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Strength and Price Comparison Among Northern Cement, Republic Cement and

Eagle Cement Advance in Concrete Production

ALFARO, JAMAICA Q.
BARTOLOME, ANGEL JOY LILAC B.
CANTON, MARY JOY MELBERT S.
DE GUZMAN, ALEX ROGER Q.
MACANAS, JOSHUA Q.
VILORIA, VINCE JOSEPH DG.

A Senior High School Research Submitted to the Faculty of Science, Technology,


Engineering and Mathematics Strand, College of Arts and Sciences, Central Luzon
State University, Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines
in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

JUNE 2018
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research would not have been successful without the inspiration,

encouragement and moral support of the people who help researchers to finish their study.

The researchers would like to express their sincere gratitude to their research adviser, Mr.

John Rafael Antalan for the continuous support on their research, to their panels who gave

suggestions about their study, and lastly, to the Testing Center in San Jose City because

the researchers cannot have the results without them.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF APPENDICES

LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES

LIST OF APPENDIX FIGURES

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER I

Background of the Study

Objectives of the Study

Significance of the Study

Scope and Limitation of the Study

Definition of Terms

CHAPTER II

Related Literatures

Related Studies

CHAPTER III

Research Materials and Methods

Locale of the Study

Data Analysis

Time Table
CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND

INTERPRETATION OF DATA

CHAPTER V

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendation

BIBLIOGRAPHY
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE

1 Materials Mass

2 Mixing Manual

3 Date of Testing the durability of

each brand of Cement

4 First Comprehensive Test of

Portland Cement

5 Second Comprehensive Test of

Portland Cement

6 Third Comprehensive Test of

Portland Cement

7 Intermediate Result for the three

Comprehensive Test of Portland

Cement
LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX

A Biographical Sketch

B Tables

C Figures
LIST OF APPENDIX TABLE

APPENDIX TABLE

1 Test Results of compressive Testing

2 Strength (Descriptive 1)

3 Strength (Descriptive 2)

4 Strength (ANOVA)

5 Dependent Variables: Strength (1)

6 Dependent Variables: Strength (2)

7 Homogenous Subsets
LIST OF APPENDIX FIGURES

APPENDIX FIGURES

1 Before and After Compressive

Testing (Northern Cement)

2 Before and After Compressive

Testing (Republic Cement)

3 Before and After Compressive

Testing (Eagle Cement Advance)


ABSTRACT

ALFARO, JAMAICA Q., BARTOLOME, ANGEL JOY LILAC B.,

Bartolome, Canton, Mary Joy Melbert S., De Guzman, Alex Roger Jr., Macanas,

Joshua Q., and Viloria, Vince Joseph DG., Department of Mathematics and Physics,

College of Arts and Sciences, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz,

Nueva Ecija, Philippines, FEBRUARY 2018, STRENGTH AND PRICE

COMPARISON AMONG NORTHERN CEMENT, REPUBLIC CEMENT AND

EAGLE CEMENT ADVANCE IN CONCRETE PRODUCTION

Adviser: JOHN RAFAEL ANTALAN

In constructing building, cement is the most common material used in creating

houses, offices and other infrastructures. Cement is a finely milled mineral powder and

usually grey in color. Portland cement is one of the most popular cement in the Philippines

that’s why many people used it as a material in constructing a building. The researchers

will identify which brand of Portland Cement is the most durable and to determine which

brand of Portland Cement have the best quality and affordable. The researchers choose

Portland cement as a topic for their research because they know that cement is the most

common material used in constructing different infrastructures. The researchers want to

know many things about Portland cement because they know that it will be useful in the

near future.
CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

In constructing building, cement is the most common material used in creating

houses, offices and other infrastructures. Cement is a finely milled mineral powder

manufactured in a very precise process. It is usually gray in color. Limestone, clay and

marl are the most important raw materials in making cement. When mixed with water,

cement transforms into paste that serves as an adhesive to bind sand, gravel, and hard rock

in concrete. It can bind other materials together as well.

John Smeaton made an important contribution to the development of cements when

he was planning the construction of the third Eddystone lighthouse (1755-1759) in the

English Channel. In 1824, Joseph Aspdin patented a similar material, which he called

Portland cement, because the render made from it was in color similar to the prestigious

Portland stone. The investigations of L.J. Vicat led him to prepare an artificial hydraulic

lime by calcining an intimate mixture of limestone and clay. Later in 1845 Isaac Charles

Johnson burnt a mixture of clay and chalk till the clinkering stage to make better cement

and stablished factories in 1851. The German standard specification for Portland cement

was drawn in 1877. The British standard specification was first drawn up in 1904. The first

ASTM specification was issued in 1904. In India, Portland cement was first manufactured

in 1904 near Madras, by the South India Industrial Ltd. But this venture failed. Between

1912 and 1913, the India cement Co. Ltd., was established at Porbander (Gujarat) and by

1914 this company was able to deliver about 1000 tons of Portland cement. (Cement

History and the Industrial Revolution, 2005).


