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INSPETOR DE

INSTRUMENTAÇÃO
NÍVEL 1
INGLÊS TÉCNICO

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INSPETOR DE INSTRUMENTAÇÃO NÍVEL 1
INGLÊS TÉCNICO

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© PETROBRAS – Petróleo Brasileiro S.A.
Todos os direitos reservados e protegidos pela Lei 9.610, de 19.2.1998.

É proibida a reprodução total ou parcial, por quaisquer meios, bem como a produção de
apostilas, sem autorização prévia, por escrito, do Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. – PETROBRAS.

Direitos exclusivos da PETROBRAS – Petróleo Brasileiro S.A.

Silva, Adieci Vigannico da. Wagner, Eduardo. Inspetor De Instrumentação Nível 1 (Inglês
Técnico) / Prominp – SENAI. RS, 2007.

33 p.

PETROBRAS – Petróleo Brasileiro S.A.

Av. Almirante Barroso, 81 – 17º andar – Centro


CEP: 20030-003 – Rio de Janeiro – RJ – Brasil

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INDICE

1 DICIONÁRIO TÉCNICO INGLÊS-PORTUGUÊS ..............................................................................7


2 TRADUÇÃO “EXERCÍCIOS” ...........................................................................................................23
2.1 ANEXO A - TEXTO 1 PARA TRADUZIR – PARTES DA NORMA API RP 576................... 23
2.2 ANEXO B - TEXTO 2 PARA TRADUZIR – PARTES DA NORMA IEC-61000-4-3 .............. 30
BIBLIOGRAFIA.......................................................................................................................................33

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1 DICIONÁRIO TÉCNICO INGLÊS-
PORTUGUÊS

Está apostila consiste de um dicionário de termos técnicos simplificado e de dois textos em inglês
para traduzir, em anexo.

Apresentam-se alguns termos técnicos para que o aluno compreenda a diferença entre o inglês
convencional e o inglês técnico que será apresentado nesta apostila.

ABRASION – abrasão
ABRASIVE – abrasivo
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE – pressão absoluta
ACCUMULATOR – bateria, acumulador
ACCURACY – exatidão, precisão
ACID CLEANING – limpeza ácida
ACIDITY – acidez
ADAPTER – suporte, adaptador
ADAPTER GROUP – grupo de adaptação
ADAPTER RING – aro de adaptação
ADJUST – afinar, ajustar
ADIABATIC FLAME TEMPERATURE – temperatura adiabática da chama
AFTERCOOLER – arrefecedor de admissão
AIR – ar
AIR ACTUATED – acionado por ar comprimido
AIR CLEANER SERVICE INDICATOR – indicador do estado do filtro de ar
AIR COMPRESSOR – compressor de ar
AIR CONDITIONER – ar condicionado
AIR DEFICIENCY – falta de ar
AIR-FREE – livre de ar, anaeróbico
AIR-FUEL RATIO – relação ar/combustível
AIR FUEL RATIO CONTROL – regulador de fumo
AIR HORN – buzina pneumática
AIR INFILTRATION – infiltração de ar
AIR INTAKE – admissão de ar

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AIR PREHEATER – pré-aquecedor de ar
AIR, SATURATED – ar saturado
AIR TANK – tanque de ar
ALARM – alarme
ALKALINITY – alcalinidade
ALLOY – liga
ALTERNATOR – alternador
ALUMINUM – alumínio
AMBIENT AIR – ar ambiente
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE – temperatura ambiente
AMPERAGE – amperagem
ANALYSIS – análise
ANTI-FREEZE – anticongelante
ANTI-FRICTION BEARING – rolamento
ANTIMONY – antimônio
ARTICULATED FRAME STEERING – direção por chassis articulado
ASBESTOS – amianto
ASH – cinza
ASH PIT v cinzeiro, poço de cinzas
AS-FIRED FUEL – combustível como queimado
ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASPIRATING BURNER – queimador de aspiração
AS-RECEIVED FUEL – combustível como recebido
ASSEMBLE – conjunto
ASSEMBLY – montar
ATMOSPHERIC AIR – ar atmosférico
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE – pressão atmosférica
ATOMIZER – atomizador, queimador
ATTACHMENT – acessório, equipamento
ATTACHMENT BOLT HOLE – furo para parafuso de fixação de acessórios
ATTIC – sótão
AUTOMATIC – automático
AUTOMATIC LOAD SENSING – sensor automático de carga
AVAILABLE DRAFT – tiragem disponível
AVIABILITY – disponibilidade
AXIAL FAN – ventilador axial
AXLE – eixo

