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Types of context

- Monolingual: students all speak the same first language.

- Multilingual: students all speak different first languages.
- Closed groups: students come from the same institution and no other learners join the group.

Types of verbs

- Lexical: show the action, occurrence or state of being. They are essential to the meaning of a sentence and
provide vital information. They can be used alone.
- Auxiliary: their function relates to grammar rather than information. It is used to show the tense, voice, aspect,
emphasis or mood. They are not used alone.


- Semantic meaning: what the word means.

- Register of the word: how we would typically use the word (formal, neutral or colloquial).
- Connotation: whether the word has a positive or negative meaning.
- Collocation: what words go together with other words.


- Stress: giving emphasis to one syllable.

- Phoneme: an individual sound.
- Intonation: music of our voices.
Ways of reading

- Scan reading: when you read to find a specific piece of information.

- Skim/gist reading: when you read to get the overall idea of a text.
- Intensive/detailed reading: when you read to get a lot of information from a text.
- Reading to infer: when we read to understand a writer’s implicit message.

Ways of speaking

- Transactional communication: when you want the person you are addressing to do something as a result of the
- Interactional communication: fulfils a social role like to chat or make a small talk.

The lesson plan

- Lesson aims or learning outcomes: what the learners should be able to do by the end of the lesson.
- Anticipated problems and solutions: areas you think may cause difficulty for your learners and your solutions.
- Personal aim: some area of your teaching you want to improve in this lesson.
- Stage: a part of the lesson.
- Procedure: what students and the teacher are doing at any particular stage of the lesson.
- Interaction pattern: the direction of the communication (teacher to students or students to students).
- Stage aim: the reason for doing this stage of the lesson and how it relates to the overall aim of the lesson.

Learning styles

- Auditory way: through hearing it.

- Visual way: through seeing it.
- Kinaesthetic way: through doing something physical with it.