Portland cement is defined as a common type of powder made from finely

pulverized alumina, iron oxide, lime, magnesia, and silica burnt together in a kiln. The

powdery substance of Portland cement was developed from hydraulic lime during the mid-

19th century in England. When a mixed with water and sand (or gravel) it turns into

masonry mortar (or concrete) and, after a series of complex internal reactions, sets like a

stone. (Business Dictionary, n.d.).

As stated by Merlo Construction (2017), Portland cement is a basic cement mixture

and fundamental ingredient for many common cement applications. Because Portland

cement is very common, it is also often called “Ordinary Portland Cement” or simply

“OPC.” Since the early 20th century, Portland cement has been used internationally for a

wide variety of applications including concrete projects, mortar pastes, stucco decorations,

and grout fillings.

Due to the widely available component materials, such as limestone and shale used

in its development, Portland cement is a low-cost construction material. It is quite versatile

and has several uses. It is also the basic ingredient of concrete.

In the Philippines, Portland cement is one of the most popular cement in the

Philippines that’s why many people used it as a material in constructing a building. It is

one of the most common types of general-use cement.

Northern Cement Corporation is situated at the extreme southwestern flanks of

Cordillera mountain range. The area is characterized by low flat lying alluvial plains and

eventually rises towards the north and east exhibiting a gently rolling to moderately rugged

terrain. Rolling hills occupy mostly the western and southern position of the Cordillera and
sliced in-between by the Alogarat River. High relief starts from the cement plant abruptly

rising to the north and east reaching an elevation of about six hundred (600) meters above

sea level. On top of the limestone deposits forms a plateau-like terrain with an average

altitude of three hundred (300) meters. The company’s cement plant complex is twentyfive

(25) kilometers away from Urdaneta City and could be reached by any motor vehicle

following the Manila-Laoag national road up to Barangay Paldit junction in Sison,

Pangasinan. A six (6) kilometers stretch due east reaches the cement plant complex. (From

the Cement Manufacturers Association of the Philippines 2012)

Based on the Republic Cement Services Inc. (2017), Republic cement, a CRH-

Aboitiz company, is the proud maker of the country’s best-quality cement and building

materials under the brands Republic, Fortune, Rapidset, wallMASTER, Kapitbalay, and

Mindanao manufactured at seven strategically located plants across the country, offering

the widest supply footprint to serve the needs of our rapidly developing economy. Republic

draws its roots from Republic Cement Corporation. Founded in 1955, the company has

been associated with some of the world’s best performing organizations such as Blue Circle

and Lafarge. Recently, Republic became part of the CRH-Aboitiz team in the Philippines.

Republic is backed by the global expertise of CRH, a leading building materials company

and Aboitiz, a diversified Filipino business group recognized as one of the best managed

organizations in the country and in Asia

Eagle Cement Advance is a general purpose cement that exceeds the Philippine

National Standards (PNS 063) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM

C595). It is composed of clinker, gypsum, and highly reactive cementitious material which
enhance mortar and concrete characteristics from fresh to hardened state. (Eagle Cement

Corporation, 2017).

Objectives of the Study

This study aims to answer the general question: Which brand of Portland cement is

the most recommendable to construction related activities based on their strength and

price?

 To identify which brand of Portland cement has the highest compressive strength

 To determine which brand of Portland cement has the least price but high in quality

in terms of strength.

Significance of the Study

To the Readers. This study will help the reader to gain knowledge regarding the topic

even without performing an actual experiment. The readers can determine the difference

in strength and price of the three (3) brands being compared which is Republic cement and

Northern cement and Eagle Cement Advance. This information will help them decide what

is the best brand to use for their future house or buildings

To the Researchers. This study will give the researchers more knowledge about the

strength of each brand of Portland cement. Also, this study has a big contribution to the

researchers for their college track as a Civil Engineer and Architect.

To the Building Industry. This study will give recommendation to support working in the

building industry on brand of cement will be used for their projects.


Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This research will study on similarities and differences of the brands in terms of

strength and price. By performing standard experiment and test, related to the creation of

concrete and determination of its strength, the researchers will able to know which brand

of Portland cement have the best quality. Curing Republic cement for twenty-three (23)

days won’t change the fact that it strength is higher than other two (2) cements. Since it did

not attain its maximum strength which occurs at 28 days. This study started February 2018

and will only last May 2018.

