Application of the iterative deconvolution to several events from the consistent with significant pP arrivals, whereas the multi-channel
120 TELESEISMIC MANIFESTATION OF pP

deconvolutions suggest no pP arrival at all. The latter results have higher differences in source function and burial depth. It appears that these
frequency content as well. common features between events have been assigned to the receivers in
The path from NTS to EKA is known to be in a direction of strong the multi-station deconvolutions, which may or may not be correct. In
defocussing Lynnes and Lay, 19881, and the bandwidth of the signals is addition, the two deconvolution techniques emphasize the longer period
further limited by attenuation. As a consequence of the limited content in very different ways, with the multi-channel procedure placing
bandwidth, many of the ground displacements are very similar, despite the greater weight on the higher frequency spectra. Truly reliable separation
of the receiver functions appears to require more dramatic differences
between the depths and source functions in the population of sources than
are commonly observed for a set of explosions at a given test site.
It is also possible that the difference in passband of the deconvolutions
combined with a frequency dependent pP arrival is primarily responsible
for the inconsistent results for NTS events. Figure 21 shows several
bandpass filtered versions of a synthetic ground displacement which has a
pP reflection that depends on frequency [Der et al., 19891. Note that the
bandwidth influences the strength of the apparent pP arrival. Thus, it
may actually be possible to reconcile all of the pP determinations for the
Pahute Mesa events by recognizing the varying frequency sensitivity of
the techniques, and invoking a physically reasonable frequency dependence
for the pP reflection process.
Even when very broadband source functions are available, care must be
taken in interpreting the pP parameters due to the uncertainty in the
source time function, as well as the interference effect between P and pP.
This is illustrated in Figure 22, which shows errors in pP lag time
resulting from the limited bandwidth of the synthetic pulses. Also note
how very short time delays can lead to a rapid variation in peak to peak
amplitude, which could bias magnitude measurements for small, shallow
events.
TRUE DELAY TIh4E (SEC)

a ) Nuclear Event

b) Spa l I Even1
Opening P Closing pP

I I

Opening p P
I Emergent
ClosingP

C) Sum
Canceling Spoll
Arrivols Phase

Fig. 23. A simple, momentum conserving, phenomenological model for


the coupled pP and spallation process. Opening and closing of the spall
I .2 sec ' source, taken as either a tensional crack or a conical distributed surface,
Fig. 22. Demonstration of the biasing effect in pP lag time measurement leads to additional arrivals at teleseismic distances. The spall opening
for very short lag times with bandlimited data. The actual pP arrival arrival destructively interferes with pP, leading to anomalously late
times are shown by the solid line labeled pP, while the times inferred inferred pP arrival. In reality this would be a complex frequency
from the trough overestimate the true time. The effect on the peak to dependent interference. The geometry of the closure process can
peak amplitude of the broadband data is shown at the top as a function of concentrate the correspondingdowngoing energy, producing the frequently
pP lag time as well. [Der et al., 19891. observed teleseismic "slapdown" phase. [From Burdick et al., 1984bl.
LAY 121

Model For The Effects Of Spall Radiation

Rod~oted Synthetic

Explosion in an
Elastic Medium

Fig. 24. Application of the spa11 model in Figure 23 to the MILROW and CANNIKIN events. The predicted source
functions and synthetic short-period seismograms for the model are compared with the results of intercorrelation
analysis of the actual data by Lay et al. [1984]. [From Burdick et al., 1984bl.

77 x
x s R:Refl. C o e f f . = ~ o s ( ~ ) - I SK=.25krn2
x > R : RefI. Coeff: -I
1000 krn (Y source I . 2 0 "

WWSSN SYNTHETICS KEELSON PORTMANTEAU

Max. Amp
L = 0.193 x flat layers
~=0.437~10-~
Fig. 26. Results of a hybrid finite-difference-Kirchhoff method used to
model explosions in the complex crustal structure at the Yucca Flat test
site, compared with teleseismic observations at station MAT. Complex-
ity of the basic interactions strongly affect the early part of the waveform
where pP arrives, as well as the later coda. [From Stead and Helmberger,
19881.

Fig. 25. Simulation of a frequency dependent pP reflection from a free


surface with spatially varying reflection coefficient using the Kirchhoff-
Helmholtz approach. The short-period and long-period synthetics for
varying radius of the anomalous reflecting zone are shown at the bottom.
Note the systematic delay of the peak energy as the weakly reflecting
region grows, and the rapid decrease in the amplitude of the short-period
reflection. R o m Scott and Helmberger, 19831.
122 TELESEISMIC MANIFESTATION OF pP