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AXLE SHAFT – semi-eixo
BACK-UP ALARM – alarme de marcha atrás
BAFFLE – defletor
BAG FILTER – filtro de mangas
BALANCER GEAR – engrenagens compensadoras
BALL – esfera
BALL BEARING – rolamento de esferas
BALL INDENTATION – bolsa redonda
BALL PEN HAMMER – martelo de bola
BALLAST – lastro
BAR – barra
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE – pressão barométrica
BASE – base
BASE COURSE – material de fundação
BATTERY – bateria
BATTERY CELL – elemento da bateria
BEADLESS TIRE – pneus sem talões
BEAM – viga, barra, feixe luminoso
BEARING – casquilho, rolamento
BEARING CONE – anilha interna dos rolamentos de rolos cônicos
BEARING CUP – anilha externa dos rolamentos de rolos cônicos
BEARING INNER RACE – anilha interna dos rolamentos
BEARING OUTER RACE – anilha externa dos rolamentos
BEARING RACE – anilha dos rolamentos
BED – cama, suporte, base, fundamento
BELLCRANK – alavanca angular
BELT – correia
BELT DRESSING – produto antipatinagem
BEVEL – chanfro
BEVEL GEAR v coroa cônica
BEVEL GROOVE – entalhe chanfrado
BIAS PLY TIRE – pneus de telas diagonais
BIT DRILL – broca
BLADE – lâmina
BLADE LIFT ARM – braço de elevação da lâmina
BLADE TILT CYLINDER – cilindro de inclinação da lâmina
BLAST-FURNACE – alto-forno

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BLAST-FURNACE GAS – gás de alto-forno
BLEND – misturar, combinar
BLIND NIPPLE – flange cego
BLOCK – bloco
BLOWDOWN – purga
BLOWDOWN VALVE – válvula de purga, válvula de descarga
BLOW UP – explosão
BLOWER – soprador, compressor
BOILER – caldeira, aquecedor térmico
BOILER EFFICIENCY – eficiência da caldeira
BOILER HORSEPOWER – potência da caldeira
BOILER RATING – potência ou vazão da caldeira
BOILER SHELL – carcaça da caldeira
BOILER WATER – água da caldeira
BOILING – ebulição
BOLSTER – engate
BOLT – parafuso
BOOSTER – reforçador
BOTTOM – fundo
BOX-END WRENCH – chave de bocas
BRACE – braçadeira
BRACKET – suporte
BRAKE – freio
BRAKE ACTUATOR – atuador do freio
BRAKE AIR PRESSURE SWITCH – sensor de pressão do ar nos freios
BRAKE BAND – cinta do freio
BRAKE DISC – disco de freio
BRAKE DRUM – tambor de freio
BRAKE ENGAGEMENT FORCE – força necessária para atuar o freio
BRAKE FLUID – fluido de freio
BRAKE HYDRAULIC BOOSTER – freio hidráulico
BRAKE LINING – calço do freio
BRAKE PEDAL – pedal de freio
BRAKE VENT, CHECK VALVE – válvula de retenção dos freios
BRAKING SYSTEM – sistema de frenagem
BRASS – latão
BREAKOUT FORCE – força de rompimento

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BREATHER – respiradouro
BREECHING – duto de gases (produtos da combustão)
BRIDGEWALL – cortina de cinzas
BRONZE – bronze
BRONZE BEARING – casquilho de bronze
BTU – British Thermal Unit
BUCKET – balde
BULL GEAR – engrenagem principal
BUMPER – pára-choques
BURNER – queimador
BURNER WINDBOX PRESSURE – pressão de ar na caixa de ar
BUS PIPE – coletor de fluídos
BUSHING – casquilho
BUSHING BORE – furo para o casquilho
BY PRODUCT – subproduto
CABLE – cabo
CAGE – separador
CALORIE – caloria
CALORIMETER – calorímetro
CAM – came
CAMSHAFT – árvore de cames
CANOPY – toldo, coberta
CAP – tampão
CAPSCREW – parafuso de cabeça sextavada
CARBODY – torre de rotação (escavadores)
CARBON – carbono
CARDAN JOINT – união cardan
CARRIAGE – carro
CARRIER ROLLER – rolete superior
CARRY HEIGHT – altura de transporte
CAST IRON – ferro fundido
CASTLE NUT – porca castelada
CELSIUS – Célsio
CELL – elemento, célula
CENTRAL STATION – Estação Central
CENTRIFUGAL FAN – ventilador centrífugo
CHAIN – corrente

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CHAMBER – câmara
CHAR – chamuscar, queimar
CHARGE – carga
CHARGE PUMP – bomba de carga
CHARGE VALVE – válvula de carga
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS – análise química
CHEMICAL FEED PIPE – tubo de alimentação de produtos químicos
CHIMNEY – chaminé
CHIP – apara, lasca
CIRCUIT – circuito
CIRCULATION – circulação ou recirculação
CIRCULATION RATIO – taxa de recirculação
CIRCULATOR – tubos de recirculação
CLAMP – braçadeira
CLEANING FLUID – fluido de limpeza
CLEARANCE – folga
CLINKER – escória
CLOCKWISE – sentido dos ponteiros do relógio
CLOGGING – entupimento, obstrução
CLUSTER GEAR – trem fixo, grupo de carretos
CLUTCH – embreagem
CLUTCH DISC – disco de embreagem
CLUTCH DRESSING – produto antipatinagem
COAL – carvão mineral
COIL – enrolamento, volta
COLD – frio
COKE – coque
COMBUSTIBLE LOSS – perda de combustível
COMBUSTIBLES – combustíveis
COMBUSTION – combustão
COMBUSTION CHAMBER – câmara de combustão, fornalha
COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY – rendimento da combustão
COMMUTADOR – coletor elétrico
COMPLETE COMBUSTION – combustão completa
COMPRESSION – compressão
COMSUMPTION – consumo
CONCENTRATION – concentração, teor

