You are on page 1of 167

Reformulation of Two-Year Bachelor Degree Teacher Education

Programme (B.Ed.) in RIEs: A Draft

1. Prelude

The exercise of reformulation of teacher education programmes at the Regional


Institutes of Education of the NCERT is part of a series of efforts initiated by the
NCERT towards systemic reforms to strengthen the process of education as
envisaged in the National Curriculum Framework, 2005. Through the exercise
attempt is made to address the persisting weaknesses in teacher education as well as
the needed changes in the preparation of future school teachers as envisioned in the
National Curriculum Framework 2005. Teacher Education is expected to prepare
teachers who are equipped with professional competence in creating an ‘enabling
learning environment’ for students to develop their ability for ‘self-learning’,
‘independent thinking’, problem solving, critical thinking and reflection. In order to
carry out the dual tasks of a critical appraisal of the existing teacher education
programmes in the Regional Institutes of Education (RIEs) and recommend a
renewed direction to all their teacher education Programmes, the Council has set up
separate Committees for bachelor and masters level programmes. The present
Committee has the task of reformulating the Bachelor of Education programme
(B.Ed.) of two year.

1.1 Sources for the Direction in Reformulating TE Curriculum

Through its deliberations the Committee has sought to keep in view an ‘envisioned
teacher role'. For this purpose, the following documents and resources have been
considered as basic reference sources while reformulating the teacher education
programmes for RIEs.
• The Constitution of India.
• ‘Spirit of Freedom Struggle’
• National Curriculum Framework, 2005
• Position Papers of National Focus Groups , 2005
• Report of the Chattopadhyay Commission on Teacher Education,1982-84
• National Policy on Education, 1986 (Revised in 1992).
• Teacher Education Curriculum Frameworks of 1978, 1988, 2000, 2006
• Report of the Committee to Review the Teacher Education Programmes of the
Regional Institutes of Education (2006)
• Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education- a draft, NCTE & NCERT, 2006.
• Discourse and deliberations on educational development.

It was considered that these documents and sources provide the appropriate discourse
as well as perspective, from which flow the suggested changes in the teacher
education curriculum.

1
1.2 Role of Regional Institutes of Education (RIEs)

Another point of significance in this task is the distinct role visualized for RIEs. The
RIEs are expected to act as role models in the field of Teacher Education and to
continually provide renewed conceptual orientation in teacher education
programmes. This expectation is in keeping with the recommendations of several
review committees which were summarized by the Report of the Committee to
Review the teacher education programmes of RIEs (2007) in the following words:

‘…RIEs are eminently placed to be developed as centres of


excellence in Teacher Education……transform them from their
present preoccupation of training teachers for secondary schools
to one of building knowledge leadership for school education.. .’.

In keeping with the above, it is pertinent to renew the curricula in RIEs with view to
achieving a break-through in the field of teacher education. The present effort at
reformulation of B.Ed. curriculum has kept this role of RIEs in central focus.

1.3 Revisiting the Existing Teacher Education Programmes

Any effort at reformulation of teacher education curriculum needs to take into


consideration the existing curricula. This provides an insight into the feasibility
aspect of the curriculum; also, it provides a conceptual basis to effect relevant
changes to reformulate curricular inputs.

It may be recognized here that a teacher education programme serves as support


system to the overall education process. All along, from the beginning of twentieth
century in India, teacher training programmes have been increasing in variety and
have added to the number of trained teachers in India. However, it is felt that this
large system of teacher education programmes has retained its significance and
demand mainly for the reason that the teaching personnel at all stages of schooling
have to receive professional training in teaching as a requirement.

Though the bulk of ‘trained’ teachers has been increasing in the country, it is hard to
point out any definite impact of it on the quality of the school system. Such a
criticism of teacher education programmes has been made by important
Commissions such as the Education Commission (1964-66) and the National Policy
on Education 1986 (revised-1992).

A few criticisms and perceived lacunae are pertinent in providing relevant pointers
for meaningful reformulation of teacher education curriculum:

1. Every teacher education curriculum invariably has the theory and practical
components with greater weightage to the former. However, the theory-practice
inputs are disjointed and their integration is left to the students through their career
as regular school teachers, which often remains unattained.

2
2. The ‘theoretical’ inputs are derived from basic cognate disciplines; any
educational relevance of these is drawn as ‘implication’ for practice. However, these
conceptual inputs are dealt with as they are in the original discipline’s perspective
rather than rendering them suitably in the ‘educational perspective’. This perspective
is inadequately brought out and the conceptual treatment of several concepts drawn
from the cognate disciplines is similar to the ‘liberal arts’ programmes, irrespective
of whether they are appropriate (or not) in the educational context

3. The ‘practical’ component seems an omnibus methodology with a logic of its


own but very little adaptability to varying school situations. Such adaptability needs
to be understood in terms of teacher role as a facilitator, and learner participation in
making meaning through learning situations.

4. There seems to be an acceptance that there is ‘the way’ of teaching; insistence


on given steps to be perfected by practice; lack of flexibility to deal with learner
variations, contextual potential and demand, personal capabilities of teacher as well
as the ‘purpose’ or goal or vision of schooling adopted.

5. Most products of teacher education programmes have to evolve pedagogy


suitable in their contexts through trial and error, as practitioners. They often feel
unnerved in the face of the complex field conditions. Looking for similarity of
conditions under which they practiced as student teachers and which they come to
anticipate, they end up disillusioned by the entirely divergent realities in the school
they enter.

6. Mere exposure to straight-jacket pedagogy during teaching practice or even


internship in school can at best ‘settle’ student teachers into some minimal
competencies instead of enabling them to discern various possibilities of evolving
‘enabling learning environments’, whatever be the physical and social context of the
work place.

7. The near absence of the context of education as the larger backdrop against
which school education operates and contributes for the over all educational
development. There is thus a need to situate teacher education as well as school
education in the context of educational aims/goals/vision.

8. Need to dovetail various components of teacher education so as to provide a


composite understanding of all aspects and ‘prepare’ teachers as professionals with a
wider understanding of their crucial role as well as a sense of agency in meeting its
challenges.

9. Rendering teacher education programme as relevant to divergent local contexts


has been a problem in the wake of:
• several systems of schools in the country spread across different
geographical, socio-economic locales

3
• field exposure getting restricted to the school in which internship is
arranged though it shares the several givens such as syllabi, textbooks,
evaluation schemes, and so on.

1.4 The Vision of School: a Dynamic, Enabling Learning Environment


The changing reality of the school system and its emerging vision is another
significant point to be kept in focus while reformulating TE curriculum. Schools
have evolved into a wide spread network of institutions functioning at different
stages of education. This network has grown into a full-fledged organizational
arrangement replete with its inter connections and functional specifications.
However, the explicit goal of value concerns are subdued due to the inevitable
systemic features of its regulatory, streamlined functional details or ‘norms’ which at
best become restrictive.

The National Curriculum Framework 2005 visualizes school as “an environment


where children feel secure, where there is absence of fear, and which is governed by
relationships of equality and equity…..where children ask questions freely, engaging
in a dialogue with teachers and peers, during the ongoing lesson”. School is not
merely a regulated, organizational planning set up with organizational goals, but also
a ‘vibrant learning environment’ in which learner participation is with involvement
and willing effort rather than as a response to prescribed specifications.

School is a part of a larger social milieu, which in its wider sense is the Indian
democracy with its values of equality, social justice and freedom. To be able to
appropriately reflect these values of the larger ‘environment’, school has to
continuously strive to evolve a conducive ‘school culture’. All experiences within
school in a totality enable learning, not merely the classroom interactions. Therefore,
school has to provide opportunity to every learner for experiencing varied situations
and learn in meaningful ways.

Every learner learns in unique ways and needs freedom to explore, and have a degree
of flexibility in making one’s own learning decisions. This process is facilitated by
the teacher in enabling learner’s thinking and meaning making. A vibrant school
makes both teacher and learners ‘feel’ comfortable and free to engage in probing on
one’s own, venture to negotiate and utilize the resources available, without fear of
being penalized in any way. It is not so much the variety and plentiful resource
availability that really determines such an ethos of comfort and freedom in a school,
as much as the attitude to learning. This is not to undermine the importance of
resource availability; but more to underline that it is the manner in which the human
actors (teachers, learners & others) in school and the resources interact that generates
a particular ‘culture’ in the school - either fearful and restrictive, or chaotic and
unorganized, or free, friendly and purposeful. In such situations, teachers ‘facilitate’
learning by learners and not merely prescribe. A lot of diversity both in pedagogy
and assessment of learning becomes necessary for teachers. Such a vision has made
it essential that a definitive alteration is made in the school organisation for which
teacher competence and attitude need to change.

4
1.5 Changing role of teachers in sustaining and transforming education

The roles of teacher appear to largely relate to day to day problems in the classroom
and the attempts to deal with them. However, teachers have a significant role
towards sustaining the education system and helping it to evolve and develop further.
They actualize the development of knowledge, understanding, skill and
competencies as well as a value orientation in their students at each stage of
education. Teachers at all stages have a role to play in actualizing aims of education
and making the education process effective. For example, curriculum formulation
and its implementation at any stage require teachers to share a collective view of the
various aspects of teaching, learning and what is educationally desirable. It is this
that helps in ensuring connectivity among the various aspects of education, namely,
vision of education, forms of knowledge across stages of education, their utilization
towards individual and collective development. Teachers must also play a pro-active
part in the evolutionary process of education and its progressive development. That
is why, for authentic understanding of education, evolving progressive pedagogy
needs to be identified and made an integral part of the professional roles of teachers
while teaching different subjects and varied specialized areas. Thus professional role
of teachers and their engagement in academic pursuits are integrally related. This
intrinsic relationship between academic pursuits of knowing, and the pedagogical
process represent two major dimensions of education; one is about theoretical
understanding of education and the other deals with action decisions and the process
of knowledge creation. Both together have the potential to enable students proceed
towards self-learning and independent thinking.

The teacher as a professional is required to develop his or her own understanding of


these challenges. Also, this understanding should be based on authentic information,
personal assessment and his own reflection. Therefore, the student teachers should
be oriented to seek their observational assessment based on action research and this
will enrich their role competencies.

The existing conditions in schools do not manifest this perspective adequately.


Therefore, Teacher Education programmes have to define teachers’ roles with
reference to an emerging vision of school education. Existing conditions in schools
will need to be critically viewed vis a vis aims of education, and teachers will need to
be prepared such that they have the potential of transforming these conditions.

Towards this end the overall approach to reformulating a curriculum for Teacher
Education needs to keep in mind perspectives drawn from three broad kinds of
considerations:

• Locating Teacher Education in the Context of Education


• Nature of Knowledge Base in Education & Teacher Education
• Emerging National Concerns impacting Educational Practice

5
2. The Approach to Reformulation: A Few Broad Considerations

2.1 Locating Teacher Education in the Context of Education

2.1.1 Teacher Education as a Significant Component of Education


Teacher education has emerged as an essential and significant component of
education. At the present juncture, the emphasis on teacher education has magnified
as never before. It has to respond to the changing demands from the field of
operation - the school - by orienting the current workforce of teachers to the
emerging vision of schooling, as well as prepare the future cadre of well informed,
competent, dynamic teachers with a progressive attitude and orientation regarding
educational and national development.

The present exercise maintains that teacher education is a support component of the
overall education system and so derives all its aspects in the educational perspective.
As an entrant to the educational profession, the teacher, apart from subject
knowledge, needs a basic understanding of education and its components in order to
function effectively.

Any attempt at reformulation of teacher education curriculum has to take into


consideration the persisting concern about the inadequate impact potential of the
existing variety of teacher education programmes, despite the earlier efforts at
enhancing these.

The lacunae in teacher education have brought to surface the need for a two-pronged
effort in curricular reformulation. One, there is a need to explicitly accept a
conceptual stance while evolving the curriculum which clearly situates teacher
education in educational perspective; and two, initiate the entrant teachers to the
infield conditions and develop their capability for discerning possible ways of quality
improvements in the system, with adequate competence, understanding and
motivation to meet the demands of their role. That is, the former pertains to the
conceptual and operational connectivity with the larger educational reality and the
latter to teacher education as an area of professional preparation.

2.1.2 Theoretical Perspective on Education and Teacher Education

For a basic conceptual understanding, education refers to individual’s progressive


development and refinement in his behavioral dimensions leading to cohesive social
life and contribution to the community. Knowledge, skills, competencies and value
orientation gained through schooling in terms of school subjects and other activities
contribute to education of individuals in social and cultural contexts. In this sense,
study of each subject and its pedagogical process contribute to education. It is
essential for the teacher in any subject to recognise that alongside various
dimensions of academic pursuits - namely, knowledge, skills and competence
development - value orientation as well as their relationship with students contribute
to education of individual learners. This needs to be reflected in teacher’s

6
professional abilities in terms of organising teaching-learning by using appropriate
pedagogical arrangement to turn individual student’s learning into worthwhile
learning or education.

In fact, there is a need to recognize the fact that conceptual knowledge in education,
particularly in teacher education, has evolved from practice. The experience in
teacher education shows that there is a tendency to focus on teacher actions or the
‘practice’ component as more relevant, as teacher functioning is essentially ‘action’
oriented. That perhaps is the reason that ‘theoretical’ inputs are perceived as being
‘distant’ and less relevant by the new entrants to the profession. Hence, a
discrepancy between an expectation of integrated understanding of theory and
practice on the one hand, and on the other, the perceived relevance of only the
practice, has created a theoretical clash. Such a conceptual clash has been addressed
by more recent sociological theorization, giving rise to progressive ideas like ‘social
sensitivity’ and creation of new pedagogical concepts like ‘critical pedagogy’ aimed
at promoting attributes such as rational, critical thinking. Any renewed teacher
education curriculum must recognise that an understanding of such perspectives will
contribute to enhanced quality in practice.

Since conceptualization in education pertains to actions and processes, it may be


seen differently from the ‘theory’ in other disciplines. It may be necessary to expose
incumbents of teacher education to more than one theoretical position as by their
very nature, education in general and teacher education in particular, are
interdisciplinary and action related areas. Also, a teacher possibly may adopt any one
or a combination of theoretical positions for oneself, according to one’s inclinations
and disposition; in fact, a teacher may alter one’s theoretical stance according to the
task at hand. For instance, value orientation, which is crucial to the vision of
educational development, is basically a philosophical concept; and hence it cannot be
treated in a singular manner. Instead, philosophical thinking will demand creation of
newer interpretations, and professionals in teacher education will have to own them.
However, this individual position remains coherent with general philosophy of
educational development. Therefore, teacher education curriculum, even when it is
visualized in the backdrop of a particular theoretical position, will have to acquaint
its incumbents with other orientations too, stating them appropriately in this context.

2.1.3 Normative and Evolutionary Character of Education: some implications

Another significant point that needs to be brought into focus is the very nature of
education in the Indian development context. That is, education has come to be
recognized as a very significant aspect of national development which not only has
to be responsive and sensitive to the demands and pressures from other aspects of
development but also contribute towards the ‘desired directions’ to be taken in future
national development.

Responsiveness to the existing pressures points to the ‘normative’ side of current


educational effort. That is, education is preparing individuals for ‘given’ conditions

7
which specify aims of what ‘should be’ in terms of what ‘fits in’ into the existing
paradigm. In contrast, the future directions to be influenced by education point to a
reality yet to be actualized. It is a vision, a wish for conditions that are considered
‘good’ or ‘desirable’ for our society at large. Education has such a dual responsibility
in the national context and all its component dimensions contribute in various ways
towards these.

As a result, the expectations from education keep evolving according to the level of
advancement achieved in other fields and their resultant changing pressures and
demands. It also necessitates alterations in the national ‘vision’ of future, of the
stance the nation would aspire to actualize, which then becomes a pointer to
educational actions. For instance, in the past, the primary goal of education was
transmission of knowledge from the teacher to the student, which largely depended
upon students’ memory as the main mental attribute needed for learning. Ever since,
however, the goal of education in India has undergone significant change. Education
came to be viewed as an instrument for social, economic and political development
leading to transformation of the Indian society. This changed view originated from
the spirit of freedom struggle and developed later during post independence period in
more concrete terms. Consequently, the vision of education and nature of learning
on the part of students has been conceptualized very differently. At present,
education is seen as a significant component for national development.

Renewal of vision of education would bring to the surface time and again certain
changes in the education process. The changes may relate both to conceptual
understanding and organizational specifications. These may present ‘issues’ to be
faced and also certain problems to be solved. These may be intrinsic challenges in
education. For seeking solutions to such challenges action research and innovative
programmes may have to be carried out. Another set of challenges may be generated
by the issues and problems arising out of the implementation of the changes required
for education quality. These problems may largely be related to support systems of
education, namely, teacher education, evaluation and assessment, administration and
planning etc. In order to meet these challenges systemic reforms may be needed.
That is, education requires continual appraisal, both academic and social; and
renewal of its programmes and processes. In order to address this task the personnel
involved in its support systems – including teacher education - have to be well
versed in analytic reflective orientation, so that they might address issues and
problems creatively and with insight. Towards this end, an on-going discourse
created through research inputs and deliberations on these will help in making
education process innovation-prone and responsive to emerging issues and concerns
of education.

Besides, the emphasis to be given through the educational process has to be clear and
dynamic enough to cater to the changing requirements of the workforce both within
and beyond the field of education. This makes curricular decision-making a very
dynamic, vibrant and continuous process. The implication is that a similar feature
must be shared by teacher education.

8
2.2 Nature of Knowledge Base in Education & Teacher Education
2.2.1 Nature of Knowledge in Education

The key point pertaining to the knowledge-base in education brings into focus the
relevance of representing the conceptual and practical inputs in teacher education in
the educational perspective. Knowledge in education pertains essentially to ‘actions’
and in this sense, its theoretical component is different from the other ‘basic
disciplines’. It comprises explication of how the educative process occurs under
varying conditions; the way in which national aspirations get translated into
educational goals, evolving pedagogy for various stages, knowledge development in
other fields and how relevant curricular ramifications can be made in the various
disciplines, and so on. More over, knowledge in education pertains essentially to
how learning can be brought about in ‘desired’ ways by creating conducive
conditions; what the conducive conditions are; ways of ascertaining the learning of
‘desired’ things, how to ascertain the quality of learning, who has learned what, how
much and how well, and how adequately it matches the expectations or goals set; the
organizational arrangements that have evolved and their rationale, their connectivity
with regard to their goals and to contributions to national development.

The knowledge base in education has evolved over time and has acquired
recognizable form. The teacher education curriculum thus has to enable student
teachers to understand education conceptually with its characterization of an
interdisciplinary area of study and to appreciate the role of teachers at all levels in
actualizing educational goals.

2.2.2 Knowledge base in Teacher Education


In accordance with a progressive vision of education towards national development,
the process of education needs to respond to socially sensitive issues, such as issues
of social justice, secularism, cultural plurality etc. The processes of education and
the pedagogical approaches adopted are intended to be effective in this development.
Operationally, it is the teachers’ role to facilitate the process of education. This role
of the teacher is professional in intent and action. Therefore, teacher has to be
equipped with understanding of education as well as pedagogy in the social and
cultural context. In this context the following points may be emphasized:

1. Reformulation of Teacher Education programmes amounts to clearly


identifying the aims of education and the perspective with which education process
is created, sustained and continually evolved. Since teacher education is a support
system of education, teacher education programmes have to draw their theoretical
and conceptual bases from curricular orientations that represent changing social
aspirations as well as lasting values. At the same time, it needs to be recognized that
dynamic translation of the educational goals over time is a significant characteristic
of education, and thus needs to be represented in the Teacher Education curriculum

9
2. Teacher education seeks to draw theoretical knowledge from cognate
disciplines like philosophy, psychology, sociology, political science and history.
These are required to provide theoretical understanding of different aspects of
education in their respective disciplinary perspective; and the expectation is that this
will lead to a composite understanding of various educational processes and action
decisions to be made therein. At present, however, this is attempted by drawing
relevant ‘implications’ when teacher educators teach cognate disciplines separately
as part of teacher preparation programmes. In this approach, cognate disciplines are
taught as ‘liberal arts’. Such knowledge remains isolated and does not get integrated
to obtain a composite understanding of education as a complete process.

3. Disciplinary knowledge inputs therefore need to be used for providing


theoretical basis that can help in arriving at an understanding of education process –
its aims and modalities - and enable student teachers to reconstruct these in the
context of the classroom and schooling as whole. Doing so would result in their
seeking general principles and guidelines which enable them to take action decisions
in real teaching-learning situations. For this purpose, student teachers require an
exposure to varied disciplinary knowledge inputs and opportunity for analyzing
them. Varied knowledge inputs need to be viewed together in different learning
contexts and situations. This leads to discerning their specific relevance to actions
and decisions in education and identifying connectivity between and among them.
Thus the student teacher has to be an active participant in seeking a theoretical base
of education. This attempt requires suitably modified and freshly designed study
material for student teachers. In addition, there may be a need for creating more
interactive situations for them to promote self-study, analysis, academic and
operational connectivities, reflecting on their relevance to education etc.

2.2.3 Philosophical base for Teacher Education

It is essential that there be a philosophical basis for understanding education, for the
vision of education has several dimensions, both human and social. These are
amenable to interpretation and reflection, and provide general principles and
guidelines for educational development. Hence this aspect should be embedded in
the design of a Teacher Education programme. Such a philosophical basis, however,
cannot be drawn from one single school of thought of philosophy, like idealism,
pragmatism, naturalism, realism etc. It has to be sought from a general philosophy of
socio-economic, political and cultural development which demands a composite
view of philosophical thoughts; this should help student teachers in the
understanding of varied aims of education and its process aspects. Such an
understanding is required on the part of teachers to develop their own composite
view, which they can utilize in their professional role for creating appropriate
teaching-learning process for students. A more participative and interpretative
approach to learning on the part of student teachers would thus have to be promoted
for enabling them to develop their own view about education and its development in
social and cultural context.

10
This also implies that the knowledge inputs from other disciplines such as
psychology and sociology to be soaked into general philosophy of education for
authentic use in education process of themes like learning and pedagogical
modalities. In this sense, philosophy of psychology, sociology and philosophy of any
knowledge area will be a useful coinage to help student teachers appreciate the
contribution of philosophical thoughts in the authentic understanding of education
and its ramifications.

2.3 Emerging National Concerns impacting Educational Practice

2.3.1 Social and cultural dimensions

In post-independence era, social and cultural dimensions of development in India


through education have acquired great emphasis. In such envisioned role of
education, concepts like ‘social sensitivity’, ‘equity’, ‘equality’, ‘social justice’,
‘cultural ethos’, have had to be revisited and newer meanings had to be given to
them. This was necessitated for their inclusion in process aspects of education that is
the curricular and instructional dimensions. These newer notions in
conceptualization of education created significant space for academic disciplines
particularly those in liberal arts like sociology and political science. Theoretical
inputs drawn from such disciplines, such as critical theory, human rights, peace,
inter-dependence and co-operation, were considered relevant in education for
broadening its theoretical premises and their comprehensive understanding. Such
understanding of education is not confined to theoretical significance only, but it has
influenced the practice aspects of education as well, both conceptually and
operationally. For example, ‘ critical pedagogy’ rather than the simple traditional
term ‘ pedagogy’ ; teacher’s proactive role towards social and civil behavioral
change, social action as part of cultural education, to mention a few, introduced fresh
orientation to educational substance for transformation of Indian society.

2.3.2 New orientations to learning: advent of constructivism

One other development is pertinent to illustrate the point. As the vision of societal
development widened, the approach to deal with its process also widened and
became extended. Learning, being central to education, acquired much wider
theoretical conceptualization with a cognitive base. In this approach the role of
learner and his own participation in learning became significant. This orientation to
learning is commonly known as ‘constructivism’. According to this orientation the
learner constructs knowledge for himself and gives meaning to this learning. This
process of learning gets extended from classroom to other environments as well -
family, community and social and cultural environment. The range of theories that
go under the name of ‘constructivism’ do not provide replacements for particular
methods of teaching as may be in practice; they mainly emphasizes re-organization
of learning as a process and the learner’s active role therein. It may be stressed here
that ‘construction of knowledge’ by the learner as an idea originated long back.
Tolman claimed in 1947, that learning occurred not through trial and error; it

11
occurred by looking back and forth to get ‘the lay of the land’ in order to ‘construct a
solution’. Gradually it evolved through time mainly through the work of cognitivists
such as Piaget, Vygotsky and Chomsky. Along the way, as Bruner maintains, during
1960s, the process of learning was being translated into the concepts of ‘information
processing’, with no compulsion to elevate one kind of learning over another in
terms of its ‘basic’ properties. This implies that varied theoretical orientations to
learning are available to the student teacher for reference, which one has to use after
adequately processing these with one’s own critical and imaginative ability to result
in appropriate learning, in worthwhile learning. In this process learner’s role is
central cognitively. This approach has been advocated by NCF- 2005 for organizing
pedagogy in school in accordance with basic premises of constructivism.

2.3.3 Vision of Education as the foundation

It is pertinent to reiterate the need to reformulate epistemological position for


determining the ‘origin’ and ‘method’ of conceptualizing the nature of knowledge in
education. This may have to be drawn from ‘theoretical conceptualisation’ of
education itself; the ‘vision of education development’ and value oriented
pedagogical actions will be the main determinants of content of education. While
knowledge from other disciplines such as philosophy, psychology and sociology are
significantly relevant in building up the ‘theoretical explanations’ of education -
‘vision’ and ‘process’- to label knowledge from these disciplines as ‘foundational’ is
not appropriate to describe conceptualization in education. Education in its
theorization and action (pedagogical) decisions takes help of knowledge in other
development pursuits as well, such as medical science, management, technology, etc.
Use of knowledge from other disciplines in developing educational theorization and
actions is based on educational theories; it is not foundational. In fact, the ‘vision of
education’ stands at the foundation. In other words, conceptual explanations drawn
from other disciplines get ‘rendered educationally’; in other words, they get situated
in educational context through which they get connoted educationally. That is, as
descriptions and explanations of educational actions and processes, these concepts
acquire education specific meanings. Such descriptions and explanations comprise
conceptual knowledge or ‘substance’ in education and can not be merely
foundational.

Knowledge in education and its understanding is as wide as education structures and


perspectives. This provides a theoretical context for teacher development. As a
professional, the teacher needs to recognize it, and develop one’s general
understanding of education, in addition to specialized subject knowledge. This
would enable the teacher as a practitioner to develop a personalized professional
view of one’s pedagogical role.

12
3. The Features of the Draft curriculum for Teacher Education
In its vision, a content and intended mode of operationalization, the proposed
curriculum framework attempts a significant departure from existing teacher
education curricula in the country. It is pertinent to outline its major features: the
broad perspective, curriculum components, as well as the key points of departure
envisaged.

3.1 Broad Perspective

3.1.1 An overall ‘vision of educational development’ is the main source of


conceptualization of educational inputs in the curriculum framework (CF).
Education, being a human endeavor, is seen as a process of development of
knowledge and values through the pedagogic and socialization processes of
organized schooling. With increasing contribution of the political process,
there is an emerging orientation of the nation state towards an education
which is aimed at overall national development.

3.1.2 The Curriculum Framework contends that it is possible to trace a vision of


education from the thoughts of individual thinkers such as Rabindranath
Tagore and M.K.Gandhi, as well as the basic spirit of the freedom struggle
reflected in the Constitution of India, and policy documents like the National
Policy on Education. The ‘vision’ of educational development in the national
context is a reflection of composite thoughts and therefore, it cannot be
derived from one single ‘school of thought’ or an individual’s thoughts.
Further, it is imperative for those who participate in the process of education,
like the teachers, to share in this composite vision and reflect it while shaping
the pedagogical process.

3.1.3 Though the Curriculum Framework essentially focuses on secondary


education, it is with recognition of the continuity in the three distinct stages
of schooling viz. middle, secondary and higher secondary. Also, attempt is
made to address other issues such as: at what stage specialized and
disciplinary knowledge would start? What changes are to be made in
corresponding pedagogical process needs to be conceptualized. The course
structure attempts to approach the problems of different groups of learners,
keeping in mind diversity, social backwardness, abilities, multilingualism,
and age.

3.1.4 The Curriculum Framework, in line with the broad considerations detailed
earlier, contends that while theories of cognate disciplines are relevant to
education in numerous ways, their appropriateness will get determined in the
light of their contribution towards addressing issues and concerns of
classroom and school. In view of this, the courses have been outlined in
respect of the kinds of understandings that may be relevant to a school
teacher, drawing from whichever cognate disciplines that are required,
instead of stating them in different uni- disciplinary terminology. Therefore,

13
the titles of the Courses may sound somewhat different from the ones usually
familiar in current teacher education programmes.

3.1.5 As a professional preparation programme, the 2 year B.Ed. course has to


provide adequate conceptual understanding of and perceptiveness to the
actual operational dimension of education. An attempt has been made to
provide for both conceptual understanding and practical experiences in an
interlinked manner in possibly every component of the curriculum.

3.2 Outline of the Curriculum Components

The Curriculum components have been visualized in three clusters indicated


as ‘Groups A, B & C, ending with a ‘Final Reporting and Presentation’.

3.2.1 Group A: Core Courses are to provide a “conceptual and contextual


understanding” of education and schooling drawn from cognate disciplines
that is essential for a teacher
The courses under Group A are,
ƒ Basics in Education
ƒ Learner, Learning and Cognition
ƒ Schooling, Socialisation and Identity
ƒ Curriculum and School
ƒ Vision of Indian Education: Concerns and Issues.

3.2.2 Group B: Pedagogy Courses represent essential “functional understandings


and competencies” required in a teacher.
The courses under Group B are:
ƒ Subject Knowledge and the related pedagogic dimension
ƒ Assessment for Learning
ƒ Learning to Function as a Teacher

3.2.2 Group C: Developing Teacher Sensibilities comprises a variety of


experiences pertaining to certain aspects which develop their sensibilities and
equip teacher for effective functioning. They are:

Section I: Experiences for Teacher Enrichment


ƒ Strengthening Language Proficiencies
ƒ Use of ICT for Effective Learning
ƒ Health and Well being (to be developed by assigning to one of the
RIEs and circulating the same to the rest of the RIEs)
ƒ Arts and Aesthetics
ƒ Exploring Library other Learning Resources

Section II: Experiences for Social and Environmental Sensitivity

14
ƒ Gender Issues in School
ƒ Education for Peace
ƒ Issues of Conservation and Environmental Regeneration
ƒ Addressing Special Needs in Classroom

3.2.4 Final Presentation – wherein each student teacher is expected to consolidate


and reflect upon all experiences during the programame in the form of a
report, and make a final presentation.

While the above courses and experiences are distributed across three distinct
groups, it is intended that they will mutually reinforce each other. In their
cumulative engagement with them, the student-teachers will gain a composite
understanding of education, as well as develop their pro-active role as
teachers.

3.3 Distribution of courses and experiences in each

The course and experiences with each of the Groups are detailed in section 4 giving
suggestive lists of modes of learning engagement as well as modes of assessment.
Adequate flexibility is provided for teacher educators to vary both these
appropriately, as needed.

Emphasis is given to formative assessment by teacher educators, keeping in view the


participative experiences as well as field based activities indicated within the
courses.

A couple of courses in Group B are stretched into Parts I and II in order to space out
the learning load and make for easier internalization; in such cases, Parts I and II are
to be covered in two subsequent years.

Group C courses are essentially meant for sensitizing teacher-learners to specific


dimensions of their development as teachers.

An additional feature considered very significant and included at the end is the
“Final presentation”. This is visualized essentially as an individual reflection,
introspection and reporting of one’s experiences - the way they were perceived, their
relevance, and the way in which these experiences “touched” and shaped oneself.
The presentation by each student teacher is to be made before the entire group along
with the faculty and invited experts during the last week of the B.Ed. programme.

15
3.4 Variations in Modes of Learning Engagement Envisaged

3.4.1 Overview

Teacher educators need to be oriented towards visualizing modes of learning


engagement in flexible and diversified forms in accordance with the nature of
understanding and competence particular themes or substance lend
themselves to. This means visualizing teacher educator’s work in terms of not
only classroom lectures or, at best, lecture followed by some interactive
sessions, but also in the form of other relevant activities such as seminar,
field observation, experimentation, self study, library work, small group
explorations, project, compilation of resource materials, discussion, internet
browsing, study of learning material, and any other ones that the teacher
educator and the student teachers find appropriate. This does not mean that
lectures are not relevant, for these may be most appropriate for certain kinds
of learning. At a given time, more than one mode also may be adopted by
different learners.

3.4.2 Overall Intention of Modes of Learning Engagement

• The Curriculum Framework is so designed that the student teachers


internalize the nature of education and pedagogic process through
enriched experiences.
• The kinds of learning engagement suggested will contribute to reduction
of the gap between theory and practice by dovetailing both
appropriately.
• The Curriculum Framework emphasizes the use of varied modes of
learning engagement in accordance with the requirements.
• Interactive processes wherein group reflection, critical thinking and
meaning making will be encouraged.
• In this respect, critical theory, critical pedagogy and critical thinking
become very crucial theoretical inputs and are embedded implicitly in
various courses
• While visualizing modes of learning engagement the nature of student
teachers who are adults has been kept in mind. Instead of continuous
teacher monitoring greater autonomy to learners has been recommended
as more relevant and in accordance with the andragogic principles of
learning.
• Multiple learning engagements visualized being more active/interactive,
the course work is clearly not meant to be burdensome and ‘memory-
based’, but challenging and engaging.

