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2018-19

The SAT
® Information about
the SAT®

Test-taking advice

Student
and tips

Sample test
questions

Guide

Learn all about
the SAT at sat.org.
Connect your College Board
results, and get personalized
practice at satpractice.org.

Contents

3 Using This Guide 26 Math
3 What the SAT Measures 26 Math Test Overview
3 Organization of the SAT 26 Calculator Use
3 Practice for the SAT 27 Sample Math Test Materials
4 Before You Test 28 Math Test – No Calculator Questions
6 On Test Day 32 Math Test – Calculator Questions
8 How the SAT Is Scored 38 The SAT Essay
8 Protecting Your Privacy 38 SAT Essay Overview
10 What You Need to Know About Taking the SAT 39 Sample Essay
11 Evidence-Based Reading and Writing 46 The SAT Essay Scoring Guide
11 Reading Test Overview 48 SAT Terms and Conditions
11 Sample Reading Test Materials 49 Grounds for Score Cancellation
12 Reading Test Questions 51 Makeup Testing
18 Writing and Language Test Overview 51 Verifying Your Scores
19 Sample Writing and Language Test Materials 51 Score Reporting
20 Writing and Language Test Questions 53 Required Information for Students Testing in
California or New York State

About the College Board
The College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects students to
college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the College Board was created to expand
access to higher education. Today, the membership association is made up of over 6,000 of the
world’s leading educational institutions and is dedicated to promoting excellence and equity in
education. Each year, the College Board helps more than seven million students prepare for a
successful transition to college through programs and services in college readiness and college
success—including the SAT and the Advanced Placement Program . The organization also
® ®

serves the education community through research and advocacy on behalf of students, educators,
and schools. For further information, visit collegeboard.org.

SAT Customer Service
You can reach us from 8 a.m.–9 p.m. Eastern Time
(8:30 a.m.–8 p.m. after the June test through August 19th).
PHONE: 866-756-7346
INTERNATIONAL: +1-212-713-7789
EMAIL: sat@info.collegeboard.org
MAIL: College Board SAT Program
P.O. Box 025505
Miami, FL 33102

What the SAT Measures Using This Guide

Using This Guide
We’ve created this guide to help you: Time Number of
Allotted Questions/
ƒ Become familiar with the test so that you’re not Test (minutes) Tasks
surprised or confused on test day.
ƒ Learn the test directions. The directions for Reading 65 52
answering the questions in this booklet are the same
Writing and Language 35 44
as those on the actual test.
ƒ Review the sample questions. The more familiar you Math 80 58
are with the question formats, the more comfortable
you’ll feel when you see similar questions on the Essay (optional) 50 1
actual test. In particular, be sure to practice writing
answers to the student-produced response questions Total 180 154
(230 with Essay) (155 with Essay)
on the Math Test (see page 27). Find additional
sample questions at sat.org.
We occasionally pretest new test questions to determine
ƒ Understand how the tests are scored. You get one whether they should be included in a future SAT test
point for each correct answer. Hard questions count
form. These questions may appear in any of the test
the same as easier questions. You won’t lose any
sections, and testing time will be extended by 20 minutes
points for guessing, so try to answer every question.
so students have time to answer them. These questions
will not be included in computing your scores. Students
What the SAT Measures must complete all sections of the test. If you leave before
dismissal, your scores will be canceled.
The SAT is focused on the skills and knowledge at the
®

heart of education. It measures:

ƒ What you learn in high school. Practice for the SAT
ƒ What you need to succeed in college and career The College Board has partnered with Khan Academy ®

training. to give you free, personalized practice you can access
The same habits and choices that lead to success in anytime, anywhere.
school will help you get ready for the SAT. The best way Don’t miss out on these practice tools:
to prepare for the test is to:
ƒ Personalized recommendations for practice on the
ƒ Take challenging courses. skills you need to attend to most
ƒ Do your homework. ƒ Thousands of questions, reviewed and approved by
ƒ Prepare for tests and quizzes. the people who develop the SAT
ƒ Ask and answer lots of questions. ƒ Video lessons that explain problems step-by-step
ƒ Full-length practice tests
Organization of the SAT ƒ Practice tests in assistive technology compatible
(ATC) and MP3 audio formats for students who
The SAT has four tests, with the SAT Essay being need them
optional. The three tests that everyone will take are the
Make practice part of your routine—anyplace, anytime.
Reading Test, the Writing and Language Test, and the
Answer a question a day on the Daily Practice for the New
Math Test. The tests break down as shown in the table
SAT app and get immediate feedback. The free app makes
in the next column.
it easy to:
As part of scoring, every test goes through an equating
process. Equating is a statistical process we use to ƒ Answer an exclusive, official Reading, Writing and
Language, or Math question.
ensure that scores mean the same thing no matter which
version of the test you take or when you take it. In order ƒ Reveal a hint if you’re stuck.
to assist with future testing, the College Board may ƒ Read answer explanations and learn from your
conduct research studies in connection with the testing mistakes.
of a subset of students.
ƒ Keep at it—daily practice can only sharpen your skills.
We offer other free and affordable resources to help you
do your best. Visit sat.org/practice.

s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 3

Using This Guide Before You Test

Instant Practice Test Scoring will be sent, unless you specifically ask to send all your
with Scan and Score existing SAT and SAT Subject Test scores.

Take the SAT on paper to simulate test day. Then take a
picture of your answer sheet and get an instant score. If You Need Testing Accommodations
If you have a disability that requires testing
Here’s how Scan and Score works:
accommodations, you must apply for College Board
1. Ask your counselor for a paper practice test, or approval in advance of the test date you need the
download and print one of the eight SAT practice accommodations for. All accommodations must be
tests found at sat.org/practice. Be sure to follow the approved by the Services for Students with Disabilities
directions, and use the official answer sheet to bubble (SSD) office. See collegeboard.org/ssd for information
in your answers. on how to apply for and use accommodations.
2. After you’ve finished the practice test, get instant
feedback and question-by-question results from your Applying for Accommodations
phone. Just open the free app Daily Practice for the ƒ Your school’s SSD coordinator can help you request
New SAT. accommodations, by submitting an accommodations
3. Keeping the app open, snap a picture of your answer request for you online.
sheet with your phone’s camera. ƒ If you want to request accommodations on your own,
And there it is in seconds: your score. Scores are saved so contact SSD to request a paper Eligibility Form.
you can track your progress. ƒ Once approved for accommodations, with some
exceptions, you remain approved and do not have to
apply again when taking another College Board test.
Before You Test ƒ Bring your SSD eligibility letter with you on test day
to provide documentation if needed.
The Optional Student Data Registering with Accommodations
Questionnaire ƒ If your accommodations aren’t approved in time for
When you register, you have the opportunity to answer your test date, you can:
questions about yourself, your educational experience,
Š Transfer to a later date.
and your possible plans for after you graduate high
school. While you don’t have to answer these questions, Š Bring a copy of your SSD eligibility letter, along
we strongly recommend that you do. Your responses give with your photo ID and admission ticket, to the
your school counselors and college admission officers center. If there are enough materials and space,
information they can use to help you plan your future. you may be able to test with your approved
The more information you provide, the more they can accommodations.
help you. Š Take the test without your approved
accommodations. If you feel you didn’t do your
Your answers to some questions (the questionnaire best, you can cancel your scores immediately
identifies which ones) won’t appear on your score report after the test, or you can choose not to send your
but will be used by the College Board for research and scores to colleges.
planning.
Your responses, when combined with those of all Connect to Opportunities
other students taking the SAT, contribute to an
in Higher Education
understanding of the academic preparation, extra- and
Each year millions of students take the SAT, and
cocurricular involvement, and post-high-school plans
thousands of high school counselors and postsecondary
of your graduating class, which can help colleges and
admission officers worldwide use their scores to guide
universities deliver programs and opportunities to serve
decisions in the college application process. The test that
you and your classmates.
you’ll take on test day is a challenging yet appropriate
and fair assessment of what you know and can do. The
Sending Scores When You Register questions you’ll tackle focus on the knowledge and skills
When you register, you also have the opportunity to that the best available evidence indicates are essential for
choose up to four colleges, universities, or scholarship college and career readiness and success. We’re committed
programs to receive your scores at no further charge. to providing opportunities to help you reach your goals for
Only your scores from the test date on the registration college, career, and beyond.

4 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 

Before You Test Using This Guide

Students who are the first in their families to consider scholarships, and special activities. Student Search Service
attending college, who come from low-income families, is simply a way for colleges to reach prospective students to
or whose ethnicities are underrepresented in colleges let them know about the opportunities they offer. For more
may feel that college isn’t for them. The College Board’s information about Student Search Service, visit our site at
Access to Opportunity™ (A2O™) efforts are designed to collegeboard.org/student-search-service.
identify and break down barriers that prevent students
If at any time you change your mind and want
from applying to and enrolling in colleges that are their
to stop participating, please contact us at
best academic, social, and financial fit. Our mission is
SearchCustomerService@collegeboard.com or
to help all students recognize and make the most of the
866-825-8051. Please note that any eligible participating
opportunities they’ve earned. See “Useful Resources”
organizations that have already received your name and
for more information about ways to achieve your dreams.
other data may continue to send you information, but
your information will not be included going forward from
Student Search Service the time you elect to opt out.
Nearly 1,700 colleges use our Student Search Service to®

look for students who match a range of factors—such as Fee Waivers
the area where you live or go to school, the interests you
Students who face financial barriers to taking the SAT
pursue, and what you plan to study in college.  Here are
can be granted College Board fee waivers through schools
some key facts about the service:
and authorized community-based organizations to cover
ƒ You can join for free and directly hear from a diverse the cost of testing. The College Board offers fee waivers
group of colleges and scholarship programs, and to qualified, lower-income students who want to take
educational organizations. the SAT and SAT Subject Tests. They cover 100% of the
ƒ When you take a College Board test, you can opt registration fees for a single test date and unlimited score
in and colleges can send you information. You’ll sends to colleges, universities, and scholarship programs.
be asked to provide information about yourself Each qualifying student can use up to two waivers for
when either registering or taking the test (see “The the SAT and up to two waivers for the SAT Subject Tests.
Optional Student Data Questionnaire”). You may SAT fee waivers also give first-time, domestic applicants
also provide additional information on the College CSS/Financial Aid PROFILE fee waivers. Learn more
®

Board’s college planning website, BigFuture™. about this at cssprofile.collegeboard.org.

ƒ Only eligible colleges and scholarship and educational College Application Fee Waivers
organizations can participate. They most often search Seniors who use a fee waiver to take the SAT will
for expected high school graduation date, cumulative automatically receive four college application fee waivers
grade point average (GPA), and intended college major. to use in applying to colleges and universities that accept
ƒ We never share your test scores, grades, or telephone the waivers. You can learn about eligibility and the other
numbers. benefits offered to help you in the college application
process at sat.org/fee-waivers.
ƒ We don’t allow any commercial advertising.
Don’t forget: The Free Application for Federal Student Aid
How It Works (FAFSA )—the form you’ll need to qualify for most financial
®

Once you opt in, you can expect to receive emails and aid opportunities—can be filed beginning October 1. You
postal mail from colleges in your city, state, or country, should complete your FAFSA as early as possible.
or from colleges around the world. All of the colleges that
you’ll hear from welcome students just like you on their
campuses. The colleges may send you: Useful Resources
We offer resources to help you find the best college and
ƒ Information on financial aid, scholarships, or other career for you, including:
ways to make college more affordable.
ƒ Details on campus life and student services. Roadmap to Careers—Want to see how your interests
can connect to careers in your future? Try this great
ƒ Overviews of majors, courses, and degree options. online experience powered by our partnership with
Being contacted by a college doesn’t mean you’ve Roadtrip Nation. Visit collegeboard.roadtripnation.com.
been admitted. You must submit an application to be
considered for admission. The colleges and organizations BigFuture—Our website helps you plan for college
that participate want to find students who will succeed and find the college that’s best for you. Visit
and thrive on their campus and in classes, programs, bigfuture.collegeboard.org.

s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 5

during testing) ƒ Extra batteries and backup equipment The test administration staff are authorized to collect and hold phones and other prohibited electronic devices during What Not to Bring the test administration. including during breaks. ƒ Cell phones or smartphones (phones and wearable technology will be collected before the test and Taking the Tests returned before dismissal) Testing Guidelines ƒ Audio players or recorders Use these guidelines as you take your seat in the test room. ƒ Printed admission ticket. you’ll communication or recording features (these are not be instructed to turn off all electronic devices and give 6 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . or to The following devices and aids are prohibited. or play back audio. except in deny admission to anyone in possession of a prohibited the case of approved accommodations: electronic device. colored pens. rulers Š Make sure you fill in the entire bubble darkly and ƒ Highlighters. The College ƒ Two No. as they distract other test takers. laptops. there’s no penalty for guessing. 2 pencils with soft erasers Board and your test center are not responsible for loss ƒ An acceptable calculator for math sections/tests that of or damage to personal items. before testing) ETS. text. the College Board. including electronic permit them (see “Calculator Use” later in this guide) devices. receive. 2 pencil with a soft eraser on all used to record. or alarms are allowed. Choose a watch that doesn’t have advanced If. you Phones and Electronic Devices Policy simply earn points for the questions you answer Devices that can be used to communicate test content or correctly. ƒ Tablets. if you have one. or any other personal computing devices. Test takers should be prepared to undergo these security ƒ Snacks and drinks (which must be packed away measures to ensure a fair testing environment. ƒ Protractors. ƒ Cameras or any other photographic equipment ƒ When marking answers: ƒ Smartwatches and any other devices that can be Š Use a No. Nice to Have: The College Board regularly bolsters its security efforts in ƒ A watch (without an audible alarm or communication/ order to protect the integrity of the test and ensure a fair recording capabilities. smartwatches will be collected SAT administration. notebooks. compasses. such as the use of metal detecting wands to desk during testing) detect mobile phones and other electronic devices. transmit. not bring electronics of any kind with you on test day (an ƒ Use a watch to time yourself—no separate timers exception may apply for medically required devices). Test centers are serious Items to Bring for Testing about security and ensuring a quiet testing environment. Be sure to turn off your watch alarm. while you’re in the test center. What to Bring: so prohibited devices must not make any sounds during testing. You may question—there’s no advantage to leaving them blank. and the device may be collected and its contents inspected. Try to give your best answer to every share answers are not allowed in the test center. From time to time. including break periods. including wearable technology ƒ Plan ahead and bring equipment that’s in good working order. which is required for entry to the test center If your device makes noise or you are seen with it at any ƒ Acceptable photo ID (see sat. Test center staff won’t have extra ƒ Separate timers of any type batteries or calculators. however. ƒ On the SAT.org/photo for more time. you may be dismissed information) immediately. colored pencils completely. Using This Guide On Test Day On Test Day cell phones and wearable technology to the staff in your testing room before the test begins. you forget to leave a device at home. ƒ Pamphlets or papers of any kind Š Erase any changes you make as completely as ƒ Dictionaries or other books possible. Do not use a pen or photographic. or video content mechanical pencil. your scores can be canceled. parts of the answer sheet. and its testing staff may employ enhanced security ƒ A bag or backpack (which must be stored under the measures.