pP And Spall Representations computational purposes. Utilizing a model of this type, synthetic
seismograms can be constructed which are quite consistent with the
Thus far, we have emphasized the empirical analyses of pP parameters, results of intercorrelation, deconvolution, and spectral methods for the
and found frequent indication of additional arrivals that appear to be from Amchitka events, as shown in Figure 24. While clearly a simplification
the source region. What is the precise physics by which pP and spall of the non-linear spallation process, this approach provides a
processes are linked, and how does it affect the teleseismic manifestation parameterization of the complete free surface interaction that can be used
of pP? This is a poorly understood topic, perhaps because of the many to synthesize signals at all distance ranges [Burdick et a]., 19WbI.
difficulties encountered in quantifying the pP arrival alone, as described Further development of parameterized free surface interaction models is
above. Nonetheless, it is well recognized on physical grounds that spall required to enable a more complete interpretation of the source functions
and pP must be intimately linked, and a simple three-spike model is that are being obtained by deconvolution procedures.
inadequate to represent the process [Day et a]., 19831. Burdick et al.
[19Wbl proposed a phenomenological model for the coupled pP and spall Current Numerical Modeling Procedures
process which can explain some of the anomalous properties of pP, such
as its apparent delay and additional arrivals. Their model, constructed to Along with the many developments in pP waveform analysis, there
conserve momentum, is shown in Figure 23, where the spall process is have been substantial advances in numerical modeling procedures that are
initiated by the pP arrival, and produces both downgoing and upgoing revealing the physics of the free surface interaction and its teleseismic
waves during both spall opening and closing. The initial downgoing manifestation. An informative example is provided by the
spa11 arrival will destructively interfere with the pP arrival, resulting in an im~lementationof the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz wave theorv to assess sim~le
apparent delay of the surface interaction. The spall source can be viewed mddels of frequency dependent pP reflection from the f;ee surface [~cbtt
as a tensional crack or a distributed source over a conical surface, for and Helmberger, 19831. Figure 25 shows the result of a spatially varying
pP reflection coefficient, decreasing in amplitude just above the shot
point. The three-dimensional wave theory predicts a pP reflection which
will be delayed and decreased in amplitude in proportion to the size of the
anomalous zone of low reflection, which physically may correspond to
the spall zone. This model can qualitatively account for the anomalous
delay, decreased amplitude and frequency dependence of the actual pP
observations. Accounting for the missing energy requires more complete
modeling procedures, such as the two-dimensional non-linear finite-
difference calculations of McLaughlin et al. [1988], in which an attempt
is made to include much of the physics of the actual spallation and pP
reflection process. These axisymmetric calculations tend to actually
underpredict the pP arrival, so it is clear that all of the pertinent physics
has not yet been included, and possibly the assumption of axisymmetry is
inadequate to explain actual pP reflection processes. The common
observation of offset of collapse craters from the shotpoint suggests that
asymmetry may be an important factor in pP radiation.
Numerical modeling procedures are also useful for addressing
heterogeneity in the shallow crustal velocity structure in the vicinity of
the shotpoint. Even purely elastic finite difference calculations for
complex regions such as the Yucca Flat Test Site at NTS exhibit very
complex P coda, initiating with the pP arrival (Figure 26) [Stead and
Helmberger, 1988; McLaughlin et al, 19861. In this calculation [Stead
and Helmberger, 19881 of teleseismic waveforms, a hybrid two-
dimensional finite difference and Kirchhoff-Helmholtz procedure was used
to account for the shallow crustal reflections and wave conversions near
the source. This level of modeling is critical for appraising the
complexity apparent in source function deconvolutions like those in
Figure 20. When the source coda is as strong as in Figure 26, methods
invoking simple assumptions of 2 or 3 spike source functions will clearly
give erroneous results for pP. Another situation in which numerical
modeling is necessary is when there is significant surface topography near
the test site (a common occurrence). Figure 27 shows two dimensional
finite-difference calculations for a line source [McLaughlin et al., 19871,
that illustrate how the upgoing explosive wavefield can be disrupted by
topography. Future evaluation of three dimensional effects and broadband
data will help to assess whether the pP phase actually has significant
azimuthal variations, as suggested by Figure 17.

Discussion and Conclusions

Fig. 27. Two-dimensional finite difference calculations in different time The current level of understanding of the teleseismic pP phase from
windows for the explosion wavefield produced in a region of significant underground nuclear explosions is far from complete. This review has
surface topography. Note the complexity of the pP reflection. [From illushated the diversity of procedures and results which have been obtained
McLaughlin et al., 19871. over the past twenty years of seismological investigations. A summary
LAY 123

TABLE 1. Comparison of pP and Ps Parameters Determined by Different Procedures for the Amchitka Tests

Evenmethod PP-p 6 ) PPP Ps-P (s) Ps/P Reference

LONGSHOT
Near Field 0.44.41 Overburdefllastic Prediction
0.45 Springer [I9741
Spectral Methods 0.55 Cohcn [I9701
0.55 -0.6 King et al. [I9721
0.43 Marshall [I9721
0.49 -0.3 0.3 King et al. [I9741
Intercorrelation 0.55 -0.8-1.0 Lay et al. [1984a]
Deconvolutions O.M.5 Bakun and Johnson [I9731
0.55 -0.8-1.0 Douglas et al. [I9871

Near-Field 0.644.71 Overburdcfllastic Prediction


0.74 Springer [I9741
Spectral Methods 0.86 King et al. [I9721
0.67 Marshall [1972]
0.81 0.4 King ct al. [I9741
0.83 Murphy & O'Donnell [I9881
Intercorrelation 0.84.85 0.5 Lay et al. [1984al
Forward Modeling 0.8 Burdick et al. [1984a]
Deconvolutions 0.75-0.8 0.7 Bakun and Johnson [I9731
0.7-1.0 Douglas et al. [I9881

Near-Field 0.92-1.06 -0.9 Overburdcn/ElasticPrediction


1.o Springer [I9741
Spectral Methods 1.O Cohen [I9701
1.12 -0.4 0.4 King et al. [I9741
Intercorrelation 1.1-1.2 -0.6-1.0 0.6 Lay et al. [1984al
Forward Modeling 1.15 -0.9 Burdick et al. [1984a]
Deconvolutions 1.1-1.2 -0.5 0.5 Bakun and Johnson [I9731
1.1 Burdick and Helmberger [I9791
1.O -0.84.9 Douglas et al. [I9871

of the current state of pP parameter estimation is provided by Table 1, teleseismic signals, especially when frequency dependence is involved, it
which lists published pP characteristics from a variety of methodologies appears that the most reasonable approach to analyzing the pP phase is
for the three Amchitka explosions. This table demonstrates the relative simple broadband ground motion restitution. This involves removing the
consistency in pP timing, and the variability of pP amplitude estimates instrument response effects to extend the bandwidth of the signal. The
between different techniques. The parameters for a systematic 'spall' resulting signals can then be interpreted for a variety of assumed
arrival, Ps, are also tabulated. While the discrepancy in pP delay times attenuation and source models, and stacked to suppress receiver effects.
relative to elastic predictions is actually not very large for this test site, The latter processing should always acknowledge the direct trade-offs that
there is much greater variation in delay time estimates for source regions exist, and should fully explore assumptions about the source model and
with shallow burial depths such as Novaya Zemlya. In such cases, only attenuation model before placing any weight on the resulting
the high-frequency multi-channel deconvolution procedures obtain realistic interpretations of the pP parameters, depth, coupling, etc. Current
pP delays, while other spectral and time domain techniques give much spectral factoring techniques that separate source and receiver transfer
larger delays requiring acute frequency dependenceof the pP arrival. functions tend to emphasize high-frequency content, and appear to be
There is general agreement that the actual pP phase is influenced by unstable with respect to partitioning of common spectral characteristics.
frequency dependent reflection, with longer period energy having higher A suite of sources spanning a wide range of burial depths and yield is
reflection coefficients and a tendency toward longer delay times. The required to stabilize these procedures.
estimated delay of a pP phase may be biased late when the phase is There is a need for more numerical analysis of the pP-spall process, as
assumed to be a reflected impulse. All estimates of pP parameters are interpretation of the broadband ground motions requires a parametric
influenced by the bandwidth of the technique being used as well as the description of this energy partitioning. In addition, continued
assumptions about the frequency content. As a general rule, many of the development of numerical models to elucidate the complexity of pP and
contradictory pP parameters in the literature could be reconciled by subsequent coda arising from complex near-source structure and surface
specifying the frequency band most emphasized in the processing. The topography is very important. The numerical studies performed to date
greatest stability appears to accompany the largest bandwidth procedures. suggest that even the elastic processes accompanying the pP reflection are
Given the direct trade-offs between source and propagation effects for very complex, and possibly azimuthally variable.
124 TELESEISMIC MANIFESTATION OF pP