16
3.4.3 Some Specific Modes of Learning Engagement Envisaged:

z Overarching lectures cum discussion


z Use of narratives based on research and documentation
z Project reviews
z Case studies
z Use of video-clips and transcripts of classroom teaching
z Success stories/ innovations
z Observation in schools and other field sites
z Recording of observations and experiences
z Interviews with school personnel
z Panel or group discussion on issues
z Individual projects
z Journal writing
z Using library and ICT resources

3.4.4 Enhancement of learning through School-based experiences

Most courses require school experience for various purposes. Some significant
aspects of these experiences are outlined:

• School visits and observations spread over the years, including


- Observation visits
- School attachment
- Longer duration attachment, along with mentoring
• School as a site for practical learning linked with theory
• Single school visit for carrying out tasks related to more than one course
• Exposure to variety of schools in order to understand larger systemic issues
• School-based experience to learn not only classroom pedagogy, but also
learning to function as a teacher in the school environment

3.5 Flexible, Dynamic Assessment of Learning

In order to meaningfully carry out the truly flexible, dynamic curricular engagement
requirements, the Framework suggests appropriate, similar modes of assessment. It is
contended that assessment has to be an integral part of and provide meaningful
support to the learning process of learners and not a measure to estimate the
‘outcome’ or product of the process. Accordingly, the Framework views assessment
for learning to be more appropriate than assessment of learning. The learning nature
and quantum, the kinds of learner engagement as well as the learning targets will
determine the assessment modes. Dynamism and flexibility in assessment procedure
pertains to the modes, duration, time and sequence of assessment evolved according
to the requirements of each course of study. This is in variance to the existing
practice of a similar mode of assessment for all inputs with only variation between
‘theory’ and ‘practice’ on the one hand, and on the other, ‘internal’ and ‘external’.

17
Testing as a mode of assessment is accepted; while several other modes ‘during’ the
learning process both in the form of teacher evolved criteria and self reporting by
student teachers have been indicated. However, these modes are indicative of
possible ways of assessing rather than prescriptive listing. It is also indicated in
several places where teacher educators will have to evolve appropriate criteria and
rating suited to the kinds of activities and experiences evolved.

3.6 Some Organizational Requirements

3.6.1 Implementing the Curriculum Framework requires viewing the programme as


a whole and not viewing each component separately. It is essential that the
teacher educators work as a team and not as separate course teachers; this
entails a refreshed view of working out details such as: teachers’ work
allocation; time scheduling for each course; and group as well as
individualized activities.

3.6.2 The differentiated and diversified learning engagement modes to be


effectively provided require a dynamic view of the total contact hours in the
RIE every day. Time allocation every day will have to be made in accordance
with the kind or kinds of learning activities undertaken by batches of learners.
That is, some activities may require longer duration while others require less;
some may need out door time for observation and other similar engagements
while others may require classroom face to face interaction. For instance, self
study and group discussions are widely suggested. These require longer
stretches of time without which meaningful progress may not be possible.

Each working day will have seven periods of one hour each. It is
recommended that these may be extended whenever required - as in case of
seminar or project presentations.

3.6.3 The RIE should cultivate and strengthen a working relationship with a variety
of schools in its own local area (including and especially the ‘demonstration
multipurpose school’ on campus), apart from the schools in states of the
region. The RIE will have to involve these schools in various aspects of the
programme. Co-ordination in carrying out the programme is essential
between the RIE and the practicing schools.

18
3.7 Supports to be Developed

The curriculum framework presupposes an awareness of its basic premises in all


those engaged in implementing it. A few essentials that need to be developed and
evolved by the respective Regional Institutes of Education must include the
following.

• Teacher educators to be oriented and given an opportunity to discuss its


various dimensions. This could be through a workshop in which the Draft
Curriculum Committee members are invited for interaction.
• Though suggested list of references is given for each course of study, a
“basic reading material” reflecting the conceptual and operational
emphasis held by the curriculum framework needs to be developed. This
is essential for providing a proper direction to student teachers in
pursuing their various modes of learning engagement
Teacher educators have to evolve differential criteria for assessment within each
course in accordance with the nature of content and the modes of learning
engagement suggested for it. It is recommended that this task be done as a team by
the teacher educators as in most courses they have to involve as a team.

4. Organisational Details

19
4.1 Structure of the Suggested Curriculum (Both Years)

Hours Hours Total Internal External


Course/Paper
per week per year marks (Formative) (Summative)

Group A: Core Courses


CC 1: Basics in Education 04 128 100 25 75
CC 2: Learner, Learning and Cognition 04 128 100 25 75
CC 3: Schooling, Socialisation and 04 128 100 25 75
Identity
CC 4: Curriculum and School 04 128 100 25 75
CC 5: Vision of Indian Education: Issues 04 128 100 25 75
and Concerns
Group B: Pedagogy Courses
PC 1: Subject Knowledge and the related 04 128 100 25 75
Pedagogic Dimensions (Part I)
(Subject: 1 Science–Biological/Physical
/Maths/Social Sciences (SS)/Language-
Hindi/English/ Urdu/other region-specific
lang.)

PC 2: Subject Knowledge and the related 03 96 100 25 75


Pedagogic Dimensions (Part II)
(Subject: 1 Science–Biological/Physical
/Maths/Social Sciences (SS)/Language-
Hindi/English/ Urdu/other region-specific
lang.)

PC 1: Subject Knowledge and the related 03 96 100 25 75


Pedagogic Dimensions (Part II)
(Subject: 1 Science–Biological/Physical
/Maths/Social Sciences (SS)/Language-
Hindi/English/ Urdu/other region-specific
lang.)
PC 2: Subject Knowledge and the related 04 128 100 25 75
Pedagogic Dimensions (Part I)
(Subject: 1 Science–Biological/Physical
/Maths/Social Sciences (SS)/Language-
Hindi/English/ Urdu/other region-specific
lang.)

20
PC 3: Assessment for Learning (Part I) 03 96 75 15 60
PC 3: Assessment for Learning (Part II) 03 96 75 15 60
PC 4: Learning to Function as a Teacher 35x10 350 250 250 -
weeks

Note: 1. Suitable Combinations of PC1 and PC2 Pedagogy Courses (Group B)


1. Will be offered by RIEs as per University requirement.

Group C: Developing Teacher


Sensibilities
Section I: Experiences for Teacher
Enrichment
ETE 1: Strengthening Language 02 64 50 50 -
Proficiency

ETE 2: Use of Information and 02 64 50 50


Communication Technologies for Effective
Learning
ETE 3: Health and Well being (through 04 128 50 50 -
Yoga)
ETE 4: Arts and Aesthetics 01 32 50 50 -
ETE 5: Exploring Library and other 01 32 50 50 -
Learning Resources
Section II: Experiences for Social and
Environmental Sensitivity
SES 1: Gender Issues in School 02 64 50 20 30
SES 2: Education for Peace 02 64 50 20 30
SES 3: Issues of Conservation and 02 64 50 20 30
Environmental Regeneration
SES 4: Addressing Special Needs in 02 64 50 20 30
Classroom
General orientation of student teachers 04 days
Reporting One 34 50 50 -
week
Total 2240 1800 885 915
2. Each RIE will develop syllabi for the respective regional languages in tune with
the suggested perspective
Time Allocation

The course is visualized keeping the following time schedule


- 5 days per week and 32 weeks per year
- Each period is of an hour and the classroom engagement is spread across 9.00 am to
5.10 pm with a break of 10 minutes each in the morning and afternoon sessions and
50 minutes for lunch.

21
4.2 Year-wise Distribution of Course

First Year
Hours Hours Total Internal External
Course/Paper
per per marks (Formative) (Summative)
week year

Group A: Core Courses


04 128 100 25 75
CC 1: Basics in Education
04 128 100 25 75
CC 2: Learner, Learning and
Cognition
04 128 100 25 75
CC 4: Curriculum and School
Group B: Pedagogy Courses
04 128 100 25 75
PC 1: Subject Knowledge and the
related Pedagogic Dimensions
(Part I)
(Subject: 1 Science–Biological/
Physical /Maths/SS/Language-
Hindi/ English/Urdu/other region-
specific lang.)
04 128 100 25 75
PC 2: Subject Knowledge and the
related Pedagogic Dimensions
(Part I) including Understanding
Teaching Learning Situations
(Subject: 1 Science–Biological/
Physical /Maths/SS/Language-
Hindi/ English/Urdu/other region-
specific lang.)
03 96 75 15 60
PC 3: Assessment for Learning
(Part I)
35 70 50 50 -
PC 4: Learning to Function as a
Teacher

Group C: Developing Teacher


Sensibilities
Section I: Experiences for Teacher
Enrichment
02 64 50 50 -
ETE 1: Strengthening Language
Proficiency
02 64 25 25 -
ETE 3: Health and Well being
(through Yoga)
01 32 50 50 -
ETE 5: Exploring Library and other
Learning Resources

22
Section II: Experiences for Social
and Environmental Sensitivity
02 64 50 20 30
SES 2: Education for Peace
02 64 50 20 30
SES 3: Issues of Conservation and
Environmental Regeneration
04 26
General orientation of student
days
teachers
1120 850 355 495
Total

Second Year

Course/Paper Hours Hours Total Internal External


per per marks (Formative) (Summative)
week year
Group A: Core Courses
CC 3: Schooling, Socialisation 04 128 100 25 75
and Identity
CC 5: Vision of Indian Education: 04 128 100 25 75
Issues and Concerns
Group B: Pedagogy Courses
PC 1: Subject Knowledge and the 03 96 100 25 75
related Pedagogic Dimensions
(Part II)
(Subject:1 Science-
Biological/Physical/Maths/SS/Lan
guage-Hindi/English/Urdu/other
region-specific language)
PC 2: Subject Knowledge and the 03 96 100 25 75
related Pedagogic Dimentsions
(Part II)
(Subject: 1 Science–Biological/
Physical /Maths/SS/Language-
Hindi, English/Urdu/other region-
specific lang)

PC 3: Assessment for Learning 02 64 75 15 60


(Part II)
PC 4: Learning to Function as a 35 280 200 200 -
Teacher
Group C: Developing Teacher
Sensibilities
Section I: Experiences for
Teacher Enrichment
ETE 2: Use of Information and 02 64 50 50 -

23
Communication Technologies for
Effective Learning
ETE 3: Health and Well being 02 64 25 25 -
(through Yoga)
ETE 4: Arts and Aesthetics 01 32 50 50 -
Section II: Experiences for
Social and Environmental
Sensitivity
SES 1: Gender Issues in School 02 64 50 20 30
SES 4: Addressing Special Needs 02 64 50 20 30
in Classroom
Reporting 35 40 50 50 -
Total 95 1120 950 530 420

24
5. The Curriculum Framework
The details of the curriculum framework along with the aim of the course, course
outlines, modes of learning engagement as well as modes of assessment for each
course are presented hereunder.

5.1 Group A Core Courses

Courses in Group A are intended to provide a conceptual understanding of relevant


concepts and processes in teacher education as also situate them in the broader
perspective of education and development. Relevant knowledge from field as well as
cognate disciplines are represented in the educational context which it is hoped, will
prepare student teachers to draw from them appropriately in a need-based manner
later.

CC1 “Basics in Education” initiates student-teachers to a study and analysis of some


significant concepts, theoretical formulations, and philosophical issues in a
multidisciplinary way, mainly through study, analysis and reflection.

CC 2 “Learner, Learning and Cognition” deals with individual development, nature


and process of human learning, conceptual and theoretical variations available to
teacher, and an understanding of how learning and cognition are closely interrelated
through out individual development process.

CC 3 “Schooling, Socialisation and Identity” enables an understanding and


appreciation of the complex nature of interactions between and among the various
forces and processes in the school and the social environment at large, which shape
self concept, identity of oneself, be it of the teacher or the student. This leads to the
realization of the relevance of the ‘school environment’ and teachers’ role in
ensuring it is conducive to learner development, as well as professional development
of the teacher.

CC 4 “Curriculum and School” provides an understanding of the dynamics involved


in aspects of curriculum development, the various levels at which it is differently
visualized and how all of them are directed towards the same national educational
goals, and also the technical details involved in respect of curriculum, the way school
designs its operational curriculum within the larger national framework. The role of
the teacher in visualizing, implementing and reviewing curriculum is also
highlighted.

CC 5 “Vision of Indian Education: Concerns and Issues” provides an opportunity to


understand, examine, analyse and reflect on vision of education as well as the
cultural context within which education operates. This is done within the Indian
context. Some significant concerns and issues that have determining impact on
educational operations in India are brought into focus for study.

25
In accordance with the purpose of each course its content, modes of learning
engagement and assessment modes are suggested.

CC 1 Basics in Education

Contact hours: 4 hours per week

Total marks: 100

Aim of the Course


Education is a liberal process of knowing, examining knowledge, its realms of
meaning, thus concerning itself with the episteme of learning. It is a socially
contrived system influenced by various social, cultural and normative factors.
Education draws its vision, aims and perspectives from different schools of thought
for theorizing about various concerns that are epistemological, social and ontological
in nature. The conceptual nature of education is an activity of analysis, clarification
and criticism of concepts, principles, theories and assumptions that are unique to
education itself.

The theoretical formulations derived through analysis and synthesis of different


schools of thought and observed occurrences lend themselves into application that
can be seen in the form of educational practice. Education in the form of schooling,
being a social act, prioritizes, and legitimizes knowledge and values as well. When
knowledge is processed and organized into school knowledge and transcribed into
textbooks it assumes new forms, nature and authority. This process of organisation
of knowledge creates ‘gaps’ between school knowledge and local knowledge; textual
knowledge and contextual knowledge.

This course aims to make student teachers analyse and understand educational
concepts, their premises and contexts that are unique to education. Through the
process of inquiry, critical analysis and an intellectual discourse, it is hoped that the
student teachers will be able to understand and appreciate the nature and the purpose
of education, their practical ramifications in the school context.

This course is visualized essentially to lead to an understanding of some relevant


concepts and themes in education (which will also be helpful in understanding the
other courses). The course outline is presented in a different form with intent. That
is, just to indicate the main aim of the course to provide opportunity for interactive
and reflective modes of learning engagement. It purports to help student teachers to
not only understand the concepts through self study but also ‘reflect’ on them.
Therefore, instead stating the concepts and ideas required for understanding the
theme, certain questions are given as pointers while seeking sources of information.
They are not ‘sub-units’ but mainly ‘discussion triggers’. They are not separate fact
finding questions.

26
Course Outline

Unit 1: Education - Nature and Purpose


Meaning and Nature of Education:
• What is Education?
• Whether education is a natural or social process? intentional or
unintentional?
• What comprises education?
• Does education occur only in educational institutions? Where else?

Processes and Modes of Education:


• Is education an activity/process?
• Through what modes does education take place?
• How education in schools is linked with outside school experiences?
• Why education, in the form of schooling, needs to be provided to all
children?

Purpose of Education:
• Whether education is organized for:
- Individual development or social transformation;
- Providing knowledge or information;
• How worthwhile is education? Who decides it? For whom?
• Who is an educated person?

Unit 2: Knowledge and Knowing

Knowledge- meaning
• What is knowledge?
• What is knowing? Can doing, thinking and feeling be discerned
separately in knowing?
• Differentiate between information, knowledge, belief and truth

Knowing Process:
• What are different ways of knowing?
• How knowledge can be constructed? What is involved in construction
of knowledge?
• What are the relative roles of knower and the known in knowledge
transmission and construction?

Facets of Knowledge:
• What are different facets of knowledge and their relationship such as:
…Local and universal?

27
…Concrete and abstract?
…Theoretical and practical?
…Contextual and textual?
… School and out of school?
(with an emphasis on understanding special attributes of
‘school knowledge’)
• What is the role of culture in knowing?
• How is knowledge rendered into action? How to reflect on
Knowledge?

Unit 3: Forms of Knowledge and its Organisation in Schools


• Can we categorise knowledge? On what basis?
• What forms of knowledge are included in school education?
• On what basis are knowledge categories selected in school education?
• Who selects, legitimizes, and organizes categories of knowledge in
schools? In what form?
• How does school knowledge get reflected in the form of curriculum,
syllabus and textbooks?

Unit 4: Autonomy of Teacher and Learner


Autonomy of teacher
• What is autonomy? Is autonomy and freedom the same?
• What is Teacher’s autonomy?
• What is freedom of a teacher? Freedom in what sense? Why?
• How does teacher’s autonomy help in enriching learning situations?
• Do autonomy and accountability go together?
• What are the hindering factors that affect teacher’s autonomy?

Autonomy of learner
• What is autonomy of learner?
• What are the restraints on learners in schools?
• Can learners be free from curriculum, textbooks, instruction, and
discipline?
• Does learning take place if the learner is free from all constraints of the
school?
• To what extent individual autonomy and collective responsibility go
together for teacher and learner?

Unit 5: Education and Values

• What are values? Are they relative or absolute? Who creates values?
• Can humans be free of values?
• What are the values prevalent in contemporary society?

28
• What does it mean when one says ‘education is a normative
endeavour’? How does this relate to value formation?
• What kinds of values do education perpetuates?
• Do different school contexts have a differential impact on learners’
value formation?
• Does education have the potential to contribute to transformation of
values in society?
• How do group and social conflicts influence school system?
• How does the school system nurture a culture of peace?

Modes of Learning Engagement:

The Course is visualized to be conducted through group discussion, self study and
reflection. It does not envisage a lecture mode. However, it would be important for the
teacher educator to structure the study of themes in each unit through a range of
activities such as: initiation of the dialogue within the group, organizing study groups,
organizing a discussion in small groups, or planning for short presentations.

The sub-themes organized as units of the course are those that can be discussed by
student teachers without any specialized knowledge (using their own experiences and
common-sense understanding, to begin with)

However, the questions given as ‘discussion triggers’ under each unit title will be
helpful in providing some direction to student teachers in seeking appropriate
references. References are provided for each theme for meaningful focused study.
Each theme needs to be studied through referencing, group sharing as well as
reflection. The teacher-learners may be enabled to engage in multiple ways of study -
i.e., independent study and/or group interaction. Self study provides the necessary
basic understanding while interactive sessions will clarify any complex idea and help
reflect on one’s grasp. The interactive sessions also help clarify and overcome several
inadequate or incorrect understandings that the student teachers may have.

Teacher educators will be present and participate in the plenary discussions as


‘facilitators’.

Some activities envisaged in the modes of learning engagement are listed:


• Library readings for individual and/or group study; the list provided
for each theme is suggestive and not complete. Any other material may
be selected, as and when needed.
• Individual self-study of a text/article, with theme questions in mind
• Group study of a text/article on a given theme
• Observational studies and activities: it may be worthwhile to carry out
observations in the field, record what is observed and use the
information while discussing with either teacher educator or peers.

29
- Observation of different contexts of knowing to reflect on
knowledge transmission, construction, forms and ways of knowing
and nature of knowing and knowledge;
- Observation with a purpose to reflect on knowledge preservation,
transmission/construction and generation in oral, written, and
technological traditions.
- Observations of schools, teachers, student activities in a school
context
• Presentations by student teachers on selected themes- individually and
collectively (leading to…)
• Group discussions on themes
• Documenting the discussions/dialogues.

Modes of Assessment

Internal Assessment: 25 Marks External Assessment: 75 Marks

The student-teachers will maintain a portfolio of observations and notes on


discussions; these will be submitted periodically to the faculty for appraisal and
feedback.

Assessment will be done for the following heads:


• The depth and width of reading in each unit
• The level of participation in group study
• Quality of participation in discussion
• Note making and presentation of ideas
• Relevant field observations and linking these to the ideas discussed
• Written test on basic concepts introduced and discussed
• A term paper on a specific theme selected by the student-teacher

Appropriate criteria need to be worked out for each of the above.

Reference

• Agrawal, A (1995). Dismantling the Divide Between Indigenous and Scientific


Knowledge : Development and Change, 26:413-39
• Ant Weiler, C. (1998). Low Knowledge and Local Knowing: An Anthropological
Analysis of Contested “Cultural Products” in the Context of Development.
Anthropos, 93:46-94.
• Butchvarov,P.(1970), The Concept of Knowledge, Evanston, Illinois: North
Western University Press.
• Chomsky, N (1986). Knowledge of Language, Prager, New York.
• Datta, D.M. (1972). Six ways of Knowing. Calcultta University Press, Calcultta

30
Dewey John.’My Pedagogic Creed’, in D.J. Flinders and S.J. Thorton(eds.) The
Curriculum Studies Reader, Routledge: New York, 1997.
• Dewey, John( 1997 ) Experience and Education, Touchstone, New York
• Dewey, John (1956). The Child and the Curriculum and School and Society,
University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
• Keddie, N.(1971) : Classroom Knowledge, in. M.F.D Young.
• Krishna Murthy, J. (1947) On Education, Orient Longman, New Delhi.
• Kumar Krishna (1996). Learning From Conflict, Orient Longman, New Delhi.
• Peters, R.S. The Concept of Education, Routledge, UK, 1967.
• Margaret, K.T. The open Classroom, Orient Longman: New Delhi, 1999.
• Prema Clarke (2001). Teaching & Learning: The Culture of pedagogy, Sage
Publication, New Delhi.
• P.H. Phenix,(1964). Realms of Meaning. MacGraw-Hill, New York.
• Steven H. Cahn (1970). The Philosophical Foundation of Education, Harper
& Row Publishers, New York.
• Sykes, Marjorie. The Story of Nai Taleem, Nai Taleem Samiti: Wardha, 1988
• Thapan. M. (1991). Life at School: An Ethnographic Study. Oxford University
Press, Delhi.

31
CC2: Learner, Learning and Cognition

Contact hours: 4 hours per week

Total marks: 100

Aim of the Course


This course introduces student teachers to perspectives that will enable them to
develop a rich understanding of the nature of human learners, their development and
processes of learning. It aims at developing in student teachers a feeling for human
development and learning as a multi-dimensional, complex and life long process.

One of the purposes of education being that of furthering the course of human
development, at the outset inputs are provided on various dimensions and stages of
human development. The developmental stages and processes, while being informed
by various theoretical perspectives, would be presented in a composite non-technical
manner, in order to make student teachers cognizant of sensitive periods of growth
and possibilities of long term growth in individuals. The role of socio-cultural milieu
in shaping dimensions of development will be explored in the Indian context.

Learning is central to the on-going process of education, and the mind, with its
cognitive capacities, is often seen as the chief ‘instrument’ as well as ‘product’ of
human learning. There have long been a range of perspectives on how people learn,
and these remain pertinent to contemporary viewpoints on purposes of education and
learning. The cognitive revolution in psychology, focusing on ‘cognition’ as a
fundamental capacity of the human mind, has evolved an increasingly sophisticated
modeling of how the brain processes and makes sense of experience, how it
constructs, retains, reorganizes and uses knowledge. A constructivist paradigm of
learning emphasizes the role of cognition and the agency of the learner, and
demonstrates that learning arises from an interactive process between learner and
environment.

A non-technical modeling of a range of cognitive processes aims to provide a


working grasp of a brain-based understanding of learning, while an exploration of
the interconnections between development, language learning, cognition and
conceptual change is intended to clarify the meaning and place of these key ideas,
An exposure to the evolution of various theoretical perspectives on ‘how learning
happens’ and the role of the learner (and teacher) in a range of situations, enables
them to reflect on and widen their own implicit understanding of various kinds of
teaching-learning activities. The course attempts to orient student-teachers to
viewing a constructivist perspective as a more evolved and comprehensive
understanding of human learning and cognition, with implications for shifts in
processes of teaching-learning. Finally, a focus is brought on understanding
differences among individual learners, in order to sensitize student-teachers to their
differential learning needs.

32
In summation, the focus of the course would be to facilitate the student teachers:

• To situate individual development in a socio-cultural context


• To develop an understanding about the impact/influence of socio cultural
context in shaping human development, especially with respect to the Indian
context;
• To acquire theoretical perspectives and develop an understanding of
dimensions and stages of human development and developmental tasks
• To understand a range of cognitive capacities in human learners
• To become aware of different contexts of learning, and situate schools as a
special environment for learning
• To reflect on their own implicit understanding of the nature and kinds of
learning
• Gain an understanding of different theoretical perspectives on learning with a
focus on cognitive views of learning as well as social-constructivist theories
• Explore the possibilities of an understanding of processes in human cognition
and meaning-making as a basis for designing learning environments and
experiences at school
• Appreciate the critical role of learner differences and contexts in making
meanings, and draw out implications for schools and teachers
• Explore the factors contributing for individual development and facilitate
learner development

Course Outline

Unit 1: Learner - Dimensions and Stages of Development


• Learner as a developing individual- Development as a resultant of
interactions between and among individual potential (innate, inherited,
acquired) and external environment (physical, social, cultural, economic
and technological)
• Dimensions of individual development: physical, cognitive, social,
affective and moral; their inter-relationships and processes of growth
across various stages from infancy to post-adolescence (an integrated
view of different dimensions of development: Incorporating relevant
ideas of Piaget, Erikson, Kohlberg, etc.)

(Only aspects pertaining to individual development need be considered;


details of each of the theoretical perspectives are not expected)

33
Unit 2: Development, Learning and Cognition

• Understanding meanings and distinctiveness of human development


and learning
• Exploring relationship between ‘development’ and ‘learning’
• Meaning of ‘cognition’ and its Role in learning
• Language development and its Role in learning
• Cognitive processes – sensation, perception, attention, memory,
concept formation and problem-solving in learning.
• Socio-cultural factors that influence cognition

Unit 3: Theoretical Perspectives on learning: an Overview

• Evolving theoretical perspectives on human learning: behaviourist,


cognitivist, humanist, social-constructivist (drawing selectively on the ideas
of Skinner, Gagne, Ausubel, Bruner, Piaget, Rogers, Vygotsky.)
Concepts and principles of each perspective and their applicability in
different learning situations.

(Briefly trace the concepts and principles of learning through the key ideas
of above thinkers for developing richer and more inclusive perspective of
learning)
• Relevance and applicability of various theories of learning for
different kinds of learning situations
• Role of learner in various learning situations, as seen in different
theoretical perspectives
• Role of teacher in teaching-learning situations: a) transmitter of
knowledge b) model c) facilitator d) negotiator e) co-learner
• Distinctions between learning as ‘construction of knowledge’ and
learning as ‘transmission and reception of knowledge’
• Understanding processes that facilitate ‘construction of knowledge’:
Experiential learning and reflection, Social mediation, Cognitive
negotiability, Situated learning and cognitive apprenticeship, Meta-
cognition
(Treatment of each should be done by drawing on classroom situations or
content/theme of learning)

Unit 4: Understanding differences in individual learners


• Dimensions of differences in individual learners
• Gardener’s theory of Multiple Intelligences: Implications for
understanding differences in individual learners
• Differences in learners based on predominant ‘learning styles’
• Differences in learners based on socio-cultural contexts, for instance:
- Impact of home languages of learners vis a vis language of
instruction

34
- Impact of differential ‘cultural capital’ of learners vis a vis school
knowledge
• Understanding differences based on cognitive abilities in children –
gifted, creative, learning disbled, slow learner, and under achiever
• Methods/ approaches of identifying individual differences –
questionnaire, observation, interview, anecdotal records,
psychological tests
• Differential learning needs according to learner differences.

Unit 5: Facilitating Learner Development

- Understanding behavioral problems and managing it


- Developing a confident learner – self esteem, self concept, self efficacy, and
locus of control
- Creating positive learning environment: Approaches to classroom
management
- Creating culturally compatible classrooms – managing classroom groups and
working in teams
- Learner motivation: approaches and strategies

Modes of Learning Engagement


A compilation of selected readings – rather than a single textbook - should make up
course material given to student teachers

Modes of learning engagement may include:


• Reflective Written Assignments – comments and grade
• Lecture-cum-discussion, for presentation of overviews
• Study of selected readings and discussions around these
• Anecdotes, experiential and reflective writings.
• Audio-visual clips of learning situations and interactions, analysis and
discussion in small groups (as well as large group)
• Group presentations of key themes and concepts
• Exemplars of 'constructivist' learning situations, Case studies, their analysis
and discussion
• Close observation of learners (students) in learning situations at school, as
well as in other contexts: making field notes
• Interpretation, analysis and discussion of observations
• Assignments based on the above

35
Modes of Assessment

Internal Assessment: 25 Marks External Assessment: 75 Marks

Suggested Modes of Internal Assessment:

• Reflective Written Assignments – comments and grade


• Field observation notes – comments and grade
• Participation in discussions – to be assessed qualitatively (along a set of
rubrics)
• Analysis of a learning situation and case study, using theoretical
perspectives – to assess for conceptual grasp and clarity of analysis –
comments, further questions, grade
• A written test can be given on ‘conceptual grasp’ of theories of
development, learning and cognition, as well as ‘working understanding’ of
constructivist approach to construction of knowledge – evaluated with
marks
• A year-end Summative Assessment by the University
References
• Ambron, S.R. (1981). Child Development, Holt Rinehart & Winston, New York.
• Atkinson, Richard C. et.al. (1983). Introduction to Psychology. Harcourt Brace
Johanovich Inc. New York,.
• Benjafield, J.G. (1992). Cognition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
• Blackie, J. How Children Learn in J.C. Stone an F.W. Schneider (eds.) Readings
in the Foundations of Education, Vol, II, Cromwell: New York, 1971
• Brown, J.S., Collins A and Dugrid, P (1989). Situated Cognition and the Culture
of Learning, Educational Researcher; 32-42.
• Flavell, J.H. The Developmental Psychology of Jean Piaget, Van Nostrand: New
York, 1963
• Gagné, R. M. (1985) The Conditions of Learning and Theory of Instruction
(4th edition). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston
• Gardner, H. (1999) The disciplined mind: What all students should
understand. New York: Simon & Schuster
• Gardner, Howard (1989). Frames of Mind. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences,
Basic Books, New York.
• Gardner, Howard (1991). The Unschooled Mind, Basic Books, New York.
• Hurlock, E.B., (1964). Child Development, Mcgraw Hill Book Co. New York.
• Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners. Fourth
Edition
• Kolb, D.A. (1984) Experiential Learning. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Rogers, C.R. (1983) Freedom to Learn (revised edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill
• Lindgren, H.C. (1980). Educational Psychology in the Classroom Oxford
University Press, New York.

36
• Luria, A.R. (1976). Cognitive Development: Its Cultural and Social
Foundations. Havward University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
• Patricia A. Alexander, Philip H. Winne (2006) Handbook of Educational
Psychology
• Phillippe Aives, (1962). Centuries of Childhood: A Sociology of Family Life,
Knops, New York.
• Rosser, Rosemary A. (1993). Cognitive Development: Psychological and
Biological Perspectives, Allyn dand Bacon:USA
• Vygotsky, L.S. Mind in Society, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 1978.
Chapter 6.
• Wolfolk , Educational Psychology, Prentice Hall: Eaglewood Cliff,1987
• Srivastava, A.K. (1998) Child Development: The Indian Perspective, NCERT,
New Delhi
• Santrok, J.W. (1999) : Life Span Development (7th Edition), Boston: Mc Graw
Hill College
• Sibia, A. (2006) : Life at Mirambika, NCERT, New Delhi
• Sarangapani M. Padma(2003.), Constructing School Knowledge :An
Ethnography of learning in an Indian Village, Sage Publication
• Sturt Mary, Oakden, E.C. (1999) Modern Psychology and Education,
Routledge.
• Thorndike Edward L. (2007) Educational Psychology, Published by READ
Books.
• Woolfolk, A.E. (2009) Educational Psychology (11th Edition) (My Education
Lab Series) Prentice Hall
• Wertsch, J.V. (1985) Vygotsky and the Social Formation of Mind. Harvard
University Press

Modifications and Justifications


o Bruner, Ausubel, and Gagne are added to Unit 3 as their contributions
too is very important for a teacher to understand
o Unit 4- process of learning in constructivist perspective- is merged with
unit three as this could very well be a subunit of unit 3
o Old unit 5(presently the unit 4) following modifications and additions are
made to give holistic view of individual differences and also the
assessment of it
o Understanding differences based on cognitive abilities in children –
gifted, creative, learning disabled, slow learner, and under achiever
o Methods/ approaches of identifying individual differences –
questionnaire, observation, interview, anecdotal records,
psychological tests
o A new unit (Unit 5) is added to include certain essential aspects which is
ignored in the original course outline

37
CC3: Schooling, Socialization and Identity
Contact hours: 4 hours per week

Total marks: 100

Aim of the Course


Schools, apart from transmitting curricular knowledge and skills, serve as
crucial sites for processes of socialization and transmission of value frameworks that
are more often than not, unexamined. Schooling’ may thus be seen as a key
ingredient in the socialization of the young. This socialization ultimately contributes
to and results in the formation of identity. However, children who attend school
have, already, been socialized into certain value frame by the time they enter school.
The value-frame, sense of self, and identity imbibed by the child at home and in the
wider society, interacts in complex ways with school and its socialization processes,
more often than not being in conflict. This is furthermore also true of adult learners
who join teacher education. Therefore, this course, precisely, intends to analyze and
critique the way self and its identities are constructed through socialization process
within as well as outside the school. In the process of analyzing the self and identity
critically, the course deliberately brings in the social categories such as, caste, class,
gender, religion, as well as other factors that are at work in constructing the self and
identity of individuals and collectives. Further, the course intends to provide
opportunities to contest the value frame emanating from these processes of
socialization. An understanding of the multiple processes that form the self and
identity ought to result in a capacity to reflect on one’s own self and identity, putting
this under critical scrutiny. In becoming conscious of the many factors that influence
identity and self, the student-teachers should become more sensitively aware of these
and begin to ‘free’ themselves from limiting conceptions of self and identity, thus
becoming proactive in shaping their own identities as ‘teachers’ and ‘professionals’.

Therefore, teacher educators facilitating this course are asked to adopt transactional
modes that result in critical awareness of ‘self’ and ‘identity’ leading to the
emergence of humanistic values, rather than simply in transmitting theories of
‘socialization’, ‘self’ and ‘identity’.

Through this Course the student teachers will then be able to

• Become aware of the processes of socialization at home and school that act as
shaping factors in identity formation of the school going child (in Indian
contexts)
• Reflect critically on factors that shape identity formation and influence sense
of self of the growing ‘student’ as well as ‘teacher’ in school as well as in out
of school situations

38
• Begin to understand the processes that have shaped/continue to shape one’s
own sense of identity as ‘student’ and a ‘person’ located in multiple social
contexts and roles
• Begin to become critically aware of ‘self’ and ‘identity’ and ‘free’ oneself
through self-understanding, from tendencies that lead to crystallizing and
limiting of one’s identity as a teacher and a human being.
• Reflect on one’s aspirations and possibilities in order to develop a growing
sense of agency as a ‘teacher’, a ‘professional’, as well as a ‘human being’.