Changes may may be asked to show your ID or admission ticket at be declined by test center staff for various reasons. any time while in the test center. We’ll one inch high or more) or raised display that might be process the refund/charge using the payment method you visible to other test takers. Also. Students requesting backpack or a paper bag. on a first-come. You may only use certain kinds of calculators. and don’t leave your answer carefully whether to choose the optional SAT Essay or not. Here are the other ƒ May not be permitted in certain test centers—see sat. first-served basis. especially if you leave the testing room. the associate supervisor used when you registered. to accommodate the change. you’re interested in at sat.org/register (select “College SAT Essay Policies”) to see if they require it for admission. questions or answers from the test room. refunded or billed for the difference between your ƒ If you’re using a calculator with a large (characters registration choice and the test you take on test day. Changes to the Essay Option on Test Day: ƒ Store any snacks you bring out of sight in your ƒ Must be requested at check-in. You of the test center staff at check-in. Doing this could result in score It’s a good idea to check the policies of the institutions cancellation and/or delays. your scores will be canceled. you might be able to change from report will include an SAT Essay score of zero. When you register for the SAT. ƒ If you’ve chosen to take the optional SAT Essay and decide not to write the essay. ƒ Keep your ID and admission ticket with you at all ƒ Aren’t guaranteed and will be made at the discretion times. sheet blank. staff. if you leave the room before testing ends. ƒ Aren’t available to waitlist students or test takers 21 Calculator Rules and over. you should consider ƒ Don’t skip sections. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 7 .org/international for details. If you try to change your essay option after ƒ If you use your calculator to share or exchange check-in. you can go to have your snack. but before waitlist students. the SAT to SAT with Essay (or the reverse) on test day. as explained in the Math Test section of this guide. you’ll be dismissed from the center and information during the test or to remove test your scores will be canceled. You’ll be automatically dismissed and your scores will be canceled. On Test Day Using This Guide allowed and will be collected from you in the testing Adding or Dropping the SAT Essay room). Fee waivers cover any changes may move you to another seat. rules to bear in mind: ƒ Can’t be made after you’re checked in and assigned ƒ You may not share your calculator. You may only eat snacks a change will be seated after the other registered during breaks. or seats admission ticket. Don’t write on the including lack of sufficient materials. your official score If you change your mind. The testing staff will tell you where students. a room. to the essay option. you’ll be You won’t be charged a change fee. if materials and space allow.

However. If they do. Writing and Language: Expression of Ideas and Standard English Conventions. Each school or program has report through your free College Board account. Writing and Language. but check with the individual level of difficulty. by test date for the SAT and by individual test for SAT We never sell nor share student information with test prep Subject Tests™—but keep in mind that some colleges and companies. and Math Test. These scores show how well you use your skills to analyze texts and solve problems in these subject areas. With Score Choice™. the SAT. The table below shows all the scores you’ll receive on the SAT. No points are subtracted for incorrect answers or answers left blank. Math: Heart of Algebra. and Math 200–800 Test Scores (3) Reading. you got wrong. 8 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . SAT Score Reported Details Score Range Total Score Sum of the two section scores 400–1600 Section Scores (2) Evidence-Based Reading and Writing. all your scores will be sent to help them do their best on test day. with Protecting Your Privacy suggestions based on information you provide in your profile. Analysis. and Math 10–40 Essay Scores (3) Reading. you can put your best foot forward scholarship programs. If you do not select Score take advantage of our free and low-cost practice tools to Choice when registering. Score Reporting institutions receiving your results. including how many answers you got right. nor are we affiliated with any test preparation scholarship programs require you to send all your scores. Problem Solving and Data Analysis. Privacy Policy ƒ The prompt for the optional SAT Essay (if you took it) When a student takes a College Board test. so having your numbers by providing a summary of how you did on them all sent will not have a negative impact. You can access your online score should elect Score Choice. they can “opt in” to Student Search Service. each section. if you want only your highest scores to be seen. The College Board recommends that students This service is optional. report offers insight into your strengths and weaknesses Information is listed on the Score Choice site for each by showing your results grouped by content area and participating institution. or omitted. and certain higher education by choosing which scores you send to colleges.  Subscores (7) Reading and Writing and Language: Command of Evidence and 1–15 Words in Context. and Passport to Advanced Math. Using This Guide How the SAT Is Scored How the SAT Is Scored All multiple-choice questions are scored the same way: one point for each correct answer and zero points for incorrect answers.) Cross-Test Scores (2) Analysis in History/Social Studies and Analysis in Science: Based 10–40 on select questions in the Reading Test. and Writing 2–8 (The SAT Essay is optional. companies. The its own deadlines and policies for how scores are used. Writing and Language Test. the College Board can provide that student’s Score Choice basic information to eligible colleges and universities. Choose enrichment opportunities. The SAT online score report contains: school or scholarship program to make sure you’re following its guidelines. Colleges consider your The online score report gives you the meaning behind best scores when they review your application. ƒ A search tool for career and college majors. ƒ Percentiles that let you see how your results compare with those of other students taking the test. including and a scanned copy of your response.

org/privacy-policy for information for scholarship purposes. We may also ask for phone numbers and email addresses. Visit the registration process. and the College Board. The programs and services that help solve education College Board reserves the right to request additional issues. your information may be made available tests. we use information to send never be sold to a commercial marketing firm or retailer of customized college planning information. Service. Students who ƒ Students’ use of Khan Academy practice resources connect their Khan Academy and College Board accounts will be governed by the Terms and Conditions on the benefit from additional personalization through the use of Khan Academy website. we ask students for name. Some of the information is available to your high school. the name or code of canceled by students at any time. and other personal information during transfer of any personally identifiable information. and address. College Board. on the Uses of College Board Test Scores and Related Data from research. and gender. Student Search complete data privacy information. and in certain circumstances compelled to do so. Your name will ƒ If students request it. instead. Sometimes schools will give us students’ personal In the event of an investigation involving the validity of information to register these students for College Board your test scores.org/data. representatives for educational. ƒ We use student information to give SAT college application fee waivers to income-eligible students. The College such as important reminders about SAT test dates Board will not independently investigate whether a court and college-planning milestones. merchandise or services (such as test prep).collegeboard. for example pursuant to a subpoena. student score reports. or guardian’s access to the student’s scores. to your high school. Use of Student Information which are used for the photo admission ticket required The College Board recognizes the importance of protecting for test center entry. The College Board and Khan Academy don’t has admitted the student. school name. diagnostic.org/practice to learn more. separation. unless our partners—only what’s needed for administering the College Board determines in its sole discretion that its testing services and producing and generating records on the student contain a court order. individual scores and other information you provide during testing may be We only share student information for the educational reported to your district or state and/or their agents and purposes listed below (or under court order). documents and information in connection with determining whether or not to disclose scores to a parent or guardian. Schools may share students’ names. date. and grade level or expected graduation the ETS Office of Testing Integrity. address. Students provide to outside parties. addresses. When legally dates of birth. to institutions you have sent your scores to. student ID. No information about sent to institutions that received the scores. their actual test results. we use student information to divorce. reporting purposes. You can choose to disclose your your privacy. a photo of the student may be students using Official SAT Practice. and receiving communications from the During the registration process. state statute. state statute. and/or ƒ We report scores to students and their schools. and states to help measure educational guidelines on the uses of College Board test scores and progress and support students on their path to related data. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 9 . In addition. ask your counselor or download Guidelines college. order. and doesn’t involve the your high school. Protecting Your Privacy Using This Guide Khan Academy® and the College Board are committed ƒ If there’s an investigation involving validity of a to creating a safe and secure online environment for all student’s test scores. but this is student driven. Any student work will be shared without students’ explicit college given access to the photo must certify that it permission. share personally identifiable information. The College Board maintains sat. relevant documents and researchers so they can study it for College Board information must be submitted to the College Board. The College Board will disclose scores to a student’s parent or guardian if the parent or guardian is able to ƒ We share a limited amount of personal data with supply the required authentication information. records of the personal information and photo that you provided at the time of registration for each test date. Your scores will be made available any remaining personal information themselves. score reporting to institutions other than your high school. information about students to help the College Board the College Board may provide your personal information determine if they qualify for fee waivers. or legally binding document exists ƒ We share deidentified student information with other than in its records. For more information about the districts. See collegeboard. date of birth. or custody that restricts the parent’s customize and personalize the content users see. or legally binding document relating to matters such as ƒ On our website. sex. can be You’re required to provide your name.

including: College Board service (such as the Question-and- Answer Service). administration where the SAT form is disclosed after the ƒ While you’re taking the test. in denial of entry to or immediate dismissal from the test center. your for its intended purposes. also designed to prevent anyone from gaining an unfair Violation of policies related to test security can result advantage on SAT tests. understand. financial aid. When you take the SAT. ƒ If your essay does is not reflect your original and individual work. ƒ Applying to a college or university undergraduate program. you may be transferred to an scores will be canceled. In addition. or other programs that require a college admission test as ƒ You are prohibited from accessing secured test part of their application process. you acknowledge that you have read. materials at any time before or after the test. is strictly prohibited. ƒ Applying for scholarships. The College Board’s Test Security and Fairness policies ƒ Calculators may not be shared and may only be are designed to give every student a fair and equitable on your desk during the parts of the SAT and SAT opportunity to demonstrate college readiness. as detailed here. or a limited or Test Security and Fairness Policies permanent ban from future test taking. or any other resources during the About Taking the SAT test or during breaks. responsibilities as a test taker. other people. investigate and cancel the SAT registration and/or scores ƒ The timing of each test section is strictly scheduled. Please read this section carefully. Using This Guide What You Need to Know About Taking the SAT What You Need to Know ƒ You may not consult textbooks. do not allow anyone to test. cancellation of your scores. or test section in the test book or answer sheet while taking the SAT or SAT Subject Tests. If we have reason to believe you’re not taking the SAT ƒ If you exit the building before testing ends. of anyone suspected of attempting to steal and/or share You cannot skip ahead or go back to a previous test test content. 10 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . or engaging in impersonation to Who Can Take the SAT take a test for someone else. electronic devices. ƒ Allowing someone to impersonate you to take a College Board test. your entire test score may be canceled. You may take the SAT on any of 4–7 weekend ƒ Sharing test questions or answers is prohibited at administrations if you’re taking the test for its intended any time unless test content is released as part of a purposes. and will comply with our test day Your Rights and Responsibilities policies and requirements. They’re Subject Tests they’re approved for. ƒ Using phones and certain other electronic devices is prohibited in SAT test centers. Please read the SAT Terms and Conditions at the back of ƒ You must present acceptable photo ID for admission this guide for important information about your rights and to the test center. the College Board reserves the right to see the test questions or your answers.

U. reading skills needed most to succeed in the subjects the passages are drawn from. Some questions or understand a relationship between a graphic and ask you to locate a piece of information or an idea stated the passage it’s paired with. question and for the answer you chose (if the two are chemistry. you’ll read passages claims. The directions on the next page match what you’ll encounter on the actual test. and charts. On the actual test. Then you’ll use ƒ Locate or interpret data in an informational graphic. by the passages and in any supplementary material.S. ƒ One passage from a classic or contemporary work of style. Not coincidentally. reading skills in all sorts of subjects. ƒ All questions are worth one point regardless of the type or difficulty. you might read Reading Test Overview about an experiment and then see questions that ask ƒ Total questions: 52 passage-based reading questions you to examine hypotheses. The words and phrases are ones that you’ll use To succeed in college and career. different). Command of Evidence so it’s to your advantage to answer each question as Some questions ask you to: best you can. But you’ll also need to understand what the author’s words or a graphic’s data imply. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 11 . you’ll need to apply in college and the workplace long after test day. such as tables. passage pair) that examine foundational concepts ƒ Read the explanation for the best answer to each or recent developments in Earth science. ƒ The questions often include line references to direct ƒ Find evidence in a passage (or pair of passages) that you to relevant part(s) of the passage(s). carefully. Words in Context Some questions focus on important. psychology. each passage will be followed by 10 or 11 questions. or world literature. or sociology. you’ll also need those skills to do well on the Reading Test. biology. set of sample materials: ƒ One passage on a social science topic from a field ƒ Read the passage(s) and any supplementary material such as economics. The Reading Test always includes: ƒ Decide how an author’s word choice shapes meaning.S. The Writing You’ll be asked questions that require you to draw on the and Language Test asks you to revise and edit text. interpret data. The SAT focuses on your ability to: Reading Test passages range in length from about 500 to ƒ Figure out the meaning of words or phrases in context. best supports the answer to a previous question or serves as the basis for a reasonable conclusion. You’re not penalized for guessing. What the Reading Test Is Like ƒ Identify how authors use evidence to support their When you take the Reading Test. ƒ Two science passages (or one passage and one ƒ Decide on the best answer to each question. what you’ve read to answer questions. directly. For instance. 750 words. Answers are based only on the content stated in or implied ƒ Calculators may not be used or be on your desk. show how well you understand what you read. and tone. Sample Reading Test Materials founding document (such as an essay by James Following are samples of the kinds of passages and Madison) or a text in the Great Global Conversation questions that may appear on the Reading Test. The Reading Test gives you a chance to the Reading Test measures a range of reading skills. ƒ One passage or a pair of passages from either a U. or consider with multiple-choice responses. graphs. For each (such as a speech by Nelson Mandela). or physics. implications. ƒ Time allotted: 65 minutes. Reading Test Overview Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Evidence-Based Reading and Writing The Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section is What the Reading Test Measures composed of two tests that assess different but related skills A lot more goes into reading than you might realize—and and knowledge. widely used words What You’ll Read and phrases that you’ll find in texts in many different subjects. and interpret informational graphics.

the bird ripped and background or previously contacted objects.” ©2013 first try. and I couldn’t do it. Passage 2 is adapted from Bernd Heinrich. 5 explanation will do. I led my four young ravens at least once and sometimes several times Passage 1 50 a day on thirty-minute walks. grass stems. After reading each passage or The crow’s deft physical manipulation was what pair. to employ. In the first sessions. flowers. “I had a go. they New Caledonian crows face the high end of these pulled at leaves. choose the best answer to each question based inspired Gray and Auckland colleague Alex Taylor on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages to test other wild crows to see if they employed the and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table seemingly insightful string-pulling solutions that some or graph). as possibly the second-best toolmakers seeds. Some east of Australia. Lloyd Morgan I wrote down everything in their environment they published what’s called Morgan’s canon. converting it to 15 made from spike-edged leaves. glass chips. It turned out that Gray was moving the leaf shard too forcefully Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by 40 instead of gently stroking the spines against the treat. bark. grass. The process took only seconds. Instead a rate of up to tens of thousands of times greater than of just tearing away one long strip. when the previously base. We want a that lay directly in their own paths. by Science News.” he 12 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . Fishing the meat out was tricky. and other objects they on the planet. fished up the meat with the leaf-edge spikes. I seeded the path we would later walk together a mountain forest in New Caledonia. I tried to be teacher. expectations. Then the bird novel items were edible.” Gray says. rocks—and Line an animal’s behavior should be rejected if a simpler nothing that I touched remained untouched by them. an island chain with objects they had never before encountered. just like the log. For one month after they left the nest. In 1894.” zoologist Sara Shettleworth says. Others finding meat tidbits in holes in a log. 75 The four young birds on our daily walks contacted grabbed the spiked edge of one of the long straplike all new objects preferentially. ©2007 by Bernd Heinrich. Their tools are hooked sticks or strips encountered. a number of questions. Still. In subsequent trials. had left behind. It hopped onto the pandanus plant. Even while walking along on their own. During these walks. I wrote all this down. Reading Test Questions Sample Reading Test Materials Reading Test Questions Directions recalls. contacted almost everything else people. and pebbles. British psychologist C. Mind of the Passage 2 Raven: Investigations and Adventures with Wolf-Birds. 45 ravens. Three of four crows passed that test on the Passage 1 is adapted from Susan Milius. Researcher background objects in these woods and started to ignore Russell Gray first saw the process on a cold morning in them. Over the course of days. and cooked corn kernels. “A Different Kind of Smart. the leaves. learning to identify food from the parents’ example. These experiments showed that ravens’ 35 “That was my ‘oh wow’ moment. dead 20 researcher Gavin Hunt had gotten wild crows used to 70 meal worm beetles. The behind a blind. he and crow of these were conspicuous food items: raspberries. clods of earth. he picked up the tool the bird the environment. and they use them in 65 numbers. I that suggestions of humanlike mental processes behind touched specific objects—sticks. conspicuous. mine. however. cones. 25 A crow arrived. the researchers placed winterberries. Once the birds were conspicuous and inedible: pebbles. moss. the principle pecked at. leading me to assume that young birds are aided in especially when it comes to birds and mammals. Still others were such highly cryptic foods a spiky tropical pandanus plant beside the log and hid as encased caddisfly larvae and moth cocoons. After 85 curiosity ensures exposure to all or almost all items in the crow had vanished. red were checking the log reliably. They soon became 10 bird that masters a vexing problem to be employing 60 more independent by taking their own routes near human-style insight. kea parrots and other brainiac birds are known Questions 1-3 are based on the following passages. After they were thoroughly familiar with the the wild to winkle grubs out of crevices. they became preferred and the dipped the narrow end of its leaf strip into a hole in inedible objects became “background” items. “We somehow want to prove they are as ‘smart’ as They also. They picked them out at leaves and began a series of ripping motions. people seem to maintain certain expectations. 55 They came to investigate what I had investigated. pine needles. The main nipped in a sequence to create a slanting stair-step initial criterion for pecking or picking anything up was 30 edge on a leaf segment with a narrow point and a wide 80 its novelty. results were dramatic. even if they were highly swallowed its prize and flew off.