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CONDENSATE – condensado
CONDUCTION – condução
CONDUCTIVITY – condutividade
CONE BEARING – rolamento cônico
CONNECTED – ligado
CONNECTING ROD – biela
CONNECTING ROD BEARING – capa da biela
CONNECTING ROD BOLT – parafuso da biela
CONSOLE – console
CONSOLE MOUNTED – montado no console
CONTAINER – recipiente
CONTINUOUS BLOWDOWN – purga contínua
CONTROL – controle, comando
CONTROL LEVER – alavanca de comando
CONTROL VALVE – válvula de controle
CONVECTION – convecção
CONVENTIONAL BATTERY – bateria convencional
CONVERSION GROUP – grupo de conversão
CONVEYOR – transportador
COOLANT TEMPERATURE SWITCH – sensor de temperatura da água do motor
COOLING SYSTEM – sistema de arrefecimento
COPPER – cobre
CORE – centro, núcleo, ninho
CORK – cortiça
CORNER – canto
CORROSION – corrosão
CORRUGATION – ondulação
COUNTERBORE – furo rebaixado
COUNTERCLOCKWISE – sentido contrário ao dos ponteiros do relógio
COUNTERWEIGHT – contrapeso
COUNTERWEIGHT FRAME – suporte do contrapeso
COUPLER – engate
COUPLING – acoplamento
COVER – tampa
CRACK – fenda
CRANE – grua
CROWBAR – alavanca, pé de cabra

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CRUDE OIL – petróleo, óleo
CUTTING EDGE – lâmina de corte
CYCLE – ciclo
CYLINDER – cilindro
CYLINDER BLOCK – bloco do motor
CYLINDER HEAD – cabeça do motor
CYLINDER LINER – camisa do cilindro
CYLINDRICAL ROLLER BEARING – rolamento de rolos cilíndricos
DAMAGE – danos, estragos
DASH PANEL – painel de instrumentos
DEAERATION – desaeração
DECREASE – decréscimo
DEFROSTER – descongelador
DEGREE – grau
DENSITY – massa específica (massa/volume)
DEPOSIT – depósito
DESIGN LOAD – carga de projeto
DESIGN PRESSURE – pressão de projeto
DESIGN STEAM TEMPERATURE – temperatura de vapor de projeto
DEVICE – dispositivo
DEW POINT – ponto de orvalho
DIAGONAL – diagonal
DIAGONAL BRACE – braço diagonal
DIAGRAM – diagrama
DIESEL FUEL – diesel
DIPSTICK – vareta de nível
DIRECT DRIVE GEAR – transmissão direta
DIRT – impureza
DISASSEMBLE – desmontar
DISCONNECT – desligar
DISCONNECT SWICTH – interruptor geral
DISSOCIATION – dissociação
DISSOLVED SOLID – sólidos dissolvidos
DISTILLATE FUELS – combustíveis destilados
DISTILLATION – destilação
DISTILLED WATER – água destilada
DOMED – abaulado

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DOUBLE FLANGE – flange dupla
DOUBLE GROUSER SHOE – sapata de duas garras
DOUBLE REDUCTION – redução dupla
DOUBLE TAPERED ROLLER BEARING – rolamento duplo de rolos cônicos
DOWNCOMER – tubos de descida
DRAIN – dreno
DRAWBACK – desvantagem, prejuízo
DRAWING – desenho
DRIVE AXLE – eixo motor, eixo de tração
DRIVE PINION – pinhão de acionamento
DRIVE TRAIN – transmissão
DRIVE WHELL – roda motora ou de tração
DRUM – tambor
DRY – seco, secar
DRY AIR – ar seco
DRY GAS – gás seco
DRY STEAM – vapor seco
DUCT – duto
DUMP BODY – caixa basculante
DUMP HEIGHT – altura de descarga
DURABILITY – vida útil
DUST – poeira
EBLOW – cotovelo
EDGE – aresta, rebordo
EFFICIENCY – eficiência, rendimento
EJECTOR – ejetor
ELECTRIC BOILER – caldeira elétrica
ELECTRIC HORN – buzina elétrica
LECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR – precipitador eletrostático
END – fim
END BIT – canto da lâmina
END COLLAR – colar exterior
ENGINE – motor
ENGINE ENCLOSURE – alojamento do motor
ENGINE FLYWHEEL – volante do motor
ENGINE GUARD – resguardo do motor
ENGINE OIL COOLER – arrefecedor do óleo do motor