Definition of Terms

Adhesive. Made of gelatin or other substances, such as epoxy, resin, or polyethylene.

Afford. To be able to do or bear without serious harm.

Alluvial. Loose, unconsolidated soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by

water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.

Cement. Manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium,

silicon, aluminum, iron and other ingredients.

Clinker. The stony residue from burned coal or from a furnace.

Concrete. A mixture of paste and aggregates, or rocks.

Construction. Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

Durability. The ability of a physical product to remain functional, without requiring

excessive maintenance or repair, when faced with the challenges of normal operation over

its design lifetime.


Gypsum. Chemically known as “calcium sulfate dehydrate” and it contains calcium, sulfur

bound to oxygen, and water.

Harden. To make hard and to become more severe, determined, or unpleasant.

Hydration. A chemical reaction in which the major compounds in cement form chemical

bonds with water molecules.

Hydraulic. A technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other

sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.

Prestigious. Inspiring respect and admiration; having high status.

Quality. The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind and

the degree of excellence of something.

Terrain. Involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.

Venture. An undertaking involving uncertainty as to the outcome, especially a risky or

dangerous one.

Versatile. To adapt or be adapted to many different functions or activities.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES

This part of the study contains the exploration of the researchers on the related

literatures and studies about the comparison and contrast of the 3 brand of Portland Cement.

Related Literatures

Cement
Blezard (1998) stated that:

Cement may be defined as adhesive substance capable of


uniting fragments or masses of solid matter to a compact whole.
Such a definition embraces a large number of different
substance having little in common with one another but their
adhesiveness, and the very unequal technical and scientific
importance of different members of the class has tended to
bring about a restriction of the designation to one group of
adhesive substance, namely, to the plastic material employed to
produce adhesion between stones, bricks, etc. in the
construction of buildings and engineering works.
Cement becomes the most common raw material in the construction industry

because of its capability to hold solid matter into one (1) and as time goes by, the

formulation and the materials used in making cement become more modern and have more

great characteristics than before. But the materials used to create cement are uncommon

and is limited like the limestone which some takes millions of years to form.

ADMET, Inc. (2017), explained that:

Cement is one of the most complex topics being studied within


materials science. The specifics behind the reactions that happen
when cement powder and water are mixed are still unknown and
only theorized. Kenneth Snyder, a cement expert at the US
National Institute of Standards and Technology, told a Nature
journal reporter that “the details of what is happening once water
touches cement powder are a matter of lively debate.”
The most crucial step is when mixing cement with water because the materials must

be measured properly. The water must not be too less or too much because even a slightly

error can affect the strength of the cement. The other materials that are also added to the

mixture are another factor to the formula of the mixture. Almost all mixture used in

buildings has another raw material like gravel, sand etc. and it will greatly improve the

strength of the mixture.

The quality of cement is one of the important factors related to


the strength and durability of concrete. (Islam et.al., 2012)
Quality is an important thing to know what is the best cement for the future houses

because it determined how trustable the cement is, if it is strong enough to stand to an

earthquake, landslide and other calamities. The quality affects the durability of a house. By

this, it will determine how many years the cement can maintain the house or building in

good condition.

Related Studies

This part of the study contains the studies of different persons that are related about

Portland cement:

On the study of Bolio et.al. (2011), it stated that:

Cement will remain the key material to satisfy global housing


and modern infrastructure needs. As a consequence, the cement
industry worldwide is facing growing challenges in conserving
material and energy resources, as well as reducing its CO
emissions.
Nowadays, most of the houses is made of cement to make the infrastructure modern

and strong. Cement is important material for constructing a house or building. By

constructing a house, it will have big contribution to the other people most likely for the
poor to make them more comfortable and safe. In order to produce a cement, the cement

industry needs raw material and energy resources.

The products of the reaction between cement and water are


termed "hydration products." In Concrete (or mortar or
other cementitious materials) there are typically four main
types: (1) Calcium silicate hydrate (2) Calcium hydroxide
(3) AFm phases and (4) AFt phases. (Winter 2012).
The products produce by combining cement and water is called hydration product.

There are four (4) types of hydration product. The last one is the AFt phases, this type

composed of three (3) molecules of anhydrite when written as C3A.3CaSO4.32H2O. Third

one is AFm phases, this type composed of one (1) molecule written as C3A.CaSO4.12H2O.

Second is Calcium hydroxide, this is abbreviated as CH. Among of those hydration

products, the Calcium silicate hydrate is the main type or the main hydration product when

cement and water bond together. Also this is the primarily responsible for the strength of

cement based materials.