bears out Shettleworth’s claim that “we somehow want D) present seemingly contradictory stances in order to to prove [birds] are as ‘smart’ as people” (lines 8-9) and show how they can be reconciled empirically. Furthermore. people primarily by whether that object was still tend to look for humanlike levels of intelligence in A) edible. even if they were of Gray and Hunt’s experiment and how the researchers highly conspicuous” (lines 80-84). suggests that Shettleworth. the birds initially “contacted all new objects Choice A is incorrect because while the reference to preferentially” but in “subsequent trials” only Morgan’s canon in the first paragraph offers a sort preferred those “previously novel items” that “were of historical background (given that the canon was edible” (lines 75-81). Estimated Difficulty: Hard Key: B 2 Choice B is the best answer.” whereas “the inedible paragraph of people’s expectations regarding animal objects became ‘background’ items. is at least partially of Passage 2 presents the results of an experiment correct in her assessment that “we somehow want to in which the author scattered unfamiliar objects in prove [birds] are as ‘smart’ as people” (lines 8-9). D) natural. including birds. particularly the quotation from A) offer historical background in order to question the Shettleworth. in which they observe a crow’s tool­ Key: A Estimated Difficulty: Easy making ability and to which Gray responds by trying and failing to mimic the bird’s behavior (“I had a go. Choice C is incorrect because while the reference to Choice C is incorrect because the ravens studied by Morgan’s canon in the first paragraph does introduce the author only preferred those “previously novel a scientific principle. the position staked out in the first paragraph by B) offer interpretive context in order to frame the suggesting that while Morgan’s canon is probably a discussion of an experiment and its results. just like intelligence. the discussion in the second items” that “were edible. and I couldn’t do it. explanation of Morgan’s canon and continues with a whether the author’s ravens continued to show discussion of people’s expectations regarding animal intelligence. Choice A is the best answer. primarily suggest that people tend conspicuous items did not continue to interest the to violate the canon by attributing humanlike levels of ravens unless the items were edible. The last paragraph quoted in the second paragraph. grass. grass. intelligence to many animals. the main purpose of the first two are not seemingly or genuinely contradictory. itself establish that the main purpose of the first two and pebbles” (lines 80-83). According to the passage. In other words.” whereas “the inedible objects humanlike intelligence in many animals does not by became ‘background’ items. they Within Passage 1. published in 1894). Moreover. items were edible. thus does not reconcile the perspectives found in the opening paragraphs.” line 37). the first two paragraphs interest in a formerly new object was dictated indicate that despite cautions to the contrary. the second paragraph describes people’s continuing expectations regarding animal Choice B is incorrect because the ravens studied by the intelligence. as well as the passage’s characterization the leaves. Taken together. provide a framework in which to assess the work of C) conspicuous. the fact that Gray and Hunt author only preferred those “previously novel items” may share with other people the tendency to look for that “were edible. Sample Reading Test Materials Reading Test Questions 1 Choice D is incorrect because although the first two paragraphs do present different perspectives. In other words. and pebbles. just like the leaves. The passage’s characterization of the experiment Gray and Hunt conduct. These two paragraphs B) plentiful. Choice D is incorrect because the ravens studied by the author only preferred those “previously novel items” s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 13 . people still tend to project humanlike levels of intelligence onto many animals. plentiful paragraphs is to question the uniqueness of Gray and items did not continue to interest the ravens unless the Hunt’s findings. the C) introduce a scientific principle in order to show how experiment depicted in the rest of the passage primarily an experiment’s outcomes validated that principle. Passage 1 opens with an According to the experiment described in Passage 2. serves mainly to qualify (not contradict) uniqueness of two researchers’ findings. the path of some ravens. many animals. presented in the rest of the passage. The paragraphs (lines 1-11) is to second paragraph. Gray and Hunt. sound principle. interpret the results.

S. the time cost of congestion ability is the central focus of the experiment described is sixty-two hours per worker per year. 5 and productive regions are those in which people are thinking and working—not sitting in traffic. “erasing years of decreases to stand at the introduction of new objects in their environment by 20 level of 2000.” according to the U. Indeed. the researchers had repeatedly placed meat in beginning in 2007 would have reduced traffic (high the log—that is.” The ravens in worse. D. evidence that the ravens described in Passage 2 and pebbles” (lines 80-83). were observing them. In Los Angeles. these researchers 30 The costs are astounding. or nearly two weeks. gridlock has become the norm. In D. The researchers described in according to detailed research by the Nobel Prize– Passage 1 “had gotten wild crows used to finding winning economist Daniel Kahneman and his colleagues. Passage 1. natural mimicked human behavior. not just at rush between the researchers described in Passage 1 and hour but all day. contacted objects” (lines 76-78). it makes little sense to waste countless D) They mimicked the actions they saw performed Line collective hours commuting. the crows they studied. Across the country. that’s seventy hours. Philadelphia. Average it out. Passage 1 does America’s thirteen biggest city-regions is fifty-one hours mention that “some ravens” use “seemingly insightful per worker per year.. passage and supplementary material. grass. of full-time Choice C is incorrect because while crows’ tool-making work per commuter. in fact. In other words. there is no evidence that the crows in Passage 1 did any mimicking. going on walks with and the East Coast cities of New York. commuting string-pulling solutions” (line 44). This passage is adapted from Richard Florida.” whereas “the inedible objects Choice D is incorrect because while there is some became ‘background’ items. The average commute rose in 2008 to Passage 2 act in analogous fashion. changed the crows’ environment—and 15 unemployment means fewer workers traveling to and the birds had responded by modifying their behavior. contact with their subjects. the cost of time is C) They manufactured useful tools for finding and what really matters.C. suggests that the 3 ability of the crow to produce the meat-fishing tool The crows in Passage 1 and the ravens in Passage 2 was innate rather than a skill it had acquired from either humans or other birds. Choice A is the best answer. Commutes are far longer in the big evidence that the ravens described in Passage 2 25 West Coast cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco formed a bond with the author. B) They formed a strong bond with the humans who ©2010 by Richard Florida. from work). him and possibly viewing him as their “teacher. Census Bureau. as people had to leave home earlier in the “pick[ing] them out at a rate of up to tens of thousands morning to pick up friends for their ride to work or of times greater than background or previously to catch a bus or subway train. economy is nearly $90 billion when lost 14 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  .” Baltimore. In New York it’s in Passage 1.2 billion hours of work time annually—nearly a Passage 2 suggests that the ravens in that particular full workweek for every commuter. 40 to the U. innovate. Average a point reinforced in line 22. if anything. their environment. which collects the figures. With the constant pressure to accessing food. and the time cost across in Passage 2 did anything similar. and Washington.C. going on walks with the items did not continue to interest the ravens unless the author and possibly viewing him as their “teacher. In many of these there is no evidence that a similar bond formed cities. just like the leaves. And those are Choice B is incorrect because while there is some average figures. So. there is no evidence that the ravens 35 forty-four hours. responding to the 25. Both bird species studied Commuting by car is among the least efficient of all modified their behavior in response to changes in 10 our activities—not to mention among the least enjoyable. In other Though one might think that the economic crisis words. Reading Test Questions Sample Reading Test Materials that “were edible. the opposite has been true. In today’s idea-driven economy.5 minutes. Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: A The auto-dependent transportation system has reached its limit in most major cities and megaregions.S. but nothing in wastes 4. shared which trait? A) They modified their behavior in response to changes Questions 4-6 are based on the following in their environment. which noted that the commutes have lengthened. The overall cost study had or displayed tool-making abilities. congestion “hid behind a blind” (lines 23-24) in an effort to avoid eats up more than 485 million working hours a year. every day. the most efficient around them. and congestion has gotten birds began “checking the log reliably.” items were edible. meat tidbits in holes in a log” (lines 20-21). The Great Reset.

“intense” most nearly means to their employers than employees who commute. Sample Reading Test Materials Reading Test Questions productivity and wasted fuel are taken into account.5 billion in value added to the economy. while commuting. The passage does not draw any clear links between the amount of money The passage most strongly suggests that employees make and the commutes they have. while others struggle. $292 billion. researchers at the Martin Prosperity Institute share which assumption? 5 A) Employees who work from home are more valuable As used in line 55. as composing memos or joining conference calls.5 billion than a long-term improvement in traffic flow. smaller number of bigger cities and city-regions. it does not propose working from home as a solution. Choice D is incorrect because there is no evidence in Adapted from Adam Werbach.S. New roads generate higher levels of “induced is nearly $90 billion when lost productivity and wasted traffic. new roads just invite drivers to drive more fuel are taken into account” (lines 37-41). B) Employees whose commutes are shortened will use A) emotional.2 billion hours of work time highways. (“we”) at the Martin Prosperity Institute assume that ten minutes. Choice C is incorrect because there is no evidence in the passage that researchers at the Martin Prosperity Institute assume that employees can conduct business activities. home are more valuable to their employers than employees who commute. we calculate that every minute shaved off America’s commuting time is worth Choice B is the best answer because details in the third $19. remedy for traffic congestion is to build more roads and commuting wastes 4. Given also that and lure people who take mass transit back to their cars. and it generally portrays commuting time as lost or wasted time. Estimated Difficulty: Easy Key: B D) Employees who have lengthy commutes tend to make more money than employees who have Choice B is the best answer because the context shorter commutes. their promise the passage that researchers at the Martin Prosperity Institute assume that employees who work from 60 stymied by inadequate human or other resources. while commuting. economy 50 worse. The passage does discuss commuting in some detail. C) brilliant. shorter commutes will lead to more productive time for It’s ironic that so many people still believe the main workers. Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: B At the Martin Prosperity Institute. and productivity in a is from heightened worker productivity. makes clear that the clustering of jobs.” ©2013 by The Atlantic. which of course only makes the problem annually” and that “the overall cost to the U.” that is. Institute assume that employees who have lengthy commutes tend to make more money than employees 4 who have shorter commutes. “The American Commuter Spends 38 the passage that researchers at the Martin Prosperity Hours a Year Stuck in Traffic. fifteen minutes. Although the passage does criticize long commutes. innovation. C) Employees can conduct business activities.7 billion. The paragraph (lines 30-46) strongly suggest that researchers 45 numbers add up fast: five minutes is worth $97. the time saved to do additional productive work for B) concentrated. The author notes that “across the country. their employers. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 15 . such D) determined. innovation. those at the institute “calculate that every minute shaved Eventually. Some regions could end up bloated beyond the capacity of their Choice A is incorrect because there is no evidence in infrastructure. it can 55 The coming decades will likely see more intense reasonably be concluded that some of that added value clustering of jobs. $195 billion. such as composing memos or joining conference calls. but it does not mention activities that commuters can or should be undertaking while commuting. in value added to the economy” (lines 42-44). we end up with more clogged roads rather off America’s commuting time is worth $19.

The division between the two branches of the legislature. 1974. into account. 15 member to vote for an article of impeachment means that D) Commuters in Detroit spend more time delayed that member must be convinced that the President should annually by traffic congestion than do commuters in be removed from office. D. in “a smaller number of bigger cities and city- regions” (lines 56-57). The bar for Washington. [the jurisdiction Washington. Choice C is incorrect because although “intense” Atlanta. Nixon.. Today. D.” it would make no may be impeached. Jordan discusses how and when a United States president sometimes means “determined. or charged with serious offenses. Choice B is incorrect because the graph’s bar for Choice A is incorrect because although “intense” Los Angeles is lower than and to the right of that sometimes means “emotional.C.. and productivity will be more emotional amounts of delay each year. Reading Test Questions Sample Reading Test Materials and productivity will be more concentrated in. and productivity will be more brilliant in Questions 7-9 are based on the following passage. not more densely packed into.”* And that’s annually by traffic congestion than are commuters in what we’re talking about. We’ve been D. that. The Constitution doesn’t say Houston. or City automobile commuters experience greater. In other words. the destruction. and Chicago. left to right on the graph.”* The York City is higher than and to the left of that for the framers confided in the Congress the power. in “a smaller number of bigger cities and city- Choice D is incorrect because the graph’s bar for Detroit regions” (lines 56-57). And I am not going to sit here and be the graph? 5 an idle spectator to the diminution. the same person.C. of the Constitution. meaning that Los Angeles sense in context to say that the clustering of jobs.C. amounts of delay each year. meaning that New York to remove the President in order to strike a delicate 16 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . subjects of its jurisdiction are those offenses which B) Los Angeles commuters are delayed more hours 10 proceed from the misconduct of public men.” it would make no commuters experience lesser. if need be. C) Commuters in Washington. “a smaller number of lesser. is higher than and to the left of that for New talking about it a while now. We know the nature of impeachment. average for very large cities. comes] from the abuse or violation of some public trust. it is a misreading of the delays annually due to traffic congestion than do Constitution for any member here to assert that for a commuters in New York City. and productivity will be more determined hearings against then president Richard M. . bigger cities and city-regions” (lines 56-57). the number of hours of annual of this Constitution were very astute.C. The powers relating to impeachment are an essential check in the hands of the body of the legislature against Estimated Difficulty: Easy Key: C 20 and upon the encroachments of the executive. and Chicago. It is designed to “bridle” the executive if he 30 engages in excesses. while in office. it is Which claim about traffic congestion is supported by Line complete. moreover. “It is designed as a method of Choice A is incorrect because the graph’s bar for New national inquest into the conduct of public men. I am an inquisitor. face greater It is wrong. meaning that Detroit automobile sometimes means “brilliant. “a smaller number of bigger cities and city-regions” This passage is adapted from a speech delivered by Congresswoman (lines 56-57). Atlanta.C. the Choice C is the best answer. A) New York City commuters spend less time annually “Who can so properly be the inquisitors for the nation delayed by traffic congestion than the average for as the representatives of the nation themselves?” “The very large cities. automobile commuters experience lesser. is lower than and to the right of those for Houston. They did not make commute delay generally decreases as one moves from 25 the accusers and the judges . innovation. as a member of the Judiciary Committee of the United States House of Representatives. innovation. Jordan’s speech was delivered in the context of impeachment innovation. Barbara Jordan of Texas on July 25. D. meaning that D. . delay each year.. automobile commuters President and his high ministers to somehow be called experience greater amounts of delay each year. not greater. not greater. Higher bars on the graph House and the Senate. It is chiefly designed for the York City. amounts of sense in context to say that the clustering of jobs. it is total. My faith in the Constitution is whole. An hyperbole would not be fictional and would not overstate the solemnness that I 6 feel right now. sense in context to say that the clustering of jobs. the subversion. In the Choice D is incorrect because although “intense” passage.” it would make no for Washington. assigning to the one the right to represent longer annual commute delays than do accuse and to the other the right to judge—the framers lower bars. I suggest.