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ENGINE OIL PRESSURE SWITCH – sensor da pressão do óleo do motor
ENVIRONMENT – ambiente, meio-ambiente
EPOXY – resina
EVAPORATION – evaporação
EVAPORATION RATE – taxa de evaporação
EVAPORATOR – evaporador
EXCESS AIR – excesso de ar
EXHAUST – escape
EXHAUST MANIFOLD – coletor de escape
EXHAUST PIPE – tubo de escape
EXHAUST STACK – chaminé de escape
EXPANSION JOINT – juntas de expansão
EXPERT – perito
FAILURE – avaria
FAN – ventilador, ventoinha
FAN BELT – correia do ventilador
FAULT LIGHT – luz avisadora de avaria
FEATURE – característica
FENDER – pára-lamas
FIBERGLASS – fibra de vidro
FEEDWATER – água de alimentação
FILE – 1. arquivo; 2. lima (ferramenta)
FILL – aterrar, encher, aterro,
FILL MATERIAL – material de enchimento
FILLER – enchimento
FILLER CAP – tampão de enchimento
FILLER LUBE – bocais de enchimento
FILTER – filtro
FIN – lâmina, palheta
FINAL DRIVE – transmissão final
FINAL DRIVE CASE – caixa da transmissão final
FINAL DRIVE GEAR – cremalheira da transmissão final
FINAL DRIVE PINION – pinhão da transmissão final
FIRE EXTINGUISHER – extintor de incêndio
FITTER – montador mecânico
FITTING – adaptador, copo de lubrificação
FLAME – chama

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FLAT – plano
FLAT EDGE – lâmina plana
FLAT SCREWDRIVE – chave de fendas
FLEET – frota
FLOOD LIGHT – projetor
FLUSH – jato de ar ou água
FLYWHEEL – volante do motor
FLYWHEEL HORSEPOWER – potência do volante
FORCED DRAFT FAN – ventilador de tiragem forçada
FORGED – aço forjado
FORGED END BIT – canto em aço forjado
FORK – garfo
FORWARD – para a frente
FOULING – contaminação, deposição de fuligem
FRAME – chassis
FRONT LIGHT – farol dianteiro
FUEL – combustível
FUEL FILTER – filtro de combustível
FUEL INJECTION – injeção de combustível
FUEL INJECTION PUMP – bomba de injeção de combustível
FUEL LEVEL SWITCH – sensor do nível de combustível
FUEL MANIFOLD – coletor de combustível
FUEL OIL – óleo combustível
FUEL PRESSURE SWITCH – sensor de pressão de combustível
FUEL RACK – cremalheira de combustível
FUEL SHUT OFF SOLENOID – solenóide de corte de combustível
FUEL SYSTEM – sistema de combustível
FUEL TANK – tanque de combustível
FUEL TRANSFER PUMP – bomba de transferência de combustível
FULL COMPLEMENT NEEDLE BEARING – rolamento de agulhas sem separador
FULL FLOW OIL FILTRATION – filtragem total do fluxo do óleo
FURNACE – forno, fornalha
GAUGE – instrumento de medição
GADGET – dispositivo mecânico
GALLON – galão
GASKET – junta
GAS TURBINE – turbina a gás

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GEARBOX – caixa de velocidades
GENERATOR – gerador, dínamo
GLOW PLUG – vela de incandescência
GOGGLES – óculos de proteção
GOVERNOR – regulador
GRADEABILITY – capacidade de rampa
GRAVEL – cascalho, saibre
GREASE GUN – bomba de lubrificação
GRID – grelha
GRIP – prisão, cabo, pega
GROMMET – olhal, borracha passante
GROOVE – ranhura
GROUSER – garra
GUARD – resguardo
GUSSET – cantoneira
HACKSAW – serrote de ferro
HAMMER – martelo
HAND RAIL – corrimão
HARDNESS – dureza, têmpera
HEAD – cabeça
HEAD GASCKET – junta da cabeça
HEAT – calor
HEAT CYCLE – ciclo térmico
HEATER – aquecedor
HEAT-EXCHANGER – trocador de calor
HEAT-PIPE – tubo de calor
HEAT PUMP – bomba de calor
HEAT TRANSFER – transmissão de calor
HEAT TREATMENT – tratamento térmico
HEAT VALUE – poder calorífico inferior
HEAVY – pesado
HEEL – talão da lâmina
HIDRAULIC FLUID – fluído hidráulico
HINGE – dobradiça
HIT – pancada, golfe, bater
HOIST – grua, guindaste
HOOK – gancho

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HORN – buzina
HORSEPOWER – potência em H.P.
HOSE – mangueira
HOUSING – alojamento
HUB ASSEMBLY – cubo
HULL – casco do navio
HYDRAULIC ADJUSTER – esticador hidráulico
HYDRAULIC CICLE TIME – tempo de ciclo hidráulico
HYDAULIC EXCAVATOR – escavadora hidráulica
HYDRAULIC FILTER – filtro hidráulico
HYDRAULIC OIL TEMPERATURE SWITCH – sensor da temperatura do óleo hidráulico
HYDRAULIC POWER CONTROL UNIT – Unidade da Transmissão Hidrostática
HYDRAULIC PUMP – bomba do hidráulico
HYDRAULIC TANK – tanque do hidráulico
HYDRAULICALLY BOOSTED – assistido hidraulicamente
IDLER PINION – pinhão intermediário
IGNITION – ignição
IMPACT – choque
IMPACT WRENCH – ferramenta pneumática
IMPELLER – impulsor
IN BULK – a granel, em grande quantidade
INCH – polegada
increase – aumento
INHIBITOR – anticorrosivo
INJECTION NOZZLE – bico injetor
INJECTION PUMP – bomba injetora
INJECTION VALVE – válvula de injeção
INLET PIPING – tubo de admissão
INNER RACE – anel interior
INPUT – entrada
INTAKE – admissão
INTAKE MANIFOLD – coletor de admissão
INTAKE-EXHAUST SYSTEM – sistema de admissão e escape
IRON – ferro
JACK – macaco, tomada elétrica
JOINT – articulação
KEEL – aquilha