Portland cements are very similar worldwide but supplementary


materials such as fly ash and slag are less well-specified.
(Elseveir, 1992).
According to the Elseveir (1992), Portland cement is commonly used worldwide

but they did not study and analyzed well the fly ash and slag. This type of cement is usually

used by many people because it has a good quality and it is the first cement that invented

by Joseph Aspdin.

Durability is impinged upon by the interaction of different


factors such as construction materials, construction method,
quality systems in use at the construction stages, environmental
exposure of the structural elements and their functions, ease of
access for inspection and maintenance. (Elseveir, 2005).
Durability has an impact when there is an interaction happens between the different

factors. It has an ability to undergo permanent deformation without cracking or fracturing.


Without significant deterioration by resisting the effects of heavy use, drying, wetting

heating, freezing, and etcetera has an ability to exist for a long period of time.

On the Study of Ekinci and Kelesoglu (2014) stated that:

The most analyzed and in a sense the most important mechanical


property of concrete is its compressive strength. Compressive
strength is directly proportional to concrete’s other positive
qualities. Concrete with high compressive strength is occupied,
hard, water resistant, unreadable, and resistant to other outside
effects. By determining concrete’s compressive strength, a general
evaluation about concrete’s quality can be reached.
The compressive strength of the mechanical property of concrete is considered as

one of the most analyzed and most important part. Due to this, the compressive strength is

directly proportional to the concrete's other positive qualities such as strength and

durability. So if the concrete has a high compressive strength, the result or the outcome of

the concrete would be occupied, hard, water resistant, unreadable, and resistant to other

outside effects. By determining concrete’s compressive strength, a general evaluation

about concrete’s quality can be reached.


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methods that was used in the study. Also, this includes

the instruments, procedures of data gathering, and the statistical processes used during the

research.

Research Materials and Methods

1. Mixture

The researchers prepared three (3) different brands of Portland cement and

used it to create concretes of cylindrical shape. The standard ratio of mixture of

cement are 2:4:6 which is composed of 6kg of cement, 12kg of sand and 18kg of

gravel. The nine (9) cylinder was composed of the same mixture of a standard ratio.

2. Preparation

All materials needed such as cement, sand and gravel are equally distributed to

the 12 inches cylindrical shaped molder. The material’s mass needed in the

experiment are listed in the table below.

Brand Cement Sand Gravel Water Total

Northern 2kg 4kg 6kg 2kg 12kg

Republic 2kg 4kg 6kg 2kg 12kg

Eagle 2kg 4kg 6kg 2kg 12kg


Advance

Table 1: Materials Mass


a. Cement

The researchers used 6kg of different brand of Portland cement which are

Northern Cement, Republic Cement, and Eagle Advance Cement that is used

for general concreating.

b. Sand (Fine Aggregate)

Approximately 12kg of sand was used in conducting the research.

c. Gravel (Coarse Aggregate)

Approximately 18kg of gravel was used in conducting the research.

d. Water

Approximately 2kg water will be used in the experiment to achieve the mass

of 12kg cylinder.

e. Molder

The molder is about 12inch in height, 6cm radius and made of plastic to

easily remove the product from the cylinder.

3. Production

The researchers prepare all the materials needed to conduct the experiment.

The mixture of the materials must meet the estimated weight of 12kg. Since

the mixture has a big amount, the researchers used shovel in mixing the

materials in a few minutes. After mixing, the researchers poured the mixture

into the cylindrical molder and will be left about 24 hours for the concrete

mixture to dry.
4. Curing

After 24 hours, the concrete will be removed in the cylinder. The standard

curing period of concrete is 28 days but the recommended curing is about 14

days. The product was drowned completely in a pail full of water for 14 days.

A total of nine (9) cylindrical concrete product was cured before conducting

strength test.

5. Testing

a. Compression Testing

Each product was tested by Materials Testing and Quality Control

Laboratory of San Jose City’s Engineering Department. The Laboratory

measured the strength of each product.

Locale of the Study

Researchers conducted the study on Materials Testing and Quality Control

Laboratory of San Jose City’s Engineering Department. Researchers chose this place

because this is the place where the researchers can test the strength of each brand of cement

which can help the researcher to be finish the study successfully.

Data Analysis

Researchers want to show which brand of cement has the highest compressive

strength and lowest price. Also, analysis of the price satisfies the quality of the cement

were considered. All the data collected from the experiment was conducted by the

researchers can answer the problems stated at the beginning of this paper.
TIMETABLE

The table below represents the schedules that helped the researchers to manage their

time and make their study successfully.