Acknowledgments. Thanks to Steve Taylor and Howard Patton for deconvolution of P waves at seismic arrays, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am.,
organizing a very stimulating symposium on nuclear explosions 77, 195-211, 1987b.
processes. John Vidale and two reviewers provided helpful comments on Der, Z. A., R. H. Shumway, L. M. Anderson, T. W. McElfresh, and J.
the manuscript. This research was supported by the W. M. Keck A. Burnetti, Analysis of estimators of pP times and amplitudes,
Foundation and the Defcnse Advanced Research Projects Agency and was Teledyne Geotech, Alexandria, VA, TGAL-TR-83-8.1983.
monitored by the Geophysical Laboratory undcr Contract F19628-89-K- Douglas, A., P. D. Marshall, and J. B. Young, The P waves from the
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Burdick, L. J., C. K. Saikia, and D. V. Helmberger, Deterministic Hasegawa, H. S., and K. Whitham, Theoretical response of a seismograph
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Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, GL-TR-89-0196,1989. Nevada test site, Canadian J. Earth Sci., 6,517-520, 1969,
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explosions with spall: analysis of elastic and nonlinear source models, Lay, T. , L. J. Burdick, and D. V. Helmberger, Estimating the yields of
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seismic arrays, Teledyne Geotech, Alexandria, VA, TGAL-87-3,1987~1. information, in The Vela Program, A. Kerr, Ed., Executive Graphic
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Redmond, WA, SGI-R-80-021.1980. explosions, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 79, 156-171, 1989.
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magnitude estimation using body waves, surface waves and seismic Technometrics, 27, 385-393, 1985.
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SSS-R-88-9844, 1988. Stewart, R. C., P wave seismograms from underground explosions at the
Mellman, G. R., and S. K. Kaufman, Relative waveform inversion, Shagan River test site recorded at four arrays, AWRE, Report No. 0
Sierra Geophysics, Redmond, WA, SGI-R-81-048.1981. 4/88, 1988.
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Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 23, 273-287, 1971.
BROAD BAND ESTIMATES OF THE SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTIONS OF NEVADA EXPLOSIONS
FROM FAR-FIELD OBSERVATIONS OF P WAVES