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KIT – jogo
KNURLED – recartilhado
LADEN – carregado
LEAKAGE – vazamento
LEATHER – couro
LENGHT – comprimento
LEVER – alavanca
LIABILITY – exigível
LIFT – levantar
LIFT ARM – braço de levantamento
LIFT CHAIN – corrente de elevação
LIFT CYLINDER – cilindro de elevação
LIFT HOOK – gancho de elevação
LIFT TRUCK – empilhador
LIFTER SPRING – mola de tucho
LIGHTING SYSTEM – sistema de iluminação
LIMESTONE – calcário
MACHINE SCREW – parafuso com fenda
MACHINED – trabalhado à máquina
MAIN CONTROL VALVE – válvula principal de comando
MAIN HYDAULIC PUMP – bomba hidráulica principal
MAIN LUBRIFIATION SYSTEM – sistema principal de lubrificação
MANIFOLD – coletor (admissão, escape)
MANUFACTURED GAS – gás manufaturado, gás de rua
NAIL – prego
NEEDLE – agulha
NEEDLE NEARING – rolamento de agulhas
NICK – mossa
NICKEL – níquel
NITROGEN – nitrogênio
NOTCHED – entalhado, dentado
NOZZLE – bico injetor, bocal, tubeira, b
NUT – porca
NUT SEAL – alojamento da porca
O´RING SEAL – vedante em anel
ODOMETER – indicador da distância
OIL – óleo

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OIL COOLER – arrefecedor de óleo
ONCE THROUGH BOILER – caldeira de passe único
PAN – carter do motor
PARKING BRAKE – freio de estacionamento
PARKING BRAKE BAND – cinta do freio de estacionamento
PEAT – turfa
PIPE – tubo, cano
PIPELINE – tubulação
PERFORMANCE – rendimento, eficiência
PUMP – bomba (hidráulica)
QUARRY – pedreira, mina
QUENCH – resfriar repentinamente, extinguir
QUICKLIME – cal viva
QUINCK RESPONSE VALVE – válvula de resposta rápida
RACK – cremalheira
RADIAL LOAD – carga radial
RADIAL-THRUST VALVE – carga radial-axial
RADIATOR – radiador
RADIATOR TAP – tampão de radiador
REFRACTARY – refratário
REFRIGERATOR – geladeira, refrigerador
SAFETY EQUIPMENT – filtro de segurança
SAWDUST – pó de serra
SCALE – escala, balança
SCALING – incrustação
SHALE – xisto
SLAG – escória
SMOKE – fumaça
SPECIFIC GRAVITY – densidade (densidade relativa) (adimensional)
STACK – chaminé
STEAD STATE – regime permanente
STEAM – vapor d'água
STEAM GENERATOR – gerador de vapor d'água, caldeira
STEAM QUALITY – título do vapor
STEAM TURBINE – turbina a vapor
STEEL – aço
SUPERHEATER – superaquecedor

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TANK – depósito
TAP – macho ou tomada de ensaio de pressão
TUBE – tubo, cano
TURBINE – turbina
U JOINT – junta universal
U TUBE – tubo em U
ULTIMATE ANALYSIS – análise elementar
UNDERCHARGING – carga abaixo do normal
UNDERSPEED OVERRIDE VALVE – válvula de corte de baixa velocidade
UNDERSPEED VALVE – válvula de baixa velocidade
UNIVERSAL JOINT – junta universal, cardan
UPKEEP – conservação, manutenção
VALVE – válvula
VALVE BODY – corpo das válvulas
VALVE COVER – tampa das válvulas
VOLATILE MATTER – matéria volátil
WARNING – aviso
WASHER – anilha
WASTE – resíduo
WATER – água
WATER DIRECTOR – encaminhador de água
WATER MANIFOLD – colector de água
WATER PUMP – bomba de água
WEAR – desgaste
WELL – poço
WET – úmido
WET-BOTTON FURNACE – fornalha de fundo úmido
WET SCRUBBER – lavador de gases
WOOD – madeira
WORK – trabalho
WORKING FLUID – fluido de trabalho
YOKE – garfo, cruzeta, forquilha.

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2 TRADUÇÃO “EXERCÍCIOS”

Neste curso e na atividade de inspetor durante sua vida profissional, será requerido muitas vezes o
manuseio de material escrito no idioma inglês.

Para a familiarização com o idioma inglês, apresentam-se partes de duas normas, de extrema
relevância para a tradução do inglês para o português. Como exercício de fixação, elas foram
divididas em dois anexos (A e B).