Brand of April 4, 2018 April 5, 2018 April 10, 2018

Portland Cement

Northern Cement

Republic Cement

Eagle Cement
Advance

Table 2: Mixing Manual

Brand of May 3, 2018

Portland Cement

Northern Cement

Republic Cement

Eagle Cement Advance

Table 3: Date of Testing the durability of each brand of Cement


CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the results of this research. The values of compressive

strength were obtained from Material Testing and Quality Control Laboratory of San Jose

City’s Engineering Department. The data were analyzed using SPSS. The results are

presented clearly using tables with brief discussion below.

This research addressed the following question:

 To identify which brand of Portland cement has the highest compressive strength

 To determine which brand of Portland cement has the least price but high in quality

in terms of strength.

Sample Part of Structure/ Age In Strength


Identification
Station Represented

IA Northern Cement 29 CD 1,709

II A Eagle Cement Advance 28 CD 1,073

III A Republic Cement 23 CD 1,629

Table 4: First Compression Test of Portland Cement.

On the first Compression Test, the Northern Cement is the most durable among the

three (3) brands of Portland cement with a strength of 1,709. Next is the Republic Cement

with a strength of 1,629 and the last is Eagle Cement Advance with a strength of 1073.
Sample Part of Structure/ Age In Strength
Identification
Station Represented

IB Northern Cement 29 CD 1,590

II B Eagle Cement Advance 28 CD 954

III B Republic Cement 23 CD 1,669

Table 5: Second Compression Test of Portland Cement

In second Compression Test, the Republic Cement is the most durable with a

strength of 1,669. Next is the Northern Cement with a strength of 1,590 and the last is

Eagle Cement Advance with a strength of 954.

Sample Part of Structure/ Age In Strength


Identification
Station Represented

IC Northern Cement 29 CD 834

II C Eagle Cement Advance 28 CD 1,073

III C Republic Cement 23 CD 1,311

Table 6: Third Compression Test of Portland Cement

In this table, you can see that the most durable cement is same to the second (2nd)

Compression test which is Republic Cement with a strength of 1,311. Next is the Eagle

Advance Cement with a strength of 1,073 and the last is Eagle Cement Advance with a

strength of 834.
From the result of Compression Testing, the researchers get the average of the

strength of each brands of Portland Cement.

Sample Part of Structure/ Age In Total of Average


Identification Strength
Station
Represented

I A,B,C Northern Cement 29 CD 4,133 1,377.67

II A,B,C Eagle Cement 28 CD 2,800 933.33

Advance

III A,B,C Republic Cement 23 CD 4,609 1,536.33

Table 7: Intermediate Result for the three Comprehensive Test of Portland Cement

Based on the table, Republic cement is the most durable among the 3 with an

average of 1,536.33. Next is the Northern Cement with an average of 1,377.67 and the

Eagle Cement Advance has the lowest average among the three brands with an average of

933.33.

Since the p-value is 0.189 > 0.05, we conclude that there is no statistically

significant difference among the strength of the concretes per group. Thus their strength

are all the same statistically.

Since this is the case, the least expensive cement is the ideal cement to be used in

building industries.
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the study together with the conclusions made

by the researchers and the recommendations for the future researchers and also for the

offshoot of the study. This part of research contains all the findings regarding the study

Summary

This study is about Strength and Price Comparison Among Northern Cement,

Republic Cement and Eagle Cement Advance in Concrete Production. We choose the three

brands of Portland cement as a topic because we all know that this brand of Portland cement

is the most common material used in constructing different infrastructures.

To successfully conduct the study, the researchers observed the cement day by day.

They went to the Materials Testing and Quality Control Laboratory of San Jose City’s

Engineering Department, May 3,2018. The Laboratory will measure the strength of each

brand of cement. The researchers make a cylinder shape cement using a PVC pipe as a

molder.

Conclusion

There are many types of Cement but the commonly used is the Portland cement.

On the first compression test, Northern Cement got the highest p.s.i. (pound per square

inch), Northern cement is the second, and Eagle Cement Advance got the lowest p.s.i.

In this test, the researchers determined that Republic Cement is the most durable

among the three (3) brand of Portland Cement. However, statistically speaking, their
strengths are the same. The only difference is their price in the market. Republic Cement

is the cheapest among the three that is why the researchers conclude that the most

recommended brand of Portland Cement to buy and use is the Republic Cement.

Recommendation

The recommendations below were based on the data and information gathered by

the researchers after conducting the study

1. For the future researchers,

 try to determine if curing has an effect to the durability of the cement.

 Find additional related literatures that can support your study

2. To the students, teachers and other readers who are interested about the topic,

aside from reading this research they can also find other books that contain knowledge and

information about cement.