Alan Douglas

Ministry of Defence (Procurement Executive), Blacknest, Brimpton, Reading, Berkshire, UK, RG7 4RS
Abstract. One widely used method of obtaining information on the Introduction
seismic source functions of underground explosions is to compute
seismograms using models of the earth, source and seismograph and try When P waves propagate through the earth the high frequencies are
and match these to the observed. This process is essentially one of preferentially attenuated so that individual pulses (principally P and pP)
testing the compatibility of the models with observations. An alternative are smeared out and may overlap. Also, as most recording systems have
method of obtaining source information is to analyse broad band P limited pass bands, signals are further distorted on recording. Analysis
seismograms corrected for anelastic attenuation. The main pulses and interpretation of short-period (SP) explosion seismograms may thus
contributing to the signal can be observed on such seismograms and the be difficult. One aid to interpreting SP explosion recordings is to
parameters of the pulses measured. In this paper examples are shown of compute seismograms using models of the earth, source and seismograph
broad band P seismograms for Nevada explosions. The data are from 39 and try and match these to the observed. An alternative method is to
Nevada explosions (38 fired at the Nevada Test Site proper and one, obtain broad band (BB) seismograms, if possible corrected for attenuation,
FAULTLESS, fired at Hot Creek Valley to the north of the test site) so that individual pulses P and p P can be more easily identified and
recorded at Eskdalemuir, Scotland, supplemented for a few of the parameters of the source pulses measured.
explosions with seismograms recorded at stations of the Long Range Ideally BB seismograms would be recorded on systems specifically
Seismic Measurements network. designed for the purpose. In the past there have been few such systems in
To correct for anelastic attenuation requires an estimate of the variation operation. The USSR has operated for many years BB systems recording
oft* with frequency, t* being the ratio of travel time to specific quality on paper and in the early 1970's, a few BB systems recording on tape were
factor. Two models are investigated: for one, t* = 0.35 s and is installed in the West [see for example Marshall, Burch, and Douglas,
independent of frequency; for the other t* is frequency-dependent. The 19721. For most explosions the only recordings available on magnetic
frequency-dependentmodel, however, is rejected as it appears to result in tape are from narrow band systems. It has been shown however that for
overcorrection of freuuencies around 2 Hz. some explosions at least, BB seismograms can be derived by filtering
The deconvolved seismogramsderived using the frequency-independent from SP seismograms recorded on magnetic tape. It is also possible to
t* show significant variability between ex~losions. However, most of correct to some extent for the effects of anelastic attenuation.
the explosi&s at the Pahute Mesa fired at depths greater than 819 m are One of the earliest methods used to obtain BB signals from SP
broadly similar and show a roughly systematic move to longer duration seismograms was filtering with a "spiking" filter. Such a filter is one
with increasing depth-which presumably correlates with increasing yield which when convolved with a given impulse response produces a spike,
(ignoring the explosion SCOTCH which was overburied). The that is a delta function, at the output. Douglas et al. [I9721 took as the
shallowest explosion of this sequence, HALFBEAK, has a yield of 365 kt impulse response the SP seismometer response convolved with that of an
and the largest yield of the deeper explosions is greater than 1000 kt. attenuation operator, and computed filters to convert this to a spike. The
From this yield information it would appear that the duration scales procedure in effect corrects for anelastic attenuation and instrument
roughly as (yield)115 which is the scaling law predicted by the Mueller- filtering and works well for some explosions in that P and pP are
Murphy (M-M) model. The rise times of the P pulses are, however, separated and can be identified. Frasier [I9721 used a similar method to
larger than those predicted by the M-M model and scale roughly as that of Douglas et al. [I9721 and applied this to Nevada Test Site (NTS)
(yield)1/3 although the scatter in the observations is large. explosions recorded in Norway. Der et al. [1986,1987] use an iterative
Most of the seismograms show P closely followed by an arrival (App) scheme for deconvolution of multichannel array and 3-component
of negative polarity which might be interpreted as pP. Following App recordings. In this method the effect of recording instrument, attenuation
there is usually a positive anival which may be larger than P and which and source function are divided out (in the frequency domain) from the
has been attributed to the effects of spalling at the free surface above the recorded signals. An iterative scheme is then applied to the multichannel
source. The App-P time for most explosions is significantly longer than data to separate out station effects without reducing the signal-to-noise
predicted from the known depth of firing. The deconvolved seismograms ratio. This process, it is hoped, will produce the response for an impulse
show that the P radiation from explosions is not well described by at the explosion depth in the crustal structure at source. To apply the
idealised point compressional source models and that a dynamic model of procedure it is necessary to make assumptions about the source function
the explosion source needs to be developed that takes account of the as well as the anelastic attenuation between source and receiver, the
obse~ationsfrom such seismograms. instrument response being known.
The deconvolution procedure used here to obtain BB estimates of P
seismograms of NTS explosions is that described by Douglas et al.
Explosion Source Phenomenology [1987]. This procedure is simpler than that of Der et al. [1986,1987] in
Geophysical Monograph 65 that no attempt is made to remove the effect of the source function or to
Copyright 1991 American Geophysical Union correct for the effects of station structure, the effect of the station being
assumed to be small. BB seismograms are derived by dividing out the given by:
response of the SP instrument and substituting a BB response. BB
seismograms corrected for attenuation (referred to here as deconvolved
seismograms) are derived by dividing out the effect of some attenuation
operator. To apply the method requires estimates of the anelastic The long-period source-strength of the explosion, however, is usually
attenuation on the path from source to the recording stations. Two specified by ry(=). The direct P-pulse after correction for anelastic
models of anelastic attenuation have been proposed for paths out of the attenuation should be an estimate of fp(t,A); thus if the P pulse can be
NTS: for one, t* is frequency-independent; for the other it is frequency- isolated an estimate of H I ) and, hence, W(m) can be made. The biggest
dependent in the SP band (say 1-8 Hz). t* is the ratio of travel time to practical difficulty in estimating HI) from recordings made at long range
specific quality factor. It has been shown [A. Douglas, unpublished arises from the interference of pP and P.
manuscript, 19901 that from the form of the seismograms corrected for Expressions similar to (1) can be written for other body wave phases
attenuation obtained with the two different models, it is possible to decide such as P P and P C P : these require simply the substitution of the
which one is the better description of the anelastic attenuation on paths appropriate function for geometrical spreading and factors for additional
out of the NTS. This tums out to be the frequency-independent I* model. losses at boundaries on the path. In this paper, however, apart from one
Some of the evidence for this is presented here. PCPrecording, all the results presented are from P seismograms.
Examples are presented of BB seismograms and seismograms Several authors [Bakun and Johnson, 1973, and Frasier, 1972, for
deconvolved using the frequency-independent I* model. Such example] have noted later arrivals in explosion seismograms that are
seismograms when corrected for geometrical spreading and losses at unexplained by simple theory and it has been suggested that these arrivals
discontinuities are estimates of the radiation in the vicinity of the are due to spalling. Because of the intense tensional stress that develops
explosion source. The examples are chosen to show that from the due to reflection at the free surface, part of the near surface material above
deconvolved seismograms, P and later phases can be identified and the source may be thrown upwards against gravity [Chilton, Eisler, and
parameters of the source pulses determined. How these parameters vary Heubach, 19661. The subsequent impact of the material is usually referred
with magnitude is shown and what the BB observations imply for the to as slapdown and is believed to act as a secondary source and radiate a
source functions of NTS explosions is discussed. Before considering the pulse of positive polarity.
observationsa simplified model of the explosion source is presented.

Data and Processing Methods


The Explosion Source
Most of the data used are taken from Lyman et al. [I9861 who show
To represent the time history of an explosive source it is usual to use BB estimates for 39 Nevada explosions derived from recordings from the
a reduced displacement-potential (RDP), the far-field P-pulse being SP array station at Eskdalemuir, Scotland (EKA). The SP seismograms
proportional to the time derivative of the RDP. Several different analytic used are array sums: the individual SP channels have been time-shifted to
representations of the RDP have been published: see e.g. Haskell[1967], correct for the differences in the arrival time of the signals at each
von Seggem and Blandford [1972], Mueller and Murphy [1971a,b] and seismometer of the array and the shifted channels added together. The data
Helmberger and Hadley [1981]. All the representations produce a far-field are supplemented with estimates [taken from Lilwall and Young, 19891
P-pulse that consists of a large positive-deflection which in general is that were derived from SP recordings from stations in Canada and the US
followed by a smaller-amplitude negative-deflection (the overshoot) which operated as part of the Long Range Seismic Measurements (LRSM)
for firings in some rock types may be small. network. All the recordings are of the vertical component of ground
For P waves that propagate to long range (teleseismic distances) the motion. The explosions studied by Lyman et al. [I9861 comprise 38 at
take-off angles (measured from the downward vertical) are small. For such the NTS proper (24 at Pahute Mesa, 13 at Yucca Flat and one, PILE
angles and in the absence of anelastic attenuation, fp(t.A) the vertical DRIVER, in a granite stock) and one, FAULTLESS, at Hot Creek Valley
component of ground displacement at distance A due to the P pulse can be to the north of the NTS. The distance and azimuth from the PILE
written [Carpenter, 1966bl: DRIVER epicentre of the stations used are given in Table 1 and
hypocentral details of the explosions in Tables 2 and 3.
The BB seismograms are obtained by passing the SP seismograms
through a filter with a response as a function of frequency (w) of
where Y(I) is the RDP. G(A) allows for the geometrical spreading of the I a2(w)l lal(w) where al(w) is the response of the SP instrument and
rays and K for loss of amplitude at discontinuities in the crust and for the a2(w) the response of a BB instrument. The amplitude response for the
effects of any differences in acoustic impedance at the source and at the various SP recording systems, al(w), and of the BB system, a2(w) are
receiver. The factor of 2 allows for the rough doubling of the amplitude shown in Figure 1. By using I a2(w)l rather than a2(w) in converting to
at the free surface at the recording station. Thus if an estimate of fp(t,A) the BB instrument, phase shifts due to the recording system are
is obtained, Y(t) can be estimated using: removed-the seismogram produced is effectively that which would have
been recorded with a "phaseless" seismograph. Such seismograms cannot
be produced in real time-the impulse response of I a2(o)l /al(w) is non-
causal-they can only be produced with recorded data. The main
advantage of such phaseless seismograms is that they show source pulses
with less instrument distortion than standard seismograms [for further
provided K and G(A) are known. The function G(A) is tabulated by discussion see Stewart and Douglas, 19831.
Carpenter [1966b]. If the losses at discontinuities in the crust at source To correct for the effect of anelastic attenuation the seismograms are
and receiver are small then K is roughly (plallpoao)l/2 where p l and passed through a filter with response (b(w))-l where b(w) is the response
a1 are respectively the density and P-wave speed in the firing medium and as a function of frequency of an attenuation operator. I b(o)l has the form
po and a, the equivalent quantities at the recording station. Now,fp(l,A) exp(-wt*/2) and the phase response is specified from theoretical
tends to zero after one or two seconds so that ~ ( t tends
) to a constant, considerations. To specify b(w) requires an estimate of I*. The
usually written ry(=). The seismic moment (Mo) of the explosion is specification of b(w) is discussed in the next section.
DOUGLAS 129