Congress has a lot to main emphasis is on the (then) present impeachment do: appropriations.g. including the power to decide cases of impeachment against a president of the United States. not researching secure a conviction.” in lines 18-20) and makes reference to Carolina ratification convention. her 65 upon this process for petty reasons. sense”). and because she is primarily discussing Indignation so great as to overgrow party interest may events happening at the moment. community. and preservation of the independence her idealism by declaring that she is an “inquisitor” of the executive. The Federal numerous points in the passage. of the Constitution” within the confines of the constitutional term “high (lines 4-6).” “It is to be used legislature against and upon the encroachments of only for great misdemeanors. proceedings excite passions C) To contend that Hamilton was too timid in his 7 support for the concept of impeachment The stance Jordan takes in the passage is best D) To argue that impeachment cases are decided more described as that of on the basis of politics than on justice A) an idealist setting forth principles. Indeed. it is total” (lines 3-4).” so it was said in the North the executive. a distinction between two types of “parties”: the informal associations to which Alexander Hamilton Estimated Difficulty: Hard Key: A refers and formal. but impeachment must proceed the subversion. 65. (line 1) and that her “faith in the Constitution is The nature of impeachment: a narrowly channeled whole. energy sufficiency. Jordan helps establish 35 grown tyrannical. crime[s] and misdemeanors. So today we’re not being petty. Choice A is the best answer.” advocating a position. Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: A B) an advocate seeking a compromise position. . it was Woodrow Wilson who said that “Nothing Choice D is incorrect because Jordan is identified as 60 short of the grossest offenses against the plain law of the a congresswoman and an “inquisitor” (line 1). of the Constitution” (lines 4-6). Although she Common sense would be revolted if we engaged refers to historical documents and individuals. not a mere parties in that sense.” said Hamilton in the Federalist Papers. The North Carolina ratification convention: “No passage that she is seeking a compromise position.” Of the impeachment process. A) To counter the suggestion that impeachment is or *Jordan quotes from Federalist No. 65. she notes that she is “not going to 55 The drawing of political lines goes to the motivation sit here and be an idle spectator to the diminution. . number 65. campaign finance reform. Jordan sets forth Convention of 1787 said that.” line 1) in the proceedings. she notes that she is “not going to sit here and will pass with immunity. health insurance. And in the Virginia important documents that do the same. the destruction. behind impeachment. and discounted and are an essential check in the hands of the body of the opposed the term “maladministration. including the ratification convention: “We do not trust our liberty to U. published in 1788. Constitution and Federalist No. We need one branch to check the Choice B is incorrect because although Jordan is other. hearings. organized political parties such as s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 17 . . 50 will seldom fail to agitate the passions of the whole the destruction. the most likely reason Jordan draws a distinction We’re trying to be big. a scholar. mass transportation. At exception to the separation of powers maxim. Sample Reading Test Materials Reading Test Questions balance between a President swollen with power and Choice A is the best answer. what is 70 overwhelming problems. because the task we have before between two types of “parties”? us is a big one. C) an observer striving for neutrality.. environmental 8 protection.” an unidentified historical controversy. but nothing else can. . Pettiness cannot be allowed to stand in the face of such In lines 49-54 (“Prosecutions . one need be afraid that officers who commit oppression Indeed. It limited impeachment principles (e.” “Prosecutions of impeachments be an idle spectator to the diminution. it is complete. not land will suffice to give them speed and effectiveness. “We divide into parties more or less friendly Choice C is incorrect because Jordan is a participant or inimical to the accused. there is no evidence in the .”* I do not mean political (“an inquisitor. observer. an essay by Alexander should be about partisan politics Hamilton. on the powers of the United States B) To disagree with Hamilton’s claim that impeachment Senate. “The powers relating to impeachment 40 to high crimes and misdemeanors. housing. the subversion. tax reform. 45 a particular branch. Jordan is making D) a scholar researching a historical controversy.S. indicating that she is not seeking compromise.

you’ll do B) Lines 20-24 (“The division . throughout the last four paragraphs of ƒ Time allotted: 35 minutes. . . the latter concept. Jordan draws a contrast between political piece or interpreting a graphic. with one party attacking and another defending means. To answer some questions. . Therefore. Moreover. houses of the U. Others require thinking about the entire 58. she elaborates on the ƒ Calculators may not be used or be on your desk. . decide the present case on the basis of politics. . . these lines do not serve as the best the president. she and her fellow members of Congress are “trying ƒ Total questions: 44 passage-based questions with to be big” (line 71).S. Indeed. Congress. Jordan regardless of the type or difficulty.S. D) Lines 65-68 (“Congress . misinterpret her use of Hamilton’s quotation as Choice A is incorrect because lines 13-17 only suggesting that she thinks impeachment is essentially address a misconception that Jordan contends some a tool of organized political parties to achieve partisan people have about what a vote for impeachment ends. Writing and Language Writing and Language Test Overview the modern-day Republican and Democratic parties. Jordan makes clear that she thinks impeachment should be reserved Choice B is incorrect because lines 20-24 only speak only for the most serious of offenses—ones that should to a division of responsibility between the two rankle people of any political affiliation. . you’ll need to look closely at a Choice C is the best answer because in lines 55­ single sentence. editor and improve passages that were written especially Choice D is incorrect because Jordan suggests that for the test—and that include deliberate errors. Therefore. extensive and important agenda. she quotes Test Overview Hamilton extensively in a way that indicates that she The SAT Writing and Language Test asks you to be an fundamentally agrees with his view on impeachment. and a willingness to indulge in “hyperbole” (line 1). these lines do not serve as the best evidence for the answer to Choice B is incorrect because Jordan offers no the previous question. misdemeanors’”) edit: read. just basis on which impeachment should ƒ Remember that all questions are worth one point proceed. these Moreover. objection to Hamilton’s notion that impeachment proceedings excite passions. throughout the passage. and notably evidence for the answer to the previous question. rather than multiple-choice responses. and fix them. you might motivations and “high crime[s] and misdemeanors” be asked to choose where a sentence should be placed or as the basis for impeachment and argues that to correct a misinterpretation of a scientific chart. astute”) things that people do all the time when they write and C) Lines 55-58 (“The drawing . Indeed. so it’s to your on the justice or injustice of impeachments generally. not penalized for incorrect guesses. office”) When you take the Writing and Language Test. Throughout the passage. Indeed. she quotes Choice D is incorrect because lines 65-68 serve Hamilton extensively in a way that indicates that she mainly to indicate that the U. Choice C is incorrect because Jordan offers no objection to Hamilton’s level of support for the Writing and Language concept of impeachment. impeachment “must proceed within the confines” of 18 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . . principled. 9 Which choice provides the best evidence for the What the Writing and answer to the previous question? Language Test Is Like A) Lines 13-17 (“It . in the seventh paragraph (lines 55-63). You’re not is focused on the present impeachment hearings. Congress has an fundamentally agrees with his view on impeachment. advantage to answer each question as best you can. These lines thus serve as the best Jordan anticipates that listeners to her speech might evidence for the answer to the previous question. find mistakes and weaknesses. the passage (lines 37-72). Therefore. transportation”) The good news: You do these things every time you revise and edit your own schoolwork or workshop essays Estimated Difficulty: Hard Key: C with a friend. she acknowledges that her own speech is lines do not serve as the best evidence for the answer impassioned—that she feels a “solemnness” (line 2) to the previous question. For instance. or high-minded.

Sample Writing and ƒ Prior topic knowledge is never tested. Language Test Measures organization. with each passage (spread surrounding them. an argumentative claim or adds a relevant supporting ƒ Decide on the best answer to each question. passages. or arguments about careers. You’ll On the actual test. you might choose an answer that sharpens ƒ Read the passage carefully. ƒ Read the explanation for the best answer to each question and for the answer you chose (if the two are Words in Context different). and effective language use and impact. editorial decisions that improve them. nonfiction narratives. You’ll be asked to change words. such as tables. the humanities. For instance. detail. For instance. The directions on the next page match what you’ll encounter on the actual test. that improve the passages (such as revising a paragraph to be more consistent with the data presented in an You’ll want to read passages carefully so you can make informational graphic). Your goal will be to make a passage over multiple pages) in the left column and associated more precise or concise or to improve syntax. Expression of Ideas What the Writing and Some questions ask about a passage’s topic development. and punctuation. the passages and questions will be need to choose the best words to use based on the text in side-by-side columns. ƒ Some passages are accompanied by informational graphics. tone. style. and ƒ All questions are multiple choice and based on punctuation. and charts—but no math is required. you’ll be asked which words or structural The Writing and Language Test measures the practical changes improve how well a point is made and how well skills you use to spot and fix problems in writing—the the sentences and paragraphs work together. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 19 . Sample Writing and Language Test Materials Writing and Language What You’ll Read Analysis in History/Social Studies and in Science The passages you’ll read will be informative/explanatory You’ll be asked to read passages about topics in history/ texts. Language Test Materials Following are samples of the kinds of passages and Command of Evidence questions that may appear on the Writing and Language Questions that test command of evidence ask you to Test. usage. Standard English Conventions It’s worth keeping in mind the following facts about the Some questions relate to the building blocks of writing: test: sentence structure. sentences. For each set of sample materials: improve the way passages develop information and ideas. Some questions ask you to improve word choice. or multiple-choice questions in the right column. and science. clauses. graphs.  skills you’ve been learning in high school and that you’ll need for success in college and career. social studies and science and to make editorial decisions history/social studies.

Other questions will direct you to a location notably in that he chose to focus not on natural landscapes. In 1936. Writing and Language Test Questions Sample Writing and Language Test Materials Writing and Language Test Questions Directions assigned students a formal “school name. that he was named after it. Kingman exhibited his work spectators 1 watched as Kingman squeezes dollops of internationally. a pigeon writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform pecking for crumbs around a fire hydrant. most satisfying watercolors that have been seen beautiful hues as he layers the translucent paint onto the hereabouts in many a day. where Kingman completed his schooling. his works were often structure. such as a tiny. After reading each passage. painting emerged in Chinese art. The questions. A crowd of admiring During his career. or punctuation. garnering much acclaim. “king” the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. Kingman. you will consider how name Kingman was selected for its two 3 parts. most of a passage. bridges connecting neighborhoods on either side of a river. Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion departed from that tradition in a number of ways. described one of Kingman’s solo exhibits as “twenty of the from just a few primary colors. a time when a strong tradition of landscape and editing decisions. Each stroke of the brush and dab of the sponge transforms thinly sketched outlines into buildings. Many tending to a baby outside a doorway. In Hong Kong. Cantonese for “scenery” and “composition. a critic paint from several tubes into a tin watercolor 2 box. barely Dong Kingman: Painter of Cities visible cat prowling in the bushes of a park. His interest was so keen. His broader brush questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. you will consider how the and “man”.” passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence As Kingman developed as a painter. The street scene Kingman begins composing in this short film is very much in keeping with the urban landscapes for which he is best known. and streetlamps. skylines. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant strokes and sponge-painted shapes create majestic city portion of the passage as it is. such as mountains and rivers. To art critics and A 1954 documentary about renowned watercolor painter fans alike. choose the answer to each His fine brushwork conveys detailed street-level activity: question that most effectively improves the quality of a peanut vendor pushing his cart on the sidewalk.” The young boy Each passage below is accompanied by a number of who had been Dong Moy Shu became Dong Kingman. these city scenes represent the innovative spirit of Dong Kingman shows the artist sitting on a stool on Mott twentieth-century urban Modernism. however. Questions 1-5 are based on the following passage. Street in New York City’s Chinatown. shop signs. For some questions. A passage or a question compared to paintings by Chinese landscape artists dating may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising back to CE 960. with skyscrapers towering in the background. in fact. usage. Kingman creates dozens of freshest. but on cities. For other questions. teachers at that time customarily 20 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . Kingman was keenly interested in landscape painting from an early age. an old man to the conventions of standard written English.” 5 paper on his easel. and 4 delicately painted creatures. in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.

D) enormous ships docking at busy urban ports. sentence as well as some confusion about what the C) other details that help define Kingman’s prepositional phrase “from just a few primary colors” urban landscapes. Choice D is incorrect because the semicolon after C) box from just a few primary colors. “king” and “man” Estimated Difficulty: Easy Key: D Estimated Difficulty: Hard Key: B Choice D is the best answer because the simple Choice B is the best answer because the colon after present tense verb “watches” is consistent with the “parts” effectively signals that what follows in the tense of the verbs in the rest of the sentence and sentence further defines what the “two parts” of paragraph. modifies. and paragraph indicate that a specific. Kingman’s name are and because the comma after “man” properly indicates that “‘king’ and ‘man’” Choice A is incorrect because “watched” creates an and “Cantonese for ‘scenery’ and ‘composition’” are inappropriate shift to the past tense. Moreover. Choice D is the best answer because the phrase “enormous ships docking at busy urban ports” effectively continues the sentence’s series of details (“skyscrapers towering in the background” and s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 21 . nonrestrictive appositives.” C) would watch C) parts “king” and “man”. Choice B is the best answer because it provides punctuation that creates two grammatically complete 4 and standard sentences. actual Choice C is incorrect because the semicolon after “man” instance is being narrated. From just a few primary colors. “man” incorrectly joins an independent clause and Choice C is incorrect because “would watch” creates a phrase. D) watches D) parts. the comma after “parts” is an inappropriate shift that suggests a habitual or arguably a weak form of punctuation to be signaling hypothetical aspect when other verbs in the sentence the strong break in the sentence indicated here. incorrectly joins an independent clause and a phrase 2 and because the absence of appropriate punctuation after “parts” fails to indicate that “two parts” and A) NO CHANGE “‘king’ and ‘man’” are nonrestrictive appositives. “parts” incorrectly joins an independent clause and D) box. Choice B is incorrect because “had watched” creates Choice A is incorrect because the semicolon after an inappropriate shift to the past perfect tense. from just a few primary colors two phrases and because the absence of appropriate punctuation after “man” fails to indicate that “‘king’ and Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: B ‘man’” and “Cantonese for ‘scenery’ and ‘composition’” are nonrestrictive appositives. Sample Writing and Language Test Materials Writing and Language Test Questions 1 3 A) NO CHANGE A) NO CHANGE B) had watched B) parts: “king” and “man. Choice D is incorrect because it results in a comma Estimated Difficulty: Hard Key: D splice. A) NO CHANGE Choice C is incorrect because it results in a run-on B) exquisitely lettered street and storefront signs. The writer wants to complete the sentence with a Choice A is incorrect because it results in a comma third example of a detail Kingman uses to create splice as well as some confusion about what the his majestic city skylines. B) box. Which choice best prepositional phrase “from just a few primary colors” accomplishes this goal? modifies.