Course Outline
Unit 1: Socialization and development of self
• Understanding the nature and processes of socialization
- At home: family as a social institution; impact of parenting style/child
rearing practices; transmission of parental expectations and values;
- In the community: neighbourhood, extended family, religious group
and their socialization functions
- At school: impact of entry to school; school as a social institution; value-
formation in the context of schooling;
• Various dimensions of self and the impact of socialization on development
of self

• Understanding interface between home, community and school; inter-


linkages within wider socio-cultural context
Unit 2: Emergence of ‘person’ and ‘identity’
• Understanding ‘identity formation’; emergence of multiple identities in
the formation of a person placed in various social and institutional
contexts; the need for inner coherence; managing conflicting 'identities'.
• ‘Gender based identity’
• Determinants of identity formation in individuals and groups: Social
categories such as caste, class, gender and religion
• The influence of peer group, media messages, technology, and
globalization on identity formation in contemporary society
Unit 3: Schooling and identity formation: a critical study
• Schooling as a process of identity formation: ascribed, acquired and
evolving
• School as a site of identity formation in teacher and students: school
culture and ethos, teaching-learning practices and teacher discourse in the
classroom, evaluation practices; value system and ‘hidden curriculum’ in
schools

39
• Potential role of school in developing national, secular and humanistic
identities
Unit 4: Coping with social complexities: role of education
• Expanding human activities and relations; increasing complexity,
homogenization of culture vs preservation of distinctive identities;
competition, uncertainty and insecurities and the resultant identity
conflicts
• Assertion of identities, oppression, conflict and violence – relevance of
education for peace
• Constructive role of education and ‘critical pedagogy’ in moving towards
peaceful living

Unit 5: Evolving a 'constructive identity' as a teacher

• The impact of one’s own socialization processes; awareness of one’s


own shifting identities as 'student', ‘adult’ and 'student teacher', and
influences that have acted/continue to act on oneself
• Reflections on one’s own aspirations and efforts in becoming a
‘teacher’
• Evolving an identity as a teacher, which is progressive and open to re-
construction
• Teacher’s ‘professional identity’: what does it entail?

Modes of Learning Engagement


Compilation of a few selected readings should make up course material given to
student teachers. There may not be readily available texts on all themes, and faculty
would need to seek out additional reference material from literature (fiction),
sociological works, writings of alternative educators, articles and such like. Relevant
documentary films and film clips should also be used to bring out course themes
more vividly.

• Introductory lectures-cum-discussion, to introduce key themes of the


course – socialization, identity formation, sociological notions and
experiential sense of 'self' etc
• Observations of schools and classrooms through the lens of course themes;
interviews with teachers; making field notes
• Group discussion and exploration, around selected readings and key
questions
• Viewing selected documentaries and film clippings
• Writing critical reviews of readings and films viewed
• Presentations of reviews

40
• Reflective, autobiographical writing, towards self-understanding, on given
topics
• Journal writing, on course experiences (to be initiated with this course; to
be continued through the year, with occasional sharing with a 'mentor')

Modes of Assessment

Internal Assessment: 25 Marks External Assessment: 75 Marks


Modes of assessment will include:
• Level of initiative and participation in discussions
• Presentations based on readings and film reviews
• Reflective written assignments (towards critical awareness of issues, for
self-understanding and formulating aspirations as a teacher)
• Quality of Journal writing
• Notes from field observations/interviews and linking these with course
themes
• Written test on grasp and application of key ideas
• Year-end summative assessment by University
References
• Pathak, Avijit (2002), Social Implications of Schooling, Rainbow Publishers,
Delhi
• Kumar Krishna (2004), What is Worth Teaching? 3rd edition, Orient
Longman
• Krishnamurti, J., Education and the Significance of Life, KFI Publications
• Chap. 6: Parents and Teachers
• Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the subversion of Identity.
New York; Routledge.
• Sharma, R &E. Annamalai. (2003). Indian Diaspora: In Search of Identity.
Mysore: CIIL.
• Kumar, K.(2001) Prejudice and Pride: School Histories of the Freedom
Struggle. New Delhi: Viking/Penguin.
• Amalendu Misra, (2004). Identity and Religion Foundations of Anti-
Islamism in India. Sage Publications, New Delhi
• Dipankar Gupta (Ed.) (2004). Caste in question Identity or Hierarchy. Sage
Publications, New Delhi.
• Kamala Ganesh & Usha Thakkar (Ed.) (2005). Culture and Making of
Identity in India, Sage Publications, New Delhi.

41
• Saraswati, T.S. (Ed.) (1999). Culture, Socialization and Human
Development. Theory: Research and Applications in India, Sage Publication,
New Delhi.
• Sen Amartya (2006). Identity and Violence. The Illusion of Destiny. Allen
and Lane: Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
• Shashi Tharoor (2007). The Elephant, the Tiger &the Cell phone.
(Particularly part two of the book).Penguin Viking, New Delhi.
• Srinivas M.N., (1986). Social Changes in Modern India, Allied Publishers,
Bombay.
• Vidyanathan, T.G. (1989), ‘Authority and Identity in India’, in ‘Another
India’ Dae dalus, Fall, 118 (H): 147-69.

42
CC4: Curriculum and School
Contact hours: 4 hours per week
Total marks: 100

Aim of the Course


School, in the modern world, has been looked at as social transformer and great
equalizer. Further, it has been considered as an indicator of development. Schools,
it is believed, through their knowledge and value systems, change individuals and
transform societies to reach and realize constitutionally desired goals. The
realization of intended goals by the school depends on how effectively it transforms
the available spaces and sites in and around it into learning environments. School,
the physical space, becomes a learning space through its curriculum. Therefore,
curriculum development and organization become all the more crucial aspects of
school, as they determine the functions and nature of schools.
The course intends to inform student teachers how curriculum making plays a critical
role in a heterogeneous and plural society like India. However, without a clear
vision and understanding of curricular aims schools tend to become rigid in their
curricular practices, and uniformly impose processes, meanings and values. This
negates the ideals that they are expected to actualize. Therefore, the course aims at
enthusing student teachers to infuse dynamism in interpreting and transacting
curriculum in the school, so that it becomes culturally sensitive in selection of
knowledge, symbols and values, and child friendly in pedagogy.

Student teachers understand the evolving meanings of ‘curriculum’, when seen as a


dynamic process. Within this broad field, conceptual linkages ( and distinctions)
between educational aims, curriculum framework, curriculum development, syllabus,
teaching learning materials, pedagogy as well as evaluation processes are
recognized. The role of school organisation and culture, as well as of the teacher, in
operationalizing and developing a contextually responsive ‘curriculum’ and ‘critical
pedagogy’ is explored.
The scope for teachers to make curricular decisions based on field realities is
highlighted.

Course Outline
Unit 1: Concept of Curriculum
• Understanding the meanings and nature of Curriculum: need for
curriculum in schools
• Differentiating Curriculum Framework, Curriculum and Syllabus; their
significance in school education
• Facets of curriculum: core curriculum - significance in Indian context,
• Meaning and concerns of ‘hidden’ curriculum
• Curriculum visualized at different levels: national-level; state-level;
school level; class-level and related issues

43
Unit 2: Curriculum Determinants and Considerations
• Broad determinants of curriculum making:
(At the nation or state-wide level)
o Educational and Professional Polices
- Socio-political aspirations including ideologies and educational vision
- economic necessities
- technological possibilities
- cultural orientations
- national priorities

• Considerations in curriculum development:


(At the level of the school)
- Forms of knowledge and its characterization in different school
subjects;
- Relevance and specificity of educational objectives for
concerned level;
- Learner characteristics
- Teachers’ experiences and concerns
- Socio-cultural context of students - multi-cultural, multi-lingual
aspects
- Critical issues: environmental concerns, gender differences,
inclusiveness, value concerns and issues, social sensitivity

Unit 3: Curriculum Development (at school level)

• Understanding shifts in emphasis in approach to curriculum: from subject


centered ‘minimum levels of learning’ and/or behaviouristic learning
outcomes; to integrated approach involving development of perspectives,
concepts and skills across subjects, incorporating environmental/local
concerns, to activity centered and constructivist orientation

• Process of Curriculum Making


- Formulating aims and objectives (based on overall curricular aims and
syllabus)
- Criteria for selecting knowledge and representing knowledge in the
form of thematic questions in different subjects
- Organizing fundamental concepts and themes vertically across levels
and integrating themes within (and across) different subjects
- Selection and organization of learning situations

44
Unit 4: School: the site of curriculum engagement
• Role of school philosophy, administration (and organization) in creating a
context for development of curriculum;
• Available infrastructure, curricular sites and resources (library,
laboratory, school playground, neighbourhood etc)
• School culture, climate and environment as the context for teachers’ work
• Construction of curriculum vis a vis teachers’ role and support–in
‘transacting curriculum’; ‘developing curriculum’; ‘researching
curriculum’
• Space for teacher as a Critical Pedagogue
• Role of external agencies in providing curriculum and pedagogic supports
to teachers within schools – local, regional, national

Unit 5: Curriculum implementation and renewal


• Operationalising curriculum into learning situations
Teachers’ role in
- Generating dynamic curricular experiences through:
i. flexible interpretation of curricular aims
ii. contextualization of learning
iii. varied learning experiences
- Selection and development of learning resources (text-books,
teaching-learning materials and resources outside the school- local
environment, community and media, etc.
- Evolving assessment modes
- Appropriate reviewing and renewal of aims and processes

• Process of curriculum evaluation and revision:


- need for a model of continual evaluation;
- Feedback from learners, teachers, community, and administrators;
- observable incongruencies and correspondence between expectations
and actual achievements

Modes of Learning Engagement

A set of readings need to be compiled, which includes those which clarify key
concepts, trace the evolution of alternative conceptions of curriculum, contextualize
the problem of curriculum, indicate ways of developing, implementing and
reviewing curriculum. In addition, National Curriculum documents and relevant
secondary school syllabi should also be made available.

The following modes of learning engagement are suggested:

• Introductory lectures on key themes and concepts


• Study and discussions on the process of curriculum development at
various levels

45
• Study the NCF 2005 as well as the earlier curriculum frameworks and a
prescribed syllabus;
• Discussion on purpose of curriculum framework;
• Critical evaluation of the extent to which the curriculum framework is
reflected in the syllabus (in small groups)
• Interactions with school teachers and principal about how they
operationalise the prescribed curriculum into an action plan; how
curriculum is evaluated and revised
• Observe the kinds of curricular experiences a school provides apart from
classroom teaching and discern their relevance vis a vis learner
development; for this, interactions with teachers and students could be
held
• Study of selected readings and presentations based on these

Modes of Assessment

Internal Assessment: 25 Marks External Assessment: 75 Marks

Suggested modes of assessment are:


• Nature and level of participation in discussions
• Presentations based on readings
• Quality of field notes on observations and interviews in schools, and
linking these with concepts introduced
• Analysis of curriculum development/implementation processes within a
school, based on field notes and observations
• Written test
• Year-end Summative Assessment by University

References
• Bob Moon and Patricia Murphy (Ed) (1999). Curriculum in Context. Paul
Chapman Publishing, London.
• Chryshochoos, N.E. (1998) Learner Needs and Syllabus Design. M.A.
Dissertation. School of English.University of Durham, England.
• Dewey, John. The Child and the curriculum, University of Chicago Press,
Chicago.
• ------(1997) My Pedagogic Creed, in D.J. Flinders and S.J. Thorton (eds). The
Curriculum Studies Reader, Rontceoge, New York.
• G.W. Ford and Lawrence Pungo,(1964). The structure of Knowledge and the
curriculum. Rand McNally & Company, Chicago.
• Groundland, N.E.(1981). Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching. New
York:Macmillan.
Guilford,J.P.and B.Fruchter (1987) Fundamental Statistics in Education and
Psychology. Tokyo: McGraw Hill.

46
• Joseph Schwab, (1969). The Practical: A language for curriculum. School
Review, November.
• Kelley, A.B. (1996). The Curricular Theory and Practice. Harper and Row, US.
• Kumar Krishna (1997). What is Worth Teaching, Orient Longman, New Delhi.
• Nirantar (1997). Developing a Curriculum for Rural Women, Nirantar, New
Delhi.
• Padma M. Sarangapani (2003). Constructing School Knowledge, An
Ethnography of learning in an Indian Village, Sage Publication Inc., New Delhi.
• Taba, Hilda (1962). Curriculum Development. Theory and Practice, Har Court,
Brace and Wald. New York.
• Tyler, R.W. (1949). Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.

47
CC5: Vision of Education in India: Concerns and Issues
Contact hours: 4 hours per week
Total marks: 100

Aim of the course:


Education is essentially a normative endeavour, hence is intentional. It intends,
rather deliberately, to socialize children into a value frame or normative structure.
That is why history reveals that every education system, at different historical
periods, had been guided by certain value concerns. In contemporary times, the
education system in India derives its values from the Constitution of India. While
socializing children education has to negotiate within the frame of Constitutional
values. Indian Constitution envisioned a humane society based on freedom, equality
and justice, and this led to evolving many institutions to realize the vision. In this
regard, education has been considered as an agency of social transformation and
classroom as the shaper of the envisioned destiny. Since teachers ought to play
crucial role in realizing the vision, they are to be informed the Constitutional vision
so as to develop normative perspectives regarding education and thereby emerging
concerns and issues. This normative perspective a teacher holds in turn guides
his/her actions and acquires a meaning to action.

Education being an operational area, every citizen perceives several issues related to
it through personal experience. The student-teachers need to understand the main
issues that touch their functioning as also situate themselves in context. Such an
understanding on at least a few issues and concerns will equip student teachers to be
ready for dealing with other issues and concerns in the field. This is very relevant as
it may not be possible to bring under scrutiny all issues and concerns.

Since, concerns and issues cannot and should not be ‘informed’ like ‘ready to cook
facts’, the course is designed in such a fashion that prospective teachers would be
encouraged to come to terms with concerns and issues that would emerge out of their
reasoned engagement with contemporary educational reality in the light of professed
humanistic values.

The course is intended to enable the development of perspectives about vision of


contemporary educational reality, its concerns and issues Therefore, this course is
called ‘Seminar Course’ which will be provided through deliberations, discussions,
dialogues, reflections, library reading and presentations, instead of the usual
classroom lectures.

48
Course Outline

Unit 1: Normative Vision of Indian Education


• Normative orientation of Indian Education: A historical enquiry
• Determinants of purpose and process of Education: Communities, Religion,
State and Market.

• Constitutional provisions on education that reflect national ideals:


Democracy, Equality, Liberty, Secularism, and Social Justice.

• India as an evolving Nation State: Vision, Nature and Salient Features-


Democratic and Secular polity, federal structure: Implications for Educational
system

• Aims and purposes of contemporary education drawn from the normative


vision

Unit 2: Vision of Education: Four Indian Thinkers

An overview of salient features of the ‘philosophy and practice’ of education


advocated by these thinkers
• Rabindranath Tagore: Liberationist pedagogy
• M.K.Gandhi: Basic education OR Education for self sufficiency
• Aurobindo Ghosh: Integral education
• J. Krishnamurthi: Education for individual and social transformation

Unit 3: Contemporary Indian Schooling: concerns and issues

• Universalization of School Education


- Right to Education and Universal access:
i. Issues of a) Universal enrollment b) Universal retention c)
Universal success:
ii. Issues of quality and equity

The above to be discussed with specific reference to physical,


economic, social and cultural access particularly to girl child and
weaker sections as well as differently abled children

• Equality of Educational Opportunity:

- Meaning of Equality and Constitutional Provisions


- Prevailing nature and forms of Inequality including Dominant and
Minor groups and the related issues
- Inequality in Schooling: Public- private schools, Rural-urban
schools, single teachers’ schools and many other forms of inequalities
in school systems; and the processes leading to disparities

49
- Differential quality in Schooling: variations in school quality
• Idea of ‘common school’ system

Unit 4: Rights of Child: Schooling:

• Child Rights:
- International covenants and Indian Constitutional Provisions.
- Rights of Girl Child.
- Education as Fundamental Right of Children: Right to Education Bill its
provisions.
- Child labour: Right to Education: Alternative Schools their nature.
- Right to Education: School Practices: A critical view.

Unit 5: Education and Development- an Interface

• Education for National Development: Education Commission (1964-66)


• Emerging trends in the interface between:
- Political process and education
- Economic developments and education
- Socio-Cultural changes and education

Modes of Learning Engagement

This is intended to be a seminar course, where students engage with diverse activities
around the themes, issues and concerns highlighted in the course. They would
engage in a range of self-study and discussion activities.
Suggested modes of learning engagement are:
• Sourcing and studying relevant portions of documents relevant to the themes
• Presentations based on readings (including original writing of at least one
educational thinker)
• Conduct surveys of various educational contexts (eg. Schools of different
kinds) and make interpretative presentations based on these
• Study writings on analysis of education-development interface and make
presentations
• Group discussions, debates and dialogue on the themes

50
Modes of Assessment
Internal Assessment: 25 Marks External Assessment: 75 Marks

The suggested modes of assessment are:


• Level of initiative, and participation in group work
• Quality of conducting surveys and presentations based on these
• Originality of interpretation of field studies and experiences in terms of the
course themes
• Comprehension of ideas of thinkers and presentation of these
• Extent of innovative ideas and sensitivity in visualizing project on ‘peace’ or
‘environmental concerns’
• Individual term paper on a selected theme
Appropriate criteria need to be worked out for each of the above.

References
• Agrawal, J.C. & Agrawal S.P. (1992). Role of UNESCO in Educational, Vikas
Publishing House, Delhi.
• Anand, C.L. et.al. (1983). Teacher and Education in Emerging in Indian Society,
NCERT, New Delhi.
• Govt. of India (1986). National Policy on Education, Min. of HRD, New Delhi.
• Govt. of India (1992). Programme of Action (NPE). Min of HRD.
• Mani, R.S. (1964). Educational Ideas and Ideals of Gandhi and Tagore, New
Book Society, New Delhi.
• Manoj Das (1999). Sri Aurobindo on Education, National Council for Teacher
Education, New Delhi.
• Mistry, S.P. (1986). Non-formal Education-An Approach to Education for All,
Publication, New Delhi.
• Mohanty, J., (1986). School Education in Emerging Society, sterling Publishers.
• Mukherji, S.M., (1966). History of Education in India, Acharya Book Depot,
Baroda.
• Naik, J.P. & Syed, N., (1974). A Student’s History of Education in India,
MacMillan, New Delhi.
• NCERT (1986). School Education in India – Present Status and Future Needs,
New Delhi.
• Ozial, A.O. ‘Hand Book of School Administration and Management’, London,
Macmillan.
• Radha Kumud Mookerji. Ancient Indian Education (Brahmanical and Buddhist),
Cosmo Publications, New Delhi – 1999.

51
• Sainath P. (1996). Every body loves a good drought. Penguin Books New Delhi.
• Salamatullah, (1979). Education in Social context, NCERT, New Delhi.
• Sykes, Marjorie (1988): The Story of Nai Talim, Naitalim Samiti: Wardha.
• UNESCO; (1997). Learning the Treasure Within.
• Dr. Vada Mitra. Education in Ancient India, Arya book Depot, New Delhi –
1967
• Ministry of Education. ‘Education Commission “Kothari Commission”. 1964-
1966. Education and National Development. Ministry of Education,
Government of India 1966.
• Learning without Burden, Report of the National Advisory Committee.
Education Act. Ministry of HRD, Department of Education, October, 2004.
• National Policy on Education. 1986. Ministry of HRD, Department of
Education, New Delhi.
• Seventh All India School Education Survey, NCERT: New Delhi. 2002
• UNDPA. Human Development Reports. New Delhi. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
• UNESCO. (2004) Education for All: The Quality Imperative. EFA Global
Monitoring Report. Paris.
• Varghese, N.V. (1995). School Effects on Achievement: A Study of Government
and Private Aided Schools in Kerala. In Kuldip Kumar (Ed.) School
effectiveness and learning achievement at primary stage: International
perspectives. NCERT. New Delhi.
• World Bank, (2004). Reaching The Child: An Integrated Approach to Child
Development. Oxford University Press, Delhi.

52
Group B: Pedagogy Courses
Courses in Group B pertain mainly to enabling student teachers become effective
teachers. For this, a few preparatory aspects are necessary to help the student teacher
not only reorganize one’s previous understanding of one’s subject of specialization
but also become conversant with necessary competencies to visualize and create
enabling learning situations for learners. Further, student teacher has to try out
evolving a few learning situations and carry them out both in simulated as well as
real situations.

Courses in Group B are aimed at providing an understanding of the dynamics and


complexities in teaching-learning situations, including familiarity with the basic
terms and concepts, various alternatives possible, technical insights into putting
curricular aspects in operation as well as various ways of assessing learning. In
consonance with the overall framework, emphasis is laid on the constructivist views
in all these dimensions, with appropriate exposure to other views, wherever
necessary.

The four courses indicated as ‘PC’ are

PC1 and PC2 Subject Knowledge and its Pedagogic Restructuring:Part I and Part II

These Courses intends to enable student teachers to recognize the nature of


knowledge in various subject areas (Science-Biological/Physical/Mathematics/Social
Science/Languages-Hindi/English/Urdu/other region-specific language), and pursue
efforts to keep themselves abreast with advancements in their areas of specialization.
Each student teacher will take up two subject areas of his/ her own choice. In view of
the requirement of actual hands on experiences, each of the Courses is visualized in
two parts – I and II - to be spread over two years. Part I will help in developing
understanding of and competence to render disciplinary knowledge into forms
relevant to stage specific objectives and their pedagogic requirements. Part II
provides a comprehensive understanding of the teaching learning situations- gained
through intensive study of conceptual explanations, observation and analysis of real
life classroom situations, simulations as well as on hand experiences. In order to
provide adequate exposures and internalization, the Course is spread into two parts, I
and II, each to be dealt with in two consecutive years.

PC 3 Assessment for Learning

This Course intends to lead to an understanding and appreciation of the relevance of


assessment- the how and why of it, as well as develop necessary competence in
evolving appropriate assessment modes in line with learning objectives. It also
clarifies the significant shift in emphasis of the terms ‘assessment for learning’ as
against ‘assessment of learning’.

53
PC 4 Learning to Function as a Teacher

This 'course', as the title suggests, is visualized as essentially a school based


experiential learning for the student teachers in not only aspects related to teaching
learning of their subject areas in the classroom, but also to gain insight and
sensitivity into the wholistic part played by teacher in sustaining and evolving school
ethos. For this, it is visualized as a longer duration field experience supported by
relevant interactive exposures within the school and the Institute.

Pedagogy Courses 1 and 2: Subject Knowledge and the related Pedagogic


Dimensions

Each Course is visualized in two parts, which are to be conducted in two successive
years. The units are organized in a form indicating the continuity and sequence in
which they are to be dealt with. Each institute will decide PC1 and PC2 courses as
per the university requirement.

54
PEDAGOGY COURSE (MATHEMATICS)

Part I

Ist Year

Marks-100

Internal 25, External 75 Contact hours-128

Aim of the Course


After completion of course the students will be able to
• gain insight on the meaning, nature, scope and objective of mathematics
education
• appreciate mathematics as a tool to engage the mind of every student.
• appreciate mathematics to strengthen the student’s resource.
• appreciate the process of developing a concept.
• appreciate the role of mathematics in day-to-day life.
• learn important mathematics: Mathematics is more than formulas and
mechanical procedures.
• channelize, evaluate, explain and reconstruct their thinking.
• see that mathematics as something to talk about, to communicate through, to
discuss among themselves, to work together on.
• pose and solve meaningful problems.
• appreciate the importance of mathematics lab in learning mathematics.
• construct appropriate assessment tools for evaluating mathematics learning.

Course Outline

Unit- I

Nature of Mathematics   

• Axiomatic Framework of Mathematics


Axioms, Postulates, Undefined Terms, Defined Terms, Reasoning, Type of
Reasoning, Proofs - Types of Proofs.
• Learning Outcome in Mathematics
Inculcation of specific attitudes like Problem solving, Logical thinking,
Drawing inferences, Handling abstraction, Visualising etc. in learner’s
personality.
Emphasis on use of mathematics in daily life situations.
Role of mathematics in other subject areas – Interdisciplinary approaches

55
 

Unit­II 
Problem posing / solving in Mathematics
Problem posing: Problem posing skill contextualised to recognition of pattern,
Extension of pattern, Formulisation of conjecture and generalisation through several
illustrations drawn from learners immediate environment, Skill development of
Process Questioning – that requires more than a simple factual response like yes or
no only, can stimulate discussion of an idea, which lead to further exploration and
use of oral language to explain and justify a thought.

Problem solving: Understanding of Problem, Splitting the Problem in known and


unknown parts, Symbolisation and mathematical formulation, Solving problem with
multiplicity of approaches- Probing questions and concrete analogies can be used
to initiate the exploration of alternative methods, Attitude build up of internal
questioning – learn to ask themselves key questions before, during and after the
solution process.

Unit-III
Construction of concepts

Recall and consolidation of various concepts with varied examples and illustrations.
Teaching of Arithmetic, Algebra, Co-ordinate Geometry, Geometry, Trigonometry,
Mensuration, Statistics and Probability.
Analysis of concepts coherently in graded way.
Misconception and common errors

Unit- IV
Integration of mathematical content with activities through Mathematics
Laboratory

Identifying activity in several content areas conducive to the comprehension level of


learner.
Inculcating skills in Designing, Demonstrating, Interpreting and drawing inference of
activities/concrete models.

56
Part II

IInd Year

Marks-100

Internal 25, External 75 Contact hours-96

Unit-V
Exploring learners

Cultivating learner’s sensitivity like listening, encouraging learner for probing,


raising queries, appreciating dialogue among peer group, promoting the student’s
confidence.

Unit-VI
Planning Classroom Strategies
Analysis of textual and supplementary print materials, connecting lab / field
experiences and suitable planning for classroom interaction.
(i) Identifying desired outcome, i.e., what level of understanding is desired, what
essential questions will guide teaching/learning.
(ii) Determining acceptable evidences that show students understanding.
(iii) Integrating learning experiences and instructions – sequence of teaching
/learning experiences that enable students to develop / demonstrate desired
understanding.
(iv) Developing skills and knowledge required to make appropriate use of
technology, learner teachers will be required to make pedagogical choices
critically about when and where technology should be used.
(v) The role of cooperative learning in mathematics.

Unit­ VII                                                                                                    Assessment and 
Evaluation   
• Informal creative Evaluation
Encouraging learner to examine a variety of methods of assessment in
mathematics so as to assess creativity, problem solving and practical
performance.
Appreciating evaluation through overall performance of the child.
Self and peer evaluation

• Formal ways of Evaluation


Variety of assessment techniques and practices.
Assessing Product vs. Process, Knowing vs. Doing.

57
In practice midterm / terminal examination, practicing continuous and
comprehensive evaluation to test regular programs / achievement of
learner.

Unit- IV
Developing Blue print for designing question paper

Identifying and organizing components for developing frame work of question paper
at different stages of learning. Framing questions based on concepts and sub
concepts so as to encourage critical thinking, promote logical reasoning and to
discourage mechanical manipulation and rote learning. Framing of open ended
questions providing the scope to learners to give responses in their own words.
Framing of conceptual questions from simple questions.

Modes of Learning Engagement


• Providing opportunities for group activities.
• Group/ individual presentation.
• Providing opportunity for sharing ideas.
• Exposing to exemplar constructivist learning situations in mathematics.
• Designing and setting up models, teaching aids and activities/ laboratory
work.
• Visit to district, state and national level science exhibition.
• Audio visual presentation followed by its analysis and discussion.
• Reflective written assignments.
• Case studies.

Modes of Assessment
• Presentation and communication skills in mathematics
• Posing conceptual questions from simple situations, interpretation and
analysis
• Designing innovative learning situations
• Performance in group activity
• Laboratory experiences
• Reflective written assignment
• Written test on conceptual understanding of specific topics and its
pedagogy
• A year and summative assessment by the university.

Reading Material 
1. The Teaching of Mathematics- Roy Dubisch, John Wiley and Sons INC, New
York and London, 1963
2. Teaching of Mathematics by Butler and Wren, Mc.Graw Hill Book Company,
INC, New York and London, 1960

58
3. The Teaching of Secondary Mathematics by Claude H. Brown, Harper &
Brothers, Publishers, New York (1953)
4. Teaching Mathematics in the Secondary School, Reinhart & Company INC,
New York, 1954
5. Mathematical Discovery (Volume I and II) , George Polya, John Wiley &
Sons, INC, New York and London, 1962 (I), 1965 (II)
6. Teaching Mathematics in Elementary School by C. G. Corle, The Ronalal
Press Company, New York (1964)
7. Activity for Junior High School and Middle School Mathematics, Volume –
II, NCTM, USA, 1999
8. Geometry- History, Culture and Techniques, J.L. Heilborn, Oxford
University Press, 2000
9. Mathematics, Part I and II TEXTBOOK FOR CLASS XII, 2007, NCERT,
New Delhi
10. Mathematics, Part I and II TEXTBOOK FOR CLASS XI, 2006, NCERT,
New Delhi
11. Mathematics, TEXTBOOK FOR CLASS X, 2007, NCERT, New Delhi
12. Mathematics, TEXTBOOK FOR CLASS IX, 2006, NCERT, New Delhi
13. Mathematics, FOR CLASS VIII, 2008, NCERT, New Delhi
14. Mathematics, FOR CLASS VII, 2007, NCERT, New Delhi
15. Mathematics, FOR CLASS VI, 2006, NCERT, New Delhi
16. National Curriculum Framework – 2005, NCERT.
17. Position Paper of NFG on Teaching of Mathematics – 2005, NCERT.
18. Position Paper of NFG on Habitat and Learning – 2005, NCERT.
19. Position Paper of NFG on Examination Reforms – 2005, NCERT.
20. Position Paper of NFG on Aims of Education – 2005, NCERT.
21. Position Paper of NFG on Gender Issues in Education – 2005, NCERT.
22. Position Paper of NFG on Education for Peace – 2005, NCERT.
Journals:
23. Teaching Children Mathematics (TCM), NCTM, USA
24. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School (MTMS), NCTM, USA
25. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, Springer Netherlands
Web-sites:
26. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, Philadelphia, USA
27. http://www.mathforum.org/dr.math
28. http://www.sakshat.ac.in
29. http://web.utk.edu
30. http://www.confluence.org
31. http://www.nationalmathtrail.org
32. http://www.gsh.org/lists/hilites.html
33. http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/bluewebn
34. http://www.gsn.org/pr
35. http://www.education-world.com
36. http://www.nctm.org
37. http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/bluewebn
38. http://www.ncert.nic.in

59
B.ED. (LANG. & SOC.SC.)

Pedagogy Course (Social Science)

The pedagogy course in Social Science is necessary to familiar the students-


teachers with the content and methodology of teaching the subject at upper primary
and secondary level of school education. This syllabus makes a radical break with
the past practices of teaching social sciences with introduction of constructivist and
experimental pedagogy to cope with the real life situation.

Main aims of the course are:

• To help student-teachers revisit the key concepts of social science.


• To encourage to grasp the key concepts and categories though constructivist
and experimental pedagogy
• To develop related skills for using these in the classrooms at upper primary
and secondary level.

B.Ed. (Language and Social Science) I Year

Max. Marks-100 Internal 25


External 75

Unit-1 Nature of Social Science


Social Problems and their analysis; Data, evidences, methods and
resources in Soc. Sciences-History, Geography, Pol. Sc. Sociology
and Economics, Observations and field work; Construction of
arguments and explanations on social issues; Fact, opinion, bias and
perspective; spatial and temporal contexts; Enquiry and evidence,
constructivism and construction of histories; Humanism and values
enshrined in the Indian Constitution through Soc. Sc.; Learner’s
development.

Unit-2 Pedagogical Methods


Place of various social science subjects in Secondary Curriculum,
Aims of teaching at secondary level in western region; Pedagogies in
Social Science-Interaction, critical, and constructivist; Relating
subject content with real life situation-going beyond textbooks.

Unit-3 Teaching-Learning Aids and Resources in Social Science


Newspapers, magazines, Reference material-Dictionaries,
Encyclopedias and Thesaurses and Secondary literature in libraries;
Internet and its cautious use as a resource.

60
Unit-4 Assessment
Questions and their types for examining, assessing and understanding,
Testing for Quantitative and Qualitative skills, open-ended questions,
open-book tests-strengths and weaknesses, Evaluations of answers.

Unit-5 Interplay between Socio-political systems and human experience


Politics, history and Political Science; Different types of states and
their formation; Capitalism, democracy and citizenship (Case Study-
UK and India); Evolution of modern state, Nationalism and the
nation-state (Case Study-France/Germany/Italy); Democratic Politics
and Organs of government-legislature, executive and judiciary,
Fundamental rights and directive principles of State policy (Case
Study-India); Varieties of Socialism, Fascism and dictatorship-( case
study Germany, Italy).

61
B.Ed. (Language and Social Science) II Year

Max. Marks-100 Internal 25


External 75

UNIT-1 Inter disciplinarity in Social Science


Inter-connections among various disciplines, Interplay between
various Social Sciences

UNIT-2 Assessing Syllabi and text books


• Discussion and assessment of the Social Science Syllabus of
MP/Chhattisgarh/Maharashtra/Gujarat at Upper primary and
Primary level.
• Creating syllabi – the rudiments
• Assessing textbooks of Social Science of
MP/Chhattisgarh/Maharashtra/Gujarat/related to upper
primary and secondary level.

UNIT-3 Development of Skills


• Observation skills in the area of Social Science for
Primary/Secondary Data.
• Map reading and analysis-distances, directions, scales on
different types of maps.
• Mathematical Skills used in economics upto the level of Class
X
UNIT-4 Human relationships, identities and interaction in India
• Culture, Social Stratification and social change.
• Caste and class in Indian society.
• Shared religious cultures and conflicts between religious
committees.
• Gender differentials across caste, class and religious structure
in India

UNIT-5 Human life, space and resources:


Socio-economic formations-movement from subsistence economy to
surplus economy; Demography and distribution of wealth in society;
Key issues in Economics and Geography-poverty, food security,
globalization and environmental imbalances with ref. to India.
Environment human interaction, Resources and their distribution in
India and world. Social Interaction.

62
Transactional Strategies:

• Creating interest in the learners for specific social themes and issues under
discussion
• Creating thinking of the social problems for analysis
• Lectures, group discussions, guided self study and reflection.
• Observing things, human relationships and working of social institutions
• Identifying linkages between subject areas.
• Presentations on frontier areas and contemporary issues in Social Sciences.