TABLE 1. Distances, Backbearings and Azimuths of Stations from the I* for the ray paths to the stations. However, for explosions it is usual to
PILE DRIVER Epicentre. assume that the source spectrum is as specified by some source model-
Distance Azimuth Backbearing usually the M-M model for which the seismic source spectrum falls-off
as m2 at high frequencies. Ideally t* would be estimated under the
("1 (") (")
assumption that it varies with frequency but because of the scatter in
Eskdalemuir, Scotland 71.5 33.7 309.2 observed spectra the effect of frequency dependence in the SP band would
Houlton, Maine, USA 36.5 60.4 273.4 only be seen if the variation is strong (see below). Weak frequency
North Pole, Northwest 39.1 358.7 175.8 dependencecannot be distinguished from frequency-independentr*.
Territories,Canada Estimates of attenuation were first used in the studies of P waves from
Schefferville, Quebec, 37.6 46.0 262.9 nuclear explosions, in the computation of SP P seismograms using
Canada explosion source functions derived from close-in observations. For P
seismograms recorded at teleseismic distances it was found that an
Usually the principal effect of widening the pass band from SP to BB acceptable match between observed and computed signals could be
is to amplify the low-frequency noise (both system and seismic) so that obtained if I* was assumed to be about 1.0 s and independent of frequency.
the signal-to-noise ratio is much reduced compared to that on the SP With such a value oft*, anelastic attenuation at 1 Hz is about a factor of
seismogram. Very-low-frequency noise can be removed without 20 whereas at 5 Hz the factor is over lo6. With this value of t* there is
significant distortion to the signal by simple high-pass filtering. High- no possibility that frequencies much above 1 Hz will be seen at long
frequency noise can also be a problem particularly on the deconvolved range.
seismograms where corrections are applied for attenuation. All the BB However, frequencies well above 1 Hz are detected in explosion P
seismograms have therefore been filtered with a low-pass filter cutting off waves from most test sites, including the NTS [Der et al., 19851 so if t*
at 4.5 Hz. To suppress the noise at frequencies around the signal is independent of frequency then its value must be much less than 1.0 s.
frequency we use Wiener frequency filtering [for further discussion see From the work of Lay and Helmberger [I9811 and Der et al. [I9851 it
Douglas and Young, 19811. The filters are designed using the noise appears that if t* is independent of frequency then for paths from sources
amplitude spectrum measured ahead of the onset of the signal and a in the western US (which includes the NTS) to stations in regions of low
theoretical signal spectrum derived by making some simple assumptions. attenuation t* is 0.354.44 s. This, however, leads to a difficulty because
Applying these filters gives a least-squares estimate of the BB ground the amplitudes predicted from explosion source models are now much
displacement. larger than observed. The difficulties of matching observed and computed
Figure 2 shows an example oE a BB seismogram; the BB seismogram amplitudes while still preserving the high frequencies have been taken as
corrected for attenuation (that is the deconvolved seismogram); and the SP evidence that t* is indeed a function of frequency. Burger et al. [I9871
seismogram from which they are derived. The seismograms are for the
Pahute Mesa explosion HALFBEAK. The deconvolved seismogram is
typical of those obtained by Lyman et al. [I9861 using a t* of 0.35 s and
independent of frequency. Principally the deconvolved seismogram shows
P, seen as a clear positive pulse, followed by an apparent pP (A P) with
negative polarity which in turn is followed by a positive pulse PA,). As
is taken to be the arrival usually attributed to the effects of slapdown.
Assuming that p P and P do not interfere then the pP-P time can be
estimated as the time between the maximum positive deflection of P and
maximum negative deflection of App. Y(-) (and hence seismic
moment) can be dervied from the area of the P pulse (shown shaded).
Another parameter of the source pulse that can be measured is the rise
time of P ; rise time being, following Gladwin and Stacey [1974],
~ ~ ~ ~ / ( d u lwhere
dt)~ umax
~ , is the maximum height of the pulse and
(d~ldt),,~ the maximum gradient of the leading edge.

Attenuation Models

Although there have been numerous attempts to estimate anelastic


attenuation in the earth, particularly for P waves over paths from
explosion test sites, there are still no widely agreed models. The most
commonly used method for estimating P-wave attenuation is to determine
t* from the rate of fall-off of the spectrum of the observed signals. To
estimate t* in this way it is necessary to make assumptions about the
source spectrum. Usually it is assumed that the source spectrum falls-off
above some corner frequency as w",where n = 2 or 3. After correction
for source effects the amplitude spectrum A(w) has the form
Aoexp(-ot*/2) where A, is a constant and so logA(w) = logAo_wt*/2.
t* can be estimated by plotting logA(o) against o and measunng the
gradient of logA(w) over the whole frequency range. The main difficulties
with this method are: the uncertainties in t* can be large; the assumptions
. . . , .
10-
..., 1 , , ,

1 od
, , . ,

1 oi'
about the source spectrum may be incorrect; and t* may not be Frequency (Hz)
independent of frequency. If the source radiation is assumed to be
isotropic then the effect of the source spectrum can be cancelled out by Fig. 1. Amplitude responses of the Eskdalemuir and LRSM short period
taking ratios of signals recorded at pairs of stations. From the slope of systems and of the displacement broad band. The responses have been
such ratios of spectra 6r* can be determined, where 61* is the difference in nonnalised to unity at 1 Hz.
TABLE 2. Hypocentres, Magnitudes and Other Data f o r the Faultless, P i l e Driver and the Yucca Flat Explosions together u i t h observations from broad band seismograms