Stoplight A) Although Kingman’s work might not be as famous timing is coordinated to alleviate rush hour traffic as that of some other watercolor painters. paintings accessible to the public. referring to Kingman’s work as “but one example that conveys a sense of the majesty of city example” downplays the significance of any potential skylines as depicted by Kingman and thus does not legacy that might be suggested. United States and in China have continued to ensure that his now-iconic landscapes remain available for The work of transportation planners generally includes the public to enjoy. The transportation planner’s job the passage with a sentence that emphasizes the might involve conducting a traffic count to determine enduring legacy of Kingman’s work by indicating the daily number of vehicles traveling on the road to 22 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . it is well jams in a congested downtown area. Writing and Language Test Questions Sample Writing and Language Test Materials “bridges connecting neighborhoods”) conveying the that museums continue to make Kingman’s iconic majesty of city skylines as depicted by Kingman. is built on the outskirts of a small town. such as a tiny. Say. it concludes lettered street and storefront signs” does not convey the passage with a sentence that recalls a detail the a sense of the majesty of city skylines as depicted by passage provides about Kingman’s early life. planners work in or near cities. and improving those of work are a testament to the aptness of the name chosen for Kingman when he was just a boy. such as Georgia O’Keeffe and Edward Hopper. Kingman and thus does not effectively continue the Choice D is incorrect because it concludes the passage sentence’s series of details (“skyscrapers towering with a sentence that is too vague and general to in the background” and “bridges connecting emphasize effectively an enduring legacy of Kingman’s neighborhoods”). is too vague and general to constitute a third Moreover. rather than Kingman and thus does not effectively continue the emphasizes. Choice C is incorrect because instead of referring to Choice B is incorrect because the phrase “exquisitely the enduring legacy of Kingman’s work. a large factory with a new perspective. Choice A is incorrect because the phrase “delicately Choice A is incorrect because it concludes the painted creatures. 7 but some are lasting tradition refreshed by an innovative artist employed in rural areas. these changes 6 occur. Traffic to and Estimated Difficulty: Hard Key: B from that location would increase at the beginning and Choice B is the best answer because it concludes end of work shifts.” neighborhoods”). work. 5 A Life in Traffic The writer wants to conclude the passage with A subway system is expanded to provide service to a sentence that emphasizes an enduring legacy of Kingman’s work. barely visible cat passage with a sentence that acknowledges that prowling in the bushes of a park” does not convey a the works of other painters are more famous sense of the majesty of city skylines as depicted by than Kingman’s (which downplays. It is not clear what the idea of refreshing a Choice C is incorrect because the phrase “other long-lasting tradition is intended to mean or how (or details that help define Kingman’s urban landscapes” even whether) this represents an enduring legacy. A bike-sharing program is adopted accomplish this goal? to encourage nonmotorized transportation. Which choice would best a growing suburb. passage and supplementary material. Most transportation D) Kingman’s work was but one example of a long. assessing the C) The urban landscapes depicted in Kingman’s body effectiveness of existing facilities. museums across the analysis conducted by transportation planners. facilities or designing new ones. effectively continue the sentence’s series of details (“skyscrapers towering in the background” and Questions 6-10 are based on the following “bridges connecting neighborhoods”). evaluating current transportation needs. When any one of regarded by many people. the enduring legacy of Kingman’s work) sentence’s series of details (“skyscrapers towering and offers only a general assertion that Kingman’s in the background” and “bridges connecting work is “well regarded by many people. for example. it is likely the result of careful B) Since Kingman’s death in 2000.

backgrounds. 9 According to the American B) occur. a master’s degree is required. representatives from the occupations in the United States economy.” technology may be sufficient for some entry-level jobs in the field.” logistics management. All Occupations Transportation planners work closely with a number of community stakeholders. walking provides numerous C) occurs.” civil engineering. require at least a Choice B is incorrect because the plural verb “occur” does not agree with the singular subject “any one” bachelor’s degree.300 B) where job opportunities are more plentiful. or transportation and Choice C is incorrect because the plural pronoun “they” does not agree with the singular antecedent “any one. Total. geography. they are benefits related to health and well-being. urban and regional planners employed in the United C) and the majority are employed by States. such as government 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20% officials and other interested organizations and Adapted from United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Choice D is the best answer because it maintains agreement between the pronoun (“it”) and the People who pursue careers in transportation antecedent (“any one”) and between the subject planning have a wide variety of educational (“any one”) and the verb (“occurs”). however. Population growth and concerns about environmental Choice A is the best answer because it effectively sustainability are expected to spur the need for signals the shift in the paragraph to the example of the work a transportation planner might perform if transportation planning professionals. there were approximately 40. “All occupations” includes all individuals. it is the Chamber of Commerce might share suggestions Key: D Estimated Difficulty: Hard about designing transportation and parking facilities to support local businesses. The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics government agencies. If analysis of the traffic count indicates Urban and Regional Planners Percent Increase in Employment. Members of D) occurs. A two-year degree in transportation Choice A is incorrect because the plural verb “occur” does not agree with the singular subject “any one. they are Heart Association. For instance. predicting sentence with a period. 7 Transportation planners perform critical work Which choice results in the most effective transition to the information that follows in the paragraph? within the broader field of urban and regional A) NO CHANGE planning. majors of transportation planners and because the plural pronoun “they” does not are 10 varied. Projected 2010 –2020 that there is more traffic than the 8 current road as it is designed at this time can efficiently accommodate. agree with the singular antecedent “any one. D) DELETE the underlined portion and end the forecasts steady job growth in this field. local public health department might provide input in 6 designing a network of trails and sidewalks to encourage A) NO CHANGE people to walk more. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 23 . the Social Scientists and Related Workers transportation planner might recommend widening Urban and Regional Planners the road to add another lane. that employment of urban and regional planners Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: A will increase 16 percent between 2010 and 2020. including fields such as urban studies. Sample Writing and Language Test Materials Writing and Language Test Questions the new factory. Most jobs. Employment Projections program. As of 2010. For many positions in the field.

because it doesn’t provide specific examples were employed in a rural area. the sentence does not suggest this is the with “right now. Writing and Language Test Questions Sample Writing and Language Test Materials he or she were employed in a rural area and asked 9 to consider the effects of a new factory built “on the outskirts of a small town. a with “currently. Although the sentence D) current design of the road theoretically provides supporting evidence about the benefits of walking. Choice C is incorrect because noting that most C) Deleted. in the paragraph to the example of the work a transportation planner might perform if he or she D) Deleted. Adding such examples would only serve to blur the focus of the paragraph further with general factual information. as the paragraph’s main purpose is to discuss the community stakeholders with whom transportation planners work. Choice A is incorrect because “current” is redundant Choice B is incorrect because the underlined sentence with “at this time” and because “as it is designed” is should not be kept.” statement that only serves to interrupt the discussion of the actual community stakeholders with whom transportation planners work. At this point in the passage and paragraph. B) current design of the road right now Choice A is incorrect because the underlined C) road as it is now currently designed sentence should not be kept. a general statement about the benefits of walking only serves to 8 interrupt the discussion of the community stakeholders A) NO CHANGE with whom transportation planners work.” The writer is considering deleting the underlined sentence. Instead. Should the sentence be kept or deleted? Choice B is incorrect because noting that job A) Kept. the passage has not made Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: D a claim that needs to be supported in this way. Association could theoretically be an example of “other interested organizations” that transportation planners Choice B is incorrect because “current” is redundant work with. because it blurs the paragraph’s focus on the transportation planners work for government community stakeholders with whom transportation agencies does not effectively signal the shift planners work. Choice D is incorrect because the proposed deletion Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: C would create a jarring shift from the statement “Most transportation planners work in or near cities” to the Choice C is the best answer because it identifies the example of the work a transportation planner might best reason the underlined sentence should not be kept. the association is merely the source for Choice C is incorrect because “now” is redundant the general statement about the benefits of walking.” case. because it provides supporting evidence about opportunities are more plentiful in cities does not the benefits of walking. it is not because the sentence lacks specific examples of the numerous benefits of walking. Choice D is incorrect because. because it provides an additional example of a perform if he or she were employed in a rural area. Although the American Heart unnecessarily wordy. and including such a statement only serves to interrupt Choice D is the best answer because it offers a clear the discussion of the community stakeholders with and concise wording without redundancy or wordiness. community stakeholder with whom transportation planners work. 24 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . perform if he or she were employed in a rural area. effectively signal the shift in the paragraph to the example of the work a transportation planner might B) Kept. although the underlined sentence should be deleted. whom transportation planners work. of what the numerous benefits of walking are.

Sample Writing and Language Test Materials Writing and Language Test Questions 10 A) NO CHANGE B) varied. Choice D is incorrect because is it unclear from this construction to what exactly the relative pronoun “which” refers. Choice C is incorrect because “and which include” results in an ungrammatical sentence. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 25 . and including C) varied and which include D) varied. which include Estimated Difficulty: Hard Key: A Choice A is the best answer because it effectively uses a comma and “including” to set off the list of varied fields in which transportation planners major. Choice B is incorrect because “and including” results in an ungrammatical sentence.

Questions on the Math Test are you’ll probably find that the structure of the problem or designed to mirror the problem solving and modeling your reasoning skills will lead you to the answers more you’ll do in: efficiently. Calculators permitted during testing include: ƒ Solve problems quickly by identifying and using the most efficient solution approaches. using a calculator. sat. you’ll need to know how—and when—to use them. some—called student-produced responses—ask you to come up with the answer rather than select the ƒ Make sure your calculator is in good working order answer. you’ll be 25 minutes. operations. you’ll have to about a single scenario. The Math Test includes Instead of testing you on every math topic. With these questions. ƒ All four-function calculators (not recommended) 26 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . emphasizing Conceptual Understanding problem solving. to answer some questions you’ll need to ƒ Don’t bring a calculator you’ve never used before. you might be asked to make solve problems and use appropriate approaches and tools connections between properties of linear equations. The questions test your ability to and relations. all sorts of situations. The test center will not have batteries or extra calculators. A list of ƒ Carry out procedures flexibly. and You’ll demonstrate your grasp of math concepts. using algebraic structure. represent the problem mathematically. graphs. ƒ Most math questions will be multiple choice. ƒ Time allotted for Math Test – No Calculator: In the Math Test – Calculator portion of the test. Calculators are important tools. 38 questions on the calculator Calculator Use portion). your calculator can save you time. finding a ƒ All scientific calculators that don’t have the shortcut. For instance. and the contexts they represent. The Math Test includes a portion that allows the use of a determine the essential elements required to solve the calculator and a portion that does not. and to succeed after high ƒ 13 student-produced response questions. problem. time allotted for Math Test – Calculator: able to focus on complex modeling and reasoning because 55 minutes. acceptable graphing calculators can be found online at and strategically. asks you to use the math that you’ll rely on most in even though you’re allowed to. No power cords are allowed. science. efficiently. their strategically. What the Math Test Measures Acceptable Calculators Fluency Only battery-operated. ƒ 45 standard multiple-choice questions. ƒ College math. isn’t always the best way to solve a problem. but ƒ It may help to do scratch work in the test book. with fresh batteries. and social science courses ƒ Jobs that you hold Calculator Smarts ƒ Your personal life ƒ Bring your own calculator. This might ƒ Most graphing calculators involve solving a problem by inspection. using tools strategically. modeling. Get your thoughts down before using your calculator.org/calculators. like any tool. handheld equipment can be The Math Test is a chance to show that you: used for testing. same calculator you’ll use on test day. What the Math Test Is Like However. Practice for the test using the calculation is rarely enough to get the job done. the SAT some questions that it’s better not to use a calculator for. use several steps because in the real world. If your calculator fails ƒ Some parts of the test include several questions during testing and you have no backup. For instance. no-calculator portion. and ƒ Total questions: 58 (20 questions on the carry out a solution. Math Math Test Overview Math The SAT Math Test covers math practices. a single Bring one you know. You can’t share one. accurately. school. Math Test Overview Applications Some real-world problems ask you to analyze a situation. complete the test without it. or reorganizing the information you’ve unacceptable features listed here been given.

the use 2 Acceptable ways to grid 3 are: of hardware peripherals such as a stylus with an approved calculator is not permitted. including wearable technology point ƒ Models that can access the internet. ƒ Only answers indicated by filling in the bubble 201 201 NOTE: will be scored (you won’t receive credit for You may start your answers in any column. 667 with touch-screen capability are not permitted (e. entering your answer. notebooks. pen-input. ƒ Fractions like 3/24 do not need to be reduced to their They match what you’ll see at the beginning of both lowest terms. ƒ All mixed numbers need to be converted to decimals ƒ Decide on the correct answer to each multiple-choice or improper fractions before being recorded in the question. sections on the actual test. answer to each question and for the answer you ƒ If the answer is a repeating decimal.. In addition. make noise. answers can Test. Casio ClassPad). Take the time to be comfortable with the format before test day. Bluetooth. shown on page 31. the most accurate truncated or rounded value the grid ƒ Follow the directions for the student-produced will accommodate.g. 5 Fraction ƒ Tablets. Answering Student-Produced Response Questions Math Unacceptable Calculators 7 Answer: 12 Answer: 2. ƒ Review the notes at the beginning of the section. 7 / 1 2 2 . of the actual test. questions that may appear on both portions of the Math ƒ Unless a problem indicates otherwise. you must grid chose (if the two are different). For these sample materials: be entered on the grid as a decimal or a fraction. or any other personal line Decimal computing devices. have wireless. Some models 2 / 3 . The Following is a sample of the student-produced response directions match what you’ll see on both portions instructions you’ll see on the test. As long as the correct response is recorded within the grid area. Here are some important points: Answer: 201 – either position is correct ƒ Mark no more than one bubble in any column. then read the explanation for the correct grid. anything written in the boxes located above the space permitting. bubbles). response questions. laptops.5 You’re not allowed to use any of the following items as a Write calculator (unless approved as an accommodation): answer in boxes. cellular. camera. you’ll receive credit. feature ƒ Models that have QWERTY (typewriter-like) keypad. Sample Math Test Materials ƒ The grid can hold only four characters and can only The sample math questions that follow show the kinds of accommodate positive numbers and zero. Columns you don’t need to use should be ƒ It doesn’t matter in which column you begin left blank. Answering Student-Produced Response Questions You’ll see directions in the test book for answering student-response questions. or have a paper tape (unless approved by the College Board as an accommodation). audio/video recording and playing. or any other smartphone-type Grid in result. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 27 . 666 . or stylus ƒ Models that use electrical outlets.

The use of a calculator is not permitted. 3. Unless otherwise indicated. Reference  r c 2x 60° s 45° s√2 w h b x 30° 45° b a x√3 s A = pr 2 A = w 1 A = bh c 2 = a2 + b 2 Special Right Triangles 2 C = 2pr h r r h h h w r w   V = wh V = pr 2h 4 V = pr 3 1 V = pr 2h V = 1 wh 3 3 3 The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360. The number of radians of arc in a circle is 2 . You may use any available space in your test booklet for scratch work. 28 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . For question 6. 4. choose the best answer from the choices provided. solve the problem and enter your answer in the grid on the answer sheet. Figures provided in this test are drawn to scale unless otherwise indicated. All variables and expressions used represent real numbers unless otherwise indicated. the domain of a given function f is the set of all real numbers x for which f(x) is a real number. All figures lie in a plane unless otherwise indicated. 5. Math Test – No Calculator Questions Sample Math Test Materials Math Test – No Calculator Questions Directions For questions 1-5. 2. The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180. Notes 1. and fill in the corresponding bubble on your answer sheet. solve each problem. Please refer to the directions before question 6 on how to enter your answers in the grid.