Mode of Assessment
• Quality of participation in discussions
• Quality of seminar presentations in classrooms
• Assignments written off the institute
• Open book written tests
• Close book tests/term papers
• Year-end summative assessment of university

63
Part II

IInd Year
Marks: 100
Internal 25, External 75 Contact hours-96

7. Resources and aids for teaching-learning in Social Science:


(a) Secondary literature in libraries.
(b) Reference materials in libraries: Dictionaries, Encyclopaedias, Thesauruses.
(c) Using newspapers and magazines as sources.
(d) The Internet: Locating relevant literature on the Internet. Just as books or any
other product can be of varying qualities, so is the case with sites on the Internet.
Hence, students need to be cautioned in the use of the Internet.

8. Issues of assessment
Types of questions best suited for examining/assessing understanding in the different
Social Sciences. Questions for testing quantitative skills. Questions for testing
qualitative analysis. Open-ended questions. Open-book tests: strengths and
limitations. Evaluating answers: what to look for?
9. Assessing syllabi and textbooks
a. Discussion and assessment of syllabi. Three Social Science syllabi may be
taken up for any given stage of education viz. Upper Primary or Secondary.
b. Creating syllabi: the rudiments of drawing up syllabi to be introduced.
c. Assessing textbooks. Three to five Social Science textbooks may be taken up
for discussion. Of these, some may be for Upper Primary classes, others for
Secondary classes. It would help if the textbooks are from different parts of
the country.

10. Inter-disciplinarity through project work


Teacher-learners to undertake a project on any Social Science topic through which
they draw interconnections between the various disciplines that constitute the Social
Sciences. The interplay between various Social Science disciplines must be
emphasised.
A few examples of appropriate areas from which topics for project work may be
chosen are: Food, Water, Depletion of other resources, Architecture and
urbanisation, Transportation and communications, Socio-political systems, Everyday
life, Local government.

64
Modes of Learning Engagement
It is advised that the Course be conducted through a combination of lectures,
group discussions, guided self-study and reflection. It would be important for
the teacher to act as an involved facilitator. Suggested modes of learning
engagement are:
• Selection and/or identification of key areas in the subject that are
studied through varied modes of engagement (text-based, field
study/research, library work, discussion). Reading and referencing
should be positively encouraged.
• Lectures-cum-discussions; classroom seminars
• Group discussions in small groups
• Understanding a given phenomenon from different subject
perspectives
• Identifying linkages between subject areas
• Reading, presentation and discussion on frontier areas and
contemporary issues within each subject area or in Social Science as a
whole
• Study of curricular documents to determine the aims and objectives of
various subject areas
• Presentation of stage-specific objectives for each subject area

Modes of Assessment 

Suggested modes of assessment are: 

• Quality of participation in discussions


• Quality of seminar presentations in class. These presentations may be
on topics of various kinds: general, overarching issues in Social
Science, curricular concerns, the significance of activities in Social
Science learning, study of a given historical or contemporary issue.
• Essays written at home
• At least one term paper
• Open book written tests i.e. tests in which candidates can use printed
materials
• Closed book tests
• Year-end Summative assessment by the Institute/University

Appropriate criteria for all internal assessment modes need to be worked out.

65
Select Readings
1. Bhaduri, Amit (2005), Development with Dignity: A Case for Full Employment,
National Book Trust, New Delhi.
2. Blaug, Mark (1992), The Methodology of Economics or How Economists
Explain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
3. Bloch, Mark (1992), The Historian’s Craft, Manchester University Press,
Manchester.
4. Burke, Peter (1990), The French Historical Revolution: The Annales
School,1929-89 (Polity Press, Cambridge).
5. Burke, Peter (1991), New Perspectives on History Writing, Blackwell, Oxford.
6. Carr, E.H. (1962), What is History?, Knopf, London.
7. Dasgupta, Partha (2007), Economics: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford
University Press, 2007.
8. George, Alex M. and Amman Madan (2009), Teaching Social Science in
Schools: NCERT’s New Textbook Initiative, Sage, New Delhi.
9. Kuhn, Thomas S. (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of
Chicago Press, Chicago.
10. Lakatos I, (1976), Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
11. Lewis, Bernard (1975), History: Remembered, Recovered, Invented, Simon
and Schuster, Inc., New York.
12. Kent, A (Ed.) (2000), Reflective Practice in Geography Teaching, Paul Chapman
Publishing Ltd., London.
13. Kumar, Krishna (2002), Prejudice and Pride: School Histories of the Freedom
Struggle in India and Pakistan, Penguin India, New Delhi.
14. Mehlinger, Howard D. (Ed.) (1981), UNESCO Handbook for the Teaching of
Social Studies, UNESCO, Paris.
15. NCERT (2006), National Focus Group Position Paper on Teaching
SocialSciences, National Council of Educational Research and Training, New
Delhi, 2006.
15. Root, Michael (1993), Philosophy of Social Science, Blackwell, Oxford.
16. Sartori, Giovanni (Ed.) (1984), Social Science Concepts: A Systematic Analysis,
Sage Publications, New Delhi.
17. Skinner, Quentin, (1985), The Return of Grand Theory in the Human Sciences,
Cambridge University Preess, Cambridge.
18. Slater, F. (1982) Learning Through Geography, Butler and Tanner Ltd., London.
19. Stanford, Michael (1986) The Nature of Historical Knowledge, Basil Blackwell,
Oxford.
20. Trigg, Roger (1985), Understanding Social Science: A Philosophical
Introduction to the Social Sciences, Basic Blackwell, Oxford.
21. Wilkins, Elizabeth J. (1979), Elements of Social Science, Macdonald and Evans,
London.
Apart from the above-mentioned readings, please refer to the syllabi and other
curricular documents brought out by NCERT, CBSE and other State Boards.

66
PEDAGOGY COURSE (BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE)

Part I
Ist year
Marks: 100
Internal 25, External 75 Contact hours-128
Objectives
After completion of course the students will be able:
1. Gain insight on the meaning, nature, scope and objectives of science
education.
2. Recognize the fact that every child possesses curiosity about his natural
surroundings.
3. Realize that science is a dynamic body of knowledge.
4. Identify and relate every day experiences with learning science.
5. Practice various approaches of teaching-learning of science.
6. Employ various techniques of transaction of science.
7. Use effectively different activities/ demonstrations/ laboratory experiences
for teaching- learning of science.
8. Facilitate development of scientific attitudes in learners.
9. Construct appropriate assessment tools for evaluating science learning.

Course Outline

UNIT – I Nature of Science


Learning experiences of science in context to life
Objectives of science education, role of science in removing ignorance and
superstition, bringing in socio-economic changes , aims and objectives of
teaching science in relation to poverty, health, equity, peace, environment and
gender.
Science as a domain of enquiry
Observation, process skills, steps in scientific method, developing scientific
attitude.

UNIT – II Science as a dynamic body of knowledge


Historical and developmental perspective of science, major scientific
achievements in the physical and biological sciences: Impact on society, and
futuristic views.

UNIT – III Content Specific Pedagogy I


Pedagogy in Science
Nature of scientific disciplines, constructivist approach in learning science at
various levels
of school education, science as a discourse of interdisciplinary learning,
communication in
science learning.

67
Pedagogy specific to disciplines
The theoretical basis of school science education: Thematic approach at
elementary and
secondary stages with subjects specific examples such as Food and Nutrition,
Air, Energy,
Water ; Natural resources, Habitat; interdisciplinary approach with specific
examples from
textbooks diffusing disciplinary boundaries ( with specific examples like
biomolecules .)

UNIT – IV Content specific pedagogy II


Development of analytical ability
Analysis of the organization of relationships between concepts, laws and theories
in science, erroneous concepts of scientific knowledge and remedies: learner’s
preconception, sources of misconception, language and misconception, effective
remedies, use of ICT in teaching- learning.
UNIT – V Resource utilization
Learning Resources
Identification of learning resource from immediate environment, formal and
non-formal
channels, collection of material (school specific –rural/ urban, community),
exploring
alternative resources, handling hurdles in utilization of resources.
Resources specific to the children with special needs
Alternative resources for physically challenged learners; ensuring partnership in
classroom
and other activities, socio –economic considerations; resources for talented
minorities.

Topics for Internal assessment


(i) Activity/Laboratory experiences in learning Biological Sciences

Organizing activity based class room, use of instructional material


(learner participation in developing them), use of laboratories, field
experiences, ICT application.

(ii) Curricular components


Encouraging learner to non-formal channels such as debate/discussion
project, exhibition, science and technology fair, children
science congress, State and National Level Science Exhibition, nurturing creative
talent at local level and exploring linkage with district/ state central agencies;
community participation.

68
PEDAGOGY COURSE (BIOLOGI CAL SCIENCE)
Part II
IInd year
Marks: 100
Internal 25, External 75 Contact hours-96

UNIT- I Learning process


Exploring learners
Cultivating in student-teacher the habit of listening, motivating learner to bring her
previous knowledge gained through class room/ environment / parents and peer
group; generating discussion, involving learner in teaching – learning process,
encouraging learner to raise questions, appreciating dialogue amongst peer group.
Unit II Evolving learning situation
Analysis of textual and supplementary print material and suitable planning for
connecting lab/ field experiences in class room interaction, identifying desired
experience (i.e. what level of under standings is desired, what essential questions
will guide teaching – learning), determining acceptable evidences that show students
understand, integrating learning, experiences and instructions, steps in teaching-
learning experiences that enable students to develop / demonstrate desired
understanding, use of ICT experiences in classroom to enable learner to adopt new
techniques in teaching – learning process.
Unit III Assessment and Evaluation
Informal creative evaluation to assess creativity, problem solving, practical /
technological skills, appreciating evaluation through co-curricular channels,
exploring content areas not assessed in formal examination system through
performance based assessment.
Modes of Assessment
Participation in group; presentation and communication skills of science; posing
questions, interpretation and analysis of observation; Designing innovative learning
situations; laboratory experience; field notes.
Unit IV- Formal ways to evaluate learner
Challenges to test understanding / concept development during practice and
term/terminal examination, practicing continuous and comprehensive evaluation to
test regular progress/ achievement of learner, oral presentation, developing
performance parameter for qualitative assessment, anecdotal records, rubric
portfolio.
Unit V: Formal Blue print and framing questions.
Identifying and organizing components for developing frame work of question
paper at different stages of learning, percentile ranking, reporting
performance of learners, framing questions based on theory, experiment/activities to
discourage rote learning and promoting analysis, critical thinking and reasoning,
open ended questions to evaluate creativity and expression of learner.
Topics for internal assessment
Hands-on activities and lab experiences
Encouraging learner to collect material to develop/ fabricate suitable activity prior to
the class (individual or group work) and teacher facilitated activities to generate

69
discussion; experiences on layout, setting and organizing laboratory, Developing
content specific project work, projects on planning and developing instructional
materials.
Provide opportunities for group discussion on key themes and concepts,
group/individual presentation, lecture in interactive manner providing opportunity
for sharing ideas followed by group discussion, exposing to exemplar constructivist
learning situations in science, designing and setting up activities/laboratory work,
Making field notes/observation , visit to State/National level science
exhibition/science centre/science museum, audio visual presentation followed by its
analysis and discussion, reflective written assignments, case studies.

Reading Material
1. NCERT, National Curriculum Framework – 2005.
2.  NCERT, Position Paper of NFG on Teaching of Science ‐2005. 
3.  NCERT, Position Paper of NFG on Habitat and Learning – 2005 
4.  NCERT Position Paper of NFG on Examination Reforms – 2005 
5.  NCERT, Position Paper of NFG on Aims of education – 2005. 
6.  NCERT, Position Paper of NFG on Education for Peace – 2005. 
7.  N.  Vaidya,  Science  Teaching  for  21st  Century,  Deep  &  Deep  Publications 
(1999).Dat Poly, Encyclopedia of Teaching Science, Sarup & Sons,
New Delhi (2004) 
8. Radha Mohan, Innovative Science Teaching for Physical Science
Teachers, Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd., New Delhi (2002)
9. Sutton, CR and Hayson JH, The Art of the Science Teacher, Mc Graw
Hill Book Company Ltd. (1974)
10. Their, DH, Teaching Elementary School Science : A Laboratory
Approach, Sterling Publication Pvt. Ltd (1973)
11. Science Teacher (NSTA’s peer reviewed journal for secondary
science teachers)
12. Journal of Research in Science Teaching (Wiley-Blackwell)
13. Turner Tony and Wendey Di Macro, Learning to Teach School
Experience in secondary school teaching, Routledge, London and
New York.
Web Sites
1. http:/www.tc.columbia.edu/mst/science.ed/courses.asp.
2. http:/www.edu.uwo.ca

70
PEDAGOGY COURSE (PHYSICAL SCIENCE)
Part I
Ist year
Marks: 100
Internal 25, External 75 Contact
Hours-128
Objectives
After completion of course the students will be able:
1. Gain insight on the meaning, nature, scope and objectives of science
education.

2. Recognize the fact that every child possesses curiosity about his natural
surroundings.

3. Realize that science is a dynamic body of knowledge.

4. Identify and relate every day experiences with learning science.

5. Practices various approaches of teaching-learning of science.

6. Employ various techniques of transaction of science.

7. Use effectively different activities/ demonstrations/ laboratory experiences for


teaching-learning of science.

8. Facilitate development of scientific attitudes in learners.

9. Construct appropriate assessment tools for evaluating science learning.

Course Outline

UNIT – I Nature of Science


Learning experiences of science in context to life
Objectives of science education, role of science in removing ignorance and
superstition, bringing in socio-economic changes , aims and objectives of
teaching science in relation to poverty, health, equity, peace, environment,
gender.
Science as a domain of enquiry
Observation, process skills, steps in scientific method, developing scientific
attitude.

UNIT – II Science as a dynamic body of knowledge


Historical and developmental perspective of science, major scientific
achievements in the physical and biological sciences: Impact on society, and
futuristic views.

71
UNIT – III Content Specific Pedagogy I
Pedagogy in Science
Nature of scientific disciplines, constructivist approach in learning science at
various levels of school education, science as a discourse of interdisciplinary
learning, communication in science learning.
Pedagogy specific to disciplines
The theoretical basis of school science education: Thematic approach at
elementary and secondary stages with subjects specific examples such as
Food and Nutrition, Air, Energy, Water ; Natural resources, Habitat;
interdisciplinary approach with specific examples from textbooks diffusing
disciplinary boundaries ( with specific examples like kinetic theory,
atomic structure.)

UNIT – IV Content specific pedagogy II


Development of analytic ability
Analysis of the organization of relationships between concepts, laws and
theories in science, erroneous concepts of scientific knowledge and
remedies: learner’s preconception, sources of misconception, language and
misconception, effective remedies, use of ICT in teaching- learning.

UNIT – V Resource utilization


Learning Resources
Identification of learning resource from immediate environment, formal and
non-formal channels, collection of material (school specific –rural/ urban,
community), exploring alternative resources, handling hurdles in utilization of
resources.
Resources specific to the children with special need
Alternative resources for physically challenged learners; ensuring partnership in
classroom and other activities, socio –economic considerations; resources for
talented minorities.

Topics for Internal assessment


(i) Activity/Laboratory experiences in learning Physics/ Chemistry
Organizing activity based class room, use of instructional material (learner
participation in developing them), use of laboratories, field experiences, ICT
application.
(ii) Curricular components
Encouraging learner to non-formal channels such as debate/discussion
project, exhibition, science and technology fair, children science congress,
State and National Level Science Exhibition, nurturing creative talent at
local level and exploring linkage with district/ state central agencies;
community participation.

72
PEDAGOGY COURSE (PHYSICAL SCIENCE)
Part II
IInd year
Marks: 100
Internal 25, External 75 Contact
hours-96
UNIT- I Learning process
Exploring learners
Cultivating in student-teacher the habit of listening, motivating learner to bring her
previous knowledge gained through class room/ environment / parents and peer
group; generating discussion, involving learner in teaching – learning process,
encouraging learner to raise questions, appreciating dialogue amongst peer group.
Unit II Evolving learning situation
Analysis of textual and supplementary print material and suitable planning for
connecting lab/ field experiences in class room interaction, identifying desired
experience (i.e. what level of under standings is desired, what essential questions
will guide teaching – learning), determining acceptable evidences that show students
understand, integrating learning, experiences and instructions, steps in teaching-
learning experiences that enable students to develop / demonstrate desired
understanding, use of ICT experiences in classroom to enable learner to adopt new
techniques in teaching – learning process.
Unit III Assessment and Evaluation
Informal creative evaluation to assess creativity, problem solving, practical /
technological skills, appreciating evaluation through co-curricular channels,
exploring content areas not assessed in formal examination system through
performance based assessment.
Modes of Assessment
Participation in group; presentation and communication skills of science; posing
questions, interpretation and analysis of observation; Designing innovative learning
situations; laboratory experience; field notes.
Unit IV- Formal ways to evaluate learner
Challenges to test understanding / concept development during practice and
term/terminal examination, practicing continuous and comprehensive evaluation to
test regular progress/ achievement of learner, oral presentation, developing
performance parameter for qualitative assessment, anecdotal records, rubric
portfolio.
Unit V: Formal Blue print and framing questions.
Identifying and organizing components for developing frame work of question
paper at different stages of learning, percentile ranking, reporting performance of
learners, framing questions based on theory, experiment/activities to discourage
rote learning and promoting analysis, critical thinking and reasoning, open
ended questions to evaluate creativity and expression of learner.
Topics for internal assessment
Hands-on activity and lab experiences
Encouraging learner to collect material to develop/ fabricate suitable activity prior to
the class (individual or group work) and teacher facilitated activities to generate

73
discussion; experiences on layout, setting and organizing laboratory, Developing
content specific project work, projects on planning and developing instructional
materials.
Provide opportunities for group discussion on key themes and concepts,
group/individual presentation, lecture in interactive manner providing opportunity
for sharing ideas followed by group discussion, exposing to exemplar constructivist
learning situations in science, designing and setting up activities/laboratory work,
Making field notes/observation , visit to State/National level science
exhibition/science centre/science museum, audio visual presentation followed by its
analysis and discussion, reflective written assignments, case studies.

Reading Material
1. NCERT, National Curriculum Framework – 2005.
2. NCERT, Position Paper of NFG on Teaching of Science -2005.
3. NCERT, Position Paper of NFG on Habitat and Learning – 2005
4. NCERT Position Paper of NFG on Examination Reforms – 2005
5. NCERT, Position Paper of NFG on Aims of education – 2005.
6. NCERT, Position Paper of NFG on Education for Peace – 2005.
7. N. Vaidya, Science Teaching for 21st Century, Deep & Deep Publications
(1999).
8. Dat Poly, Encyclopedia of Teaching Science, Sarup & Sons, New Delhi
(2004)
9. Radha Mohan, Innovative Science Teaching for Physical Science Teachers,
Prentice Hall of India Pvt Ltd., New Delhi (2002)
10. Sutton, CR and Hayson JH, The Art of the Science Teacher, Mc Graw Hill
Book Company Ltd. (1974)
11. Their, DH, Teaching Elementary School Science : A Laboratory Approach,
Sterling Publication Pvt. Ltd (1973)

74
12. Science Teach (NSTA’s peer reviewed journal for secondary science
teachers)
13. Journal of Research in Science Teaching (Wiley-Blackwell)
14. Misconceptions in chemistry, addressing perceptions in Chemical
Education, Bake, Hans Dieter, A1 Yitbarek, Sileshi, Publication of
Springer.
15. Turner Tony and Wendey Di Macro, Learning to Teach School Experience
in secondary school teaching, Routledge, London and New York.
16. Taber K.S.: Chemical Misconceptions – Prevention, Diagnosis and cure
volume 1 and 2, London 2002 (Royal Society of Chemistry)
Web Sites
3. http:/www.tc.columbia.edu/mst/science.ed/courses.asp.
4. http:/www.edu.uwo.ca

PEDAGOGY COURSE (ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION)

Part I

Ist YEAR

75
Marks-100
Internal 25, External 75 Contact hours-128

Course Description

Pedagogy courses aim at developing an understanding in the student teacher about


the epistemology of language and language learning in general, its interaction and
interface with history, economics society, etc. The courses, besides familiarising the
student teacher with the recent developments and emerging trends in language
pedagogy, particularly English (as a second) language education in Indian contexts
to develop a perspective on the evolving nature of language acquisition-learning
theories, focus on enabling the learner to explore various ways and means to enrich
language learning among learners in school contexts.

Objectives of the Course:


The Course will enable student-teachers

• To become aware of the nature and system of language, language


acquisition and language learning, and develop a perspective on English
(as second) language education in Indian contexts.
• To understand the dynamic nature of beliefs and assumptions about
language learning, methodologies of language teaching and appreciate the
aims of language teaching, particularly English Language teaching and its
place and importance in learning-teaching other subject areas.
• To critically examine the English language curricula at school level (as
prescribed by the boards) and appreciate philosophical and pragmatic
understanding in them.
• To become a language teaching professional by continuous learning and
exploring critically the existing theories and practices in language
education.

Unit One: Nature and System of Language

1.1. Language as a ruled governed system: Language faculty in humans -


Language as a rule governed system- an abstract system consisting of several
subsystems- at the sound level-word (lexis) level and sentence (syntax) level.
Spoken and written language: Difference between speech and writing –

76
written word is monitored-remains permanent in time- spoken word is
transient and changes. No intrinsic relationship between language and script.
1.2. Language, Literature and Aesthetics: One of several functions includes
fictional-Poetry, prose, and dram potent sources of aesthetic life, enhancing
synaesthetic abilities, linguistics abilities, reading comprehension and written
articulation - Language and Creativity
1.3. Language and Society: Relationship between language and society- language
cannot exist and develop outside society- stimulated by cultural heritage and the
needs of social development – human society can not do without language as
most important, most perfect and universal means of communication, formation
of thought and accumulation and transmission of expression - awareness about
stereotypes (i) languages as entities (ii) discrete objects
1.4. Language, Attitudes and Motivation: Attitudes and motivation and their place
in language learning- Attitudes of the teacher and Parents’ contribution to
successful language learning- socio-psychological factors / variable that
influences learning a language as second language, including instrumental and
integrative motivation.
1.5. Language and Identity: Language facilitates identification, - marker of identity
maintenance – repository of memories and symbols –- relevance of identity in
minority languages - identity in language education contexts- India’s diversity,
multilingual and multi cultural society and identity.
1.6. Language and Power: Scientifically is no difference between languages, more
specifically standard language, pure language, dialect, variety, etc. Language as
a system, an abstract system interacts with history, economics, sociology and
politics in complex ways makes some languages more prestigious than others
and become associated with socio-political power. Need to support languages
of underprivileged and ensure use in variety of contexts. – ‘Standard’ language
is never a fixed constant.
1.7. Language and Gender: Gender construction of knowledge language and its
role in gender bias. – Women shown as passive role, both in language and

77
illustrations – gender construction of knowledge. Awareness about gender in
language.
1.8. Language. Culture and Thought: Language as a vehicle for culture and
thought - and the main source of cultural transmission and cognitive structures –
the linguistics and cultural patterns of social behaviour subconsciously
acquired-
1.9. Language in Education: Communication as a major function of language -
Place of language in learning –the intertwining nature of language and learning
- its place in creating a citizenry –

Unit Two: Language Learning


2.1. Assumptions about language acquisition and language learning: A
historical look at language acquisition and language learning theories- dynamic and
evolutionary nature of theories informed by research and practices – emergence of
the behaviourists and the structuralists and their impact on language classroom – the
conditioning and habit formation models - applied linguists and their contribution to
language acquisition- second language acquisition- learning. - The 1960s -
Chomskian- mentalist view – Cognitivism – Piagetian and Vygotskian perspectives
– constructivist approach to learning and (knowledge) language learning.
2.2. Language and learning: Centrality of language in learning – Language
Across Curriculum (LAC) – content based language teaching –registers – learning
through mother tongue medium at primary years of learning – child’s capability to
learn many languages – home language–school language difference related
problems and issues – inclusive language education – language disadvantage
2.3. Objectives of Language Teaching: Goals of language education in schools –
LSRW as discrete skills vs. holistic perspective on language proficiency –Basic
Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Advance Language
Proficiency (CALP) – the fundamental distinction between BICS and CALP–
Objectives of language teaching in schools including English as a second language.
2.4. English Language Education: Why English in India? – English in Indian
schools – Level of introduction – English language teaching situations – English

78
Language Teaching in India- structural approach, behaviourist model,
communicative language teaching – input rich theoretical methodologies – Goals for
English language curriculum – Place of English (a) Along with other Indian
languages (i) in regional medium schools (ii) English medium schools (b) in relation
to other subjects.
2.5. Language Policy in School Education: Constitutional provisions –Articles
343-351 of Part XVII and the 8th schedule of the Constitution of India – Official
language – Why no national language in India? – the diversity - The Three language
Formula as a political consensus and a strategy –National Education Commission
(Kothari Commission) (1964-66) – National Policy on Education (1986) and PAO
(1992) the national curriculum frameworks.
2.6. Multilingualism in Education: Multilingualism is constitutive of Indian
identity – cultural and linguistics diversity as well as the binding element. – Need for
the educational system to sustain multilingualism in school education – need to
empower tribal and endangered languages. – Bilingualism / multilingualism and
scholastic achievement.

Unit Three: Pedagogy of English as a second Language Part I


3.1. Approaches to and Methods of Language Teaching: An understanding and
a critique: A brief History of Language teaching – Nature of approaches and
methods in language teaching- Oral approaches – situational language teaching –
Audio-lingual methods – Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) – Total
Physical Response (TPR) – The Silent Way – Community Language Learning –
Natural approaches – Suggstopaedia – Whole language approach -How is language
and learning perceived by each method and approach, Roles of learners and teachers,
content, syllabi and role of materials, assessment, etc. – Post Methods era.
3.2. Constructivist Approach to language teaching: The learner as active
constructor of knowledge -Piagetian and Vygotskian perspective on social
construction of knowledge – language as central to learning - attention to social
processes in the classroom-developing meta-cognitive competence -Enabling
inductive learning - recent language learning researches – peer interactions –

79
communicative language teaching and context approach – process syllabus -
contextualised assessment -

3.3. Pedagogy of English as a second language


3.3.1. Listening: Listening as a complex process for understanding spoken
language– as a means of acquiring a second language –as a goal oriented activity /
skill – approaches (i) ‘bottom-up’ processing and ‘top down’ processing. ‘Parallel
processing model’ (both approaches) to take place at various levels of cognitive
organisation: phonological, grammatical, lexical and propositional. (i) listening in
second language pedagogy, (ii) speech processing: (iii) listening in interactive
setting and (iv) strategy use - listening practice
3.3.2. Speaking: As a communication skill - oral skills - characteristics of speech –
psycholinguistic skills i.e. processing model: conceptualisation- formulation-
articulation- and self-monitoring - speaking in the language classroom: providing
authentic opportunities – flexible users of language – role plays, group discussion,
using the target language outside the classroom and use of learner’s input –
importance of feedback- self evaluation and self –analysis
3.3.3. Reading: Pedagogy of Reading – early reading development - Reading as a
practice, product or process (Top down Bottom-up and Genre approaches) - Uses
of reading: as a literacy practice and as specific to particular socio-cultural
environments. Intensive reading and extensive reading - Critical reading –
relationship between first and second language reading
3.3.4. Writing: Writing in second language - the two major approaches to the
teaching of writing: (i) product approach and (ii) process approach –Process
approach: Brainstorming: outlining:; drafting: revisions and proof-reading and the
final draft.- recent researches - the value of focusing on various writing ‘genres’ to
identify, compare and contrast writing in different fields, such science and literature -
integrating product, process and genre writing into a coherent whole - non academic
writing – letters, forms, resumes, lists, etc – writing in classroom –.
3.3.5. Grammar: What is grammar? – abstract system underlying all languages (i.e.
Universal grammar) – system underlying a particular language (a grammar of

80
English) – stratificational grammar (of Linguists) – pedagogical grammar of a
language for teachers and students – Formal grammars, – Functional grammars, -
Grammar in Language Education: Reflections of formal and functional grammars in
language education– from grammatical competence to communicative competence–
Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory as frame of reference – ‘collective scaffolding’
language development through social interaction - Discourse Grammar - focus of
linguistics analysis to the discourse level grammar investigation.
3.3.6. Vocabulary: Vocabulary acquisition in second language teaching – Implicit-
learning hypothesis (Krashen 1988) language-awareness and consciousness-raising -
Explicit hypothesis (Sternberg 1987) – Metacognitive strategies.- Lewis’ Lexical
approach – vocabulary as ‘lexical chunks’ - classroom implications – learner created
dictionaries – dictation as a strategy for learning vocabulary and learning the
language in chunks.
3.3.7. Literature in language classroom: Literature in language classroom: (i)
Focus on teaching language vs. focus on teaching literature; (ii) Language learning
purpose (pragmatic focus) vs. academic /analytical purpose (intellectual focus); (iii)
Linguistic orientation (stylistics) vs. literary critical orientation and (iv) Learning
how to study literature vs. studying literature. Rationale for integration literary texts
in language teaching – Extensive reading and literature in classroom – selection of
literary texts – authentic – cultural specific- translations from Indian / native
languages.
3.3.8. Pronunciation: pronunciation in language learning – production and
perception of the significant sounds of a language to achieve meaning in contexts of
language use. – Segmental sounds, of stressed and unstressed syllables or intonation.
– central role of pronunciation in personal and social lives – intelligible
pronunciation as essential component of communicative competence – teachers
awareness of the processes – Effective teaching of pronunciation –teachers’
competence: linguistics proficiency in the target language, knowledge about this
language and the ability to identify and select specific aspects of language –
3.3.9. Story Telling: Stories as input for language learning – story reading ( as
opposed to teaching stories as texts) as a classroom methodology with in a Whole

81
Language perspective – Reading stories out aloud, Repeated reading, Choral reading,
Story retelling and rewriting activities to build on existing language proficiency and
skills - Important methods: (i) Shared reading of Big books, large size high –interest
books – Reading cards – short graded passages / stories – “Talking Books (cassettes
/ CD plus book) model speech as well as reading - Print rich environment - using
stories as a device to provide print rich inputs - Selection of stories – cultural –
social contexts – telling and retelling of stories – child chosen texts / stories -
children created stories – story writing as a process of learning across curriculum -
3.2.10. English Language Classroom Engagement: Activities and tasks: Social
cultural background of the teacher and learners – why interactions – socio-cultural
theory - Learner autonomy – student-teacher roles – Organisation of classroom
activities: pair work, Group work, dialogues, role play, debates and discussions,
dramatisation, - Pedagogical understanding of the activities: learner initiating, taking
turns, engagement with language through peer interaction, learner supplying
information, agreeing –disagreeing- drawing conclusion; rationalising; use of
language by learners, construction of ideas- knowledge / language - connection with
their life- previous knowledge –management of classroom activities and tasks.
Unit Four: Assessment
Language evaluation / assessment not be limited to be oriented to measurement of
language proficiency – on going continuous evaluation finding ‘occurrences of
learning’ – how and how much – recorded in teacher and learners’ dairies –
portfolios - language learning and assessment: The NCF- 2005 perspective –
indicators of learning – current assessment practices techniques of assessment –
types of language tests - types of questions / tasks - recording of learning
assessment – reporting and communicating feedback.

82
Part II

IInd Year

Marks-100
Internal 25, External 75 Contact hours-96

Unit Five: Pedagogy of English as a second language - II


5.1. Whole Language Approach: Language is learnt as a whole- not in parts –
integration of skills (LSRW) – learning is meaning making - learning to use the
language - interaction and usage- contextual learning – grammar in contexts -
5.2. Task Based Language Learning (TBL): TBL, a contrast to form based
approaches, focuses on communicate tasks in target language as exchange of
meanings – communicative tasks - (Nunan 1993) –Procedural syllabus, the Madras-
Bangalore project (Prabhu 1987) –three broad task types: information gap,
reasoning gap and problem solving while Ster’s (1992) typology of tasks. (Student
teachers should be e familiarised with and asked to set tasks and analyse them with their
peers.)
5.3. Language Learning Strategies (LLS): What are learning strategies (LS) ?-
LLS related to the features of control, goal-directedness, autonomy and self-
efficacy.- Types of LLS: cognitive strategies; mnemonic strategies; meta-cognitive
strategies – compensatory strategies for speaking and writing; affective strategies
and social strategies – Assessing strategy use - observable and non-observable
strategies– Good language learner: characteristics of good language learner (Rubin
1975)
5.4. Discourse: What is Discourse? – Types of discourse –- Discourse analysis:
cohesion, coherence, information structure, turn taking in conversation analysis –
Why and what is context? – Pedagogical perspective on communicative competence
– Discourse approach to language teaching: Role of teachers, learners and materials
– language knowledge – pronunciation, listening, speaking, reading, writing,
grammar in discourse language teaching – curriculum development and materials
development and assessment in discourse methods.

83
5.5. Syllabus design: What is a syllabus? – four key elements: aims, content,
methodology and evaluation – it identifies what will be worked upon by the teacher
and students in terms of content selected to be appropriate to overall aims– (Michael
P. Breen 2001) - four types of syllabus currently used in language teaching:
Communicative language teaching (CLT); functional syllabus; task-based syllabus
and the process based syllabuses – Lexical syllabi - the key characteristics of the four
main syllabus types.
5.6. Materials Development: Teaching-learning materials in language education –
what are materials for and Why? – second language acquisition research and material
development – purposes of materials (Tomlinson’s sixteen points -1998)- a
framework for material development in English language teaching - Process of
material writing / development - authentic texts, variety of texts, corpus data –
authentic tasks – Teacher as material developer – material development as
professional development.
5.7. Management of ELT: ELT programme management at region and at school
level – organising available resources: materials, human skills and time – for the
efficient and effective delivery – components of programme management (Ron
White 2001). Curriculum management (John and Peterson 1994). – Curriculum
planning and implementation at school level
Unit Six: English Language Knowledge for Student teachers: Sound system of
English language – vowels, consonants, semi-vowels, syllable, stress patterns, tone
groups - Grammatical knowledge for student teachers: basics of English grammar –
syntax – grammar and meaning – Higher order writing skills for student teachers:
features of good writing-coherence, cohesion, genre writing (creative writing,
journalistic and academic writing)

Unit Seven: An Appraisal and Analysis of Syllabus and Teaching


Learning Materials
Student teachers will analyse the curricular statements, syllabi and teaching learning
materials (textbooks / course books) of at least three or four agencies (Two states,
one by NGOs and one by NCERT). - A broader criteria for analysis of syllabi and
textbooks may be evolved based on the existing researches and knowledge available

84
– Focusing on materials as pedagogic device the following framework by Tomlinson
(1998) and Andrew Littlejohn (1998) may be adopted for evaluation of textbooks
Unit Eight: The Language Teacher and Resources for the Teacher: Changing
Roles, teacher as a professional and continuous professional development; teacher as
researcher – action research - Teacher learning and Resources; Resources for
teachers: Journals for practising teachers – online resources –teacher groups online -
agencies on English language teacher education.