P uave
speed Apparent Predicted Rise Rise
i n over- pP-p pP-p time time
Date Name Lat No Long W4 Depth Origin nbnL Yield Firing burden#4 Station t(~)#5 time timeK3 obs. corr.
(m) Time #I Mediun#2 (km/s) (S) (S) (S) (s)

19.01.68 FAULTLESS 200- 1000 Tuff EKA

02.06.66 PILE DRIVER 62 Granite EKA


NPNT

13.09.63 BILBY 249 Tuff EKA


NPNT
20.05.67 COMMOOORE 250 Tuff EKA
28.02.75 TOPGALLANT 20-200 EKA
03.06.75 MIZZEN 20-200 EKA
20.12.75 CHIBERTA 20-200 EKA
04.02.76 KEELSON 20-200 EKA
17.03.76 STRAlT 200-500 EKA
05.04.77 MARSlLLY 20-150 EKA
25.05.77 CREWLINE 20-150 EKA
14.12.77 FARALLONES 37.14 116.09 668 15.30 5.77 20-150 1.7 EKA 2.1 E4 1.05 0.79 0.42 0.19
12.07.78 LWBALL 37.08 116.04 564 17.00 5.67 20-150 1.7 EKA 1.2 €4 1.05 0.66 0.36 0.22
06.09.79 HEARTS 37.09 116.05 640 15.00 5.88 20-150 1.7 EKA 6.5 E3 1.05 0.75 0.35 0.22
05.08.82 ATRISCO 37.08 116.01 640 14.00 5.69 20-150 1.7 EKA 2.8 E4 1.15 0.75 0.35 0.28

#1 Yields are taken from US DOE 119851.


#Z lnformation on the f i r i n g d i u n i s taken from Springer and Kinnaman 119711 and [19751.
#3 Times i n brackets are estimates of pP-P times obtained from very close i n observations [see Springer, 19741.
#4 Wave speeds are taken f ran Blandford, T i 1Lman and Racine 119771.
#5 Estimates corrected f o r differences i n P uave speed and density betueen f i r i n g mediun and material Iinderlying
the recording site. Estimates given by Lyman et al. 119861 are uncorrected values.
TABLE 3. Hypocentres, Magnitudes and Other Data f o r the Pahute Mesa Explosions together with observations from broad band seismogrwns

P uave
Speed Apparent Predicted Rise Rise
i n over- P-p Pp-p time time
Date Name Lat No Long W4 Depth Origin nbML Yield Firing burden#4 Station t(m)U5 time t i d obs. corr.
(m) Time #1 Medid2 (km/s) (S) (8) (S) (S)

HALFBEAK Rhyolite 3.3 EKA


CREELEY Tuff 2.9 EKA
HNME
SCOTCH Tuff 2.9 EKA
BOXCAR Rhyolite 2.9 EKA
HNME
SV3QB
SLED Tuff 2.9 EKA
BENHM Tuff 2.9 EKA
PURSE Tuff 2.9 EKA
PIPKIN Tuff/Rhyolite 2.9 EKA
HANDLEY Tuff 2.9 EKA
ALMENDRO Tuff/Rhyolite 3.1 EKA
TYBO 2.3 EKA
STILTON 2.15 EKA
MAST 3.9 EKA
CAMEMBERT 2.9 EKA
KASSERI EKA
INLET EKA
MUENSTER EKA
FONTINA EKA
CHESHIRE EKA
ESTUARY EKA
COLBY EKA
POOL EKA
BACKBEACH EKA
PANIR EKA

#1 Yields are taken from US DOE [19851.


R Information on the f i r i n g mediun i s taken f r m Springer and K i ~ ~ m a[I9711
n and 119751.
U3 TimesinbracketsareestimatesofpP-Ptimesobtainedfrmverycloseinobservations[seeSpringer, [19741.
#4 Uave speeds are taken fran Blandford, Tillman and Racine [1977I.
U5 Estimates corrected for differences i n P uave speed and density between f i r i n g rnediun and material underlying
the recording s i t e . Estimates given by Lyman e t al. 119861 are uncorrected values.
SWUS, on the assumption that t* for S is four times that of P. Such
large absolute values of t* for S waves would so attenuate the high-
frequency components of S waves that signals with a predominant period
of 1 Hz would never be observed even in the CUS, and S waves observed
in the SWUS and CUS would both tend to show predominant periods of
around 5 s. Observations show that although in the SWUS the
predominant period of S waves is around 5 s, in the CUS the period is
around 1 s. Der and Lees [I9851 show that the difference in observed
periods is consistent with a 8t* for S waves for the SWUS and CUS of
0.8 s but with the absolute value for S waves for SWUS of about 2.0 s,
implying a t* for P for SWUS of around 0.5 s. Within the SP band Der
and Lees [I9851 assume that t* for P waves falls from about 0.5 at 1 Hz
to 0.3 at 8 Hz.
A further way of testing the reliability of attenuation models, as
shown by Douglas [A. Douglas, unpublished manuscript, 19901, is to
compare the deconvolved seismograms obtained using each model.
Douglas [A. Douglas, unpublished manuscript, 19901, uses deconvolution
to compare the frequency-dependentmodel of Burger et al. [I9871 with the
frequency-independentmodel of Lyman et al. [I9861 and concludes that the
latter model is the better estimate of the attenuation for paths out of the
NTS. Some of the evidence for this is shown below.
Lyman et al. [I9861 use the attenuation operator of Carpenter [1966a]