2.1 ANEXO A - TEXTO 1 PARA TRADUZIR – PARTES


DA NORMA API RP 576

INSPECTION OF PRESSURE-RELIEVING DEVICES

Scope (1)

This recommended practice describes the inspection and repair practices for automatic pressure-
relieving devices commonly used in the oil and petrochemical industries. As a guide to the inspection
and repair of these devices in the user's plant, it is intended to ensure their proper performance.

This publication covers such automatic devices as pressure relief valves, pilot-operated pressure relief
valves, rupture disks, and weight-loaded pressure vacuum vents.

The scope of this recommended practice includes the inspection and repair of automatic pressure-
relieving devices commonly used in the oil and petrochemical industry.

The recommendations in this publication are not intended to supersede requirements established by
regulatory bodies.

This publication does not cover weak seams or sections in tanks, explosion doors, fusible plugs,
control valves, and other devices that either depend on an external source of power for operation or
are manually operated. Inspections and tests made at manufacturers' plants, which are usually

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covered by codes or purchase specifications, are not covered by this publication.

This publication does not cover training requirements for mechanics involved in the inspection and
repair of pressure relieving devices. Those seeking these requirements should see API 510, which
gives the requirements for a quality control system and specifies that the repair organization maintain
and document a training program ensuring that personnel are qualified.

Design pressure (3.3.2):

The design pressure along with the design temperature is used to determine the minimum permissible
thickness or physical characteristic of each vessel component as determined by the vessel design
rules. The design pressure is selected by the user to provide a suitable margin above the most severe
pressure expected during normal operation at a coincident temperature. It is the pressure specified on
the purchase order. This pressure may be used in place of the maximum allowable working pressure
in all cases where the MAWP has not been established. The design pressure is equal to or less than
the MAWP.

Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) (3.3.3):

The maximum gauge pressure permissible at the top of a completed vessel in its normal operating
position at a designated coincident temperature specified for that pressure.

The pressure is the least of the values for the internal or external pressure as determined by the vessel
design rules for each element of the vessel using actual nominal thickness, exclusive of additional
metal thickness allowed for corrosion and loadings other than pressure. The maximum allowable
working pressure is the basis for the pressure setting of the pressure relief device(s) that protect the
vessel. The MAWP is normally greater than the design pressure but must be equal to the design
pressure when the design rules are used only to calculate the minimum thickness for each element
and calculations are not made to determine the value of the MAWP.

Overpressure (3.3.5):

The pressure increase over the set pressure of the pressure relief device allowed to achieve rated
flow. Overpressure is expressed in pressure units or as a percentage of set pressure. It is the same as
accumulation only when the relieving device is set to open at the maximum allowable working pressure
of the vessel.

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Marked burst pressure or rated burst pressure (3.4.10):

The rupture disk burst pressure established by tests for the specified temperature and marked on the
disk tag by the manufacturer. The marked burst pressure may be any pressure within the
manufacturing range unless otherwise specified by the customer. The marked burst pressure is
applied to all the rupture disks of the same lot.

Pressure-Relieving Devices (4):

Pressure-relieving devices protect equipment and personnel by automatically opening at


predetermined pressures and preventing the destructive consequences of excessive pressures in
process systems and storage vessels.

A pressure relief device is actuated by inlet static pressure and designed to open during emergency or
abnormal conditions to prevent a rise of internal fluid pressure in excess of a specified design value.

The device also may be designed to prevent excessive internal vacuum. The device may be a
pressure relief valve, a non-reclosing pressure relief device or a vacuum relief valve.

Common examples include direct spring loaded pressure relief valves, pilot-operated pressure relief
valves, rupture disks, weight-loaded devices, and pressure and/or vacuum vent valves.

PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE (4.1)

A pressure relief valve is a pressure relief device designed to open and relieve excess pressure and to
reclose and prevent further flow of fluid after normal conditions have been restored. A pressure relief
valve opens when its upstream pressure reaches the opening pressure. It then allows fluid to flow until
its upstream pressure falls to the closing pressure. It then closes, preventing further flow. Examples of
specific types of pressure relief valves include; safety valve, relief valve, conventional safety relief
valve, balanced safety relief valve, and pilot-operated pressure relief valve.

SAFETY VALVE (4.2)

A safety valve is a direct spring loaded pressure relief valve that is actuated by the static pressure
upstream of the valve and characterized by rapid opening or pop action. When the static inlet pressure
reaches the set pressure, it will increase the pressure in the huddling chamber and overcome the
spring force on the disk. This will cause the disk to lift and provide full opening at minimal

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overpressure. The closing pressure will be less than the set pressure and will be reached after the
blowdown phase is completed.

The spring of a safety valve is usually fully exposed, outside of the valve bonnet to protect it from
degradation due to the temperature of the relieving medium. A typical safety valve has a lifting lever for
manual opening to ensure the freedom of the working parts. Open bonnet safety valves are not
pressure tight on the downstream side. Figure 1 illustrates a full-nozzle, top-guided safety valve.

Applications (4.2.1).

A safety valve is normally used with compressible fluids. Safety valves are used on steam boiler drums
and super-heaters. They may also be used for general air and steam services in refinery and
petrochemical plants. Safety valve discharge piping may contain a vented drip pan elbow or a short
piping stack routed to the atmosphere.

