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Gender & Work

stay-at-home moms . a discontinuous path interrupted by family obligations. uninterrupted Women: part-time employment. abilities. & potential contribution to the society ~ career choices are shaped by gender Men: pursue career in full-time. Careers ~ careers are “life paths” which people choose them base on their interests.

but beliefs and expectations differ women’s expectations include both career & family expectation about marriage & motherhood pull women toward domesticity high-prestige career demand time and commitment .Career Expectations and Gender Stereotyping aspirations are similar for boys and girls.

service. or professional positions gender segregation promotes gender stereotyping and hinder the career development for both men and women .Career Expectations and Gender Stereotyping identification of women with caring may present a major barrier to women’s success in occupations non-traditional for women employed women concentrated in narrow range of clerical.

Career Opportunities Women & men do not have equal career opportunities because: ~ different encouragement ~ education & training ~ gender stereotype ~ discrimination in hiring .

initial differences in salary make it difficult for women’s salaries to catch up . Discrimination in Hiring Possible discrimination in hiring through: ~ recruitment ~ offer receivers ~ job assignment & salary gender differences in salary expectation & negotiation even with similar levels of advancement after hiring.

female-dominated occupations . rapid promotion Token ~ women who pursue careers in male-dominated fields become more visible and pressure to success Sticky Floor ~ low-status occupations with little opportunity for advancement. Barriers to Career Advancement Glass Escalator ~ the advantage that men have in female-dominated careers.

Barriers to Career Advancement Different educational credentials “Mommy track” vs “Daddy track” ~ levels of commitment Career schedules ~ take time off to attend to family needs ~ promotion Workplace climate ~ men are more likely be chosen as representative for important tasks .

Balancing Career and Family family demands create challenges for both women and men Socialization pushed women toward domesticity and prevent them from being “ideal workers” working mothers are hard to “win” flexible work schedules are difficult to achieve in high-commitment careers .

Gender Issues at Work Gender segregation Communication and power Sexual harassment .

Gender Segregation on the Job the large majority of jobs are held by either men or women (but not both). it leads to perception of “gendered” jobs Diversification of occupations ~ men occupy a wider variety of jobs than women ~ women are underrepresented in skilled blue-collar jobs Contributes to gender gap in wages ~ occupations predominantly female are lower paying .

Gender Segregation on the Job some women have entered male-dominated fields but fewer men have entered female- dominated fields women enter a predominantly male workplace may feel unwelcome gender segregation diminished as more women are well-educated .

Communication. & Power in the Workplace Different speech styles Men: negotiations and power Women: connections and commonality women’s communication style may be a disadvantage in the workplace power in the workplace is associated with leadership women have the potential as excellent leaders. Gender. but they face many barriers .

Gender. subordinate positions ~ sexual at work . & Power in the Workplace Sex role spillover ~ aspects of gender roles affect behavior in the workplace creates stereotyped/sexualized atmosphere Expectations for women: ~ more nurturing or loyal ~ occupy less powerful. Communication.

Sexual Harassment at Work Quid pro quo ~ demanding sexual favors as a condition for employment / promotion Hostile environment ~ the workplace contains unwanted sexual attention or offensive behavior Gender harassment ~ offensive or hostile behavior directed at individuals because of their gender .

Sexual Harassment at Work both men and women could be targets for sexual attention in the workplace lack of understanding of other gender’s perception harassers of both genders may have impulse control problem negative career and mental health consequence .