8636x + 27. the misunderstanding of slope.8636 in the context of this problem? 5 A) The estimated mean number of students per classroom in 2004 B) The estimated mean number of students per x classroom in 2014 –5 5 C) The estimated yearly decrease in the mean number of students per classroom –5 D) The estimated yearly increase in the mean number of students per classroom If line ℓ is translated up 5 units and right 7 units. at y Central High School can be estimated using the ℓ equation y = 0. Therefore. equations do the x. a slope of less than 1 indicates a decreasing function. You may have erroneously 3 determined the slope of the new line by adding 5 to the The graph of y = (2x − 4)(x − 4) is a parabola in numerator and adding 7 to the denominator in the slope the xy-plane. In which of the following equivalent of line ℓ and gotten the result (-3 + 5 ) . The slope of a line can be determined by finding the difference in the Choice B is incorrect and may result from a y-coordinates divided by the difference in the misunderstanding of the limitations of the model. may have seen that x ≤ 10 and erroneously used this Using the points indicated. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 29 . Translating line ℓ moves all the points on the line the same distance in the same direction.227.and y-coordinates of the vertex of (-2 + 7 ) the parabola appear as constants or coefficients? Choice C is incorrect. the slope of line ℓ is − _. y. The mean number of students per classroom. D) y = (x − 2)(2x − 8) Choice D is incorrect and may result from adding _ to 5 7 Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: C the slope of line ℓ. You x-coordinates for any two points on the line. This value may result from a combination of errors. Choice B is correct. Which of the following statements is the best interpretation of the number 0. The Estimated Difficulty: Easy y-intercept of the equation represents the estimated mean number of students per classroom in 2004. When an equation is written in 3 the form y = mx + b. the coefficient of the x-term (in B) − _ 2 this case 0. 3 statement to determine that the model finds the mean 2 number of students in 2014. then what is the slope of the new line? Estimated Difficulty: Easy Key: D A) _ 2 5 Choice D is correct. This value may result from a combination of errors. where x represents the number of years since 2004 and x ≤ 10. 2 Choice A is incorrect. D) − 11 _ 14 Choice A is incorrect and may result from a Key: B misunderstanding of slope and y-intercept. Sample Math Test Materials Math Test – No Calculator Questions 1 2 Line ℓ is graphed in the xy-plane below. You may have erroneously A) y = 2x2 − 12x + 16 determined the slope of the new line by subtracting B) y = 2x(x − 6) + 16 5 from the numerator and subtracting 7 from the C) y = 2(x − 3)2 + (−2) denominator in the slope of line ℓ. You may have recognized 3 that slope models the rate of change but thought that slope of the image is also − _. The slope of this linear 8 _ equation gives the amount that the mean number of C) − 9 students per classroom (represented by y) changes per year (represented by x).8636) is the slope. and the Choice C is incorrect and may result from a image will be a line parallel to ℓ.

y = a(x − h)2 + k. k). 0) as a constant. (h. 16) as a constant. Choice C is correct. property to multiply the binomials yields the Choice B is incorrect and may result from a expression 98 + 168i – 14i – 24i 2. You may have thought that cosine is the inverse Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: D function of sine and therefore reasoned that the negative of the cosine of an angle is equivalent to the Choice D is correct. multiplying only the first terms together and the y = 2x2 − 12x + 16 second terms together. You Substituting this value into the expression gives you may have thought that. y = 2(x − 3)2 − 18 + 16 Factor inside the parentheses 5 ( p5 )? y = 2(x − 3) − 2 2 Simplify the remaining terms Which of the following is equal to sin Therefore.x ) . y = 2(x2 − 6x + 9) − 18 + 16 Move the extra term out of the parentheses Choice C is incorrect and results from misapplying the statement i = −1 . sin 5 ( )= . the negative sign only changes the orientation 30 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . vertex. 4 or are related by the equation sin(x ) = cos ( p2 . 16) as a constant.sin ( ) all of the equations are equivalent. You may not have correctly y = 2(x2 − 6x + 9 − 9) + 16 Make a perfect square distributed when multiplying the binomials. in the parentheses multiplying only the first terms together and the second terms together. of the parabola. The note in the misunderstanding of the unit circle and how question reminds you that i = −1 . You may also have used the incorrect equality i 2 = 1. to display the results in 122 + 154i. C) 74 + 154i Choice A is incorrect and may result from a D) 122 + 154i misunderstanding about trigonometric relationships. it displays the y-value of the y-intercept of the graph (0. Math Test – No Calculator Questions Sample Math Test Materials Choice C is correct. and combining like terms be written in vertex form. To put the equation in vertex Choice A is incorrect and may result from a form. simply knowing p the form that displays the coordinates of the vertex 5 C) cos ( ) will save all of these steps—this is known as “seeing 3p structure in the expression or equation. add like terms. You may not have correctly Then. (3. which of the following is equal to (14 – 2i)(7 + 12i)? (Note: i = −1 ) p Therefore. Estimated Difficulty: Hard Key: C Choice D is incorrect. are both revealed only in choice C. the coordinates of the vertex. which reduces to A) 74 B) 122 cos ( 310p ) . In the complex number system.” 10 D) sin ( ) Choice A is incorrect. −2). The next step is completing the square. 10 Choice B is incorrect. it displays the y-value of the 7p y-intercept of the graph (0. distributed when multiplying the binomials. i 2 = –1. y = 2(x2 − 6x) + 16 Isolate the x2 term by factoring Choice B is incorrect and may result from a combination of errors. Applying the distributive sine of that angle. it displays the x-value of one of the x-intercepts of the graph (2. 2x2 − 8x − 4x + 16 = 2x2 − 12x + 16. The equation y = (2x − 4)(x − 4) can 98 + 168i – 14i – (–24). Since you are told that A) -cos 5(p ) B) . Sine and cosine are cofunctions. it relates to trigonometric expressions. therefore. combination of errors. first multiply: (2x − 4)(x − 4) = 2x2 − 8x  − 4x + 16. on a coordinate grid.

7 / 1 2 2 . 6 x2 + y2 − 6x + 8y = 144 The equation of a circle in the xy-plane is shown above. as described below. the diameter is 26. Answer: 12 Answer: 2. not 3 . Sample Math Test Materials Math Test – No Calculator Questions of the triangle formed. In such cases. Diameter is twice the value of the radius. No question has a negative answer.) NOTE: 2 2 You may start your 6. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 31 . grid only one answer. not the value of the 7 trigonometric expression. 2. it will 31 1 201 201 be interpreted as . you will be asked to solve the problem and enter your answer in the grid. You will receive credit only if the bubbles are filled in correctly. What is the diameter of the circle? Estimated Difficulty: Hard Key: 26 Completing the square yields the equation (x − 3)2 + (y + 4)2 = 169. Mark no more than one bubble in any column. Columns you don’t it may be either rounded or truncated. but it must need to use should be fill the entire grid. 4. Mixed numbers such as 3 must be gridded as 2 Answer: 201 – either position is correct 3. Decimal answers: If you obtain a decimal answer answers in any column.5 or 7/2 (If / is entered into the grid. Student-Produced Response Math Questions For some questions in the Math Tests. 3. 2 Acceptable ways to grid 3 are: 1. Although not required. You may have confused the answer in boxes. space permitting. Some problems may have more than one correct answer. therefore. which when solved for r gives the value of the radius as 13. with more digits than the grid can accommodate. it is suggested that you 2 / 3 . left blank.5 Write Choice D is incorrect. Understanding this form results in the equation r2 = 169. 5 relationship between sine and cosine and Fraction line Decimal erroneously added to the given angle measure point instead of subtracting the angle measure from . the standard form of an equation of the circle. on the answer sheet. 667 write your answer in the boxes at the top of the columns to help you fill in the bubbles accurately. 666 . 1 5. Grid in result.

Unless otherwise indicated. For questions 9-10. 2. 32 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . and fill in the corresponding bubble on your answer sheet. solve each problem. The number of radians of arc in a circle is 2 . Please refer to the directions before question 6 on page 31 on how to enter your answers in the grid. Notes 1. 3. You may use any available space in your test booklet for scratch work. solve the problem and enter your answer in the grid on the answer sheet. Figures provided in this test are drawn to scale unless otherwise indicated. the domain of a given function f is the set of all real numbers x for which f(x) is a real number. 4. The use of a calculator is permitted. choose the best answer from the choices provided. 5. Reference  r c 2x 60° s 45° s√2 w h b x 30° 45° b a x√3 s A = pr 2 A = w 1 A = bh c 2 = a2 + b 2 Special Right Triangles 2 C = 2pr h r r h h h w r w   V = wh V = pr 2h 4 V = pr 3 1 V = pr 2h V = 1 wh 3 3 3 The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360. All variables and expressions used represent real numbers unless otherwise indicated. All figures lie in a plane unless otherwise indicated. Math Test – Calculator Questions Sample Math Test Materials Math Test – Calculator Questions Directions For questions 1-8. The sum of the measures in degrees of the angles of a triangle is 180.

of milk by the amount of calcium each cup contains the inequality 12n > 7n + 350 can be used to model the and multiplying the number of cups of juice by the scenario. amount of calcium. calcium per cup divided by the number of cups of each Choice D is incorrect and may result from a type of drink. but not to meet. therefore. with the total amount of think n should be less than this value. and cups of juice. One cup of dollars. of items n and evaluate the expression 7n. One way to find the correct answer Estimated Difficulty: Easy Key: A is to create an inequality.000 Key: C m j Estimated Difficulty: Medium Choice C is correct.000 C) n > 70 m j D) n > 84 299 261 D) + >1. m. Which of the following drink in a day to meet or exceed the recommended inequalities gives all possible values of n for which daily calcium intake from these drinks alone? the manager estimates that the company will make A) 299m + 261j ≥ 1. of producing n items is C = 7n + 350. Choice B is incorrect and may result from a misunderstanding of the meaning of inequality Choice B is incorrect and may result from a symbols as they relate to real-life situations. or you may have products must be greater than or equal to 1. Misunderstanding how the recommended daily value. 12n must be Choice A is correct. misunderstanding of how the cost equation models Choice D is incorrect and may result from a the scenario. the find the value of 84. and the wrong operation inequality relates to the scenario might lead you to may have been applied when calculating the total think n should be greater than this value. These values should be multiplied. the sum of these two notation to express the answer. a 20-year-old could that quantity of items.000 A) n < 70 B) n < 84 299 261 C) + ≥1. Which of the following a profit when the total income from selling a quantity inequalities represents the possible number of cups of items is greater than the total cost of producing of milk.000 a profit? B) 299m + 261j > 1. j.000 milligrams (mg). amount of calcium each cup contains gives the total amount of calcium from each source. The milk contains 299 mg of calcium and one cup of juice company sells each item for $12. amount of calcium intake from each drink. The income from sales of n items is 12n. Solving this inequality yields n > 70.000. If you use the cost of $12 as the number recommended daily amount. you will used allows the option to exceed. Here the wrong operation is applied. For the company to profit. Misunderstanding how the Choice C is incorrect and may result from a inequality relates to the scenario might lead you to misunderstanding of proportional relationships. The company makes contains 261 mg of calcium. you will find the value of 84. The inequality symbol of items n and evaluate the expression 7n. Multiplying the number of cups greater than the cost of producing n items. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 33 . in 20-year-old is 1. Because the question asks for You may have found the number of items of the the calcium from these two sources to meet or exceed break-even point as 70 and used the incorrect the recommended daily intake. You must then Choice A is incorrect and may result from a find the sum of these two numbers to find the total misunderstanding of the properties of inequalities. This misunderstanding of how the cost equation models answer does not allow for the daily intake to meet the the scenario. Sample Math Test Materials Math Test – Calculator Questions 1 2 The recommended daily calcium intake for a A company’s manager estimated that the cost C. incorrectly modeled the scenario when setting up an inequality to solve. If you use the cost of $12 as the number combination of mistakes.

a = 50. 34 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . the combined mean cannot be greater than or equal to that of the females. the exponential growth model can be written in the form combined mean must be between the two separate n _ means. Therefore. Math Test – Calculator Questions Sample Math Test Materials 3 4 At a primate reserve. In a doubling scenario. Therefore. Choice C is incorrect. this is the mean of the two means and misapplying an not the case. not every 12 years. In mean of the two means. This linear model indicates that the initial population is 50 animals and the population is increasing by 12 animals each year. inequality to the scenario. A population that doubles that because the mean of the females is greater than in size over equal time periods is increasing at that of the males. However. Therefore. misunderstanding of exponential equations or of the context. this is not the case. the mean of the two means and misapplying an inequality to the scenario. You must reason that because the mean of the males is lower than that of the Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: D females. the initial population is 50. the mean age of all the male A biology class at Central High School predicted primates is 15 years. b = 12. Which of the following must be every 12 years. an than or equal to the mean of the males. This answer makes an Choice A is incorrect and may result from a unjustified assumption that there are more females misunderstanding of exponential equations or of than males. However. the number of unjustified assumption that there are an equal number of male and female primates. This answer makes an this case. This linear model indicates that the initial population is 12 animals and the population is Choice C is incorrect and results from finding increasing by 50 animals each year. This answer makes an unjustified assumption that there are more males Choice B is incorrect and may result from a than females. However. the exponent 12n indicates that the population is doubling 12 times per year. where a is the initial population (that is. while also reasoning Choice D is correct. animals at the beginning of 2014. then which of the A) m = 17 following equations represents the class’s model of the population over time? B) m > 17 C) m < 17 A) P = 12 + 50n D) 15 < m < 19 B) P = 50 + 12n C) P = 50(2)12n Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: D n D) P = 50(2) 12 Choice D is correct. This is not the case. the population when n = 0) and b is the number of Choice A is incorrect and results from finding the years it takes for the population to double in size. the context. This exponential model indicates that the initial population is 50 animals and is doubling. The population at the beginning of true about the mean age m of the combined group of 2014 was estimated to be 50 animals. y = a(2) b . the combined mean cannot be less an exponential rate. If P represents male and female primates at the primate reserve? the population n years after 2014. The text explains that the population will double in Choice B is incorrect and results from finding size every 12 years. and the mean age of all female that a local population of animals will double in size primates is 19 years.

best fit. The line segments appear to be Estimated Difficulty: Easy Key: B perpendicular. 4. (You can also use the fact that ∠ABC and ∠CDE are congruent to make a similar argument. You may have misidentified the segments as perpendicular and used the wrong A) 2 notation to express this statement. C E Height of Nine People and Length D of Their First Metacarpal Bone 185 Note: Figure not drawn to scale.3. Given that △ABC is similar to Length of first metacarpal bone △EDC. you can determine that the corresponding (centimeters) ∠BAC is congruent to ∠CED.9 centimeters have heights that differ by more than may have incorrectly identified parallel lines as 3 centimeters from the height predicted by the line of perpendicular. The converse of the alternate _ _ interior angle theorem tells us that 6 AB || DE. A line of best fit is also shown. Sample Math Test Materials Math Test – Calculator Questions 5 Questions 6-8 refer to the following information. The A scatterplot below shows the relationship between the length of the first metacarpal bone and height of 9 people. 180 Height (centimeters) In the figure above. There are 2 people whose actual heights are more than 3 centimeters above the height predicted by the line of best fit. B The first metacarpal bone is located in the hand. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 35 . 175 Which of the following must be true? _ _ A) AE || BD 170 _ _ B) AE ⊥ BD _ _ 165 C) AB _ _ || DE D) AB ⊥ DE 160 Estimated Difficulty: Medium Key: C 155 4 4. 4.5 5 Choice C is correct. Choice A is incorrect.0. given the information provided. B) 4 C) 6 Choice B is incorrect and may result from using only the diagram and not considering the given D) 9 information.) How many of the 9 people have an actual height that differs by more than 3 centimeters from the height Choice A is incorrect and may result from multiple predicted by the line of best fit? misconceptions.8. there are also 2 people whose actual heights are farther than 3 centimeters below the line of best fit. and misunderstanding either the notation or the vocabulary of parallel and perpendicular lines. The people who have first Choice D is incorrect and may result from metacarpal bones of length 4. but need not be. △ABC is similar to △EDC. Choice B is correct. However. You 4.