Modes of Learning Engagement


The course is visualised as a combination of guided self-study, a few overarching
lectures, reading, consultations with important web-sites, and group discussion.
• Overarching lectures-cum-discussions
• Pair work, small group discussion, debates on themes / ideas of relevance
(e.g. Do we need a national language? / Is English a killer language?)
• Reading, presentation and discussion on contemporary issues
• Writing essays on themes of current interest in language education (e.g.
Multilingual classroom: Challenges and merits, Addressing the needs of
low proficient language learners) One essay for a fortnight or one in a
month would benefit the student teachers.
• Pedagogical aspects of English language such as Listening, Speaking,
Reading Writing, grammar, vocabulary, TBL, Story telling, etc. could be
engaged very well as suggested below:
- Student teachers understand the ideas and the processes through
lectures-cum-discussions, reading, or any way adopted by the teacher
educator
- Develop an activity on each aspects for a real classroom based on
their learning and reflections – (for example, Student teachers develop
a listening activity giving rationale, giving the content and trialling it
in a class)
- Write essays critically examining the existing processes and practices
- Discuss in the class with peers and the developed activities may be
developed in to a book or manual for further use.
• Developing materials (selection of texts and designing activities) for
learners as a particular stage or class.
• Workshops as a device for engagement for developing and designing
materials and activities in each aspect of language learning-teaching.
• Comparative study of curriculum, syllabi and textbooks of Indian states
or Asian countries.
• Study and analyse the aims and objectives of syllabi and textbooks.
• Writing book reviews (each student teacher may do at least four books in
a year)

85
•Designing and running a manuscript magazines / wall magazines on ELE.
Modes of Assessment
Suggested modes of assessment would include:
• Student teacher’s interest in reading and self-study
• Initiative and participation in the discussion, group worked.
• Quality and ideas of Essay writing by student teachers
• Quality of materials (texts) and activities developed by student teachers.
• Self appraisal by teachers themselves about their learning performance.
Key Readings:

1. Agnihotri, R.K., Khanna, A.L. 1994. (Eds.) Second Language Acquisition:


Socio-cultural and linguistics Aspects of English in India (RAL 1), New
Delhi: Sage Publications.
2. Brown, J.D. 1996 Testing in Language Programmes. Upper Saddle River,
NJ:Prentice Hall Regents.
3. Chomsky, N. 1986. Knowledge of Language. New York: Praeger
4. Chomsky, N. 1996. Powers and prospects: Reflections on Human Nature and
the Social Order. Delhi: Madhyam Books.
5. Crystal, David. 1997. Globalisation of English. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
6. Cathy Spagnoli (Year not mentioned) Telling Tales from Asia: a resource
book for all who love telling stories. Tulika. Chennai
7. Graddol, D. 1997. The Future of English? London: The British Council
8. Graddal, D. 2006. English Next London: The British Council
9. Ellis, R. 1992. The Study of Second Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University
Press.
10. Jesperson, O. 1922. Language: Its Nature, Development and Origin, New
York: W.W. Nortorn.
11. Jhingaran, D. 2005. Language Disadvantage: The Learning Challenges in
Primary Education, New Delhi APH Publishing Corporation.
12. Khubchandani, L.M. 1988. Language in a plural Society. Delhi: Motilal
Banarasidass and Shimla IIAS.
13. Krashen, S. D. 1982. The Input Hypothesis. Oxford. Pergamon Press
14. Lewis, M 1993. The Lexical Approach: The State of ELT and a Way
Forward. Hove: Language Teaching Publications. .
15. Lock, G. 1996 Functional English Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press

86
16. Marianne Celce – Murcia, Elite Olshtain 2000. Discourse and Context in
Language Teaching: A Guide for Language Teachers. Cambridge University
Press.
17. Mohanty, Bilingualism in a Multilingual Society: Psycho-social and
Pedagogical Implication. Mysore: CIIL
18. NCERT. 2005. National Curriculum Framework – 2005. NCERT: New
Delhi
19. NCERT. 2005. Teaching of Indian Languages: Position Paper of National
focus Group. NCERT: New Delhi
20. NCERT. 2005. Teaching of English: Position Paper of National focus Group.
NCERT: New Delhi
21. NCERT. 2005. Gender Issues in Education: Position Paper of National focus
Group. NCERT: New Delhi
22. NCERT. 2005. Problems of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe Children:
Position Paper of National focus Group. NCERT: New Delhi
23. NCERT 2008. Reading for Meaning. New Delhi: NCERT.
24. NCERT 2008 Source Book on Assessment for Classes I – V. NCERT: New
Delhi
25. NCERT 2000 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation. NCERT: New
Delhi.
26. NCERT 2005. Examination Reforms: Position Paper of the National Focus
Groups. NCERT: New Delhi
27. Nunan, D. 1991. Language Teaching Methodology. London. Prentice Hall.
28. Pattanayak, D.P. 1981. Study of Languages. A Report (unpublished). New
Delhi: NCERT.
29. Prabhu, N.S. 1987 Second Language Pedagogy. Oxford University Press.
30. Richards, J.C. and Rodgers, T.S. 1981. Approaches and Methods in
Language Teaching. University of Hawaii, Manoa: Cambridge University
Press.
31. Ronald Carter and David Nunan (eds.) 2001. The Cambridge Guide to
Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (Eds). Cambridge
University Press
32. (This covers most of the aspects of English (as a second) language pedagogy and is
very useful to develop a perspective among student teachers)
33. UNESCO. 2004. Education in Multilingual World. UNESCO Education
Position Paper. Paris
34. UNESCO. 2007 Advocacy Kit for Promoting Multilingual Education:
Including the Excluded. UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for
Education, 920 Sukhumvit Road, Prakanong, Bangkok 10110. Thailand

87
35. UNESCO 2003. The Use of Vernacular Language in Education. Paris:
UNESCO
36. Widdowson, H.G. 1991 Aspects of Language Teaching. Oxford. Oxford
University Press
Journals and Magazines
Indian Journals

1. Journal of English Language Teaching, Journal of English Language


Teachers’ Association of India (ELTAI), Chennai.
2. English Teaching Professional, British Council, New Delhi, India
(www.etprofessional.com)
3. Forum, Journal of Regional English Language Office (RELO) U.S. Embassy
4. South Asian Language Review, New Delhi, India
Foreign Journals:
5. ELT Journal, Oxford University Press
6. folio, Journal of the Materials Development Association (MATSDA)
7. Language Learning, Oxford UK
8. Journal of Reading, New York, USA
9. Second Language Acquisition Research, Bedfordshire, UK
10. Language Problems & Language Planning, www.benjamins.com/jbp
11. TESOL Quarterly, USA
12. Language & Ecology (On line Journal at http://www.ecoling.net/journal.html
)
NCERT Journals:
13. Journal of Indian Education
14. The Primary Teachers
15. Educational Abstract
16. Indian Educational Review
Useful Websites for student teachers and practising teachers
1. www.languageinIndia.com (Full text downloadable)
2. www.ncert.nic.in (Full text downloadable)
3. http://www.britishcouncil.org/India (British Council website)
4. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/ (British Council, U.K.)
5. http://newdelhi.usembassy.gov/reloels (Regional English Language
Office (RELO) U.S. Embassy)
6. http://www.asian-efl-journal.com (Asian –English as a Foreign
Language Journal- Full text downloadable)

88
7. http://www.ncte.org (National Council of Teachers of English, USA)
8. http://www.eric.ed.gov. (Education Resources Information Center
(ERIC))
9. www.breakingnewesEnglish.com
10. www.elllo.org/english/home.htm (very useful for listening activity,
games,
training videos)
11. www.listen-and-write.com
12. www.myETP.com
13. http://www.matsda.org.uk. (Materials Development Association –
MATSDA)
14. http://www.britishcouncil.org/eltecs/ (weekly e-mail service for
English language teaching professionals)
15. http://www.iatefl.org (International Association of Teachers of
English as a Foreign Language –IATEFL)
16. www.cal.org (Center for Applied Linguistics -CAL)
17. www.nunan.info (David Nunan’s website)
18. http://www.unesdoc.unesco.org
19. http://www.iteachilearn.com/cummins/mother.htm (Cummins, J. 2000.
Bilingual Children’s Mother Tongue: Why is it Important for Education?)
________

89
f'k{kk 'kkL=k IkkB~;Øe% fgUnh

Hkkx&1

IkzFke o"kZ

dqy vad &100 le;kof/k & 128 ?kaVs

vkarfjd ewY;kadu&25

cká ewY;kadu & 75

IkkB~;Øeμ,d ifjp;
;g ikB~;Øe eq[; :i ls Hkk"kk i<+kus okys vè;kidksa dks è;ku esa j[kdj ,d foLr`r
:ijs[kk ds :i esa cuk;k x;k gSA gesa vk'kk gS fd bl :ijs[kk ls vè;kidksa dks
Hkk"kk dh d{kk ds ekè;e ls cPpksa esa l`tukRed n`f"Vdks.k fodflr djus esa enn
feysxhA

1- Hkk"kk D;k gS\


lHkh euq"; fofHkUu mís';ksa ds fy, Hkk"kk dk bLrseky djrs gSa] mnkgj.k ds
fy,] n`f"V ckfèkr ;k Jo.kckf/r cPps Hkh laizs"k.k dh tfVy vkSj le`¼ O;oLFkk
dk iz;ksx djrs gSa] mlh izdkj tSls ,d lkekU; cPpk djrk gSA Hkk"kk dsoy
laizs"k.k dk lk/u gh ugha gS cfYd ;g ,d ekè;e Hkh gS ftlds lgkjs ge
vf/dka'k tkudkjh izkIr djrs gSaA ;g ,d O;oLFkk gS tks dkiQh lhek rd
gekjs vkl&ikl dh okLrfodrkvksa vkSj ?kVukvksa dks gekjs efLr"d esa
O;ofLFkr djrh gSA
gesa ;g Hkh ;kn j[kuk pkfg, fd ge dsoy nwljksa ls ckr djus ds
fy, gh ugha] cfYd vius vkils Hkh ckr djus ds fy, Hkk"kk dk bLrseky
djrs gSaA

2- cgqHkkf"kdrk (cgqHkkf"kd f'k{kk)


vf/kdka'k cPps Ldwy vkus ls igys dsoy ,d Hkk"kk ugha cfYd vusd Hkk"kk,¡
lh[k ysrs gSaA Ldwy vkus ls igys cPpk yxHkx ik¡p gtkj vFkok mlls Hkh
vf/kd 'kCnksa dks tkurk gSA vr% cgqHkkf"kdrk gekjh igpku vFkok vfLerk
dh fu/kZjd gSA ;gk¡ rd fd nwj&njkt ds xk¡oksa dk rFkkdfFkr ,d ^,dy
Hkk"kh* Hkh vusd laizs"k.kkRed fLFkfr;ksa esa lgh rjhds dh Hkk"kk bLrseky djus

90
dh {kerk j[krk gSA vusd vè;k;uksa ls irk pyk gS fd cgqHkkf"kdrk dk
laKkukRed fodkl] lkekftd lgu'khyrk] fodsafnzr fparu ,oa 'kSf{kd
miyfC/k ls ldkjkRed laca/k gksrk gSA Hkk"kk oSKkfud n`f"V ls lHkh Hkk"kk,¡
pkgs os cksyh] vkfnoklh ;k f[kpM+h Hkk"kk,¡ lc leku :i ls oSKkfud gksrh
gSaA Hkk"kk,¡ ,d&nwljs ds lkfUuè; esa Qyrh&Qwyrh gSa lkFk gh viuh fo'ks"k
igpku Hkh cukdj j[krh gSaA cgqHkkf"kd d{kk esa ;g fcYdqy vfuok;Z gksuk
pkfg, fd gj cPps dh Hkk"kk dks lEeku fn;k tk, vkSj cPpksa dh Hkk"kkbZ
fofHkUurk dks f'k{k.k&fof/k;ksa dk fgLlk eku dj Hkk"kk fl[kkbZ tk,A

3- i<+kbZ dk l`tukRed joS;k (lanHkZ esa O;kdj.k)


fo|kFkhZ tku ik,¡xs fd lHkh cPps rhu lky dh mez ls igys gh u dsoy
vius Hkk"kk dh cqfu;knh lajpuk,¡ vkSj milajpuk,¡ lh[k tkrs gSa cfYd os ;g
Hkh lh[k tkrs gSa fd fofHkUu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa budk fdl izdkj mfpr iz;ksx
djuk gSA blfy, cPpksa dks O;kdj.k dh tkudkjh lanHkZ esa nh tkuh pkfg,A

4- fu;ec ¼ O;oLFkk ds :i esa Hkk"kk½


gj Hkk"kk dh viuh O;oLFkk gksrh gSA ml O;oLFkk dks tkuus dh izfØ;k esa
fo|kFkhZ ;g tku ik,¡xs fd Hkk"kk 'kCn] okD; vkSj izksfDr (discourse) ds
Lrj ij fu;eksa ls ca/kh gqbZ gSA buesa ls dqN fu;e gekjh tUetkr
Hkk"kk&{kerk esa igys ls gh [kwc gksrs gSa ysfdu vf/kdka'k fu;e
lkekftd&,sfrgkfld ifjos'k esa laizs"k.k ds ekè;e ls curs gSa lkekftd o
{ks=kh; fofo/krk ns[kus dks feyrh gSA bl rjg dh Hkkf"kd fofo/krk d{kk esa
ges'kk mifLFkr jgrh gS vkSj ,d f'k{kd dks mldh tkudkjh gksuh pkfg,A
lkFk gh tgk¡ rd laHko gks mldk ldkjkRed iz;ksx djuk pkfg,A

5- Ckksyuk vkSj fy[kuk


fo|kFkhZ ekSf[kd vkSj fyf[kr Hkk"kk ds varj dks tku ik,¡xsA EkkSf[kd Hkk"kk
viuh izd`fr esa {kf.kd vkSj fyf[kr Hkk"kk dh rqyuk esa cgqr tYnh cnyus
okyh gksrh gSA ;g Hkh tku ik,¡xs fd okLro esa lalkj dh lHkh Hkk"kk,¡ dqN
ekewyh cnyko@la'kks/ku@ifjorZu ds lkFk ,d gh fyfi esa fy[kh tk ldrh
gSaA

6- Hkk"kk] lkfgR; vkSj lkSan;Zcks/k


lalkj dks mn~?kkfVr djus dh fo'ks"krk ds vykok Hkk"kk ds dbZ izdk;kZRed
rRo gSaA dfork] x| vkSj ukVd u dsoy gekjh lkfgfR;d laosnu'khyrk dks
ifj"d`r djrs gSa cfYd gekjs lkSan;Zcks/k dks Hkh le`) cukrs gSa] fo'ks"k:i ls
iBu&vocks/ku ,oa fyf[kr ds mPpkj.k dksA

91
euq"; u dsoy lkSan;Z dh ljkguk djrs gSa cfYd vusd ckj lkSan;Zcks/k
vk;keksa dks fu;af=kr djus okys fu;eksa dks O;ofLFkr :i ls Øe Hkh djrs gSaA
og Hkk"kk ds lkSan;Zijd i{k dh i;kZIr ljkguk] 'kq)rk vkSj lgh ds izfr
yxko dh vis{kk Hkkf"kd xq.koÙkk vkSj l`tukRedrk dks vko';d :i ls
izkFkfedrk nsrh gSA

7- le> vkSj ekè;e Hkk"kk (fganh


Hkk"kk dh i<+kbZ dsoy Hkk"kk dh d{kk rd gh lhfer ugha jgrh cfYd vU;
fo"k;ksa dks lh[kus ds nkSjku Hkh Hkk"kk lh[kus dk dk;Z Hkh pyrk jgrk gSA
foKku] lkekftd foKku ;k xf.kr dh d{kk,¡ Hkh ,d rjg ls Hkk"kk dh gh
d{kk gksrh gSaA Nk=kkè;kid ds fy, ikB ds varxZr vk, fo"k;ksa ls laca/k j[kus
okys vU; fo"k;ksa dks Hkh mdsjus dh dyk dks tkuuk t:jh gS rkfd os
fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa lexz :i ls roZQlaxr fopkj djus dh {kerk dk fodkl dj
ldsa vkSj mUgsa Kku dk lexz vkuan ns ldsaA

8- ikB~;p;kZ] ikB~;Øe vkSj Hkk"kk dh ikB~;iqLrdsa


le; dh cnyrh ekax ds lkFk ikB~;p;kZ esa Hkh la'kks/ku dh vko';drk jgrh
gS rkfd cPps cnyrs le; ds lkFk py ldsaA uohu vFkok la'kksf/kr
ikB~;p;kZ ds vk/kj ij gh ikB~;Øe ds vuqlkj fQj ikB~;iqLrdsa fodflr dh
tkrh gSaA ikB~;p;kZ] ikB~;Øe rFkk ikB~;iqLrd dh le> vè;kidksa esa gksuh
vko';d gS rkfd og lgh <ax ls d{kk esa cPpksa rd bUgsa igq¡pk ldsaA

9- ewY;kadu vkSj Hkk"kk dh d{kk


fo|kFkhZ tku ik,¡xs fd ewY;kadu lexz n`f"Vdks.k dh ekax djrk gSA ewY;kadu
dh Hkwfedk cPpksa dh l`tukRedrk vkSj Hkk"kk iz;ksx esa mudh l`tukRed
iz;ksx laca/kh tkudkjh dks vkdkj nsdj iSuk cukuk gSA bl izfØ;k esa
vè;kid dks gjsd fo|kFkhZ ds ewY;kadu laca/kh vyx&vyx fof/k;ksa vkSj
vkStkjksa dks viukuk gksxkA fo|kFkhZ dh le> vkSj fodkl dks tk¡pus ds fy,
mudh leL;kvksa vkSj muds vkRefo'okl] mudh {kerk dks utnhd ls
igpkuuk gksxkA
ewY;kadu dh izfozQ;k lrr vkSj lexz gSA ;gk¡ fo|kfFkZ;ksa dk
ewY;kadu dsoy vad ;k xzsM ls u gksdj ikB~;ozQe ds mís'; rd
igq¡puk gSA blfy, fyf[kr ijh{kk ek=k ewY;kadu esa lgk;d ugha gks
ldrk] fyf[kr ijh{kk ds lkFk&lkFk fofHkUu rjhdksa ls fo|kFkhZ dk

92
fujh{k.k tSls iksVZiQksfy;ks esa fd, x, dk;Z] ckrphr] lkewfgd dk;Z esa
lk>snkjh] fo|kFkhZ dk Lo;a dk ewY;kadu Hkh t:jh gSA

lh[kus dh izo`fRr vkSj fodkl dks vyx&vyx vkSj u,&u,


rjhdksa ls tk¡puk gksxkA blds fy, ,d =kSekfld fjiksVZ rkfydk Hkh
rS;kj dh tkuh pkfg,A jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk 2005 fo|kFkhZ
osaQfnzr f'k{kk ij cy nsrh gSA ewY;kadu dks Hkh fo|kFkhZ osaQfnzr cukuk
gksxkA
IkkB~;Øe dk mís';
• Hkk"kk ds Lo:i vkSj O;oLFkk ckjhfd;ksa dks le>uk
• Hkk"kk lh[kus dh l`tukRed izfØ;k dks tkuuk
• cPpk] ifjos'k] Ldwy] lekt vkSj le> ds chp ds laca/k dks tkuuk
• IkkB~;p;kZ] ikB~;Øe vkSj ikB~;iqLrd dk fo'ys"k.k dj cPpksa dh le> ds
vuqlkj <kyuk
• Hkk"kk vkSj lkfgR; ds laca/k dks tkuuk
• fganh Hkk"kk ds fofo/k :iksa vkSj vfHkO;fDr;ksa dks tkuuk
• Hkkoksa vkSj fopkjksa dh Lora=k vfHkO;fDr djuk
• vuqokn dk egÙo vkSj Hkwfedk dks tkuuk
• fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh l`tukRed {kerk dks igpkuuk
• vU; Hkk"kk lh[kus gsrq Nk=ksa dks izksRlkfgr djuk
• ewY;kdau dk vk/kkj jpukRedrk gks
bdkbZ & ,d
(CkPpk tc Ldwy vkrk gS rks mlds ikl Hkk"kk dk ,d :i ekStwn gksrk gSA blfy, d{kk esa
cPps dh Hkk"kk dks lEeku nsus ls mldk vkRefo'okl c<+sxk tks lh[kus dh cqfu;kn gSA)
Hkk"kk dk Lo:i@Hkk"kk D;k gS\
• cPps dh Hkk"kk
• le> vkSj Hkk"kk dk laca/
• Hkk"kk vkSj lekt dk laca/
• Ldwy vkSj ?kj dh Hkk"kk
• f'k{kd&f'k{kkFkhZ laca/ dh Hkk"kk
• Ldwy dk Hkk"kkbZ ifjos'k

xfrfof/kμ1
(izf'k{k.k ds nkSjku)

93
y nwdkuksa ij yxs gksfYMax ¼cksMZ½ ij
fgUnh o vaxzsth dk fefJr izHkko
y foKkiuksa o fQYeksa ls fgUnh dks
izksRlkgu
y cPPkksa ds ?kjsyw o Ldwyh ifjos’k dh
Hkk"kk ij ppkZ
y NksVs lewg esa caV dj Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa
ds fy, fufeZr iksth'ku isij dk
vè;;u vkSj mldk fo'ys"k.k
y lafo/ku esa Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa laca/kh
vuqla'kk,¡ rFkk f'k{kk vk;ksxksa }kjk
laLrqr Hkk"kk laca/kh flQkfj'kksa ij ,d
fjiksVZ rS;kj djuk
y vius vkl&ikl dh ?kjsyw vkSj
dkedkth fL=;ksa ls ckrphr
y tc 'kCn ugha jgrs rc 'kL= mBrs
gSaμ fo"k; ij ifjppkZ dk vk;kstu
y d{kk Ng ls ckjg ds fganh dh fdrkcksa
esa tsaMj vkSj 'kkafr laca/kh fcanqvksa dh
lwph rS;kj dj mlds fy, d{kk izfof/k
rS;kj djsa
y Hkk"k dh iz;kstuheRrk c<+kus gsrq lq>ko
vkeaf=r

(f'k{k.k ds nkSjku)
y ifjppkZ ds eq[; fcanqvksa dk f'k{k.k ds
nkSjku iz;ksx
y d{kk esa cPpksa ls vukSipkfjd ckrphr
cPpksa ds ifjos'k vkSj mudh Hkk"kk ds
ckjs esa tkudkjh lacaèkh ,d fjiksVZ
y Hkk"kk f’k{k.k dh uohu fof/k;ksa ij ppkZ

lanHkZ iqLrdsa@lkexzh
1. jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ dh :ijs[kk (2005)] ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-
2. Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa ds fy, fufeZr iksft'ku isij] ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-
3. cPps dh Hkk"kk vkSj vè;kid] d`".k dqekj] us'kuy cqd VªLV
4. izkFkfed f'k{kk esa Hkk"kk f'k{k.k] fxtqHkkbZ c/sdk] ekWuVsljh cky f'k{kd lfefr]
jktynslj 1991

94
5. fnok LoIu] fxtqHkkbZ c/skdk] us'kuy cqd VªLV
6. 'kSf{kd Kku vkSj opZLo] xzaFk f'kYih] fnYyh

7. ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- tujYl
i) tjuy vkWQ bafM;u ,twds'ku
ii) nh izkbejh VhplZ
iii) ,twds'kuy ,CLVªsDV
iv) bafM;u ,twds'kuy fjO;w

bdkbZ & nks


(dksbZ O;kdj.k Hkk"kk dh pky dks cny ugha ldrkA yksd O;ogkj ls Hkk"kk ifjpkfyr gksrh
gSA)
Hkk"kk f'k{k.kμ1
i<+kbZ dk l`tukRed utfj;k
1- Hkk"kk dh cukoV
• cksyuk vkSj fy[kuk Hkk"kk;h dkS’ky
• lquuk vkSj i<+uk
• cgqHkkf"kdrk
• lanHkZ esa O;kdj.k

xfrfof/k&2
y vfgUnh Hkk"kh ¼feBk {ks=ksa½ ds Nk=ksa dh
mPpkj.k laca/kh dfBukb;ksa ij ppkZ
y cgqHkkf"kdrk dks ,d lalk/ku ds :i esa
igpku djkus laca/kh ,d ifjppkZ dk
vk;kstu
y lHkh fo|kFkhZ d{kk Ng ls vkB dh
fganh iqLrdksa ls lanHkZ esa O;kdj.k ds
nl uewus bdV~Bs djsa vkSj mu ij
ppkZ djsa
y ,d jpuk dh lHkh fo|kFkhZ leh{kk djsa
rFkk ,d&nwljs dh leh{kk fcanqvksa ij
d{kk esa ppkZ djsa

95
y lqudj fy[kuk
y uksV rS;kj djuk] uksV ysuk
y fjiksVZ vkSj vuqPNsn fy[kuk
y vfgUnh Lrjh; dgkuh] dforkvksa dk
Nk=ksa }kjk fgUnh esa vuqokn] ifjppkZ

uksV %
Hkk"kk ds dkS'kyksa dks laiw.kZrk esa ns[kk tkuk pkfg, vkSj Lrj ds vuqlkj lHkh dkS'kyksa ij
vyx&vyx Hkh cy fn;k tkuk pkfg,] tSls Ik<+ukμ le> dj i<+uk] baVsuflo jhfMax]
,DlVsaflo jhfMax] ozQhfVdy jhfMaxA

lanHkZ iqLrdsa@lkexzh

bdkbZ & rhu


¼fofHkUu iz;ksxksa ls gh Hkk"kk dk fodkl vkSj foLrkj gksrk gS½
Hkk"kk dh i<+kbZ&1
fganh Hkk"kk ds fofo/k :i
• lkfgR;
• ehfM;k
• vuqokn
fo|kFkhZ dks fganh dfork] dgkuh] ukVd dk ifjp;] ehfM;k ys[ku ds fofo/ :iksa dk ifjp;]
fganh vuqokn dk ,d ifjp; gksuk pkfg,)

xfrfof/kμ3
¼izf'k{k.k ds nkSjku½
y gj fo|kFkhZ de ls de ,d fdrkc
i<+dj vè;kid ls mlesa iz;qDr fganh
ij fo'ks"k ppkZ djsa
y ,d gh fnu ds fdUgha rhu v[kckjksa ds
laikndh; dh Hkk"kk ij ckrphr dj
mudh fo"k; izLrqfr dks js[kkafdr djsa
y ,d gh va'k ds rhu vuqokn dks i<+sa
vkSj viuh Hkk"kk esa u;k vuqokn izLrqr
djsa

96
y lewg esa c¡V dj ehfM;k ys[ku ds rhu
vyx&vyx uewuksa (iQhpj] fjiksVZ]
ys[k vkfn) dks bdV~Bk dj mlesa
lekurk vkSj varj dks è;ku esa j[krs
gq, ppkZ djsa
y Hkk"kk] ehfM;k o laLd`fr ij vkys[k

(f'k{k.k ds nkSjku)
y d{kk esa fganh ds u,&u, :iksa ij ppkZ
djsa
y cPpksa ls ,d gh fo"k; ij rhu
jpukdkjksa dh jpuk,¡ ladfyr djok,¡
y ledkyhu lkfgR; ys[ku dh n'kk o
fn'kk ij ppkZ
y iwoZorhZ o vk/kqfud lkfgR;dkjksa ds
ys[ku ij ppkZ ¼varj½
y ,d gh [kcj ij rhu v[kckjksa dh
izLrqfr <ax ns[kus dks dgsa
y ,d gh jpuk ds rhu fganh vuqokn ij
cPpksa ls ckrphr djsa
y fgUnh ds fodkl esa ehfM;k dk ;ksxnku

lanHkZ iqLrdsa@lkexzh
1. vfHkO;fDr vkSj ekè;e] ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-
2. l`tu Hkkx 1] ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-
3. fofo/k fo/kvksa dh izd`fr] nsoh 'kadj voLFkh
4. fganh lkfgR; dk laf{kIr bfrgkl] ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-
5. fganh lkfgR;] gtkjh izlkn f}osnh
6. lkfgR; lgpj] gtkjh izlkn f}osnh

bdkbZ & pkj


(fofHkUu vfHkO;fDr;k¡ Hkk"kk dh ckjhfd;ksa dks tkuus dk lcls vPNk ekè;e gS)
Hkk"kk dh i<+kbZμ2

97
fganh vfHkO;fDr ds fofo/k :i
y dfork
y dgkuh
y ukVd
y vU; fo/k,¡

xfrfof/kμ4
(izf'k{k.k ds nkSjku)
fp=ksa ds vk/kkj ij dgkuh vkSj dfork
fy[kuk
,d dgkuh dk pkj vyx&vyx lewg
}kjk fo'ys"k.k vkSj mldh izLrqfr
y v[kckj dh fdlh [kcj ds vk/kkj ij
laokn fy[kuk
y lewg esa ,d gh fo"k; ij vyx&vyx
fo/kkvksa dh jpukvksa dk ladyu vkSj
mudk rqyukRed fo'ys"k.k
¼f'k{k.k ds nkSjku½
y cPpksa ls ,d gh fo"k; tSls ^ckny* ij
Lora=k :i ls dqN fy[kus dks dgsa
(dksbZ fo/k u lq>k,¡)
y fdlh ukVd dh izLrqfr cPpksa ls
djok,¡
y Nk=ksa dh jpukRed {kerk dk fodkl
djuk A

lanHkZ iqLrdsa@lkexzh

dqN vPNh dgkfu;k¡


cM+s HkkbZ lkgc] izsepan
NqV~Vh] johUnzukFk Bkdqj
DydZ dh ekSr] vUrksu ps[kkso
laiknd vkSj Mkfd;k] vKs; (^Le`fr ds xfy;kjksa ls*)
gkFk] eksikalk
jgeku ds twrs] jktsUnz flag csnh
ck<+ esa] rdf"kZ
,d gkL;kLin O;fDr dk liuk] Ý;ksnksj nksLrks;sOLdh

98
mlus dgk Fkk] panz/kj 'kekZ xqysjh
peRdkj] lkWejlsV ekWe
oaQdw] iUukyky iVsy
[ksy Hkkouk] O;q,u dkax gqvku
xq.Mk] t;'kadj izlkn
va/k#vk] lfPpnkuan jkmrjk;
nwljk O;fDr] gkslsZ yqbl cks[ksZl
dqN egÙoiw.kZ dfo
eè;dkyhu dkO;
dchj] lwj] ehjk] rqylh] fcgkjh
vk/qfud dkO;
gfjvkS/k] eSfFkyh'kj.k xqIr] fujkyk] izlkn] iar] egknsoh] cPpu] fnudj] uohu] vKs;]
eqfDrcks/k] ukxktZqu] f=kykspu] dsnkjukFk vxzoky] j?kqohj lgk;] dsnkjukFk flag] losZ'oj
n;ky lDlsuk dh izfrfuf/k dfork,¡
dqN vPNs ukVd
HkkjrsUnq dk va/skj uxjh
izlkn ds panzxqIr] /kqzo Lokfeuh

bdkbZ & Ikk¡p
(;g bdkbZ d{kk f'k{k.k dks è;ku esa j[kdj rS;kj fd;k x;k gSA blds nks Hkkx gSaA d{kk
f'k{k.k ls lacaf/r xfrfof/k;k¡ vU; bdkbZ ds lkFk Hkh nh xbZ gSaA mUgsa Hkh iksVZiQksfy;ks dk
fgLlk ekuk tk,xkA bl bdkbZ esa lkekftd foKku] xf.kr foKku vkfn dks tksM+rs gq,
fganh f'k{k.k dh dqN ;qfDr;k¡ nh tk jgh gSaA gjsd fo|kFkhZ dks izf'k{k.k ds nkSjku fdUgha nks
ds vk/kkj ij nks d{kkvksa ds fy, f'k{k.k izfof/k rS;kj djuh gksxh)

f'k{kk 'kkL=k IkkB~;Øe% fgUnh

Hkkx&2

f}rh; o"kZ

dqy vad &100 le;kof/k & 96 ?kaVs

vkarfjd ewY;kadu&25

cká ewY;kadu & 75

99
Hkk"kk f'k{k.kμ2 ¼bdkbZ ,d½
i<+kbZ dk l`tukRed utfj;k
(fganh esa foKku] xf.r] lekt foKku vkSj dyk lc dqN gS ij ;s fo"k; Lo;a fganh ;k
Hkk"kk ugha gSaA)
1- jpuk dks tkuuk
• ,d jpuk vusd Lrj
(vyx&vyx d{kkvksa esa ,d gh jpuk dks i<+uk)
• ,d jpuk vusd vFkZ
(vyx&vyx utfj;s ls ,d gh jpuk dks i<+uk)
• ,d jpuk fofHkUu cPps
(lanHkZ % pqukSrhiw.kZ cPps)

xfrfof/k
y ,d gh jpuk dh tSls bZnxkg] nks cSyksa
dh dFkk ¼izsepan½ pkan ls FkksM+h lh
xIis ¼'ke'ksj½μ d{kk Ng vkSj ukS ds
fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds le{k izLrqfr ds fy,
d{kk izfof/k rS;kj djuk vkSj d{kk
izLrqfr djuk
y ,d gh jpuk dh fofHkUu cPpksa
¼vyx&vyx {kerk okys½ fo'ks"k :i
ls pqukSrhiw.kZ cPps ds le{k izLrqfr
djus laca/kh f'k{k.k ;qfDr rS;kj djuk

