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When a fluid is flowing through a pipe, the fluid experiences

some resistance due to which some of energy of fluid is lost.

This loss of energy is categorized as follows:

Major losses : This is due to friction & it is determined

by the following formulae

Darcy-Weisbach equation,

Chezy’s formula

Minor losses : Change of velocity

Sudden enlargement

Sudden contraction of pipe

Bend in pipe

Pipe fittings

An obstruction in pipe

Flow through pipes

DARCY’S WEISBACH FORMULA

The loss of head in pipes due to friction is estimated using the

expression as follows:

hf = head loss due to friction

f = coefficient of friction which is function of

Reynolds number

f = 16/Re for Re less than 2000 (viscous flow)

f = 0.079/Re1/4 for Re varying from 4000 to 106

L = length of pipe

V = mean velocity of flow

d = diameter of pipe

Flow through pipes

Moody’s diagram

Flow through pipes

CHEZY’S FORMULA

The loss of head (energy) due to friction is given by the

expression as:

Problems

1. Find the head lost due to friction in a pipe of diameter 300 mm

and length 50 m, through which water is flowing at a velocity of

3 m/s using (a) Darcy formula (b) Chezy’s formula for which C

= 60. Take kinetic viscosity for water = 0.01 stoke.

2. Find the diameter of a pipe of length 2000 m when the rate of

flow of water through the pipe is 200 litres/s and the head lost

due to friction is 4 m. Take the value of C = 50 in the Chezy’s

formula.

3. A crude oil of kinematic viscosity 0.4 stoke is flowing through a

pipe of diameter 300 mm at the rate of 300 litres/s. Find the

head lost due to friction for a length of 50 m of the pipe.

4. An oil of specific gravity 0.7 is flowing through a pipe of

diameter 300 mm at the rate of 500 litres/s. Find the head lost

due to friction and power required to maintain the flow for a

length of 1000 m. Take kinematic viscosity = 0.29 stokes.

Flow through pipes

MINOR LOSSES

The loss of head (energy) due to friction in a pipe is known as

major loss while the loss of energy due to change of velocity of

the fluid in magnitude or direction is called minor loss.

The minor loss includes the following situations: Loss of head

due to

Sudden enlargement

Sudden contraction

At the entrance of a pipe

At the exit of a pipe

An obstruction in a pipe

Bend in the pipe

Various pipe fittings

Flow through pipes

LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT

It has found through experiment that p’ = p1

Formation of eddies

Flow through pipes

LOSS OF HEAD DUE TO SUDDEN CONTRACTION

Flow through pipes

VISCOUS FLOW

Flow of fluids which are viscous and flowing at very

low velocity

At relatively low velocity the fluid moves in layers

Each layer of fluid slides over the adjacent layer

Due to relative velocity between two layers the

velocity gradient exists

Shear stress acts on the layers

Flow through pipes

VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION

y = R – r & dy = - dr

B.C : r = R; u = 0

Flow through pipes

RATIO OF MAXIMUM VELOCITY TO AVERAGE VELOCITY

Velocity is maximum when r = 0 in previous eqn

= u x (2πr dr)

Flow through pipes

DROP OF PRESSURE FOR A GIVEN LENGTH OF PIPE

From previous eqn, we have

Flow through pipes

Flow of viscous fluid between two parallel plates

B.Cs: (i) y=0, u=0 &

(ii) y=t, u=0

Shear stress is zero at y = t/2

Flow through pipes

EQUIVALENT PIPE

It is defined as the pipe of uniform diameter having loss of head and

discharge equal to the loss of head and discharge of a compound

pipe consisting of various lengths and diameters.

Length,

Diameter &

Roughness

“Dupuit’s equation”

Flow through pipes

Pipes in series or compound having different L & d

Entrance

Contraction

Enlargement

Exit

Flow through pipes

Flow through parallel pipes

The pipes are said to be connected in parallel when a

main pipe divides into two or more branches as seen in

diagram & again join together to form a pipe.

The discharge through the main is increased by

connecting pipes in parallel.

Problems

1. A crude oil of viscosity 0.97 poise and relative density 0.9 is

flowing through a horizontal circular pipe of diameter 100 mm

and of length 10 m. Calculate the difference of pressure at the

two ends of the pipe, if 100 kg of the oil is collected in tank is

30 seconds.

2. An oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m2 and relative density 0.9 is flowing

through a circular pipe of diameter 50 mm and of length 300

m. The rate of flow of fluid through the pipe is 3.5 litres/s. Find

the pressure drop in a length of 300 m and also the shear

stress at the pipe wall.

3. Determine (i) the pressure gradient, (ii) the shear stress at the

two horizontal parallel plates and (iii) the discharge per metre

width for the laminar flow of oil with a maximum velocity of 2

m/s between two horizontal parallel fixed plates which are 100

mm apart. Given μ = 2.4525 Ns/m2.

Inclined pipes

Fig.1 Free body diagram of a ring-shaped differential fluid element of radius r, thickness dr, and

length dx oriented coaxially with an inclined pipe in fully developed laminar flow.

Problems

Oil at 20°C (ρ = 888 kg/m3 and μ = 0.800 kg/ms) is flowing steadily through a 5

cm diameter 40 m long pipe as seen in Fig.1. The pressure at the pipe inlet and

outlet are measured to be 745 and 97 kPa, respectively. Determine the flow

rate of oil through the pipe assuming the pipe is (a) horizontal, (b) inclined 15°

upward, (c) inclined 15° downward. Also verify that the flow through the pipe is

laminar.

Pipe Network

For analysis of the system the following conditions are used.

The algebraic sum of the pressure drop around each

circuit must be zero.

The flow into the junction should equal the flow out of the

junction.

For each pipe the proper relation between head loss and

discharge should be maintained.

Problems

1. Three pipes of the same length L, diameter D and friction

factor f are connected in parallel. Determine the diameter of

the pipe of length L and friction factor f which will carry the

same discharge for the same head loss. Use the formula as

follows: hf = fLV2/2gD

connected by three pipes in series of lengths 300 m, 170 m

and 210 m and of diameters 300 mm, 200 mm and 400 mm

respectively, is 12 m. Determine the rate of flow of water if co-

efficient of friction are 0.005, 0.0052 and 0.0048 respectively,

considering :(a) minor losses and(b) neglecting minor losses.

Problems

3. Two adjacent city centres B and D receive water from separate sources A

and C. The water level in A is 4 m above that in C. Reservoir A supplies city

centre B by 0.4 m diameter pipe of 3000 m length with a level difference of

10 m. City centre D’s is supplied by reservoir C through a 4000 m long pipe

of 0.45 m diameter, with a level difference of 15 m. After sometime it is

found that centre B has excess water while centre D is staraved. So it is

proposed to interconnect these lines and draw 100 l/s from the line A to B.

The junction on AB is at a distance of 2000 m from A. The junction CD is at

3000 m from C. Determine the original supply rates and supply rates with

interconnection to centres B and D. Also determine the diameter of the

interconnecting pipe, if the length is 1500 m Friction factor, f = 0.01 in all

cases.

Piping systems with

pumps and turbines

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