however. you’ll likely find a predicted height of Choice A is correct.3 and 4. There are 6 data points in which 8 the absolute value between the actual height and the height predicted by the line of best fit is greater than Based on the line of best fit. notice that the scale of the x-axis is 0. The slope is the change in approximately 169 centimeters. Math Test – Calculator Questions Sample Math Test Materials Choice C is incorrect.1. the absolute value of the difference between actual height and predicted height B) 169 centimeters is not greater than 3 for all of the people. C) 170 centimeters D) 171 centimeters 7 Estimated Difficulty: Easy Key: C Which of the following is the best interpretation of the slope of the line of best fit in the context of this problem? Choice C is correct. the vertical distance divided by the change in the horizontal distance between any two points on a line. height for someone with a first metacarpal bone that has a length of 4. The data on the graph represents A) 168 centimeters 9 different people. you may have mistaken slope for the x-intercept. or slope. you may have mistaken slope for the y-intercept.45 is A) The predicted height increase in centimeters for one centimeter increase in the first metacarpal bone halfway between the unmarked value of 4. Choice D is incorrect. and therefore the x-value of 4. height for each increase of one centimeter of the first metacarpal bone. you’ll likely find a predicted height the change in the horizontal distance is the change of approximately 171 centimeters. If you mistakenly find the point D) The predicted first metacarpal bone length on the line between the x-values of 4.5. Choice D is incorrect.4 and the marked value of 4. If you selected this answer. Choice B is incorrect. First. what is the predicted 1 centimeter. If you selected this answer. and 4. If you mistakenly find the point Estimated Difficulty: Easy Key: A on the line that corresponds to an x-value of 4.4. If you selected this answer. C) The predicted height in centimeters of a person with a first metacarpal bone length of 0 centimeters Choice A is incorrect. is the increase in predicted point that has an x-value closest to 4.4 centimeters. choose this option if you mistakenly use the data The unit rate. You might also in the length of his or her first metacarpal bone. 36 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  .5 centimeters. you may have interpreted slope incorrectly as run over rise. the change in the vertical distance is on the line that corresponds to an x-value of the change in the predicted height of a person. If you mistakenly find the point In this context. you’ll in centimeters for a person with a height of likely find a predicted metacarpal bone length of 0 centimeters 168 centimeters.45 centimeters? Choice D is incorrect. Choice C is incorrect. which is 170.45. Then find the y-value on the B) The predicted first metacarpal bone increase in centimeters for every centimeter increase in height line of best fit that corresponds to an x-value of 4. Choice B is incorrect.45 centimeters.

you are asked to solve a house roof. the cosine of an acute fraction of solids and liquids that are metalloids angle is equal to the length of the side adjacent to is 7/92 or . Acceptable answers to grid are 2/3. In a right triangle.666. 4/6. are metalloids? 9 12 . Note that — cannot be entered into 3 24 the answer grid. described on page 31 of this booklet. and . or nonmetal and as solid.076. 24 metalloid. Metalloids 7 0 0 7 What is the value of cos x? Nonmetals 6 1 11 18 Key: 2. The dimensions shown are for the the problem and enter your answer in the grid. 16 This gives cos x = —. 8 . the angle divided by the length of the hypotenuse. constructing a perpendicular from the top vertex to the opposite There are 7 metalloids that are solid or liquid. 8/12. as interior of the triangle.667 7 Estimated Difficulty: Easy Key: . x° x° Solids Liquids Gases Total 32 ft Metals 77 1 0 78 Note: Figure not drawn to scale. Total 90 2 11 103 3 6 What fraction of all solids and liquids in the table Estimated Difficulty: Hard 6. . or gas at standard temperature and pressure. Therefore. . the triangles.076 92 Because the triangle is isosceles. Sample Math Test Materials Math Test – Calculator Questions Student-Produced Response 10 Math Questions An architect drew the sketch below while designing For questions 9 and 10.667. liquid. 9 ft The table below classifies 103 elements as metal. which can be simplified 24 2 16 to cos x = —.4 . 6/9.666. . and side will bisect the base and create two smaller right there are 92 total solids and liquids. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 37 . so this fraction must be reduced.

What the SAT Essay Is Like Write an essay in which you explain how [the author] The SAT Essay asks you to use your reading. and observes the conventions of standard The following student essays show you what kinds of written English. with points to consider ◾ evidence. What the SAT Essay Measures The SAT Essay shows how well you understand the passage and use it as the basis for a well-written. ƒ Examine ideas. The SAT Essay SAT Essay Overview The SAT Essay The SAT Essay is a lot like a typical college writing The Essay Prompt assignment for which you’re asked to analyze a text. Your essay will be scored on three You can count on receiving the same prompt no matter dimensions. rather explain how [the author] builds an argument to persuade [his/her] audience. including the interplay of central ideas and in common: important details. and write at the college level. ◾ reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims ƒ 1 passage and evidence. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with [the author’s] claims. to support and directions claims. but passage. All passages have these things the passage. organized. As you read the passage below. analysis. and precise. consider how [the SAT Essay Overview author] uses: Total questions: 1 prompt. Each student essay is followed by an explanation of why it received the assigned score on each of the three dimensions. reasoning. well­ The Essay Passage thought-out response. each on a 2–8 scale: when you take the SAT with Essay. debates. attributes will be evaluated in the SAT Essay. Take The prompt (question) shown below is nearly identical to the SAT with Essay and show colleges that you’re able to the one that will appear on the SAT. analyze how [the author] uses one or more of the features listed above ƒ Read a passage. You’ll be asked to: that [author’s claim]. has varied Sample Essay Materials sentences. to add power to the ideas expressed. builds an argument to persuade [his/her] audience and writing skills. ƒ Time allotted: 50 minutes to read and analyze the ◾ stylistic or persuasive elements. cultural. analyze. Be persuade an audience. (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the ƒ Explain how the author builds an argument to logic and persuasiveness of [his/her] argument. most relevant for completing the task Writing: A successful essay is cohesive. or trends in the arts and and/or stylistic and persuasive techniques (or other sciences or in civic. ƒ Argue a point Analysis: A successful essay shows your understanding ƒ Express subtle views on complex subjects of how the author builds an argument by: ƒ Use logical reasoning and evidence to support claims ƒ Examining the author’s use of evidence. such as facts or examples. In your essay. read. such as word passage and to develop a written response choice or appeals to emotion. 38 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant ƒ Support your explanation with evidence from the features of the passage. It also shows effective use of textual ƒ Are written for a broad audience evidence. or political life elements of your choosing) ƒ Are always taken from published works ƒ Supporting your claims and points effectively All the information you need to write your essay will be ƒ Focusing on those features of the passage that are included in the passage or in notes about it. uses an appropriate style and tone. but the passage Reading: A successful essay shows that you understood will be different every time.

Remember that people who are not familiar with this one related to a passage adapted from an article your handwriting will read what you write. consider how Paul Bogard uses ◾ evidence. 2012. Only what Your essay must be written on the lines provided in you write on the lined pages of your answer booklet your answer booklet.” ©2012 by Los Angeles Times. and recent research suggests one main cause of “short sleep” is “long light. notebooks and smartphones to bed. there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in our lives. as we cheer the days’ gradual movement back toward light. which keeps certain cancers from developing. In your essay. Today. such as word choice or appeals to emotion. ◾ stylistic or persuasive elements. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 39 . of the essay task in the context of a specific prompt. I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. let us also remember the irreplaceable value of darkness. Sample Essay Materials Sample Essay Sample Essay Directions The essay gives you an opportunity to show You have 50 minutes to read the passage and write how effectively you can read and comprehend a an essay in response to the prompt provided inside passage and write an essay analyzing the passage. such as facts or examples. meaning too much artificial light at night.” Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin. and our bodies need darkness for sleep. and the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for “light pollution reduction efforts and glare reduction efforts at both the national and state levels. cardiovascular disease and depression. and use language precisely. except for the Planning Page will be evaluated. to support claims. Adapted from Paul Bogard. when 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. write or print so that what you are writing is legible to those readers. when we feel the closeness of nightfall. As you read the passage below. I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars. obesity. to add power to the ideas expressed. present a clear Reminders: and logical analysis. you will receive no other ◾ An off-topic essay will not be evaluated. spells trouble for all. Try to by Paul Bogard about the value of natural darkness. this booklet.” Whether we work at night or simply take our tablets. “Let There Be Dark. you should demonstrate that you have read the passage carefully. And too little darkness. 1 At my family’s cabin on a Minnesota lake. paper on which to write. You will have enough space if you write on every line. But now. avoid wide margins. This winter solstice. ◾ reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence. we reach quickly for a light switch. ◾ Do not write your essay in this booklet. though. 3 Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. I worry we are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness before realizing its worth. Sleep disorders have been linked to diabetes. 2 All life evolved to the steady rhythm of bright days and dark nights. of the answer booklet. Originally published December 21. The following sample illustrates the general format and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size.

how would Van Gogh have given the world his “Starry Night”? Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us. Even Paris. Sample Essay Sample Essay Materials 4 The rest of the world depends on darkness as well. Though primarily designed to save energy. . our nights are growing brighter. Write an essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. without darkness. mammals. using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. quiet and stillness. night’s darkness can provide solitude. Already. Those of us over 35 are perhaps among the last generation to have known truly dark nights. wrecking habitat and disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. including nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds. Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for a soulful life. In a world awash with electric light . louder. show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. qualities increasingly in short supply. in our children or grandchildren? 6 Yet all over the world. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Bogard’s claims. Light pollution is readily within our ability to solve. Simply put. offices and public buildings to turn off lights after 2 a. more fast-paced world. Some examples are well known—the 400 species of birds that migrate at night in North America. fish and reptiles. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. such reductions in light will also go far in addressing light pollution. In your essay. based on NASA photographs. the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. will this summer start to require its shops. Even the northern lake where I was lucky to spend my summers has seen its darkness diminish. 7 It doesn’t have to be this way. . . insects. In the United States and Western Europe. But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing. Much of this light is wasted energy.” which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a. Computer images of the United States at night. which offer dramatic possibilities for controlling wasted light. . such as the bats that save American farmers billions in pest control and the moths that pollinate 80% of the world’s flora. philosophers and everyday stargazers since time began. many cities and towns across North America and Europe are changing to LED streetlights. Other communities are finding success with simply turning off portions of their public lighting after midnight. Ecological light pollution is like the bulldozer of the night. 5 In today’s crowded. 40 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . and the chance to witness the universe has inspired artists. which means wasted dollars..m. analyze how Bogard uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument.m. the famed “city of light. . the sea turtles that come ashore to lay their eggs—and some are not. Earth’s ecology would collapse. but rather explain how Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience.

this essay displays only a strung together without a clear progression of ideas partial understanding of the source text. diabetes. animals and about mother why darkness can be good for us). animals and about mother nature that he cardiovascular disease and depression. he also claims is the argument. but once again. but doesn’t explain how these points relate to care about). disorders. His essay talks about so animals need darkness to feed eat move much facts about sleeping how so little around because there noctuaral creatures. This response scored a 2/1/1. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 41 . The writer notes that Bogard’s text used two sentences in a row in this brief response). the writer does nothing comprehension of the source text. SAMPLE 1 Bogard builds an argument to persuade and really costing people because they his audience about what he is concering have light all night long. obesity. Other than identifying these as Reading—2: This response demonstrates some persuasive facts. but without contextualizing these details Writing—1: This response demonstrates little within Bogard’s broader argument. however. the audience. can effect us health wise examples like He has details facts about human body. Thus. cardiovascular disease undermines the quality of writing. nature that he can use to support his idea of not using there is no explanation of how or why these features so much light at night and how we need darkness. For example. the text. talks about so much facts about sleeping how so little Weak control of the conventions of standard can effect us health wise examples like getting sleep written English. With these features he can organization classifies working night shift persuade the auidence because people is bad. suggesting that cohesion and inadequate skill in the use and the writer is relaying ideas from the text without control of language. the essay offers inadequate Prior to this. This facts helps people persuade response demonstrates inadequate writing skill. the writer mentions the health to establish a clear central claim (Bogard builds problems cited in the text. in part because of without explaining how the evidence contributes to repetitive transitions. problems much understanding of how they contribute to the with language control impede the writer’s ability whole. obesity. are persuasive. where conclusion of the essay (With these features he can the writer indicates that Bogard includes details persuade the auidence because people dont know facts about human body. can use to support his idea of not using This facts helps people persuade the so much light at night and how we need audience he also say that the world health darkness. the writer has included details from analysis of Bogard’s text. that working the night an argument to persuade his audience about what shift is classified as bad. Sample Essay Materials Sample Essay Sample Student Essays The following student essays show you what kinds of attributes will be evaluated in the SAT Essay. The response also lacks a recognizable Bogard’s main claim that we must preserve natural introduction and conclusion. coupled with vague word choice. (For example. the writer merely lists Analysis—1: In this essay. this and depression. (for much of the response. In his argument is not all about dont know why darkness can be good for how it bad for the body he also claims and us. He also claims about and feels it important to take light is messing with mother nature that care about. the writer has merely claims Bogard makes). He was all of facts and examples that have proof that light cost are expensive he claim is efficting us and there world. although the to indicate an understanding of the analytical task. and sentences are darkness. diabetes. writer’s understanding of Bogard’s central idea isn’t The writer again mentions persuasion before the conveyed until the latter part of the essay. getting sleep disorders. Overall. Each essay is followed by an explanation of why it received the assigned score on each of the three dimensions. The response also lacks identified aspects of Bogard’s use of evidence variety in sentence structures. From the outset. On the whole. and that light costs are he is concering about and feels it important to take high.

Bogard uses scientific fact He points to the necessity of darkness to prove that natural darkness is a key to in producing melatonin. insects. involving bats arguments for natural darkness shows how and moths that show the positive actions it can benefit humans. need for humans and need for by analyzing sleep. Paul Bogard supports that helps prevent certain cancers from the preservation of natural darkness. these Bogard divides his argument into three include “diabetes. these points. of philosophers.” To associate this beneficial to humans. health effects of sleep disorders. In the first body paragraph. He developing in the human body. and essential to ecosystems. This response scored a 4/1/3. Then.. obesity. he talks about the negative to prove the need for natural darkness. He first makes the nature. and stargazers these discussed the 400 species of North for millennia. Providing these to humans. essential artists. that some nocturnal animals perform.” be a positive help to humans. Bogard uses an argument to support his position then concludes his argument that that has three primary points—benefit to darkness is essential to human well-being humans. The writer also sees the should be preserved) and aptly notes that Bogard’s connection between darkness as a source of solitude argument encompasses three main points: that and it inspiring countless numbers of philosophers. natural darkness is beneficial to humans. One of the Bogard uses scientific evidence to support ways it can accomplish this is by giving his belief in the preservation of natural enjoyment to onlookers. He gives two specific. mammals. Sample Essay Sample Essay Materials SAMPLE 2 Paul Bogard strongly believes that natural obvious claim that darkness is essential darkness should be preserved. The writer briefly child relates to his claim that natural darkness can summarizes Bogard’s central idea (natural darkness give enjoyment to onlookers. To supplant this. and essential to ecosystems. Here. Bogard gives a personal example of how he enjoyed seeing meteors dart across the Bogard’s third primary defense of natural night sky in Minnesota as a child. develop. saying that natural darkness is disease and depression. and religion. night sky has inspired countless numbers well-known examples of these species. with his argument for natural darkness. He states a find of the World natural darkness would essentially destroy Health Organization that declares the night an ecology that took billions of years to shift can be detrimental to one’s health. Supporting this claim. artists. natural darkness can one of the primary causes of “short sleep. a hormone nature and ecology. cardiovascular main topics. He notes that there are a variety of solitude. He also gives a couple of of electric light. and stargazers for millennia. which say that “long light” is According to Bogard. for example. Bogard of nocturnal and crepuscular species states that darkness is invaluable to every of birds. He then gives an appealing American birds that migrate at night and allusion by asking how Van Gogh could the sea turtles that lay their eggs on the have painted “Starry Night” in the mist shore at night. One of Bogard’s primary lesser-known examples. Also he darkness declares that it is essential to states that natural darkness can be a source nature. darkness. Reading—4: This response demonstrates thorough the writer demonstrates comprehension of how comprehension of Bogard’s text and a clear Bogard’s personal example of how he enjoyed seeing understanding of the interrelation between the meteors dart across the night sky in Minnesota as a central idea and important details. saying that removing to humans. The writer details highlights the writer’s understanding of provides various details from the text that support Bogard’s claim that natural darkness can benefit 42 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . He then concludes his argument for Bogard then gives a scientific case that nocturnal darkness necessary to nature shows why natural darkness is essential with persuasion. essential to humans. Additionally Bogard says that the reptiles worldwide. In order for sleep. Bogard states the findings of recent research. fish.