-
with t* = 0.35 s, this value of t* being within the range of estimates
found by Lay and Helmberger [I9811 and Der et al. [1985]. The phase
spectrum of this operator is specified using the theory of Futterman
119621. To specify the frequency-dependent t* derived by Burger et al.
[I9871 (which is based on the absorption band model) requires three
Fig. 2. P seismograms for the Nevada Test Site explosion HALFBEAK parameters: 1 5 , the low-frequency value of I * ; 7,. a high-frequency
recorded at Eskdalemuir, Scotland: (a) Short period seismogram; (b) Broad relaxation time; and w, a low-frequency relaxation time. Burger et al.
band seismogram; (c) Broad band seismogram corrected for attenuation [I9871 specify a range of possible values for these parameters. Here it is
assuming t* = 0.35 s. App and As indicate a possible surface reflection assumed 1% = 1.0 s, 7, = 0.044 s, and = 1000 s, these being values
and spa11 anival respectively. that lie within the range specified by Burger et al. 119871. In what
follows we refer to this frequency-dependentmodel as the Burger model.
give such a frequency-dependent model for paths out of the NTS. In these Figure 3a shows the variation of I* with frequency for the Burger
models t* decreases with frequency so that at around 1 Hz, the model. Figure 3b shows the ratio of the amplitude response of the
predominant frequency of SP seismograms, the attenuation is sufficient to attenuation operator for the Burger model to that of the frequency-
bring the observed and computed amplitudes into agreement but the high independent t* model. This shows that the principal difference in
frequencies are little attenuated. corrections applied by the two models is that between 0 and 6 Hz the
The data used by Burger et al. [I9871 to derive thcir frequency- Burger model applies a larger correction than the frequency-independent
dependent t* model are World Wide Standard Station Network (WWSSN) model with the maximum difference being a factor of about 8 at 2.5 Hz.
SP recordings of P waves from explosions at the NTS. Burger et al. Figure 4 shows P seismograms for four Pahute Mesa explosions
119871 obtain estimates of t* at around 1 Hz by varying the attenuation recorded at EKA, deconvolved for each of the two attenuation models.
until an acceptable fit is obtained between amplitudes computed from The seismograms are arranged in order of depth of firing. HANDLEY and
source models and observed amplitudes for explosions of known yield. GREELEY have yields around a megaton: the other two explosions
As the WWSSN SP system is very narrow band it is not possible to HALFBEAK and CHESHIRE have yields less than half this.
distinguish between models that are frequency-dependentand those that are Looking first at the seismograms deconvolved with the Burger model
not. However, by combining the estimates of t* made at around 1 Hz it can be seen that there is significant variability in shape. Had the Burger
with evidence from Der et al. [I9851 of the rate of fall-off of the spectra at model been a reliable estimate of attenuation it would be expected that the
frequencies up to about 4 Hz, Burger et al. 119871 conclude that I* must deconvolved seismograms for the lower-yield explosion would be scaled
be frequency-dependent. The attenuation model of Burger et al. [I9871 versions of those from high-yield explosions. However, CHESHIRE in
gives the value oft* at 1 Hz as 0.8 s or greater. particular is a complex signal. For I* = 0.35 s the seismograms do show
Der and Lees [I9851 review the evidence for the frequency dependence similar shapes and some evidence of scaling, with the P pulse for the
of I* over a wide band of frequencies and conclude that although there is higher-yield explosions having a duration of around 1.1 s and the lower-
strong evidence that t* is significantlygreater in the long period band than yield explosions 0.9 s.
in the SP any variation oft* with frequency in the SP band is so slow as The differences between the deconvolved seismograms for the two
to be indistinguishable from frequency-independentt*. Further, Der and attenuation models can be understood on the assumption that the
Lees [I9851 argue that for the southwestern United States (SWUS) (which frequency-independent model is the better estimate of attenuation and that
includes the NTS) I* at 1 Hz must be significantly less than 1 s. This by using the frequencydependent model the amplitude at some frequencies
conclusion is derived indirectly from a comparison of attenuation models are overcorrected. Thus Figure 3b shows that if t* is independent of
of the SWUS with those for the central United States (CUS). The frequency then it would be expected that where there is significant energy
evidence from P amplitudes and spectra for earthquakes recorded in the two above 1 Hz in the leading (and trailing) edges of the pulse these
regions implies a I* difference in the upper mantle of the two areas of frequencies would be overcorrected by the Burger model, and this is what
0.2 s. Thus if t* for the SWUS is 1.0 s that for CUS is 0.8 s and this is seen with 2 Hz oscillations riding on the main pulse of CHESHIRE
implies that I* for S waves is about 3.2 s for the CUS and 4.0 s for the and HANDLEY. (The results obtained for CHESHIRE using the
I 2 4 6
Frequency (Hz)
8 10 2 4 6
Frequency (Hz)
8 10

Fig. 3. (a) t* variation with frequency for the Burger model. @) Ratio of amplitude response of the frequency-dependent
attenuation operator to that of the frequency-independent model. The ratio is the amplitude response of the filter to convert
seismogramsdeconvolved with t* = 0.35 s and independent of frequency to seismogramsdeconvolved with the Burger model.
frequency-independent t* of 0.35 s suggest that even for this attenuation observed at three stations. The seismograms are typical of NTS
model the energy at 2-3 Hz may be overcomted). Only for GREELEY, explosions in the megaton range. Note that whereas the SP seismograms
which is a low-frequency signal with predominant frequency around show significant differences between stations and no obvious way of
0.5 Hz and with no sharp front, is the 2 Hz energy so low that there is estimating such basic parameters as the pP-P time, the BB seismograms
little difference in shape between the seismograms deconvolved using the are simple and similar and the apparentpp-P time is evident.
two models. Figure 7 shows SP and BB seismograms for the NTS explosion PILE
Figure 5 shows a comparison of the deconvolved seismograms for DRIVER. For North Pole, Canada (NPNT)both P and PCPseismograms
PILE DRIVER for the two different attenuation models. Again it can be are shown: for EKA only P is shown. Looking first at the SP
seen that whereas the seismogram derived using t* independent of seismograms it is clear that the EKA and NPNT P seismograms are very
frequency appears to show individual pulses, when the Burger model is similar at least for the first 1.7 s. The NPNT PCP seismogram, however,
used the resulting seismogram is highly oscillatory, suggesting again that is of significantly lower frequency than the P seismograms, suggesting
the use of frequency-dependentt* o v e m m t s at around 2 Hz. that the attenuation on the P C P path is greater than on the P path. The
Most of the evidence on attenuation on paths out of the NTS thus deconvolved P seismograms for EKA and NPNT are also very similar
indicates that t* at 1 Hz lies between 0.35 and 0.5 s and if there is a whereas the PCP seismogram again seems to have less high-frequency
variation with frequency in the SP band it is a slow decrease in t* as energy than P when all the seismograms are deconvolved using a t* of
frequency increases. In what follows the attenuation model of Lyman et 0.35 s. When the PCP seismogram is deconvolved using a t* of 0.50 s
al. [I9861 is assumed to be the best estimate of the attenuation on paths the first second of the P C P and P seismograms are now similar,
out of the NTS. This model lies at the lower end of the range of t* suggesting that the extra attenuation on the PCPpath compared to the P
estimates. From deconvolution studies it seems that t* is unlikely to be paths has been corrected for.
much larger than this because using values oft* much above 0.35 s leads All three deconvolved seismograms (EKA and NPNT P and NPNT
to the generation of differences in pulse shapes on the deconvolved PCP)now show the direct phase and an apparent surface-reflection arriving
seismograms similar to those seen when the Burger model is used. about 0.7 s after onset but the predicted pP-P time is only about 0.2 s,
In introducing frequency-dependent t* to try and reconcile observed and the depth of firing of PILE DRIVER being about 0.5 km and the
computed amplitudes from explosions Burger et al. [I9871 are making the measured P-wave speed in the material overlying the explosion being
assumption that source models of explosions (such as the M-M model) around 5 km s-l. However, if thepP-P time is short then P and p P will
derived from close-in observations are substantially correct. However, interfere and so the time-delay between P and the surface reflection will be
there are uncertainties in the estimates of the source functions [see for an overestimate [Z.A. Der et al., unpublished manuscript, 19891. Thus
example Archambeau, 19851, and as the attenuation model of Burger et al. true pP may be obscured by interference with P. If this is true then App
[I9871 seems to be inconsistent with other estimates, then presumably it and Asp are left unexplained. Similar but smaller discrepancies between
is errors in the source function and not the attenuation model that account observed A p p P times and times predicted from the known depth of firing
for the discrepancy between the observed and computed amplitudes for are seen for most NTS explosions. This is shown in Figure 8 where
explosions. observed A p P times taken from the EKA BB seismograms are plotted
against preiicied times. The observed and predicted times are listed in
Examples and Observations Tables 2 and 3. Note, however, that for most of the explosions studied
here (apart from PILE DRIVER) the App-P time is greater than 0.4 s so
Figure 6 shows the SP, BB, and deconvolved seismograms for t* = that any effect of interference should be small. Further, comparison of the
0.35 s and independent of frequency for the NTS explosion BOXCAR pP-P times estimated here with those measured at the NTS (where these
134 BROAD BAND ESTIMATES OF SEISMIC SOURCE FUNCTIONS

