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2.

0 BASIS OF DESIGN

2.1 Objectives

Design objective of the Ground Reservoir is to contain clear water in order to serve as a
Storage Reservoir.

2.2 Materials of Construction

Reinforced Cement Concrete is generally the most economical material for construction. It
provides a structure with long life and low maintenance cost.

The structure that is designed to retain water, must fulfill the requirements for normal
structures in having adequate strength, durability, and free from excessive cracking or
deflection. In addition this must be designed so that the water is not allowed to leak or
percolate though the concrete structure during the design life of the structure.

2.3 Type of the Structure

There are three basic types of Ground Reservoirs. Those are Domed Circular, Flat Slab
Circular and Flat Slab Square/Rectangular.

Thin structural components (thin concrete sections) can be used in Domed Circular
reservoirs. This leads to savings in materials. However, formwork erection is a very tedious
work in this type of reservoirs, compared to Flat Slab Square/Rectangular reservoirs. Also
considerable additional cost will have to bear for labour & formwork. Although formwork &
construction of Flat Slab Circular reservoir is not difficult as Domed Circular reservoir, it is
also generally difficult compared to Rectangular reservoir. Furthermore, land at corners
tends to waste due to circular shape.

Only Flat Slab Rectangular reservoir can be constructed by using continuous straight
formworks, which is an easy and economical way of construction.

Therefore, flat slab rectangular structure is selected for 20,000m 3 ground reservoir.

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2.4 Structural Actions

All liquid retaining structures are required to resist horizontal forces due to liquid pressure.
Fundamentally there are two ways in which the pressure can be contained. Those are, by
force of direct tension or compression and by flexural resistance. Structures designed by
using compressive forces are normally circular and they may be pre-stressed.

Rectangular reservoirs rely on flexural action using cantilever walls, propped cantilever
walls or wall spanning in two directions. However, it is very rare to see two-way spanning
cantilever walls in ground water reservoirs, due to generally practiced dimensions. In this
particular reservoir, all the walls are spanning one-way. In addition to the water pressure,
the reservoir undergoes the soil pressures. This is also critical, when one or both
compartments are empty.
The crack width of a water retaining structure is one of the most critical factors. The
maximum allowable crack width is 0.2mm.

2.5 Structural Layout

The layout of the proposed structure and the estimation of member sizes must precede any
detailed analysis. Structural components should be considered from the viewpoints of
strength, serviceability, stage of construction and the cost. These factors are to some extent
mutually contradictory. A satisfactory scheme is a compromised, simple in concept and
detailed.

In liquid retaining structures, it is particularly necessary to avoid sudden changes in section,


because it causes concentration of stress and hence increases the possibility of cracking.

Structural loads should carry directly as possible to the foundation using the fewest
structural members. There are several types considered for walls of rectangular reservoirs.

a. Design as cantilever walls.


b. Design as counter fort walls with slab and beams.
c. Design as vertical walls with buttressed by vertical beams which are tied internally
at several levels by horizontal tie beams.

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Cantilever walls are selected as it uses the minimum structural members. It is preferable to
design cantilever walls as tapering slabs.

The roof slab of reservoir designed as a flat slab. The roof is supporting on the wall with a
movement (sliding) joint to avoid loading on perimeter walls due to any thermal expansion
of the roof.

2.6 Analysis and Design Procedure

The analysis and design were carried out in accordance with the limit state design
philosophy of BS 8110 and BS 8007.

The strength is the basic consideration for normal structural designs. The Serviceably
Conditions control the design for liquid retaining structures. The structure is checked for
compliance with the requirements for the strength at the ultimate limit state using factored
loads with maximum liquid levels. The limit state of the crack width checked with un-factored
loads at normal working levels. The crack width at serviceability limit state is limited to
0.2mm in accordance with BS 8007. Deflection is controlled by limiting the allowable span
to depth ratio in accordance with BS 8110.

2.7 Common Data

1. Characteristic strength of concrete for water


retaining component (Grade 35A); fcu =35 N/mm2

2. Modulus of elasticity of concrete; Ec =28 kN/mm2

3. Characteristic strength of High yield steel; fy = 460 N/mm2

4. Characteristic strength of Mild steel; fy =250 N/mm2

5. Modulus of elasticity of steel; Es =200 kN/mm2

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