2- Hkk"kk dk vU; fo"k;ksa ls tqM+ko


¼;g dk;Z izf'k{kkfFkZ;ksa dks d{kk f'k{k.k ds nkSjku djuk gS] blls lacaf/r tkudkjh
bdkbZ ik¡p esa ns[ksa½

le> dh Hkk"kk vkSj lkekftd foKku


y f'k{kd&vè;kidksa dks Hkk"kk f'k{k.k ds nkSjku
fdlh ikB dks lkekftd foKku ls tksM+us ds
egÙo rFkk fof/k ls ifjfpr djkuk

xfrfof/kμ5

100
y fdlh dfork ds f'k{k.k ds nkSjku
dfork ds lkSan;Z vkfn Hkk"kk;h igyqvksa
ij ppkZ ds lkFk gh mlesa vk,
lkekftd igyqvksa ij ppkZ djuk]
tSlsμ'ke'ksj cgknqj flag jfpr ^pk¡n
ls FkksM+h lh xIis* i<+kus ds ckn panzek
dh dykvksa ij ppkZ
y lqHknzk dqekjh pkSgku jfpr ^>kalh dh
jkuh* i<+kus ds ckn Hkkjrh; Lora=rk
laxzke] bfrgkl dh ohjkaxukvksa rFkk
Lora=rk laxzke dh izeq[k ?kVukvksa ij
ppkZ
y ^>kalh dh jkuh dfork* i<+kus ds ckn
Lora=rk vkanksyu esa Hkkx ysus okys
fofHkUu lkekftd lewgksa ds la?k"kZ ij
ppkZ
y nq";ar dqekj dgk¡ rks r; ds vk/kkj ij
ns’k dh O;oLFkk ppkZ A
y vkanksyu esa efgykvksa dh Hkwfedk vkSj
;ksxnku ij ppkZ
y ^>kalh dh jkuh* dfork i<+kus ds ckn
Hkkjr dk uD'kk cuokdj Hkkjrh;
Lora=rk laxzke ds dsanzksa dks n'kkZus ds
fy, dguk
y dksbZ ukVd ;k miU;kl i<+okus ds ckn
mlds ik=kksa ds jgu&lgu] cksyh vkfn
dh ppkZ dj lekt esa buesa vk,
cnyko ij ppkZ djuk] fofHkUu
O;olk; rFkk O;olk; ls tqM+s yksxksa]
muds dk;ks±] leL;kvksa ij ckrphr
y ^lkFkh gkFk c<+kuk* xhr ds ckn
vusdrk esa ,drk] lkeqnkf;drk] Je
dk egÙo tSls fo"k;ksa ls xhr dks
tksM+uk
y ^er ckaVks balku dks* jpukvksa dks i<+kus
ds nkSjku (lqlaxfBr lekt esa)
lkaiznkf;d ln~Hkko ds egÙo ij ppkZ

101
y ^v{kjksa dk egÙo* ikB ls fyfi dh
mRifÙk vkSj fodkl ds bfrgkl ls
tqM+k gSA ikB i<+kus ds nkSjku fyfi dh
ppkZ ds lkFk vkfn ;qx ls vkt rd
Hkk"kk ds fodkl ij ckrphr djuk
y blh ikB ds nkSjku ekuo fodkl esa
Hkk"kk ds fodkl ij ppkZ
y ekuo }kjk lwpukvksa ds laizs"k.k ij
ppkZ
y Hkk"kk ls {ks=h; vFkok lkekU; ik=ksa ds
O;fDrRo ij izHkko

le> dh Hkk"kk vkSj xf.kr


y Hkk"kk f'k{k.k ds nkSjku xf.kr fo"k; dks tksM+us
ls lacaf/r tkudkjh lksnkgj.k nsuk

xfrfof/μ6
y fdlh ,sls ikB ij ppkZ ftlesa ,sls
rF; gksa ftUgsa xf.kr ls tksM+k tk lds
;k ftuds vk/kkj ij xf.kr ls lacaf/r
dk;Z fd;k tk lds] tSlsμlkal&lkal
esa ckal ikB i<+kus ds ckn ¼bl ikB esa
'kadq dk ftozQ gS½ fofHkUu T;kferh;
vkd`fr;ksa ij ppkZ dh tk ldrh gS
y pkan ls FkksM+h lh xIisa dfork i<+kus ds
ckn panzek dh dykvksa vkfn ij
ckrphr djus ds ckn Hkkjrh; iapkax
vkSj xzsxSfj;u dSysaMj dh frfFk;ksa dh
x.kuk ls lacaf/r loky iwNuk] d`".k
i{k vkSj 'kqDy i{k esa frfFk;ksa ds chp
ds fnuksa ds varj ij ppkZ vkfn
y fdlh ikB esa laLFkkvksa ds vkus ij ml
la[;k ds fy, fofHkUu Hkk"kkvksa esa iz;qDr
gksus okys 'kCnksa ij ckrphr
y >kalh dh jkuh dfork] ukSdj ¼fuca/k½
ikB ds ckn

102
o 1857 ds igys] nkSjku vkSj ckn
esa ?kVh ?kVukvksa dk Vkbe
ykbu ¼pkVZ½ cukuk
o xka/kh th ds thou dh
egÙoiw.kZ ?kVukvksa dk Vkbe
ykbu ¼pkVZ½
y xka/kh th }kjk pyk, x, vkanksyuksa dk
Vkbe ykbu ¼pkVZ½

le> dh Hkk"kk vkSj foKku


y Hkk"kk f'k{k.k ds nkSjku mfpr LFkku ij foKku
ls tqM+h ckrksa ij ppkZ] oSKkfud n`f"Vdks.k

xfrfof/kμ7
y Ikkuh ls lacaf/r ikB i<+kus ds ckn
typozQ dh tkudkjh nsuk] ikuh dh
cpr ij ckrphr] ty dh rjy
voLFkk ls Bksl voLFkk dk gYdk gksus
ds dkj.k dk irk yxkus dk dk;Z
djokuk
y EkkSle ls lacaf/r dfork i<+kus ds ckn
ekSle ds oSKkfud igyw ds ckjs esa
ckrphr
y ^v{kjksa dk egÙo* ikB i<+kus ds ckn
ekuo }kjk dh xbZ vU; [kkstksa ij
ppkZ] tSlsμvkx] ifg;k vkfn

lanHkZ iqLrdsa@lkexzh
1. mnkjhdj.k dk lp] Hkknqjh] vfer vkSj nhid uS;j] jktdey izdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh]
1996
2. Hkkjr dh jk"Vªh; laLd`fr],l- vfcn gqlSu] us'kuy cqd VªLV] ubZ fnYyh] 1998
3. Hkkjr dk lafo/ku],l-lh- d';i] us'kuy cqd VªLV]1995
4. Hkkjrukek] lqfuy f[kyukuh] jktdey izdk'ku] ubZ fnYyh] 2000
5. gekjk i;kZoj.k] vuqie feJ] xka/h 'kkafr izfr"Bku] nhu n;ky mikè;k; ekxZ]
ubZ fnYyh] 1998
6. jkt lekt vkSj f'k{kk] Ñ".k dqekj] jktdey izdk'ku] fnYyh] 1993

103
7. fganqLrku dh dgkuh] tokgj yky usg:] lLrk lkfgR; eaMy] ubZ fnYyh] 1997
8. f'k{kk esa cnyko dk loky % lkekftd vuqHkoksa ls uhfr rd] vfuy lnxksiky]
xazFk f'kYih] fnYyh] 2000
9. vk/qfud Hkkjr esa lkekftd ifjorZu] ,e-,u- Jhfuokl] jktdey izdk'ku] fnYyh]
1995

egÙoiw.kZ osclkbV~l
1. www.ncert.nic.in
2. www.languageinindia.com (Full text downloadable)
3. http://www.britishcouncil.org/india ( British council website)
4. http://www.asian-efl-journal.com (Full text downloadable)
5. http://www.eric.ed.gov (Education Resources Information Center (ERIC))
6.
bdkbZ & nks
¼ikB~;iqLrd f'k{k.k dk ,d lk/u gS] ,dek=k lk/u ugha½
ikB~;p;kZ vkSj ikB~;Øe ,d ikB~;iqLrdsa vusd
y ikB~;p;kZ] ikB~;Øe rFkk ikB~;iqLrdksa dk
laca/k
y Hkk"kk f'k{k.k ds lanHkZ esa vk, cnykoksa o
ifjos’k ds vuqlkj u;k IkkB~;Øe rS;kj djuk

xfrfof/kμ8
y uohu ikB~;p;kZ dh leh{kk vkSj
izLrqrhdj.k ¼lewg dk;Z½
y uohu ikB~;p;kZ esa Hkk"kk f'k{k.k ls
lacaf/r vè;k; ij ppkZ
y uohu ikB~;p;kZ esa Hkk"kk f'k{k.k ls
lacaf/kr vè;k; dk fo'ys"k.k vkSj
izLrqrhdj.k ¼lewg½
y fofHkUu jkT;ksa ds fganh ds ikB~;Øe dk
fo'ys"k.k vkSj izLrqrhdj.k ¼lewg dk;Z½
y yach o tfVy ikB~;Øe ds LFkku ij
Lrhj;] laf{kIr fdUrq iw.kZ o rF;ijd
ikB~Øeksa dk lekos’k A

bdkbZ & rhu

104
ikB~;Øe rd igq¡pus ds lalkèku vusd

xfrfof/k
y {ks=ks esa mifLFkfr yksddFkk] yksdxhrksa
dk lewg esa caVdj ladyu rS;kj
djuk
y d{kk 6 vkSj 12 rd dh fganh dh
ikB~;iqLrdksa esa fdlh ,d dfork
pqudj ifjos'k ls tksM+rs gq, mlds
f'k{k.k fcanq rS;kj djuk
y fo|ky; esa vk;ksftr lkaLd`frd
xfrfof/;ksa dks fganh dh d{kk ls tksM+uk
y vklikl vius {ks=k esa gksus okyh
xfrfof/;ksa dks fganh dh d{kk ls tksM+uk
y {ks=h; xfrfof/k;ksa dk rqyukRed
v/;;u

bdkbZ & pkj


¼lh[kus fl[kkus dh izfØ;k esa vè;kidksa dh Hkwfedk ,d lgk;d vkSj fe=k dh gksxhA
vè;kidksa ds lkeus ;g pqukSrh gksxh fd og gjsd fo|kFkhZ ls ,d rjg dh l`tukRed
{kerk (mÙkj Hkh) dh vis{kk u djs½
Hkk"kk dh d{kk vkSj ewY;kadu
y d{kk esa vkSj d{kk ls ckgj lrr~ ewY;kadu ¼lS)kafrd ds lkFk O;ogkfjd i{k dks egRo½
y EkwY;kadu esa l`tukRed joS;k
y vkdyu laca/h lwpukvksa dk bLrseky
y fo|kFkhZ dh izxfr esa ekrk&firk dh lgHkkfxrk
y ,d&nwljs dk ewY;kadu
y iksVZiQksfy;ks }kjk ewY;kadu
y QhMcSd vkSj fjiksVZ nsuk
y iz'uksa dk Lo:i

xfrfof/kμ9

105
y Nk=ksa esa Hkze gsS T;knk fy[kks] T;knk us]
ikvks] ijLij ppkZ ls ;g Hkze feVkdj]
Hkk"kk ds Lrj dks cuk, j[kuk A
y ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk fodflr vkdyu
¼iksth'ku isij½ esa Hkk"kk laca/h vè;k;
ij ckrphr
y Hkk"kk laca/kh ewY;kadu ds fcanqvksa ij
vk/kkfjr nks iz'u i= dk fodkl]
,dμmPp izkFkfed Lrj ds fy,]
nwljkμekè;fed Lrj ds fy,
y ewY;kadu gsrq l`tukRed iz'uksa dk
fodkl djokuk rFkk vè;kidksa }kjk
,d&nwljs ds lokyksa ds tokc nsuk
y ,d gh loky ij vyx&vyx vk,
tokcksa ij lewg esa ppkZ

iksVZiQksfy;ks
• (i) d{kk 6 ls 12 rd dh fganh dh
ikB~;iqLrdksa esa ls ,sls nl
iz'u NkaVsa ftuesa Hkk"kk ewY;kadu
dk l`tukRed joS;k ifjyf{kr
gksrk gS ¼lewg dk;Z½
(ii) p;fur nl lokyksa ds tokc
rS;kj djuk vkSj mu ij lewg
esa ckrphr
(iii) d{kk esa f'k{k.k ds nkSjku
fo|kfFkZ;ksa ls Hkh bUgha p;fur
lokyksa ds tokc ysuk
y iksVZiQksfy;ksa esa ,df=kr fd, x,
l`tukRed lokyksa ij d{kk esa ppkZ
y d{kk f'k{k.k ds nkSjku fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk
fn, x, tokcksa ij vè;kid dh
izfrfØ;k i;Zos{kd }kjk uksV djuk
y fo|kfFkZ;ksa ls ukVd djokuk vkSj
vfHku; ds nkSjku laokn vnk;xh ds
le; vè;kidksa }kjk mudh Hkk"kk dk
vkdyu

106
y ^ekrk&firk dh Hkkxhnkjh vkSj cPps dh
izxfr* fo"k; ij vè;kidksa }kjk ys[k
rS;kj djuk
y ys[kksa esa lq>k, x, egÙoiw.kZ fcanqvksa ij
ppkZ djuk
y bu egÙoiw.kZ fcanqvksa ls fo|ky;
iz'kklu dks voxr djkuk
y vkdyu laca/h igyh =kSekfld
fVIif.k;ksa dk nwljh =kSekfld
fVIif.k;ksa esa bLrseky

ifj;kstuk dk;Z

Hkk"kk ds fo|ky; ,oa fo|ky;srj fofHkUu {ks=kksa esa iz;ksx ij vk/kfjr ifj;kstuk dk;Z ls
Nk=kkè;kidksa dks fdlh dk;Z dks djus dk O;ogkfjd vuqHko izkIr gksxk rFkk Hkk"kk ds
fofHkUu iz;ksxksa dks vkykspukRed n`f"V ls ns[kus dk utfj;k Hkh muesa fodflr gksxkA
Ikfj;kstuk dk;Z gsrq dqN fo"k;ksa dh lwph nh tk jgh gSμ
y fo|ky;h vuqHko dk;ZØe ds nkSjku fo|kfFkZ;ksa ls gLrfyf[kr if=kdk dk fodkl
y fo|ky;h vuqHko dk;ZØe ds nkSjku Hkk"kk f'k{k.k dks ysdj vkus okyh dfBukbZ ij
fØ;kRed 'kks/k
y viuh euilan dforkvksa dk ladyu rFkk mu ij ,d ys[k
y viuh euilan dgkfu;ksa dk ladyu rFkk muls lacaf/kr ys[k
y Vsyhfotu ij izlkfjr gksus okys foKkiuksa dk fo'ys"k.k ¼Hkk"kk] tsaMj vkfn igyqvksa
dks è;ku esa j[krs gq,½
y vaxzsth vkSj fganh ds lekpkj i=kksa dk rqyukRed vè;;u
y fganh ds nks lekpkj i=kksa dh Hkk"kk dk rqyukRed vè;;u
y orZeku cky lkfgR; dh leh{kk
y fganh dh fdUgha nks efgyk if=dkvksa dh leh{kk
y viuh euilan dh rhu dgkfu;ksa dh leh{kk
y LFkkuh; dykdkj@dfo@ys[kd ls lk{kkRdkj
y fo|ky;h vuqHko dk;ZØe ds nkSjku fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk gLrfyf[kr lekpkj&i=ksa dk
fodkl
y fo|kFkhZ }kjk fdlh Hkh nks jkT;ksa }kjk fodflr fdlh Hkh ,d ¼6 ls 12½ d{kk dh
fganh dh ikB~;iqLrd dk rqyukRed vè;;u
y vius jkT; ds fy, mlh d{kk dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, ,d u;h ikB~;iqLrd dh
:ijs[kk rS;kj djuk
y ikB~;Øe vkSj izLrkfor ikB~;iqLrd dh :ijs[kk laca/kh viuh jk; fy[kuk

107
y fdlh ,d ljdkjh laLFkk ¼,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh-] ,l-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- vkfn½ ds Hkk"kkvksa dh
ikB~;iqLrd fuekZ.k lfefr ds lnL;ksa dk lk{kkRdkj djsa vkSj mlds vk/kkj ij
ikB~;iqLrd fodkl dh izfØ;k ij viuh fjiksVZ rS;kj djsa
y vkl&ikl ds [ksr&[kfygku] ,sfrgkfld LFky dk Hkze.k dj fdlh ,d ij viuk
vuqHko fy[kuk
y Hkk"kk dh d{kk esa mu vuqHkoksa dks fijksrs gq, f'k{k.k ;kstuk cukuk
y Hkk"kk laca/h vkWfM;ks@ohfM;ks dk;ZØeksa dh foLr`r lwph rS;kj djuk
y lhfer lalk/kuksa esa vkWfM;ks@ohfM;ks dk;ZØe ds d{kk esa bLrseky dh ;kstuk cukuk
y pqukSrhiw.kZ cPpksa dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, nks vkWfM;ks dk;ZØe dk vkys[k rS;kj djuk
y ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr vkdyu lzksr iqfLrdk Hkk"kk fganh i<+sa rFkk blesa
vk, vkdyu gsrq Hkk"kk laca/kh fØ;kdykiksa dks d{kk 6 ls 12 ds vuq:i fodflr
djrs gq, ,d laf{kIr ys[k fy[ksa
y cPps dh Hkk"kk ;k ,sls vU; fdlh fo"k; ij ,d laxks"Bh vk;ksftr djsa vkSj laxks"Bh
esa ekSf[kd :i ls izLrqr fopkjks dks fjdkMZ djsa
y os gh fo|kFkhZ mi;ZqDr fo"k; ij ,d ys[k Hkh rS;kj djsa rFkk fjdkfMZM lkexzh vkSj
fyf[kr lkexzh ds chp ds varjfcanqvksa dh ,d lwph rS;kj djsa
y iq:"ko efgyk dFkkdkjksa ds ys[ku esa var ¼vkykspukRed v/;;u½
y ckyJfed o vukFk cPPks o laHkzkr cPPkksa ds Hkk"kkRed fodkl esa varj
y fgUnh f’k{k.k dks n`’; o JO; lkexzh }kjk dSls izHkkoh cu;k tk ldrk gS a
y fgUnh ds lkSan;Z esa fu[kkj gsrq eqgkojs o ykskdsfÙk;k¡ dk egRo
¼bl lwph esa vU; fo"k; Hkh tksM+s tk ldrs gSaA ifj;kstuk dk;Z lewg esa Hkh
fn;k tk ldrk gSA de ls de rhu ifj;kstuk dk;Z izR;sd fo|kFkhZ ds fy, djus
vko';d gSaA½

f'k{k.k ds rjhds
• ppkZ&ifjppkZ
• vkWfM;ks&ohfM;ks ekè;e
• ifjos'k ds lalk/kuksa dk iz;ksx
• d{kk esa laokn dk ekgkSy
• dk;Z'kkyk] dk;Zxks"Bh rFkk fo"k;&fo'ks"kKksa ds lkFk ckrphr
• i=&if=kdkvksa ij ppkZ vkSj mudh leh{kk

ewY;kadu ds rjhds

108
• iksVZiQksfy;ks rFkk ifj;kstuk dk;Z
• fyf[kr ijh{kk
• d{kk f'k{k.k
• ekSf[kd ¼i= izLrqfr] ifjppkZ½
• d{kk esa cPpksa ds lkFk laokn dk ekgkSy cukuk
• fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh i<+us esa fnypLih iSnk djuk
• lewg ppkZ vkSj lewg dk;Z
• ys[k vkSj fjiksVZ vkfn rS;kj djuk
• fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk rS;kj dh xbZ ikB~;&lkexzh
• lgHkkfxrk vkSj fnypLih
• laxBukRed dkS'ky
• dke ds izfr joS;k
• igy djus dh o`fÙk
• ekSfydrk vkSj lk/uksa ds iz;ksx esa dYiuk'khyrk
• ifjfLFkfr ds vuqdwy vius dks <kyus dk yphykiu
• leL;k lek/ku
• l`tu'khyrk
• fo"k; ij vkykspukRed O;k[;ku dh dk;Z’kkyk vk;kstu
• i<+k, x, ikB dks Nk=ksa ls d{kk esa lg;ksfx;ksa ds le{k izLrqr djus ds volj
• lh[ks tkus ds O;ogkfjd iz;ksx ds vk/kkj ij ewY;kadu

uksV %
ikB~;Øe dh ,d vk/kkj :ijs[kk izLrqr gSA lanHkZ iqLrdsa vkSj lkexzh laca/kh tkudkjh vHkh
iwjh dh tkuh gSA vad fu/kkZj.k vkSj le; fu/kkZj.k vHkh Bhd <ax ls fd;k tkuk ckdh gSA

Mk¡ yrk vxzoky


¼rnFkZ½ fgUnh izoDrk
{ks=h; f’k{kk laLFkku
Hkksiky

109
PEDAGOGY COURSE (Language-Urdu)
Part I
Ist Year

Marks : 100
Internal 25. External 75 Contact Hours : 128

Aims of the Course:

The Course will enable teacher-learners


(i) To become aware of the nature and system of Urdu language, language
acquisition and language learning, and develop a perspective on Urdu
language as mother tongue education in Indian contexts.

(ii) To understand the dynamic nature of beliefs and assumptions about


language learning, methodologies of language teaching and appreciate
the aims of language teaching, particularly Urdu Language teaching and
it place and importance in learning-teaching other subject areas.

(iii) To critically examine the Urdu language curricula at school level (as
prescribed by the boards) and appreciate philosophical and pragmatic
understanding in them.

(iv) To become a language teaching professional by continuous learning and


by exploring critically the existing theories and practices in language
education.

110
(v) To develop among students adequate communicative competencies in
Urdu language and to teach different forms of literature and to develop
among the students suitable tools of appreciation for these.

UNIT I Nature and structure of Urdu Language:

Role and aims of language education in schools – Listening, Speaking,


Reading and Writing (LSRW) as discrete skills vs. holistic perspective
on language proficiency –Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills
(BICS) and Cognitive Advance Language Proficiency (CALP) – the
fundamental distinction between BICS and CALP– Objectives of
language teaching in schools including Urdu as mother tongue and
second language.

Origin of Urdu language, its development, different names, area and its
importance.

Linguistic characteristics of Urdu, its aspects, complexity and relation


with other languages.

Urdu alphabets, borrowed from Arabic, Persian and Hindi; their sounds,
shapes and nomenclatures, their organs of speech, vowels and
consonants, shamsi alphabets and qamri alphabets.

Urdu Phonology - vowels and consonants, flapped sounds, intonational


pattern of Urdu, Place of Articulation.

111
Types of writing of Urdu - Khat-e-Naskh, Khat-e- Nastaliq and Khat-e-
Shikast.

Urdu words - kinds of words – articulate and inarticulate, division of


articulate words – structural (suffix and prefix), lexical, semantic -
synonyms, antonyms, particles, individual words, compound words;
Urdu abbreviations, spelling and pronunciation.

Urdu Grammar - What is grammar? – abstract system underlying all


languages (i.e. Universal grammar) – system underlying a particular
language (a grammar of Urdu) – stratificational grammar (of Linguists)
– pedagogical grammar of a language for teachers and students –
Formal grammars, – Functional grammars, - Grammar in Language
Education: Reflections of formal and functional grammars in language
education– from grammatical competence to communicative
competence– Discourse Grammar - focus of linguistics analysis to the
discourse level grammar investigation - Ism, Zameer, Fail, Sifat; tenses,
gender, singular, plural, antonyms, synonyms, prefix, suffix, idioms,
phrases, proverb.

Sanaye-Badaye (Figures of Speech), Tashbeeh, Isteara, talmeeh, kinaya,


majaz etc.

Sentence structure- sentence as a unit of expression, different modes of


expressing ideas, punctuation; syntax.

UNIT II Language Learning and Urdu :

112
Language and learning: Centrality of language in learning – Language
Across Curriculum (LAC) – content based language teaching –registers
– learning through mother tongue medium at primary years of learning
– child’s capability to learn many languages – home language–school
language difference related problems and issues – inclusive language
education – language disadvantage.
Urdu Language and learning – Urdu language as a means of
construction of knowledge; language and experience; concept
formation.
Urdu Language and learner – social and individual aspects; nature of
family background; schooling; exposure; the role of mass media;
affective filter; attitudes; motivation; aptitude.
Urdu Language and Multilingualism:
Language and society, Language and classroom, connecting knowledge
to life out side the school, linguistic diversity and Urdu.

Role and importance of mother tongue in teaching-aims and objectives


of teaching Urdu as first language ( mother tongue), second language
and third language. Three language formula.

Basic language competencies:


Listening: Listening as a complex process for understanding spoken
language– as a means of acquiring a second language –as a goal
oriented activity / skill – approaches (i) ‘bottom-up’ processing and ‘top
down’ processing. ‘Parallel processing model’ (both approaches) to
take place at various levels of cognitive organisation: phonological,
grammatical, lexical and propositional. (i) listening in second language
pedagogy, (ii) speech processing: (iii) listening in interactive setting
and (iv) strategy use - listening practice

113
Speaking: As a communication skill - oral skills - characteristics of
speech – psycholinguistic skills i.e. processing model:
conceptualisation- formulation- articulation- and self-monitoring -
speaking in the language classroom: providing authentic opportunities –
flexible users of language – role plays, group discussion, using the
target language outside the classroom and use of learner’s input –
importance of feedback- self evaluation and self –analysis
Reading: Pedagogy of Reading – early reading development - Reading
as a practice, product or process (Top down Bottom-up and Genre
approaches) - Uses of reading: as a literacy practice and as specific to
particular socio-cultural environments. Intensive reading and extensive
reading - Critical reading – relationship between First and second
language reading
Writing: Writing in Urdu language - the two major approaches to the
teaching of writing: (i) product approach and (ii) process approach –
Process approach: Brainstorming: outlining:; drafting: revisions and
proof-reading and the final draft.- recent researches - the value of
focusing on various writing ‘genres’ to identify, compare and contrast
writing in different fields, such science and literature - integrating
product, process and genre writing into a coherent whole - non
academic writing – letters, forms, resumes, lists, etc – writing in
classroom –.

UNIT III Urdu literature and methods of teaching:

An outline history of Urdu literature in – Deccan; Northern India, and


Modern era; and contemporary writings.
Main schools of Urdu poetry – Dabistan-e- Lucknow, Dabistan-e-Delhi.
Important litrary movements – Aligarh movement, Romanvi movement,
Progressive movement, and Jadeediat.

114
Various forms of Urdu literature : Prose- Dastan, Novel, Afsana,
Drama, Khudnawisht, Inshayya, Mazmoon. Poetry- Qasida, Marsia,
Masnavi Ghazal, Rubai, Qataa, Nazm. Geet.
Method of teaching of Urdu language - Oral expression, Reading
Process - Oral and silent reading, intensive and extensive reading
interest and reading habits; Writing Composition – Objective,
Methodology, Comprehension; Development of Language Skills,
Communication through print media & electronic media.

Scientific Study of Language:


Creativity, Sensitivity, psychological dimensions of text, translation
method, direct method, grammar, translation method, audio lingual
approach, communicative approach, computer edit language teaching,
community language learning, silent way, suggestopedia, total physical
response, method of teaching, of various forms of Urdu prose, poetry
and grammar.
Importance of lesson plan in teaching and unit plan; techniques of
lesson plan, aims and objectives in– fictional prose, Non-fictional prose
and poetry. Teaching aids.
Teaching materials and resources:
Linguistic, visual, auditory, kinesthetic, cassettes, CD’s, DVD, Internet.
Pedagogic dimensions of different stages of learning:

Story telling: Stories as input for language learning – story reading ( as


opposed to teaching stories as texts) as a classroom methodology with
in a Whole Language perspective – Reading stories out aloud, Repeated
reading, Choral reading, Story retelling and rewriting activities to build
on existing language proficiency and skills - Important methods: (i)
Shared reading of Big books, large size high –interest books – Reading
cards – short graded passages / stories – “Talking Books (cassettes / CD

115
plus book) model speech as well as reading - Print rich environment -
using stories as a device to provide print rich inputs - Selection of
stories – cultural – social contexts – telling and retelling of stories –
child chosen texts / stories - children created stories – story writing as a
process of learning across curriculum; class room demonstration.

UNIT IV Assessment:

Language evaluation / assessment not be limited to be oriented to


measurement of language proficiency – on going continuous evaluation
finding ‘occurrences of learning’ – how and how much – recorded in
teacher and learners’ diaries – portfolios - language learning and
assessment: The NCF- 2005 perspective – indicators of learning –
current assessment practices techniques of assessment – types of
language tests - types of questions / tasks - recording of learning
assessment – reporting and communicating feedback.
Every possible effort should be made to make assessment a part of the
teaching-learning process whenever we break the normal classroom
process for a test or examination, we manage to raise the anxiety levels
of the learners, disrupting the learning process in a significant way. The
evaluation should be through - Text books; Assignment;
Presentation / Demonstration; Co Curricular activities; Behavior /
Attitudes; Examination

The purpose of assessment is to prepare citizens for a meaningful and


productive life. Through evaluation we get feedback on the extent to
which we have been successful in imparting such as education.

Part II
IInd Year

116
Marks: 100
Internal 25. External 75 Contact Hours:
96

UNIT V Curriculum for teaching and learning Urdu:

Introduction of Curriculum, Curriculum Development and its


importance.
Language Curriculum perspectives, Guiding principles of curriculum:
I- Connecting knowledge to life outside the school.
II- Ensuring that learning is shifted away from rote methods.
III- Knowledge beyond the text books.
IV- Examination reforms.
V- Nurturing Democratic values among learners.

Curriculum areas with reference to Urdu Language.


Constructivist Approach to language teaching: The learner as active
constructor of knowledge -Piagetian and Vygotskian perspective on
social construction of knowledge – language as central to learning -
attention to social processes in the classroom-developing meta-
cognitive competence -Enabling inductive learning - recent language
learning researches – peer interactions – communicative language
teaching and context approach – process syllabus - contextualised
Assessment -

Designing-Learning experiences; Social context of learners; Aims of


Education.

UNIT VI Syllabus and Text books:

117
What is a syllabus? – four key elements: aims, content, methodology
and evaluation – it identifies what will be worked upon by the teacher
and students in terms of content selected to be appropriate to overall
aims– (Michael P. Breen 2001) - four types of syllabus currently
used in language teaching: Communicative language teaching (CLT);
functional syllabus; task-based syllabus and the process based
syllabuses – Lexical syllabi - the key characteristics of the four main
syllabus types.

Development of Syllabus, Main aspects of Urdu syllabus at different


stages; Process of development of Urdu text books(Selection of
material, organization of material, exercise of practices),
Characteristics and utility of Urdu textbooks, Qualities of text books.
(text, use of paper, printing, illustration etc.),content analysis of
textbooks.

Resource material apart from text books.

UNIT VI Analysis of Urdu text books:

An Appraisal and Analysis of Syllabus and Teaching - Learning


Materials
Teacher learners will analyse the curricular statements, syllabi and
teaching learning materials (textbooks / course books) of at least three
or four agencies (NCERT/ SCERT’s of different states/ NGOs’/
CBSE/State Boards/ NIOS, IGNOU, MANUU etc). - A broader
criteria for analysis of syllabi and textbooks may be evolved based on
the existing researches and knowledge available – Focusing on
materials as pedagogic device the following framework by Tomlinson
(1998) and Andrew Littlejohn (1998) may be adopted for evaluation
of textbooks

118
UNIT VII The Language Teacher and Resources for the Teacher:

Changing Roles, teacher as a professional and professional


development; teacher as a researcher – Teacher learning and
Resources; Resources for teachers - Journals for practicising
teachers..
UNIT VIII Project Work:

Identification of common errors in pronunciation and remedial


teaching.
Identify impacts of Indian languages and dialects on Urdu.
Preparation of teaching aids.
Analysis of textbooks and other materials used in different subjects
from the point of view of registers and styles used in them.

Study of a primary/secondary school in:


i. Studying a curriculum in action
ii. Evaluating a course
iii. Classroom observation.
iv. Control of curriculum.

Modes of Learning Engagement:


The course is visualised as a combination of guided self-study, a few
overarching lectures, reading, consultations with important web-sites, and
group discussion.
™ Overarching lecturer-cm-discussions.
™ Pair work, small group discussion, debates on themes / ideas of
relevance.
™ Reading, presentation and discussion on contemporary issues.

119
™ Writing essays on themes of current interest in language
education (e.g. Multilingual classroom: Challenges and merits,
Addressing the needs of low proficient language learners)
™ Pedagogical aspects of Urdu language such as listening,
Speaking, Reading, Writing, Ggrammar, vocabulary, TBL,
Story telling, etc. cold be engaged very well as suggested below:
• Teacher learner understand the ideas and the processes
through lectures-cum-discussions, reading, or any way
adopted by the teacher educator.
• Develop an activity on each aspects for a real classroom
based on their learning and reflection – (for example,
Teacher learner develop a listening activity gibing
rationale, giving the content and trialling it in a class).
• Write a essays critically examining the existing
processes and practices.
• Discuss in the class with peers and the developed
activities may be developed in to a book or manual for
further use.
™ Developing materials (texts and activities) for learners as a
particular stage or class.
™ Workshop as a device for engagement for developing and
designing materials and activities in each aspect of language
learning-teaching.
™ Comparative study of curriculum, syllabi and textbooks of
Indian states or Asian countries.
™ Study and analyse the aims and objectives of syllabi and
textbooks.
™ Writing book reviews (each teacher learner may do at least four
books in a year)

Suggested modes of assessment would include:

120
o Teacher learner’s interest in reading and self-study
o Initiative and participation in the discussion, group worked.
o Quality and ideas of Essay writing by teacher learners
o Quality of materials (texts) and activities developed by teacher
learners

Suggested Reading Materials:

1. Urdu Adab ki Tareekh NCERT, New Delhi


2. Urdu Qawaid ,, ,, ,,
3. Apni Zaban NCERT’s Urdu text books for class VI to
VIII
4. Urdu Guldasta ,, ,, ,, Supplementary Reader ,, ,,
5. Nawa-e-Urdu ,, ,, ,, text books for class IX & X
6. Gulzar-e- Urdu ,, ,, ,, Suppli. Readers for class IX & X
7. Gulistan-e-Adab ,, ,, ,, text books for class X & XI
8. Khayaban-e-Urdu ,, ,, ,, suppli. Readers for class ,, ,,
9. NCERT’s Urdu Teachers Manual for primary, upper primary, secondary and
Sr. secondary stages.
10. NCERT’s Urdu version text books for classes I to XII.
11. Urdu Tadrees by Moinuddin.
12. Ghazal Aur Darse Ghazal by Akhtar Ansari.
13. Urdu Asnaf ki Tadrees by O. N. Kaul & Masood Siraj.
14. National Curriculum Framework for School Education. (Reprint Edition),
2001, NCERT.
15. National Curriculum Framework (NCF) -2005, NCERT, New Delhi.
16. Position Paper of National Focus Group on Teaching of Indian Languages.
17. Pattanayak, D. P. 1981. Multilingualism and Mother-tongue Education. Oxford
University Press.
18. Pattanayak, D. P. 1986. Study of Language. A Report. New Delhi: NCERT.
19. UNESCO. 2003. Education in a Multilingual World.