Frequency independent t* Frequency dependent t*

Fig. 4. Deconvolved P seismograms for four Nevada Test Site explosions (HALFBEAK, CHESHIRE,
HANDLEY, and GREELEY) recorded at Eskdalemuir, Scotland for the two attenuation models: frequency-
independent I* (left) and the Burger model (right).

are available) are not widely different (see Tablcs 2 and 3). EKA all the estimates are over a factor of two less than predicted.
The deconvolved EKA and NPNT P seismograms show a second Howcvcr, P amplitudes obscrvcd at EKA from NTS explosions appear to
negative arrival following App. Taking A p to be pP then this second be 2-3 times below average [Douglas and Rivers, 19881 probably due to
P
anival (marked Asp) comes in close to the ume prcdicted for sP. Such an dcfocussing Kynnes and Lay, 19881 so perhaps it is not surprising that
arrival could not of course be generated by a pure explosive source. On the EKA estimates are low. Obviously much more data is required before
the PCP seismogram Aspcp appears to be absent and a low-frequency firm conclusions can be drawn on the relationship between W(-) estimatcs
positive-pulse is seen similar to the pulses attributed to spalling on many made at long range and yield, and H-) predicted from source models.
of the P seismograms seen from other NTS explosions. In the ideal case the deconvolved seismograms would be expectcd to
Figures 9 and 10 show the deconvolved seismograms for EKA (with show some systematic variation in duration with depth of firing,
I* = 0.35 s and independent of frequency) for all the explosions. Figure 9 assuming that depth correlates roughly with yicld (and ignoring the
shows the seismograms for FAULTLESS, PILE DRIVER, and the Yucca explosion SCOTCH which was overburicd). Some systematic variation
Flat explosions and Figure 10 the Pahute Mesa explosions. For the in duration is seen for the explosions at the Pahutc Mesa fired at depths of
Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa explosions the seismograms are ordered by 819 m or greater. The shallowest explosion in this scquence,
dcpth of firing. HALFBEAK, has a yield of 365 kt and a P pulse with a duration of
Figure 11 shows thc Hm) estimates against the values predicted for around 0.9 s. The deepest explosions have yields of around 1000 kt or
the M-M model for those explosions with announced yields. All greater and pulse durations of about 1.I s. Thus duration for scaled depth
estimates are less than the predicted values but for the LRSM stations of firing appears to scale at about (yicld)1/5 in agreement with the
only one value is more than a factor of two below the predicted. For prediction of the M-M model. For explosions fired at depths shallower
DOUGLAS 135

(a) Frequency independent t* than those of the Pahute Mesa sequence the pulse durations and pulse
shapes are less regular. Thus the Yucca Flat explosions all have roughly
the same firing depth and magnitude, suggesting they do not differ greatly
in yield. The deconvolved seismograms would then be expected to have
very similar shapes. Examination of Figure 9, however, shows that the
relative amplitudes of P, App, and As differ significantly and the duration
of P is also highly variable. Similarly the shallow Pahute Mesa
explosion PANIR (depth of firing 681 m: yield 20-150 kt) shows a
seismogram that is very similar to that of GREELEY (depth of firing
(b) Frequency dependent t * 1215 m; yield 870 kt).
Figure 12 shows the rise times measured by Lyman ct al. 119861 for
the 39 Nevada explosions against maximum-likelihood magnitude
(mbML). Rise times measured from the BB seismograms both before and
after correction for attenuation are shown. Because the BB seismograms
have been low-pass filtered the estimated rise-time will in general be
larger than the true value. Also because the seismograms are digitised at
20 samples/s there is obviously a lower limit to the estimated rise time of
0.05 s. But most of the observed rise-times are 0.2 s or greater so the
effect of these measurement errors is perhaps not important.
As can be seen from Tables 2 and 3 the effect on the rise time of
correcting for attenuation varies from explosion to explosion; in general
applying the correction reduces the rise time, but the amount by which
o the rise time changes varies with mb (and hence presumably yield) and
, 5 10s
pulse shape.
Fig. 5. Dcconvolved P seismograms for the PILE DRIVER explosion The changes in rise time can be roughly understood using the results
recorded at Eskdalcmuir, Scotland. (a) Corrected for t* = 0.35 s and of Stewart [1984]. By convolving an attenuation operator with some
independent of frequency. (b) Corrected for the Burger attenuation model. simple pulse-shapes, Stewart [I9841 shows how the rise time of the pulse

Fig. 6.