Limitations (4.2.2).

Safety valves should not be used as follows:


1) In corrosive services (unless isolated from the process by a rupture disk).
2) Where the discharge must be piped to remote locations or a closed system.
3) Where the escape of process fluid around blowing valves is not desirable.
4) In liquid service.
5) As pressure control or bypass valves.

RELIEF VALVE (4.3).

A relief valve is a direct spring loaded pressure relief valve actuated by the static pressure upstream of
the valve. The valve opens normally in proportion to the pressure increase over the opening pressure.

A relief valve begins to open when the static inlet pressure reaches set pressure. When the static inlet
pressure overcomes the spring force, the disk begins to lift off the seat, allowing flow of the liquid. The
value of the closing pressure is less than that of the set pressure and will be reached after the blow
down phase is completed. Relief valves usually reach full lift at either 10% or 25% overpressure,
depending on the type of valve and trim.

These valves have closed bonnets to prevent the release of corrosive, toxic, flammable, or expensive
fluids. They can be supplied with lifting levers, balancing bellows, and soft seats as needed.

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Some relief valves are manufactured with resilient O-rings or other types of soft seats to supplement or
replace the conventional metal-to-metal valve seating surfaces. Usually the valves are similar in most
respects to the other pressure relief valves, with the exception that the disks are designed to
accommodate some type of resilient seal ring to promote a degree of tightness exceeding that of the
usual commercial tightness of conventional metal seats.

Limitations (4.3.2)

Relief valves should not be used as follows:


1) In steam, air, gas, or other vapor services.
2) In services piped to a closed header unless the effects of any constant or variable back
pressure has been accounted for.
3) As pressure control or bypass valves.

SAFETY RELIEF VALVE (4.4).

A safety relief valve is a direct spring-loaded pressure relief valve that may be used as either a safety
or relief valve depending on the application.

A safety relief valve is normally fully open at 10% overpressure when in gas or vapor service. When
installed in liquid service, full lift will be achieved at approximately 10% or 25% overpressure,
depending on trim type.

CONVENTIONAL SAFETY RELIEF VALVE (4.5).

A conventional safety relief valve is a direct spring loaded pressure relief valve whose operational
characteristics (opening pressure, closing pressure, and relieving capacity) are directly affected by
changes in the back pressure

A conventional safety relief valve has a bonnet that encloses the spring and forms a pressure-tight
cavity. The bonnet cavity is vented to the discharge side of the valve.

CORROSION (5.1)

Nearly all types of corrosion are present in refinery and chemical plant services. Corrosion is a basic
cause of many of the difficulties encountered with pressure relief devices. Corrosion often appears as:
pitted or broken valve parts, deposits of corrosive residue that interfere with the operation of the
moving parts, or a general deterioration of the material of the relieving device.

27
Corrosion can usually be slowed or stopped by the selection of more suitable devices or device
materials. Proper maintenance is also a consideration since a leaking valve allows fluids to circulate in
the upper parts of the valve, which can contribute to the corrosion of its movable parts.

In certain applications, a rupture disk device installed on the inlet or outlet of a pressure relief valve
can provide added corrosion protection of the valve internals.

In many instances, valves of different construction can avoid, reduce, or even completely contain the
effects of corrosion.

The use of an O-ring seat in a pressure relief valve will sometimes stop leakage past the seating
surface and eliminate corrosion in the valve's working parts. However, O-ring elastomers may have a
limited life under stress due to degradation caused by temperature, aging, or swelling. A bellows seal
can be used to protect the spring bonnet cavity and the discharge side of the valve from the corrosive
lading fluid.

DAMAGED SEATING SURFACES (5.2)

Because differential loading must be small to prevent leakage of the lading fluid, an optical precision
on the order of 3 light beads/bands [0.0000348 in. (0.0008838 mm)] must be maintained in the flatness
of seating surfaces on metal-seated pressure relief valves. Any imperfection in these seating surfaces
will contribute to improper valve action in service.

There are many causes of damaged valve seats in refinery or chemical plant service, including the
following:
1) Corrosion.
2) Foreign particles that get into the valve inlet and pass through the valve when it opens, such
as mill scale, welding spatter or slag, corrosive deposits, coke, or dirt. The particles may
damage the seat contact required for tightness in most pressure relief valves. The damage
can occur either in the shop during maintenance of the valve or while the valve is in service.
3) Improper or lengthy piping to the valve inlet or obstructions in the line. These can cause a
valve to chatter. The pressure under the seat may become great enough to open the valve.
However, as soon as the flow is established, the built-up pressure drop in the connecting
piping may be so great that the pressure under the seat falls and allows the valve to close. A
cycle of opening and closing may develop, become rapid, and subject the valve seating
surfaces to severe hammering, which damages the seating surfaces, sometimes beyond
repair. Figures 27 and 28 show seating surfaces damaged by chattering and frequent
fluctuations of pressure.