121
20. Widdowson, H. G. 1984. The incentive value of theory in teacher education.
ELT 38.2:86-90
21. Willis, J. and Willis, D. 1996. Challenge and Change in Language Teaching.
Oxford: Heinemann.
22. Zamel, V. 1985. Responding to student writing. TESOL Quarterly 19.1.
23. Agnihotri, R. K., Khanna, A. I. 1995. (eds.), English Language Teaching in
India: Issues and Innovations (RAL 2). New Delhi: Saga Publications.
24. Allwright, D. and Bailey, K. M. 1991. Focus on the Language Classroom,
Cambridge University Press.
25. Allwright, R. L. 1981. ‘What do we want teaching materials for?’ ELT’36.1:5-
18
26. Anthony, E. M. 1972. ‘Approach, method and technique’. In Allen and
Campbell (eds.), 1972. Teaching English as a Second Language. Tata McGraw
Hill.
27. Brown, D. H. 1980. Principles of Language and Teaching. New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall, Inc.
28. Brumfit, C. 1984. Communicative Methodology in Language Teaching,
Cambridge University Press.
29. Brumfit, C. J. and Johnson, K. 1979. The Communicative Approach to
Language Teaching ELBS/Oxford University Press.
30. Corder, P. 1967. “Significance of learners’ errors”. International Review of
Applies Linguistics 5:162-169.
31. Cummins, J. 1976. The influence of bilingualism on cognitive growth: A
synthesis of research findings and explanatory hypothesis. Work Papers on
Bilingualism 9:1-43.
32. Cummins, J. and Swain, M. 1986. Bilingualism in Education. London:
Longman.
33. Dua, H. R. 1986. Language Use, Attitudes and Identity Among Linguistic
Minorities. Mysore: CIIL.
34. Fairclough, N. 1992. (ed.), Critical Language awareness. Harlow: Longman.
35. Fairclough, N. 1992. (ed.), Language and Power. Harlow: Longman.

122
36. Halliday, M. A. K. 1975. Learning How to Mean. London: Edward Arnold.
37. Khubchandani, L. M. 1988. Language in a Plural Society. Delhi: Motilal
Banarasidass and Shimla IIAS.

123
Pedagogy Course PC 3: Assessment for Learning
Part I
          Ist Year 

Contact Hours: 4 hours per week

Total Marks: 75

Internal: 15 External: 60

Aim of the Course

Assessment (and evaluation) is integral to school education and more


specifically to teaching-learning. Since education in schools presupposes
certain aims and objectives, it is crucial for teachers to be aware of how the
progress and growth of students is to be assessed. This in turn implies that
teachers become cognizant of what dimensions of growth or learning are to
be assessed, what means are available to them for this purpose, and what
effects are likely to flow from various kinds of assessment.

This Course – as its title suggests - proposes that student-teachers


become conscious of the distinction between assessment for learning and
assessment of learning. Whereas both have their place in school education, a
constructivist paradigm indicates a shift in emphasis towards the former. The
course intends to enlarge current perspectives on assessment and evaluation,
and enable student-teachers to view student learning along multiple
dimensions. It brings a specific focus on assessment of subject-based
learning, as well as processes of feedback and reporting, which are among the
core competencies needed by teachers. A critical review of the examination
system and the assessment practices that derive from this is also felt to be a
necessary component of the course; so that student-teachers may learn to
evolve more flexible and richer forms of assessment, even as they respond to
current examination practices.

The Course will thus enable student-teachers to:


ƒ Gain a critical understanding of issues in assessment and
evaluation (from a constructivist paradigm)
ƒ Become cognizant of key concepts such as formative and
summative assessment, evaluation and measurement, test,
examination
ƒ Be exposed to different kinds and forms of assessment that
aid student learning

124
ƒ Become the use of a wide range of assessment tools, and
learn to select and construct these appropriately
ƒ Evolve realistic, comprehensive and dynamic assessment
procedures that are able to keep the whole student in view.

Course Outline
Unit 1: Overview of Assessment and Evaluation
• Perspective on assessment and evaluation of learning in a
constructivist paradigm
• Distinction between ‘Assessment of learning’ and
‘assessment for learning’
• Purposes of assessment in a ‘constructivist’ paradigm:
o engage with learners’ minds in order to further
learning in various dimensions
o promote development in cognitive, social and
emotional aspects
• Critical review of current evaluation practices and their
assumptions about learning and development
• Clarifying the terms
o assessment, evaluation, test, examination,
measurement
o formative and summative evaluation
o continuous and comprehensive assessment
o Grading

Unit 2: What is to be assessed?

• Dimensions and levels of learning


ƒ Retention/recall of facts and concepts; application of
specific skills
ƒ manipulating tools and symbols; problem-solving;
applying learning to diverse situations
ƒ Meaning-making propensity; abstraction of ideas
from experiences; seeing links and relationships;
inference; analysis; reflection
ƒ originality and initiative; collaborative participation;
creativity; flexibility
• Contexts of assessment
ƒ subject-related
ƒ person-related

Unit 3: Assessment of subject based learning


• Enlarging notions of ‘subject-based learning’ in a
constructivist perspective

125
• Assessment tools
ƒ kinds of tasks: projects, assignments, performances
ƒ kinds of tests and their construction
ƒ observation of learning processes by self, by peers, by teacher
ƒ self-assessment and peer-assessment
ƒ constructing Portfolios

Quantitative and qualitative aspects of assessment: appropriate tools for each

Unit 4: Teacher competencies in evolving appropriate 
assessment tools 
ƒ visualizing appropriate assessment tools for specific contexts,
content, and student
ƒ formulating tasks and questions that engage the learner and
demonstrate the process of thinking; scope for original
responses
ƒ evolving suitable criteria for assessment
ƒ organizing and planning for student portfolios and developing
rubrics for portfolio assessment
ƒ using assessment feedback for furthering learning

Unit 5: Data Analysis, Feedback and Reporting


• Statistical tools- percentage, graphical representation, frequency
distribution, central tendency, variation, normal distribution,
percentile rank, correlation and their interpretation
• Feedback as an essential component of formative assessment
ƒ use of assessment for feedback; for taking pedagogic
decisions
ƒ Types of teacher feedback (written comments, oral); peer
feedback
ƒ Place of marks, grades and qualitative descriptions
• Developing and maintaining a comprehensive learner profile
• Purposes of reporting: to communicate
ƒ progress and profile of learner
ƒ basis for further pedagogic decisions
• Reporting a consolidated learner profile

Part II

126
 

          IInd Year 

Contact Hours: 2 hours per week


Total Marks: 75

Internal: 15 External: 60

Unit 6: Examinations system: A sociological and psychological analysis of


the related issues
ƒ Examination for gradation
ƒ Examination for social selection and placement
ƒ Impact of the prevailing examination system on student learning and
stakeholders
ƒ Entrance tests and their influence on students and school system

Unit 7 : School-based assessment and evaluation: policies, practices


and possibilities
ƒ Impact of examination-driven schooling:
• On Pedagogy: content-confined, information focused testing;
memory-centric teaching and testing
• On School culture
ƒ De-linking school-based assessment from examinations: some
possibilities and alternate practices

Unit 8: Examination Reform Efforts 

Examination reform efforts in India based on:


¾ Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)
¾ Kothari Commission (1964-66)
¾ National Policy on Education (1986) and Programme of Action
(1992)
¾ National Curriculum Frameworks developed for school education
¾ National Focus Group Position Paper on Examination Reform

(Discussion should cover analysis of recommendations,


implementations and the emerging concerns)

127
 

Unit 9: Directions for examination reform 
ƒ Introducing flexibility in examination-taking requirements
ƒ Improving quality and range of questions in exam papers
ƒ Including school-based credits
ƒ Alternative modes of certification
ƒ Examination Management
ƒ Role of ICT in Examination

Modes of Learning Engagement


Some suggested modes of learning are:

• Lecture-cum-discussion
• Readings and presentations
• Group discussions
• Analysis of a range of assessment tools
• Developing worksheets and other tasks for learning and assessment in
one’s specific subject area
• Maintaining a portfolio related to the course-work and devising rubrics
for assessment
• Constructing a test or an examination paper in one’s subject area;
critical review of these
• Observing, interviewing and writing comprehensive profile of a student
• Simulated exercises in ‘marking’ and giving feedback to fellow
student-teachers (on a written task); critical review of feedback
• Simulated exercise in marking an examination paper in one’s subject
area; critical review of marking

Modes of Assessment
Suggested modes of assessment are:
• Quality of participation in discussion
• Quality of presentation
• Rating of tasks taken up
• Rating of critical analysis of assessment tools
• Quality of assessment tools constructed
• Portfolio assessment according to the rubrics
• Written test
• Year-end examination by University

References

128
• Baker, B, Costa, A., & Shalit, S. (1997). The norms of collaboration:
Attaining communication competence. In A. Costa & R. Liebmann (Eds.),
The process-centered school: Sustaining a renaissance community (pp. 119-
142). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
• Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B, & William, D. (2004). Working
inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi Delta
Kappan, 86 (1), 8- 21.
• Bransford, J., Brown, A.L., & Cocking, R.R. (Eds.). (2000). How people
learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press.
• Burke, K. (2005). How to assess authentic learning (4th Ed.). Thousand Oaks,
CA: Corwin. Burke, K., Fogarty, R., & Belgrad, S (2002). The portfolio
connection: Student work linked to standards (2nd Ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA:
Corwin.
• Carr, J.F., & Harris, D.E. (2001). Succeeding with standards: Linking
curriculum, assessment, and action planning. Alexandria, VA: Association
for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
• Danielson, C. (2002). Enhancing student achievement: A framework for
school improvement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development.
• Gentile, J.R. & Lalley, J.P. (2003). Standards and mastery learning: Aligning
teaching and assessment so all children can learn. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Corwin.
• Guskey, T.R., & Bailey, J.M. (2001). Developing grading and reporting
systems for student learning. Thousand Oaks, CA. Corwin.
• NCERT(1985). Curriculum and Evaluation, New Delhi:NCERT
• Norris N.(1990) Understanding Educational Evaluation, Kogan Page Ltd.
• Natrajan V.and Kulshreshta SP(1983). Assessing non-Scholastic
Aspects-Learners Behaviour, New Dlehi: Association of Indian
Universities.
• Newman, F.M. (1996). Authentic achievement: Restructuring schools for
intellectual quality. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
• Nitko, A.J. (2001). Educational assessment of students (3rd ed.). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
• Singh H.S.(1974) Modern Educational Testing. New Delhi: Sterling Publication
• Thorndike RL and Hagen (1977). Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology
and Education.

129
PC 4: Learning to Function as a Teacher
Total Marks: 250

As the title suggests in this component of the programme the student-teachers


are actually placed in a specific school for a duration of two and a half
months, in two time slots. Initially, they will be attached to particular school
for two weeks as ‘school attachment’. This shorter period is to provide them
adequate exposure to have a ‘feel’ of dealing with teaching-learning. A time
gap after this school attachment will provide opportunity to student-teachers
to share experiences, reflect, clarify several things with teacher educators and
internalize. After about two weeks they will go for ‘school placement’ of two
months. During this period, their role in the school is something like an
‘apprentice’ and its specific contours need to be worked out by course
faculty. They will be engaged in the school functioning in all its aspects.
In course PC 4, student teachers will:
• Undertake responsibility for planning and implementation of learning
situations for specific units of study, in the context of their school
internship.
• Reflect on their practice, and learn to adapt and modify their
visualization/implementation… towards betterment of student learning.
• Involve in various school activities and processes, in order to gain a
‘feel’ of the multiple roles of a teacher and an understanding of the
‘school culture’.
• Learn to reflect upon, consolidate and share their school experiences;
and to recognize one’s own development as a teacher)

(During two successive periods of internship 2 weeks and then 2


months)
Task Set 1:
Visualizing Teaching-Learning Situations in one’s subject in
given School Context
ƒ preparing teaching-learning situations with the ‘givens’:
school, class group, subject content, time duration (for
single lessons as well as for two complete units of study
in one’s chosen subject areas, if possible at two
different class levels)
ƒ visualizing details of teaching-learning sequences, and
learning path of students, keeping all considerations in
view
ƒ implementation of teaching-learning plan in
‘classroom’ learning environment as well as assessment
of student learning.
ƒ discussion, reflection, re-consideration and
consolidation (after each engagement as well as end of
unit)

130
Task Set 2:
ƒ Participating in various out of classroom activities in
school
ƒ Organizing events
ƒ Study (and preparation) of school calendar, time table,
assessment schedule
ƒ Prepare a suggested comprehensive plan of action for some
aspect of school improvement

Modes of Learning Engagement


This part of the course will be carried out as part of the ‘in-school’ practice
(internship in school); a mentor teacher, and supervising course instructor – when
available - will guide and debrief the student teacher on a periodic basis.
Adequate classroom contact hours for subject based teaching-learning will be
undertaken in consultation with the school mentor.
A journal should be maintained by student teacher in which one records one’s
experiences, observations, reflections.
The student teacher also maintains as a portfolio including detailing of
teaching-learning plans, resources used, assessment tools, student observations and
records.
Student teachers function in liaison with the regular teachers in the school in all
day to day functioning along with teaching-learning.
The Institute, in liaison with the schools, should prepare details of the school
placement programme.

Modes of Assessment
Formative Assessment: 250 marks
In accordance with the field based nature of the Course, assessment be made in terms
of certain qualitative criteria and appropriately distributed across the various tasks
carried out by student teachers. The assessment will be entirely made on these for the
total marks of 250.

Group C: Developing Teacher Sensibilities


Apart from the conceptual and practical learning gained through core courses
and pedagogy courses, student-teachers need to develop other dimensions of their
sensibilities. They need to experience and internalize the fact that the teacher is much
more than someone who teaches a subject. The teacher is also potentially a
participant in the wider education system and he/she may play a pro-active role both
in the community life of the school and also in the broader social context. In this
sense he/she is capable of becoming an agent of social development, even of social
transformation.

131
In order to empower the student-teachers in these dimensions, it is necessary that
they are provided a range of experiences that will cumulatively enrich them as well
as develop their sensitivity.

Towards this broad goal, two sets of experiences are indicated within Section
A and Section B.

Section A: Experiences for Teacher Enrichment


This curriculum framework visualizes and provides for a number of opportunities for
developing varied competencies and sensibilities in student-teachers. In addition to
those developed under Core Courses and Pedagogic Courses, this Section A
visualizes a set of experiences that will enhance the capacity of student-teachers in
five essential dimensions:
o effective and flexible use of language
o awareness and effective use of ICT as a tool for learning
o awareness of health and well-being (through yoga and other physical
activities)
o aesthetic sensitivity and design sensibility
o utilization of library and other learning resources

Each of these may be visualized and conducted as a well structured series of


practical experiences, some of which may be dovetailed or interwoven with the core
courses and/or pedagogy courses.

ETE 1 Strengthening Language Proficiency


Contact Hours: 2 hrs per week
Total Marks: 50

Aim
Language is the medium for comprehending ideas, for reflection and thinking, as
well as for expression and communication. Enhancing one’s facility in the language

132
of instruction is thus a vital need of student teachers, irrespective of the subject areas
that they are going to teach. This course is visualized as a range of primarily text-
based language activities, which will aid in strengthening the ability to ‘read’,
‘think’, discuss and communicate’ as well as to ‘write’ in the language of instruction.
It is likely that student teachers will begin the programme with different levels of
language ability; hence group work that supports different levels of learning is
envisaged as a central feature of this course. It is also intended that the student
teachers will develop a taste for and abilities in reading and making meaning of
different kinds of texts. They will also learn to engage with ideas and appreciate that
different kinds of writing are used to communicate these ideas in different contexts.
Overall, areas of language proficiency which are emphasized are those that will lay a
foundation for their becoming self-learners, reflective and expressive teachers, and
collaborative professionals.

Unit 1: Engaging with narrative and descriptive accounts

The selected texts could include stories or chapters from fiction, dramatic incidents,
vivid descriptive accounts, or even well produced comic strip stories.

Suggested Activities:

• Reading for comprehending and visualizing the account (individual + group


reading and discussion/explanation)
• Re-telling the account - in one’s own words/from different points of view
(taking turns in a smaller group)
• Narrating/describing a related account from one’s life experience (in front of a
smaller group)
• Discussion of characters and situations – sharing interpretations and points of
view (in a smaller group)
• Writing based on the text – eg. Summary of a scene, extrapolation of story,
converting a situation into a dialogue etc. (individual task)

Unit 2: Engaging with popular subject-based expository writing


The selected texts could include articles, biographical writing, or extracts from
popular non-fiction writing, with themes that are drawn from the subject areas of the
student teachers (various sciences, mathematics, history, geography,
literature/language pieces)
For this unit, the student teachers should work in groups divided according to their
subjects, within which different texts could be read by different pairs of student
teachers.
Suggested Activities:

133
• Reading to extract overall meaning, information, subject knowledge (guided
reading in pairs and simple note making)
• Identifying major concepts and ideas involved and making notes on these in
some schematic form - flow diagram, tree diagram, mind map etc (guided
working in pairs)
• Explaining the gist of the text/topic to others (in the larger subject group)
• Attending to writing style, subject-specific vocabulary and ‘perspective’ or
‘reference frame’ in which different topics are presented – this will vary across
subjects and texts, and requires some interpretative skills for ‘placing’ the
context of each text (group discussion and sharing)
• Writing a review or a summary of the text, with comments and opinions
(individual task)
Unit 3: Engaging with journalistic writing
The selected texts would include newspaper or magazine articles on topics of
contemporary interest. Student teachers can be grouped randomly for this unit.
Suggested Activities:
• Using reading strategies such as scanning, skimming and reading for extracting
information – as appropriate for initial reading of articles (guided individual
task)
• Analysis of structure of the article, identifying sub-headings, key words,
sequencing of ideas, use of concrete details, illustrations and/or statistical
representations etc (guided working in pairs)
• Critical reading for attending to ‘framing’ of the article, point(s) of view
presented, possible biases or slants (small group discussion)
• Researching and writing articles on topics of local interest (working to produce
a local interest magazine)

Unit 4: Engaging with subject-related reference books

For this unit, the student teachers should work in groups divided according to their
subjects. Within these groups, pairs of student teachers would make a choice of a
specific topic in their subject area which they could research from a set of available
reference books. The focus of this unit is as much the learning of effective processes
of reference research and its presentation, as the actual reading of the reference
books themselves.
Sequence of activities:
• Selecting the topic for research and articulating some guiding questions
• Searching and locating relevant reference books (could be from a school
library or the Institute library)

134
• Scanning, skimming and extracting relevant information from the books by
making notes
• Collating notes and organizing information under various sub-headings
• Planning a presentation – with display and oral components

• Making presentations to whole subject group, fielding questions

Unit 5: Engaging with educational writing

Selected texts here could be drawn from the wide range of popular educational
writing in the form of well-written essays, extracts or chapters from authors who deal
with themes from education, schooling, teaching or learning. The writings selected
should present a definite point of view or argument about some aspect of the above
themes. Student teachers can be grouped randomly for this unit.
Suggested activities:
• Reading for discerning the theme(s) and argument of the essay (guided
reading – individually or in pairs)
• Analyzing the structure of the argument: identifying main ideas,
understanding topic sentences of paragraphs, supporting ideas and examples,
terms used as connectors and transitions (guided small group discussion)
• Discussion of the theme, sharing responses and points of view (small group
discussion)
• Writing a response paper (individually or in pairs)
• Presentations of selected papers, questions and answers (large group)

Modes of Learning Engagement


These are already indicated above for each activity, which are best conducted in a
‘workshop’ mode
Since this is a very new kind of course – without the traditional topic-wise outline
within each unit - the nature of activities and the modes of engagement are described
in somewhat greater detail, in order to orient the course faculty. It is recommended
that the texts chosen for initiating each unit be linked in some manner to the field of
teaching and education (though this is not absolutely necessary for the purposes of
the course).

Modes of Assessment
Formative assessment: 50 marks

135
Modes of assessment should include:
• Quality of participation in group activities
• Clarity of oral communication
• Quality of note-making
• Quality of presentations to group
• Quality of reference project – process and outcome
• Writings in different genres (greater focus on clarity of ideas than, say,
spelling and grammar)

ETE 2: Enriching Learning through Information and


Communication Technologies
Contact Hours: 2 hrs. per week
Total Marks: 50

Aim of the course:

This set of experiences is visualized with an assumption that many student teachers
will have a basic familiarity with computers, even if they do not have much hands-on
experience. It is intended to enable student teachers to recognize, understand and
appreciate ICT as an effective learning tool for learners and an enormous functional
support to teachers.

Unit 1: Relevance of ICT in education (Radio, Television, Computers, etc)


• Role of information technology in ‘construction of knowledge’
• Possible uses of audio-visual media and computers

Unit 2: Visualizing learning situations using audio-visual and other media


• Use of radio and audio media: script writing, story-telling, songs etc
• Use of television and video in education: script writing
• Use of newspaper in education

Unit 3: Use of computers in schools


• Functional knowledge of operating computers and related electronic
devices
o Uses of: CD, Flash Drive, Scanner, Printer, etc
o Use of MS-office for classroom: word processing, use of Power-
Point, Excel
• computer as a learning tool:

136
ƒ Effective browsing of the internet for discerning and selecting
relevant information
ƒ Survey of educational sites based in India
ƒ Downloading relevant material
ƒ Organising and Cross collating Knowledge from varied sources
• Competencies in developing original software related to classroom

Unit 4: Visualizing Technology supported learning situations


• Preparation of learning schemes
ƒ Interactive use of audio-visual programme
ƒ Use of available software or CDs with LCD projection for subject
learning interactions
ƒ Generating subject-related demonstrations using computer
software
ƒ Enabling students to plan and execute projects
• Engaging in professional self-development
ƒ Collaborative learning tasks: wiki’s
ƒ Interactive use of ICT: participation in Yahoo groups, creation of
blogs, groups, social networking, mobile groups, etc.

Unit 5: Indian and international Experience in ICT aided learning


• Innovative usage of technology: some case studies
• Use of technology integration in resource-plenty as well as resource-
scarce situations
• Critical issues in ‘internet usage’ – authenticity of information, addiction,
plagiarism, downsides of social networking groups

Modes of Learning Engagement


This course should be dealt with essentially as a competence development
component with conceptual understanding of the technology dimensions and their
educational usability. It is best conducted in a ‘workshop’ mode, with plenty of
practical assignments.
A significant point is that the student teachers have different levels of familiarity
with ICT and use of computers, and students can be made to work in supportive
groups. Modes of learning engagement could include:

137
• Demonstrations of use of audio-visual and computer-based media
• Evolving learning tasks involving web based data
• Developing/listing suggestive directions for web based self learning
• Understanding and developing appropriate assessment tools for students’
web based learning
• Exercises in dovetailing ICT based learning experiences with face to face
classroom interactions
• Group discussions on learning potentials as well as ‘dangers’ of using ICT

Modes of Assessment
Formative Assessment: Marks: 50
These could include:
• Level of Participation in group activities
• Demonstrable proficiency in the utilization of various ICT tools
• Quality of assignment for integrating ICT with classroom learning
• Range of awareness of ICT’s learning potential, with specific examples
• Critical understanding of ‘downsides’ of ICT usage

References
In view of the fact that some of the student-teachers may be new to
computers, the following may be made available:
The DVD prepared by the NCTE, New Delhi for initiating one to the use of
computers;
Learning Modules by Intel Teach to the Future (ITTF) 1-14; these are helpful
in learning some ways of use of ICT for visualizing teaching-learning situations;
List of educational web sites and digital resources available.

138
ETE 3: Health and Well-being (through Yoga and other
physical activities)
Contact time: 1 session per week (yoga) and regular physical activity in the
mornings/evenings
Marks: 25

Aim:

Awareness of health issues and maintenance of personal health are important factors
in the lives of student-teachers, since these sustain a sense of balance, well-being and
energy levels. These should be focussed during the two years of the B.Ed
programme.

Modes of Engagement:
For this purpose, two kinds of activities ought to be structured into the programme:
• a cumulative exposure to yoga and its health benefits through regular yoga
classes (twice a week)
• time and facilities for playing an outdoor sport and/or undertaking to go for
regular brisk walks or jogs

This is not intended to be a course for those who are going to become instructors in
physical education or yoga, and hence there is no need to introduce theoretical
aspects of these activities.

Modes of Assessment:
Faculty should encourage student-teachers to participate in the above activities and
keep track of their participation as part of their overall profile. A descriptive
assessment should be made on the basis of overall level of participation for each year
and finally converted to marks out of 25 at the end of the two years.

139
ETE 4: ARTS FOR AESTHETICS

Contact Time: 2 Hrs per week and one week workshop for half day

Marks: 50

The need to integrate arts education in the formal schooling of our students is to
retain our unique cultural identity in all its diversity and richness and encourage
young students and creative minds to do the arts. An understanding of the arts will
give our youth the ability to appreciate the richness and variety of artistic traditions
as well as make them liberal, creative thinkers and good citizens of the nation.
Keeping in view some of these ideas the National Curriculum Framework-2005,
introduced arts education as a mainstream curricular area, which must be taught
in every school as a compulsory subject (up to class X) and facilities for the same
may be provided in every school. Keeping this in view, it is all the more important
that arts education is integrated in the school curriculum to provide an aesthetically
viable atmosphere in schools encouraging creativity. For this, not only the art
teachers but every teacher should be sensitive to appreciate this.

Aim: The aim of teaching arts education in school may be perceived as a tool for
development of aesthetic sensibility among learners to enable them to respond to the
beauty in different forms. Thus, inclusion of the curricular area of arts in education
in for student learners will contribute significantly in the overall development of
their personality as well as make their teaching more effective. This may be achieved
by learning different art forms as well as knowing about them and through student’s
own participation, community help and building up of certain core facilities. Thus,
the broader objectives of learning should be able to make them;
• express freely their ideas and emotions about different aspects of life through
different art forms.
• learn to appreciate different art forms and distinguish them.
• develop an insight towards sensibility and aesthetic appreciation and become
more creative and conscious about the good and beautiful in their environment,
including classroom, school, home and community through an integrated
learning approach.
• integrate the knowledge of art with daily life through learning with different
media and techniques by using creative expression and making objects of
common use.
• make learners conscious of rich cultural heritage of their own region as well as
that of the nation.
• get acquainted with the life and work of artists.

140
Course Components: This course as part of the two year B. Ed. programme should
consist of theory, practical, project work and workshop. Also, the arts need to be
applied in day to day life from designing classroom materials to notice board,
cultural festivals, theme based celebrations, national days to festivals etc. where
everyone will participate. These occasions will be a forum for students’ activities
where intra relation of all the art forms will manifest on a single occasion.

Theory
- Concepts and forms of arts and crafts- an introduction: what do we mean by arts
and crafts, which contain visual and plastic art forms, performing art forms, and
heritage crafts.
- Significance of art in education: why art forms are important for learning?
- Integrating arts and crafts in school curriculum as a pedagogical support/
resource: education through arts and crafts is an interesting method which may
be integrated in regular learning that leads to skills, observation, analysis,
synthesis, evaluation, and problem solving.
- Different ways/methods to integrate arts in education: during the curriculum
transaction, different strategies can be adopted.
- Historical perspectives of arts in education: reflections on importance of arts
education by thinkers and educators in 20th century.
- Current thinking and practices in arts education: various researches and NCF-
2005.
- Knowing about local art and craft forms: the diversity of India’s arts and crafts at
the local/ regional level and its integration in the curriculum.

Practical
- Activities related to doing arts, including application of arts in the immediate
environment. Small activities, which enhances the skills including the
communication and presentation skills, brings in imagination, creativity and
aesthetic sensibility among the student teachers.
- Application of aesthetic and design sensibility in the day to day life, in their
profession and environment are some of the practical aspects, which needs to be
taken care of. During the celebrations of festivals, functions, special days etc. this
should be reflected.

Project:
The student teacher can take a theme-based project from any of the curricular areas
covering its social, economic, cultural and scientific aspects integrating various art
and craft forms. Also, they can do an analysis of textbooks - where they can find a
scope either in the text or in the form of activities or exercises to integrate art forms.
They can also document processes of an art or craft form from the pedagogical point
of view; such as weaving or printing of textiles, making of musical instruments, folk
performances in the community etc. - how the artists design their products, manage
their resources including raw materials, market it, what problems do they face as all

141
these aspects involve historical, social, economic, scientific and environmental
concerns.

Workshops:
At least 2 workshops for half a day for one week of working with an artist or a group
to learn basics of art or craft forms and understand its pedagogical aspects is required
for student teacher in each year. The forms learnt during the course should be
relevant and can be used by student teacher in her profession, as a means of
exploring different media and creative expression in drawing, painting, rangoli, clay-
work/pottery, collage-making, wood-work, toy-making, theatre, puppetry, dance,
music etc. including regional/ folk forms of arts and crafts, which will be helpful in
imparting quality education among school children. The focus of the workshops
should be on how art forms can be used as tool/ method of teaching-learning of
languages, social science, mathematics and science, specially through art related
activities. Students can also be introduced to design education and basic principles of
design through workshops.

Modes of Learning Engagements:


- Classroom environment should be interactive and discussions should take
place where student teachers can document each others’ experiences as an artist
and connoisseur both. How arts in education can be
- Attending exhibitions and performances, interacting with artists and craft
persons, watching and listening art related films, audio and video materials
available on different performers, regional/ folk art forms etc. may also be
shown from time to time. These will not only create awareness but also an
appreciation for arts forms and bring in aesthetic sensibility and related values
among the student teachers.
- Projects and assignments may be given for individual learners as well as for
group work.
- Workshops may be conducted at least once in each year where student
teachers can get a first hand experience of working with artists, handle different
materials and media, learn about different aspects of an art form on how it
relates to the society and community and can be used as pedagogical tool to
transact
- A small Resource centre should be a part of all the RIEs, where materials
including books, CDs, audio, video cassettes, films, software, props,

Modes of Assessment:
The engagement of teacher-learners in the above set of experiences should be
quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated, based on observations and submissions of
projects and assignments and an overall grade should be assigned that covers: a)
submission of work b) participation c) creative potential displayed d) application of
aesthetic and design sensibility in campus events or in other course work. This
should be and

142
ETE 5: Exploring Library and other Learning Resources
Contact Hours: 2 hrs. per week

Marks: 50

Aim:
Student-teachers are expected to take some initiative in pursuing interests outside the
formal course work from a range of available resources. Some of these resources are:
• The institute library
• Websites on the internet
• Local events and facilities, as well as local issues (in the neighbourhood or
town)
• Members of local community
• Visiting resource persons
This component is aimed at developing a sense of initiative, imagination and
discernment of learning potential of the resources available in their surroundings.

Course Outline

Unit I
Knowing your library
Layout of the Library
Library Policies
Library Procedures- Cataloguing, Locating a book/material in the library.
Library Management

Unit II 
Library as a resource of learning, pleasure and concentration
School Library as an intellectual space for students and teachers

Unit III
Types of Books and other Material used by different readers.
Techniques of keeping these books and material
Dimensions of setting up of a school library

Unit IV
Locating information and using it for one’s own career development
Resources helpful in providing information for career development: Newspaper,
Magazines, Websites, Learning guides, Members of local community, Resource
persons, Websites.

Mode of Engagement:

143
Over the first three semesters, each student teacher will be expected to:
• Maintain a list of books and journals that have been read
• Make a dossier with relevant websites and notes on their learning potential
• Write a reviews of atleast two books of his/her own interest
• Make a plan for setting up of a school library and discuss it with the school
he/she has attached with and write a programme-evaluation report.
• A small survey to collect information about different kinds of libraries in the
city may be conducted.
• A project may be taken to discern the present status of libraries in schools.
In addition, each student-teacher should also undertake any one of the following:
• Discern learning opportunities in the local environment, and create an
occasion and/or a strategy for some significant learning for fellow students
• Interview resource persons/member of local community and/or organize a
‘learning encounter’ with any of them for their fellow students

Modes of Assessment:
• Student-teachers will be assessed on the width and relevance of their readings
and net explorations in one-year duration.
• Student teachers should be evaluated qualitatively regarding
participation/execution of the set of activities indicated above, with suitable criteria
evolved..

Section B: Experiences for Social and Environmental


Sensitivity
Overall Aim:
Teachers in schools encounter a wide range of socially-fraught and pedagogically
complex situations as well as opportunities for bringing about attitudinal shifts in
their students to a variety of social and environmental issues. Whereas, some of these
aspects are embedded in their course-work and practical experiences, it is yet
desirable that they choose to heightened their experience and understanding of some
selected issues/areas. This is best done through engagement with resource persons
who are working in the area of the student teachers’ concerns. By engaging in a
series of such experiences it is hoped that student teachers will develop a greater
sensitivity to a range of social and environmental issues.

Possible Themes

Some suggested areas within which experiences have been designed are:

1. Gender issues in school

2. Education for Peace (it will include Caste and Communal


issues and schooling and also Child rights and education)

144
3. Issues of conservation and environmental regeneration

4. Addressing Special Needs in the Classroom

SES 1: GENDER ISSUES IN EDUCATION

Marks: 50

Internal: 20 External: 30 Contact Hours: 64 (2 hrs. per week)

Rationale

The syllabus on Gender Issues in Education is based on the philosophy of National


Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 that focuses on equality, social justice and
respect for diversity as well as dignity and right of children from different social
backgrounds. It attempts to treat gender as a human issue and not as a women’s
issue. The approach followed in the course is based on the position paper on Gender
Issues in Education wherein it is stated that gender should not be treated as an add
on approach but as a cross cutting edge in all disciplinary areas. The course will also
enable students to understand key concepts related to gender and how they operate
in reality through various institutions. As has rightly been pointed out in the position
paper pedagogical and curricular changes cannot be realized without the teacher
who is at the forefront of the teaching learning process. This course will provide an
opportunity for pupil teachers to reflect at their own socialization processes and will
enable them to integrate their experiences with the content of different disciplines.
The broad course outline would promote self-esteem and self confidence, stimulate
critical thinking and develop in learners the abilities to question power relations,
enable them to access resources, especially to an expanding framework of
information and knowledge, ability to analyse options available in making informed
choices, challenge relations of power and enable girls to take control of their lives
and assert their rights as independent human.

This course will enable the students to:


• Develop basic understanding and familiarity with key concepts - gender,
gender perspective, gender bias, gender stereotype, empowerment, gender
parity, equity and equality, patriarchy and feminism
• Understand the gradual paradigm shift from women studies to gender studies
and some important landmarks in connection with gender and education in
the historical and contemporary period

145
• Learn about gender issues in school, curriculum, textual materials across
disciplines, pedagogical processes and its intersection with class, caste,
culture, religion and region
• Understand how Gender, Power and Sexuality relate to education (in terms
of access, curriculum and pedagogy)

UNIT I
GENDER ISSUES: KEY CONCEPTS

In this unit the students will develop an understanding of some key concepts and
terms and relate them with their context in understanding power relations
1.1 Gender, Gender Perspective, Sex, Sexuality, Patriarchy, Masculinity and
Feminism
1.2 Gender Bias, Gender Stereotyping and Empowerment
1.3. Equity and Equality in relation with caste, class, culture, religion, ethnicity,
disability and region.
Suggested Practicum

• Preparation of project on key concepts and relating it with the social context
of the pupil teacher.
• Analysis of textual materials from the gender perspective
• Identify gender bias and gender stereotype in textual materials.
• Organizing debates on equity and equality cutting across gender, class,
caste, culture, ethnicity and religion

UNIT II
GENDER STUDIES: PARADIGM SHIFT

In this Unit Students will develop an understanding of the paradigm shift from
women studies to gender studies based on the historical backdrop. They would be
able to construct critically the impact of policies, programmese and schemes for
promotion of gender equality and empowerment.
2.1 Paradigm shift from Women’s Studies to Gender Studies
2.2 Historical Backdrop
Some land marks from ‘Our Pasts’- Social reform movement of the 19th &
20th centuries with focus on women’s experiences of education.
2.3 Contemporary Period - Recommendations of Policy Initiatives Commissions
and Committees. Schemes, Programmes and Plans.

146
Suggested Practicum
• Preparation of projects on critical analysis of recommendations of
commissions and polices on capacity building and empowerment of
girls/women, How these initiatives have generated in the formation of women
collectives and has helped in encouraging grassroot mobilization of women
such as the Mahila Samakhya Programme.
• Project on Women Role Models in various field s with emphasis on women in
unconventional roles.
UNIT III
GENDER, POWER AND EDUCATION

In this unit the students will develop an understanding of different theories on


gender and education and relate it to power relations. The institutions involved in
socialization processes would be analysed to see how socialization practices
impacts power relations and identity formation
3.1 Theories on Gender and Education: Application in the Indian context
• Socialization Theory
• Gender Difference
• Structural Theory
• Deconstructive Theory
3.2 Gender Identities and Socialization practices: In
• Family
• Schools
• Other Formal and Informal Organizations
3.3 Power Relations in Society in the context of gendered division of labour
3.4 Schooling of Girls: Inequalities and Resistances (Issues of access, retention and
exclusion.

Suggested Practicum

• Discussion on Theories on Gender and Education with its application in


the Indian context
• Project on Analysing the Institution of the family
- Marriage, Reproduction
- Sexual division of labour and resources
• Debates and Discussions on violation of rights of girls and women
• Analysis of video clipping on portrayal of women
• Collection of folklores reflecting socialization processes

147
UNIT IV
GENDER ISSUES IN CURRICULUM

Student will build on the previous two units to understand how gender relates to
education and schooling. In this Unit the students will be able to understand on how
school as an Institution addresses gender concern in curriculum, textual materials
& pedagogy. It will enable the student to draw linkages between life skills and
sexuality.

4.1 Gender, Culture and Institution: Intersection of class, caste and religion
4.2 Curriculum and the Gender Question
4.3 Construction of Gender in Curriculum Framework since independence: An
Analysis
4.4 Gender and the hidden curriculum
4.5 Gender in Text and Context( textbooks inter-sectionality with other disciplines,
classroom processes including pedagogy)
4.6 Teacher as an agent of change
4.7 Life skills and sexuality

Suggested Practicum

• Preparation of indicators on participation of boys and girls in


heterogeneous schools-public, private, aided and managed by religious
denominations
• Preparation of tools to analyse reflection of gender in curriculum
• Preparation of checklist to map classroom processes in all type of schools
• Felid visits to schools to observe the schooling processes from a gender
perspective

Unit V
GENDER, SEXUALITY, SEXUAL HARSSEMENT & ABUSE

148
The unit will enable students to apply the conceptual tools learnt regarding gender
and sexuality to understand issues related to Sexual Harassment at different places
and Child Sexual Abuse.
5.1 Linkages and differences betweens Reproductive Rights and Sexual Rights
5.2 Development of Sexuality including Primary influences in the lives of Children
(such as gender, body image, role models)
5.3 Perception of society towards women’s body: Carrying the load of family
prestige
5.4 Sites of Conflict: Social and Emotional
5.5 Understanding the importance of addressing sexual harassment at workplace, in
family, neighborhood and other formal and informal institutions.
5.6 Agencies perpetuating violence: family, school, work place and media (print and
electronic).
5.7 Institutions redressing sexual harassment and abuse.

Suggested Practicum

• Project on how student perceive sexuality and their own body images. It
would also focus on how gender identities are formed
• Debate on how they perceive role models in their own lives.
• Preparing Analytical Report on portrayal of women in print and
electronic media

MODE OF ASSESSMENT
• Assignments
• Field based Project
• Application based short answer essay type questions so that it can
evaluate the creative and reflective abilities of the potential teachers

Bibliography
Report of the CABE Committee on Girl’s Education and the common School
System (MHRD, New Delhi, June 2005) Available in English and Hindi.
National Curriculum Framework NCERT 2005
Gender Issues in Education, Position Paper, NCERT, 2006
Bhasin, Kamla. 2000. Understanding Gender. New Delhi: Kali for Women.
Bhasin, Kamla. 2004. Exploring Masculinity. New Delhi: Women Unlimited.
Bringing Girls Centrestage: Strategies and Interventions for Girls’ Education in
DPEP, MHRD, New-Delhi, 2000

149
Chakravarti, Uma Gendering Caste Through a Feminist Lens, 2003 Mandira Sen
for Stree, an imprint of Bhatkal and Sen, 16 Southern avenue, Calcutta 700026
Chanana, Karuna. 1985. 'The Social Context of Women's Education in India,
1921-81,'in New Frontiers of Education, July-September. New Delhi: 15 (3):1-
36.

SES 2: Education for Peace

Marks: 50

Internal: 20 External: 30 Contact Hours: 64 (2 hrs. per week)

Aim of the Course


Education is preparation for participation in the democratic processes of society as
an ethical and compassionate adult. It should enable students to develop a vision of
peace as a dynamic social reality at micro (personal, home and family) and macro
levels, (society, national, global) marked by conflicts arising out of the diverse needs
and aspirations of the individuals and diverse groups-regional, religious, linguistic,
marginalized etc. which need to be maintained by reconciled with dignity and justice
for all. Peace education is about developing awareness in the education system
particularly teachers, of the issues and challenges to peace which result in direct
violence, as well as, indirect forms of violence as neglect, humiliation, denial of
freedom and rights to individuals or groups or societies. It aims at building attitudes,
values, skills and competencies and, developing commitment for conflict resolution.
Foundations of peace in the society lie on respect for values of peace-compassion,
caring, and cooperation, which complement Constitutional values of freedom justice,
equality, intercultural harmony, secularism, human rights, social responsibilities
ecological balance. The starting point for this change are transformed and
empowered teachers who having identified challenges to peace in their own
conflicts, biases and stereotypes and, the conflicts inherent in the structure and
processes of school and society, could work for a change.

This course aims at broadening notions of trainee teachers about peace and peace
education, their relevance and connection to inner harmony as well as harmony in
social relationships across individuals and groups based on constitutional values. The
course also proposes to enable teachers for reflection on the attitudes that generate
conflicts at personal and social levels and learning skills and strategies of resolving
these conflicts. The contents also focus on strengthening self by continual reflection
leading to reduction in stereotypes, and transcending barrier of identity and
socialization. Thus transformed trainee teachers will be enabled to orient curricular
and educational processes, find creative alternatives which nurture and promote
peace building capabilities among students and counter the negative influence of

150
media and the local community to weed out negative effects by influencing parents,
families, and local community.

The course transaction must include activities for experiential awareness of peace as
a reality at personal and school levels modeled by teacher educators. It should
enable them to develop attitudes and skills for resolving conflicts in creative manner
and reflect on school, curricula, textbooks and pedagogical processes from peace
perspective. The teacher educators must involve prospective teachers in
understanding role of media and local community on them. Peaceful solutions to the
real issues facing trainee teachers may be discussed.

Objectives

To enable teacher trainees to acquire knowledge, attitudes, values, skills


and competencies to:
ƒ Become aware of role of education in building peace as dynamic
social reality.
ƒ Understand and resolve conflicts within, and mediate others’.
ƒ Empower themselves and transcend barriers of identity.
ƒ Use pedagogical skills and strategies in and out of classroom for
promoting peace at school level.
ƒ Act as agency to promote peace in the local community influencing
school.

Course Outline

Unit 1: Understanding peace as a dynamic social reality

ƒ Awareness of relevance of peace


¾ Challenges to peace by the increasing stresses, conflicts,
crimes, terrorism, violence and wars resulting in poor quality
of life. Awareness of choices in responding to crises in
personal, social and professional life.

ƒ Peace contexts; underlying assumptions, processes and imperatives.


Peace is a dynamic reality. It involves acknowledgment and redressal
of the concerns of various groups and reconciliation of the conflicts, if
any. The individuals, groups and societies have needs and concerns
which are urgent. There is need for and their fulfillment. Negative
peace is repression of these, while fulfillment builds peace within
individuals as well as, in the society.

ƒ Peace values vis-à-vis constitutional values: Importance of the


attitudes, beliefs and values of peace viz., compassion, cooperation,
love, etc. that foster inner peace and Constitutional values of justice,

151
equality, freedom, respect for differences and ecological resources
that ensure peace in society.

ƒ Foundations of peace: Pre-requisites to peace in the society are


compassionate and ethical decision making and intercultural cultural
harmony, responsible citizenship, respect for secular and democratic
ideals based on non-violence, respect for differences socio-economic,
gender, etc. life style in harmony with sustainable development.

ƒ Approaches to peace education

ƒ Highlights of various philosophies of peace, Gandhi, Krishanamurthy


, Aurobindo, Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Gijubhai Badheka,
the Dalai Lama, initiatives at national and international levels.

Unit 2: Understanding conflicts, underlying personal – social processes


and mediation, and transformation of conflict `

ƒ Nature of conflict-Incompatibility of needs, aspirations; desires and


resulting conflicts at different levels in society: intrapersonal,
interpersonal, organizational, interstate, global.

ƒ Understanding the role of social conditions and processes that sustain


conflict: limited resources, poverty, political, economic, socio-cultural
and ecological conditions, environmental resources viz., water,
forests, energy etc.

ƒ Developing capabilities for mediation and conflict transformation:


¾ Skills and strategies needed for conflict resolution.
ƒ Listening to conflicting parties
ƒ Awareness of own identity, cultural underpinning, and
communication skills
ƒ Awareness of context of the conflict,
ƒ Commitment to mediate.
ƒ Looking for alternative strategies and creative
solutions to overcome/ transform conflicts.

Unit 3: Empowerment of self through critical self reflection

ƒ Awareness of the influence of social milieu on self.


¾ Understanding adequate self as a product of positive
experiences of caring, warmth and appreciation in the family,
school, neighbourhood etc. which promote healthy discipline,
shunning violence.
¾ Negative experiences generate stress, anger aggression.

152
¾ Yoga, meditation, anger/stress management, as practices that
restore positive physical health and attitudes.

ƒ Nurturing capabilities for critical self reflection; transcending past


negative experiences, and developing skills of communication:
listening to others, sharing feelings, descriptive non-judgmental
feedback, empathizing, trusting.

ƒ Increasing awareness of role of self in


¾ Discipline, self management
¾ Reducing prejudices, biases and stereotypes and building
multicultural orientation and,
¾ Nurturing ethical behaviour, positivity, non-violence, love
and caring, compassion.
¾ Habitual self reflection by using daily journal on
experiences.

Unit 4: Orienting education for peace building

ƒ Critical reflection on the curricular processes


Awareness of opportunities inherent in curriculum for introducing
¾ Healthy discipline practices in and outside classroom, for their
fairness to different gender, caste and cultural groups, child
rights/human rights, and ameliorative approach to discipline
rather than punitive.
¾ Symbols, activities and other structures in the school that
reflect a multi-cultural ambience.
¾ Experiences of different cultural identities, issues, challenges,
conflicts in the neighbourhood, or country and global levels
with regard to resources, opportunities of poverty, level,
political issues etc.

ƒ Critical pedagogy of Peace Education


¾ Challenging the traditional models of learning to
constructivist approaches in teaching.
¾ Rethinking authority relations from democratic
perspective: promoting dialoging, and, developing
capabilities for decision making.
¾ Understanding social justice in local context–its
implications for beliefs, attitudes, and values and
school/social practices and conflict resolution at all levels.
¾ Awareness of pedagogical skills and strategies for
removing tensions, examination fear, stress, corporal
punishment, violence and conflicts at school level.

153
¾ Compassion, love and caring, mindfulness in all
transaction of avoid hurt, humiliation, degrading over
academic, personal social and culture matters. Non-evaluative
orientation empathetic founds academic and discipline
problems.

ƒ Becoming peace teacher- acquisition of relevant knowledge,


attitudes, values and skills
¾ Development of listening skills for dialogue- listening to
verbal and non-verbal content of messages, developing
awareness of feelings and expressions in massages,; skills of
questioning, paraphrasing and providing feedback that is, non
judgmental, sensitivity to socio-economic, cultural, gender,
caste differences.
¾ Skills of giving emotion support for encouraging, genuine
appreciation and cooperation. Understanding importance of
confidentiality of students’ personal issues and problems that
invite embarrassment or ridicule.

ƒ Pedagogical skills for orientation of subject content and teaching-


learning experience in classroom for promoting peace.
¾ Awareness of the epistemic connection of subject content
with peace values – e.g. Language (effective communication),
Science (objectivity, flexibility) Social Science (democratic
ethos, constitutional values, and multi-culturalism, conflicts,
violence and war ,links with challenges to regional and local
conflicts),Maths (precision)
¾ Using textbook contents for highlighting values of peace,
particularly anti peace messages indirect or hidden.

ƒ Humanistic approach to evaluation

¾ Belief in worth of all pupils irrespective of academic talents.


¾ Adopt broad based assessment taking in multiple talents,
emphasize success rather than failure, enable enemy pupil to
experience success in some area.

ƒ Becoming agency for peace in the school organization and


surrounding local community.
¾ Awareness of the cultural characteristics of the local
community around school and quality of its linkages –
parenting styles, disciplinary practices, economic conditions,
linguistic background, domestic violence, attitudes toward
education etc.

154
¾ Inspiring movements for health, yoga, effective parenting,
and communication skill building, mediating conflicts in and
around school.
¾ Awareness and orientation of students’ attitudes towards
balanced media exposure.

Unit 5: Evaluation of the peace building processes

Understanding importance of skills and strategies of assessment of the


peace building process in terms of attitudes, values, skills and strategies at
school level – motivation and sustenance of efforts, sharing experiences
towards peace building, reviewing strategies.

¾ Making assessment visible through objective indicators,


planning and recording change in cultural ethos and
individuals. Understanding motivational through sharing
progress, influence of assessment.
¾ Developing commitment and willingness for receiving
feedback, and review of strategies.
¾ Visible and objection indicators of peace process inherent in
the cultural ethos of organizations, individuals, and ambience.
o Identification of visible indicators inherent in the cultural
ethos of the organization could be non-authoritarian work
culture marked by meetings, frequent discussions,
analogue and reconciliation/non-exclusion of any group of
students or teachers on the basis of opinions, caste, gender,
education, socio-economic-cultural background etc.
indicators; conflicts reconciled, divergent groups involved
in dialogue, heterogeneity of members on various boards
etc.
o Individual level indicator includes behaviours expressing
inner peace and positive relationship e.g. Access and
interaction of principal with teachers, access of teachers to
students, perception of teachers/principal as fair etc.

Practical activities to be taken up 20 hrs:

ƒ Experiential learning sessions on yoga, meditation, communication


skills, conflicts their resolution, media influence, cooperative
competitive strategies, use of meditation, art, drama, nature to
experience harmony.
ƒ Reflective journal to record experiences of the day and reflections
thereon during the training programme, sharing and discussing self
expression of change during the training.

155
ƒ Visits to organizations connected with peace and intercultural
harmony, and aesthetic appreciation to experience peace as reality
submission of reports on experiences.
ƒ Assignments on topics which require deep understanding, and
generating creative/alternative ideas to deal with issues and
challenges to peace few suggested topics and sharing in groups.
Few suggested topics for assignments:
¾ Conflicts experienced at home/in family/ in society/ in school
etc.
¾ Experiences of handling conflicts in a creative manner.
¾ Exploring possible strategies of resolving commonly
experienced conflicts.
¾ Healthy discipline among school children.
¾ Identifying challenges of peace in school and dealing with one
such challenge.
¾ Strategies of promoting healthy relationships on the job.
ƒ Approaches to peace education-case studies of local and
international.
ƒ Role plays to enact situations involving conflict, corporal
punishment, discrimination, and domestic violence in day-to-day
life.
ƒ Films clips displaying, concerns of peace, good intercultural
relationships, environmental presentation and other key ideas and
discussions thereon, like –Doha Debates, Sadako etc.
ƒ Preparation of collages from newspapers etc. to highlight issues
and challenges to peace or positive response to them
ƒ Developing an action plan for peace in school and local
community.
ƒ Visiting websites on peace education to become familiar with
national and international initiatives, approaches and strategies of
peace, case studies of conflict in the region.

Modes of Learning Engagement

The course material should be transacted in experiential manner drawing


from a number of resources print, films, exercises, visits, reading of
selected papers, write ups etc. It should be made available to teacher
trainees with instructions to read material before hand for participation in
the discussion in class. The sources could be relevant portions of
textbooks with chapters on peace education, and non-violence, selected
portions from Gandhian literature on Buniyaadi shiksha books on self
and identity development, communication skills, chapters from
psychology texts. A number of materials may not be available locally; the

156
conflicts stories, issues and resolution related articles, editorials/ news
and special columns in newspapers could also be used.

A few selections from work and films on prominent philosophers and


educators of peace like Gandhi. Krishanamurthy, Aurobindo,
Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Gijubhai Badheka, the Dalai Lama
could be used to initiate discussion and dialogues followed by assignment
on one or two.

Modes of Assessment

ƒ Involvement and initiative in self learning, and joining discussions


on lectures, films, experiential sessions
ƒ Submission of assignments with the rigour and reflection.
ƒ Reflection journal maintenance and change in beliefs, all attitudes,
and vales temperament, cooperation and discipline relevant to
peace acquired and exhibited during the training programme.
Reference:

Dalai, Lama 1980. Universal Resposibility and the Good Heart. Library
of Tibetan Works & Archives, Dharamshala, Dist. Kangra. H.P.

Dalai, Lama 2000 Transforming the Mind, translated by Dr. Thupten


Jinpa, edited by Dominique Side & Dr. Thupten Jinpa, Thorsons, London

Gangrade K.D (2001). Religion and Peace, A Gandhian Perspective,


Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Samiti, New Delhi.

Harris, I.M. 1998. Peace Education. McFarland, North Carolina,


NCERT, New Delhi.

Kaur, B. 2006. Teaching of Peace and Conflict and Pride - School


Histories of the Freedom Struggle in India. Penguin Books India Pvt,
Ltd., New Delhi.

Kumar, K. 2006. Peace Lines. Penguin Publications, New Delhi, (In


Press).

Kumar, K. (2007). Shanti Shiksha Aur Gandhi. (in Hindi) Maharishi


Valmiki College of Education, Delhi University.

Krishnamurti, J. 1997. The Flame of Attention. Krishnamurti Foundation


Trust Ltd., London.

157
Ministry of Human Resource Development. 1993. Learning Without
Burden: A Report of the Advisory Committee, (MHRD), Department of
Education, New Delhi.

NCERT 2005. National Curriculum Framework. NCERT, New Delhi.

Prasad, D (2005), Education for Living Creatively and Peacefully. Spark


India Hyderabad, AP.

Hant, T. N. (2004). Being Peace , Nice Printing Press, Delhi

UNESCO (2001). Learning the Way to Peace - A Teacher's Guide to


Peace Education. A.S. Balasooriya, UNESCO, New Delhi

UNESCO (2002). Learning to Be: A Holistic and Integrated Approach to


Value Education for Human Development. Bangkok.

Valson, T. (.2006). Living in Harmony: A Course on Peace and Value


Education. Oxford, New Delhi.

Journals
Journal of the Krishnamurti School. Krishnamurti Foundation of India,
124-126, Green ways Road, RA Puram, Chennai-600028.

Awakening Ray, by Gnostic Centre.


SES 3: ‘Issues of Conservation and Environmental Regeneration’

• Marks: 50 Contact Hours: 2


hr. per week

• Aim of the Course

NCERT has developed a new curriculum framework (NCF) in 2005 based on


position papers of 21 National Focus Groups. The focus groups worked on three
major areas – the curricular areas, systemic reforms and national concerns. The NCF
suggests that the national concerns and related issues are to be integrated at
appropriate places while transacting the content of the curricular areas. Conservation
of Environment and protection of wild life is one of the core areas of education as
specified in the National Policy on Education (NPE-986). The NCF-2005 has been
accepted by Central Advisory Board on Education (CABE) of Govt. of India.
Therefore the issues of conservation and environmental regeneration have been

158
infused at appropriate places in all the textbooks developed by NCERT for classes I
to XII.

Since a course on ‘Environmental Education’ (syllabus developed by UGC


and approved by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India) is a compulsory paper at the
undergraduate level. It is therefore expected that all students getting admission into
the two year B.Ed course have requisite knowledge on environmental concerns and
issues.

The syllabus for ‘Issues of Conservation and Environmental Regeneration’


aims to orient student-teachers analyse and understand environment concerns
through the process of inquiry, critical analysis, intellectual discourse and essential
projects.

Unit I
• Importance need and scope of Environmental Conservation and Regeneration.
• Structure and functions of different ecosystems.
• India as a mega biodiversity nation.
• Role of individual in conservation of natural resources: water, energy and food.
• Role of individual is prevention of pollution: air and water.
• Equitable uses of resources for sustainable livelihoods.
• Environmental legislation: awareness and issues involved in enforcement.
• Role of information technology and media in environment and human health.

Suggested Practicum

The students on completion of each topic of the of Unit-I will submit a small assignment in
the form of an activity. This may include observation of important relevant days,
preparation of bulletin board material, wall games, crossword puzzles, worksheet etc. The
class can also form an environment club. The activity has to be on some local specific
issue pertaining to the place of residence of the student.

Unit II
• Community participation in natural resource management- water, forests etc.
• Deforestation in the context of tribal life.
• Sustainable land use management
• Traditional knowledge and biodiversity conservation.
• Developmental projects including Government initiatives and their impact on
biodiversity conservation.

159
• Issues involved in enforcement of environment legislations.
• Role of media and ecotourism in creating environmental awareness.
• Role of local bodies in environmental management
• Shifting cultivation and its impact on environment.
• Change in forest cover over time.

Unit III
• Consumerism and waste generation and its management
• Genetically Modified crops and food security.
• Water consumption pattern in rural and urban settlement.
• Ethno-botany and its role in the present day world.
• Environmental degradation and its impact on the health of people.
• Economic growth and sustainable consumption
• Organic farming.
• Agricultural waste: their impact and management.
• Rain water harvesting and water resource management.
• Biomedical waste management.
• Changing patterns of energy and water consumption.

Unit IV

• Environmental conservation in the globalised world.


• Alternative sources of energy
• Impact of natural disaster/man-made disaster on environment.
• Biological control for sustainable agriculture.
• Heat production and green house gas emission.
• Impact of industry/mining/transport on environment.
• Sustainable use of forest produces.

Unit V
• Role of women in conservation
• Female foeticide/ infanticide and skewed sex ratio.
• Development of slum area and their inhabitants.
• Child mortality and maternal health.
• HIV/AIDS, Malaria-status, measures undertaken for their control/ eradication.

160
Suggested Practicum

From the wide range of topics suggested in Units II, III, IV and V, the student will be
assigned one topic. The student will develop a seminar document, which will be submitted
after the seminar. The seminar document will be evaluated by teacher educators.

Modes of Learning Engagement

o Case studies and success stories

o Problem solving and enquiry methods

o Small assignments which may include observation of important relevant


days, preparation of bulletin board material, games, crossword puzzles,
worksheet etc.

o Setting up of environmental club.

o Conducting a seminar and developing a seminar document

o Project work and writing of project report

o Discussion of activities pertaining to two different classes and subjects.

o Activities on infusion of appropriate concerns

Modes of Assessment

Internal Assessment: 20 External Assessment:30

The suggested modes of assessment are:

o Level of initiative, and participation in group work and project work

o Quality of assignments and project reports interms of rationale objectives,


design presentation, tools, calendar of activities analysis of data,
conclusion, implications, etc.

o Extent of innovative ideas and sensitivity in visualizing project on


Environmental concerns

161
o Project report will be evaluated by the external expert.
SES4 Addressing Special Needs in the
Classroom
Max Marks – 50
Internal – 20
External – 30
Contact hours – 64 (2 hrs. per
week)

Course outline

Unit – 1: From Segregation to Inclusion: Changing Paradigms

• Historical Perspective from Pre-Independence to Post- Independence Era.


• Educational Developments in India
• Different Service Delivery Options
• Rights of persons with Disabilities.
• Role of Resource Room, Support Services and Developing an Inclusive
School.
Unit – 2
Education of Children with Special Needs
• Concept of Inclusion.
• Curriculum Adjustment and Adaptation
• Children with Locomotor Disability
- Terminology Based Anatomy,
- Ambulation Disabilities,
- Identification checklist, Disabilities that affect vitality, convulsive
disorders, Educational Implications.
• Children with Speech & Hearing Disorders.
- Identification checklist, educational implications.
• Children with Visual Impairment.
- Identification Checklist, Educational Implications.
• Children with Low Mental Ability.

162
- Identification checklist, Educational Implications.
• Children with Learning Disabilities.
- Identification Checklist, Educational Implications.

Unit – 3 Constitutional/Legislative Provisions and Policy Instruments


• Provisions under Constitution of India
• Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992
• Indian Lunacy Act, 1912 and Mental Health Act, 1987
• National Trust for Welfare of Persons With Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental
Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Bill, 1999.
• Bill Passed to Ban Pre- natal Diagnosis.
• Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995.
• National Policy on Education, 1986.
• Centrally Sponsored Scheme for Integrated Education for the Disabled
Children (IEDC, 1974).
• Education of Special Focus Groups under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
• Goals and Strategies in the Comprehensive Action Plan for Including
Children and Youth With Disabilities, 2005.
• Important International Declarations, UN and the Disabled, Salamanca
Statement 1994 Recommendations.
Unit – 4: Effective Classrooms for All
• Making Learning More meaningful.
• Structuring Play activities for children with special needs.
• Using Assistive Technology for different disabilities.
• Classroom management
• Plus Curriculum
• Cooperative Learning Strategies in the Classroom.
• Assessing Progress of Students.
• Role of Families and Community Members.

163
Unit – 5 Human Resource Development and Contributions of Governmental
and Non - Governmental Organizations
• Pre-service and In-service training
• List of Institutes recognized by RCI
• Contribution of Govt. Institutions:
NIMH (National Institute for Mentally Handicapped), NIVH (National Institute
for Visually Handicapped), AYJNIHH (Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the
Hearing Handicapped), SVNIRTAR (Swami Vivekanand National Institute of
Rehabilitation) (Training and Research), DDUIPH (Deen Dayal Upadhyay
Institute for Physically Handicapped), NIOH (National Institute for
Orthepaedically Handicapped), ALIMCO (Artificial Limb Manufacturing
Corporation), DRC (District Rehabilitation Centre), VRC (Vocational
Rehabilitation Centres), CAPART (Council for People’s Action and Rural
Technology), NICDR (National Information Centre on Disability and
rehabilitation), NHFDC (National Handicapped Finance Development
Corporation), NIOS (National Institute of Open Schooling), NCERT (National
Council of Educational Research & Training).
Contributions of NGOS: NAB (National Association for the Blind), BPA,
(Blind People Association), IAVH (Indian Association for the Visually
Handicapped), AIFD (All India Federation of the Deaf), RGF (Rajiv Gandhi
Foundation), BMVSS (Bhagwan Mahavir Viklang Sahayata Samiti), FWMR
(Federation for the Welfare of Mentally Retarded) DPI (Disabled Peoples
International), ActionAid-India, etc.

Final Presentation: Reporting, Consolidation and Reflection on the


Progamme
Time: 1 week
Marks: 25
The purpose of this is to provide student-teachers an opportunity to take an overview
of all experiences and learning in the four years, consolidate their understandings and
‘construct’ their own meanings in terms of ‘what it means to be a teacher’.

164
Each student teacher will be expected to make:
a) a written report of the above
b) a final presentation to the group

A Note for Teacher Educators on the Nature of School-Based


Learning Experiences

The role of Teacher Educator as expected to facilitate the process of student-teacher


development has been viewed in terms of theoretical understanding of the
pedagogical process and corresponding practice. This has also been conceptualized
in relation to his/her proactive role, which leads learners towards acquiring vision of
educational development. A few aspects of the programme have been cited here to
bring the specificity in their role

This two-year programme envisages that student teachers will need structured and
graded learning experiences within school contexts. These experiences should not be
limited to visits to a single school, nor are these experiences restricted to the practice
teaching classes in their subject areas.

The experiences of student teachers should thus cover a range of local schools
and also a more extended attachment to a particular school in their home states.

The school-based learning experiences could be categorized into:


• School-based observations
• Structured Interactions within schools
• Planned teaching-learning situations within classrooms

These ‘real life’ field observations and interactions may often form the basis for
giving meaning to conceptual aspects of various courses, as well as developing
their professional understanding and sensibility as teachers.

Such school-based experiences are indicated as part of the modes of learning


engagement within the several of the course descriptions.

This will require teacher educators to meet periodically and coordinate the
purposes of each school visit, so that multiple objectives are met with each visit.

Some examples of school-based (or field-based) learning experiences that are


envisaged are listed below:

Within Core courses

CC1 Basics in Education

165
Theme 2: Knowledge and Knowing

Observation of various contexts of knowledge transmission/construction – a school


classroom, apprenticeship situation (workshop, car mechanic etc), farming
operations

Theme 4: Autonomy of the learner and teacher

School visit to understand ‘role-structure’ in a variety of schools: group interviews to


ascertain roles of administrators, teachers and students, and their location within the
schooling system (in the context of ‘autonomy’ ‘accountability’ and ‘decision-
making’)

CC2 Learner, Learning and Cognition

Unit 3: Theoretical perspectives of learning


Observation of classrooms as well as other learning situations in a range of schools –
field notes and reflections/discussion to understand what children learn, how they
learn (especially in group situations)

Unit 4: Processes of learning in ‘constructivist’ perspective

Close observation of particular classrooms/school activities and analyzing these


(transcripts, video recording) through particular theoretical perspectives

Unit 5: Understanding differences in individual learners

Visits to different schools with learners from varied socio-cultural backgrounds:


observations of individual differences in learners (in different kinds of learning
situations); profiling specific learners; sharing learner profiles from different schools

CC3 Schooling, Socialization and Identity

Unit 3: Schooling and identity formation


Interviews, observations, and reflection on school experience of students in terms of
identity formation issues (along whichever dimensions are relevant to particular
school contexts) – in a range of schools

CC4 Curriculum and School

Unit 4: School: site for curriculum engagement


Unit 5: Curriculum implementation and renewal

Interaction with principal and teachers to become aware of the ‘curriculum framing’
process within the school; look at available curriculum documents; and understand
how the curriculum is interpreted by teachers in classrooms

166
Observe the kinds of curricular experiences a school provides apart from classroom
teaching and discern their relevance to learner development; this could be
supplemented with interactions with teachers and students

Within Pedagogic Courses

Related to attachments with particular schools

Observation of different ways of organizing learning situations in the school; critical


appraisal of place of each of these in learners’ learning and development; broad
analyses of objectives of learning, processes and possible learning among students

Detailed observation, recoding and transcription of a classroom teaching-learning


episode; for analysis of ‘objectives’, ‘teaching-learning processes’; when learning is
successful; when learning breaks down etc.

PC4: Learning to Function as a Teacher


This ‘course’ is to be conducted entirely within the school context where the student-
teacher is placed for an extended period (2 weeks + 2 months).
Concluding Remark:
It may be emphasized here that section 4 provides a suggestive list of modes of
learning engagement as well as modes of assessment. However, it may be noted that
it has been done with adequate flexibility for teacher educators to vary both these
appropriately, as needed.
This is attempted to provide flexible orientation to the student-teacher which he
should use later as a teacher in an appropriate manner by making choices from varied
modes available.

167