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4) Careless handling during maintenance, such as bumping, dropping, jarring, or scratching of
the valve parts.
5) Leakage past the seating surfaces of a valve after it has been installed. This leakage
contributes to seat damage by causing erosion (wire drawing) or corrosion of the seating
surface and thus aggravating itself. It may be due to improper maintenance or installation such
as misalignment of the parts, piping strains resulting from improper support, or complete lack
of support of discharge piping. Other common causes of this leakage are improper alignment
of the spindle, improper fitting of the springs to the spring washers, and improper bearing
between the spring washers and their respective bearing contacts or between the spindle and
disk or disk holder.Spindles should be checked visually for straightness. Springs and spring
washers should be kept together as a spring assembly during the life of the spring. Seat
leakage may also result from the operating pressure being too close to the set pressure of the
valve.
6) Improper blowdown ring settings. These can cause chattering in pressure relief valves. The
relief valve manufacturer should be contacted for specific blowdown ring settings for liquid
service and for vapor service.
7) Severe oversizing of the pressure relief valve for the relief loads encountered can cause the
valve to close abruptly, resulting in disc and nozzle seating surface damage.

FAILED SPRINGS (5.3)

Spring failure occurs in two forms. The first is a weakening of the spring, which causes a reduction in
set pressure and the possibility of premature opening. The second is a total failure (complete break) of
the spring, which causes uncontrolled valve opening.

Although springs may weaken and fail due to the use of improper materials in high temperature
service, failed springs are almost always caused by corrosion. Surface corrosion and stress corrosion
cracking are the most prevalent of this type of failure in refineries.

INSPECTION OF PRESSURE-RELIEVING DEVICES 17

Surface corrosion attacks the spring surface until the cross-sectional area is not sufficient to provide
the necessary closing force. It may also produce pits that act as stress risers and cause cracks in the
spring surface and subsequent spring failure

Stress corrosion cracking sometimes causes rapid spring failure. It is especially insidious because it is
very difficult to detect before the spring breaks.

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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) frequently causes stress-corrosion cracking of springs recommendations and
guidance). Consult the manufacturer to select an appropriate spring in susceptible applications since
the material strength, hardness and heat treatment of the spring can affect its resistance to stress
corrosion cracking.

2.2 ANEXO B - TEXTO 2 PARA TRADUZIR – PARTES


DA NORMA IEC-61000-4-3

ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC) – Part 4-3: Testing and measurement techniques


– Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test

FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization


comprising all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to
promote international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and
electronic fields. To this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards,
Technical Specifications, Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides
(hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees;
any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory
work. International, governmental and nongovernmental organizations liaising with the IEC also
participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two
organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an
international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has
representation from all interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC
National Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical
content of IEC Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are
used or for any misinterpretation by any end user.

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4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC
Publications transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications.
Any divergence between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication
shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for
any equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual
experts and members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal
injury, property damage or other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for
costs (including legal fees) and expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this
IEC Publication or any other IEC Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced
publications is indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the
subject of patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
International Standard IEC 61000-4-3 has been prepared by subcommittee 77B: High frequency
phenomenon, of IEC technical committee 77: Electromagnetic compatibility.

It forms part 4-3 of IEC 61000. It has the status of a basic EMC publication in accordance with IEC
Guide 107, Electromagnetic compatibility – Guide to the drafting of electromagnetic compatibility
publications.

This third edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2002 and its amendment 1 (2002),
and constitutes a technical revision. The test frequency range may be extended up to 6 GHz to take
account of new services. The calibration of the field as well as the checking of power amplifier linearity
of the immunity chain are specified.

Scope and object (1)

This part of IEC 61000 is applicable to the immunity requirements of electrical and electronic
equipment to radiated electromagnetic energy. It establishes test levels and the required test
procedures.

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The object of this standard is to establish a common reference for evaluating the immunity of electrical
and electronic equipment when subjected to radiated, radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. The test
method documented in this part of IEC 61000 describes a consistent method to assess the immunity of
an equipment or system against a defined phenomenon.

NOTE 1: As described in IEC Guide 107, this is a basic EMC publication for use by product
committees of the IEC.

As also stated in Guide 107, the IEC product committees are responsible for determining whether this
immunity test standard should be applied or not, and if applied, they are responsible for determining
the appropriate test levels and performance criteria. TC 77 and its sub-committees are prepared to co-
operate with product committees in the evaluation of the value of particular immunity tests for their
products.

This part deals with immunity tests related to the protection against RF electromagnetic fields from any
source.

Particular considerations are devoted to the protection against radio-frequency emissions from digital
radiotelephones and other RF emitting devices.

NOTE 2: Test methods are defined in this part for evaluating the effect that electromagnetic radiation
has on the equipment concerned. The simulation and measurement of electromagnetic radiation is not
adequately exact for quantitative determination of effects. The test methods defined are structured for
the primary objective of establishing adequate repeatability of results at various test facilities for
qualitative analysis of effects.

This standard is an independent test method. Other test methods may not be used as substitutes for
claiming compliance with this standard.

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BIBLIOGRAFIA

API RP 576, Inspection of Pressure Relieving Devices.

IEC 61000-4-3, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 4: Testing and Measurement Techniques - Section 3:
Radiated, Radio-Frequency, Electromagnetic Field Immunity Test.

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