at or near the end of each body argumentative elements in Bogard’s text. . Bogard divides his argument to nature. how Bogard builds his argument with evidence. . need for humans and need for understanding of the analytical task. or highly effective progression of ideas demonstrates effective use and control of language. the response demonstrates Although the writing in this response is proficient. . Although nature) although the conclusion is not marked off by clearly comprehending the entirety of Bogard’s a paragraph break. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 43 . such as paragraph. The response also includes a the writer comprehensively understands Bogard’s generally effective conclusion that summarizes rather argument and is able to convey it in his own words. The writer reasoning. He uses an argument Analysis—1: The response offers ineffective to support his position that has three primary points— analysis of Bogard’s text and demonstrates little benefit to humans. Instead of Sentence structure tends to be repetitive and simple. The response is organized clearly argument. the writer restates the point that introduces the appealing allusion Bogard offers regarding Van that paragraph (Bogard then gives a scientific case Gogh’s Starry Night or the scientific evidence Bogard that shows why natural darkness is essential to uses to support his belief in the preservation of natural humans. The writer continues to demonstrate how The writer presents an effective introduction with details in Bogard’s text relate to each other and to a clear central claim that lays out the three points Bogard’s central idea in the subsequent discussion discussed in the response (In order to prove the need of how darkness is essential to humans’ health and for natural darkness. Bogard uses scientific evidence to support darkness. saying that natural darkness is text. Overall. into summary. precise Writing—3: This mostly cohesive response word choice. providing effective analysis. nor also demonstrates a clear progression of ideas does the writer communicate what effect Bogard’s both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. inadequate analysis. For example. and each body paragraph stays on topic. it does not demonstrate the sentence variety. Although little is directly quoted from the into three main topics. the writer’s thorough paraphrasing of multiple beneficial to humans. the writer only identifies however. essential to humans. that is expected at the advanced level. than advances the essay (Paul Bogard supports the preservation of natural darkness. or stylistic or persuasive elements. The writer instead consistently lapses his belief in the preservation of natural darkness). and essential details taken from across the passage indicates that to the ecosystem). Sample Essay Materials Sample Essay humans. the writer does not communicate around the three points identified in the introduction. argumentation has on his audience.

He builds this claim Bogard’s alludes to Paris as “the famed by making use of a personal anecdote. writer Paul Paris’ traditionally alluded-to name and Bogard argues that natural darkness the reality of what Paris is becoming – no should be preserved in his article “Let longer “the city of light”. darkness can possess.” In telling this brief anecdote. It shows that even a city that is literally famous for Bogard starts his article off by recounting being constantly lit can practically address a personal story – a summer spent on a light pollution in a manner that preserves Minnesota lake where there was “woods the beauty of both the city itself and the so dark that [his] hands disappeared universe as a whole. Bogard makes subtle yet efficient to remember a time where they could fully use of rhetorical questioning to persuade amass themselves in natural darkness his audience that natural darkness void of artificial light. ‘city of light’”. This furthers argument by using a personal anecdote. By first referencing “Starry Night”. and rhetorical how steps can be and are being taken to questions. He effectively builds his city of light…before 2 AM”. glamour. Sample Essay Sample Essay Materials SAMPLE 3 In response to our world’s growing this. Bogard’s argument is also chance sways them to see as Bogard sees. while the reader may have seen an unobscured This anecdote provides a baseline of night skyline before. but moreso “the There be dark”. Bogard challenges the audience Finally. and rhetorical questioning. will surely spur some kind of response. undoubtedly beautiful. the author means to night sky might inspire in each of us. Bogard draws argument for the preservation of natural out heartfelt ponderance from his readers darkness by reminiscing for his readers about the affecting power of an untainted a first-hand encounter that proves the night sky. our children or grandchildren?” in a way and awe-inspiring mystery that genuine that brutally plays to each of our emotions. This urges the readers to weigh the the prescence of natural darkness. preserve natural darkness. He asks the readers with a personal encounter about readers to consider “what the vision of the night darkness. unaffected darkness. A world absent of relevant and multifaceted. Bogard develops his argument. his line of argumentation because it shows allusions to art and history.” at the readers’ heartstrings. Furthermore. Bogard creates a dichotomy between reliance on artificial light. before [his] eyes. By doing 44 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . unnatural. By drawing in his preservation is essential. excess artificial light could potentially hold the key to a grand. forcing the audience to directly history – Paris’ reputation as “The City of face an emotionally-charged inquiry that Light”. He then goes on to state allusions. Paul disadvantages of our world consumed by Bogard argues that we must preserve true. This rhetorical question tugs “irreplaceable value of darkness. furthered by his use of allusion to art – This strategy is definitively an appeal to Van Gogh’s “Starry Night” – and modern pathos. By a painting generally considered to be doing this. He builds his By asking this question. vapid lighting. the possibility that sorts for readers to find credence with the their child or grandchild will never get the author’s claims. glorious night Writing as a reaction to his disappointment sky like Van Gogh’s according to the that artificial light has largely permeated writer. in establish the potential for beauty. how Paris has taken steps to exercise more sustainable lighting practices. Bogard establishes adding gutthral power to the idea that the that the natural magnificence of stars in issue of maintaining natural darkness is a dark sky is definite.

By drawing in his readers with demonstrates a strong command of the conventions a personal encounter … the author means to establish of written English. the response within paragraphs and throughout the response. our world consumed by unnatural. For example. instead. deliberate progression of ideas of errors of fact or interpretation. but more they could fully amass themselves in natural darkness so “the city of light…before 2AM”). the response succinctly and claim (He effectively builds his argument by using accurately captures the entirety of Bogard’s argument personal anecdote. the response exemplifies the potential for beauty. and rhetorical questions. the personal anecdote that opens the passage and Writing—4: The response is cohesive and citing Bogard’s use of Paris’ reputation as “The City demonstrates highly effective use and command of of Light. how Bogard builds his argument over the course vapid lighting. and is also of sophisticated sentences (By doing this. allusions to art and history. The response is also free text. . demonstrates advanced reading comprehension. and the writer is able to rhetorical questions). This type of insightful analysis is evident preserve true. . Sample Essay Materials Sample Essay This response scored a 4/4/4. Bogard alluded-to name and the reality of what Paris is challenges the audience to remember a time where becoming – no longer “the city of light”. such as referring to analytical skill. Bogard able to describe the overall effect of that choice on creates a dichotomy between Paris’ traditionally his audience (In telling this brief anecdote. and the body paragraphs are articulate how details in the source text interrelate tightly focused on those three elements of Bogard’s with Bogard’s central claim. The cogent chain comprehension of the source text through skillful of reasoning indicates an understanding of the overall use of paraphrases and direct quotations. glamour. mystery that genuine darkness can possess. The response void of artificial light. Overall. Overall. we must audience. phrase (the natural magnificence of stars in a dark the writer is able to explain carefully and thoroughly sky is definite. This s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 45 . unaffected darkness). and presents throughout the response and indicates advanced many details from the text.” There are few long direct quotations from language. both precise word choice and well-chosen turns of allusions to art and history. The response contains a precise central the source text. There is a clear. The writer effect of Bogard’s personal narrative both in terms briefly summarizes the central idea of Bogard’s of its function in the passage and how it affects his piece (natural darkness should be preserved. the writer offers a night sky). The writer’s brief introduction and conclusion are Analysis—4: This response offers an insightful skillfully written and encapsulate the main ideas analysis of the source text and demonstrates a of Bogard’s piece as well as the overall structure of sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. There is a consistent use of In analyzing Bogard’s use of personal anecdote. . the response features a wide possible reason for why Bogard chose to open his variety in sentence structure and many examples argument with a personal anecdote. anecdote provides a baseline of sorts for readers to find Reading—4: This response demonstrates thorough credence with the author’s claims). the affecting power of an untainted of the passage. and awe-inspiring advanced writing proficiency. the writer’s analysis. and in the writer’s own words. Moreover.

use of textual evidence The response focuses consistently The response demonstrates a (quotations. and/or feature(s) of and highly effective progression The response is free of errors the student’s own choosing. The SAT Essay Scoring Guide   The SAT Essay Scoring Guide Score Reading Analysis Writing 4 Advanced: The response Advanced: The response offers an Advanced: The response is cohesive demonstrates thorough insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a highly effective comprehension of the source text. demonstrates some precise word The response focuses primarily on choice. The demonstrating a comprehensive and/or stylistic and persuasive response demonstrates a deliberate understanding of the text. The response contains relevant The response has variety in paraphrases. and/or feature(s) of The response demonstrates a clear with regard to the text. demonstrating a complete most relevant to addressing the task. reasoning. use of textual evidence (quotations. of ideas both within paragraphs of fact or interpretation The response contains relevant. evaluates the author’s use The response includes an effective The response is free of substantive of evidence. precise central claim. claim(s) or point(s) made. and demonstrates a sophisticated use and command of language. choice. paraphrases. progression of ideas both within the student’s own choosing. The response makes appropriate paragraphs and throughout the essay. elements. idea(s) and of most important well-considered evaluation of the The response includes a skillful details and how they interrelate. demonstrating and sufficient support for sentence structures. introduction and conclusion. The response includes a understanding of the text’s central The response offers a thorough. errors of fact and interpretation or stylistic and persuasive elements. The response includes a central understanding of the text’s central The response competently claim or implicit controlling idea. and/ introduction and conclusion. variety in sentence structures. or both). The response shows an understanding of the analytical task. The response shows an understanding of the analytical task. The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors. sufficient. author’s use of evidence. idea(s) and important details. The response an understanding of the source text. with regard to the text. 3 Proficient: The response Proficient: The response offers Proficient: The response is mostly demonstrates effective an effective analysis of the cohesive and demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. or on those features of the text that are consistent use of precise word both). and strategically chosen The response has a wide The response makes skillful support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response maintains a those features of the text that are formal style and objective tone. source text and demonstrates an use and control of language. reasoning. formal style and objective tone. and throughout the essay. 46 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. most relevant to addressing the task. The response maintains a understanding of the source text.

The response contains little or no and vague word choice. control of the conventions of Or the response offers no standard written English and discernible analysis (e. reasoning. The response may deviate noticeably from a formal style and objective tone. The response has limited variety The response contains little or no in sentence structures. or the response’s analysis are structures may be repetitive. undermine the quality of writing. choice may be poor or inaccurate. but merely asserts rather conclusion. The both). The response may lack a clear idea(s). and/or feature(s) of discernible progression of ideas. on features of the text that are The response shows a weak relevant to addressing the task. errors of fact and/or interpretation and/or stylistic and persuasive The response does not have a with regard to the text.. and/or haphazard use of textual demonstrate some progression evidence (quotations. introduction and conclusion. elements. paraphrases. reasoning. to describe the author’s use of may deviate from the claim or idea The response may contain errors evidence. Or one or more aspects of of ideas within paragraphs but or both). and/or feature(s) of the student’s own ineffective introduction and/or choosing. is may contain numerous errors that largely or exclusively summary). without reference to central idea(s). explanation some aspects of the The response lacks a recognizable The response may contain numerous author’s use of evidence. word choice most relevant to addressing the task. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 47 . structures may be repetitive. The response makes little or The response lacks variety in no use of textual evidence Or numerous aspects of sentence structures. The response shows a limited control of the conventions of standard written English and contains errors that detract from the quality of writing and may impede understanding. The response may lack a clear focus The response demonstrates general on those features of the text that are or vague word choice. understanding of the text’s central understanding of the analytic task. the student’s choosing. response demonstrates general understanding of the source text. unwarranted based on the text. word support for claim(s) or point(s) made. ineffective analysis of the source and inadequate skill in the use The response fails to show an text and demonstrates little or no and control of language. The response may lack a formal The response may not focus style and objective tone.g. 1 Inadequate: The response Inadequate: The response Inadequate: The response demonstrates little or no offers little or no analysis or demonstrates little or no cohesion comprehension of the source text. paraphrases. sentence (quotations. or support is largely irrelevant. The response may The response makes limited than explains their importance. may be repetitive. of fact and/or interpretation stylistic and persuasive elements. and may include only details The response identifies without central claim or controlling idea. demonstrating some the response’s analysis are not throughout the response. The SAT Essay Scoring Guide Score Reading Analysis Writing 2 Partial: The response Partial: The response offers Partial: The response demonstrates demonstrates some comprehension limited analysis of the source text little or no cohesion and limited skill of the source text. and/or over the course of the response. The response may include an with regard to the text. sentence support for claim(s) or point(s) made. understanding of the source text. The response may lack a clear understanding of the text’s central The response identifies and attempts central claim or controlling idea or idea(s) but not of important details. and demonstrates only partial in the use and control of language. The response shows an understanding of the analytical task. demonstrating little or no unwarranted based on the text.

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The College Board. Corrections and additions to your score report recipients can be made online until By registering for or taking the SAT. and its testing staff. Searches may ƒ Creating multiple College Board student accounts. You can send all your ƒ In the event of a test security–related concern. or damaged. backpacks. SAT Terms and Conditions  SAT Terms and registration fee. or other scores to send an institution by test date for the SAT unexpected events or circumstances. such as name. universities. public scores to an institution. including first name. and mailing address. last name. and such indicated when you registered. where feasible. or misleading information about yourself. ETS. ƒ Most. Giving false registrations. brought to the test center on test for score reporting purposes as well as the other day that becomes lost. you acknowledge that your school has calculators and other electronic devices. current grade level. or scholarship programs you want to send your ƒ To ensure the integrity of the SAT Program. completed are not included. date of birth. Board may cancel testing for all or a particular group Score Choice™ is optional. Board. such as metal detecting intentionally or inadvertently. or you can choose which health threat. A paper copy of your score report from College Board test administrations that occurred can be requested at the time of registration. attending high school. in violation of our Test Security and Fairness cancel scores. ETS. ƒ SAT Program policies are subject to change at any ƒ If your school participates in an SAT School Day time for test security or other reasons. and a colleges. for further investigation. expected available by phone several weeks after the test date. and are not reported to you or your designated ƒ In certain cases. your scores cannot be reinstated policies. ƒ Each time you test. scores will be reported online and address. that detect prohibited and can result in an investigation and/or the merging devices and/or their use. and additional score other actions as the College Board. result in an investigation. sex. date of birth. communicate test cancellations and. Once you submit your request to used. volume in a particular area or for test security ƒ Only score reports from completed and scored tests reasons. terrorist act. stolen. mobile phones. although circumstances may limit our ability information. bags. including where there is unexpected institutions. cancellation of scores. We will all of your scores to the recipient institutions. including your permanent College Board record to be used prohibited items. you’re certifying nine days after the test. or photo. is strictly prohibited wands or other methods. can Your score report will be delivered to the high school. The first four are included with your test College Board reserves the right to bar any individual 48 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . graduation date. The SAT administration and/or bulk registration process for Program will attempt to provide adequate prior the test. If you’re undecided about where to send your scores. By taking the SAT and signing the SAT ƒ All personal property brought into the test center. report requests will be delivered a few weeks after the deems appropriate. prior to the test administration at issue.

along with any schedule a makeup test for impacted test takers. administrator) reserve the right to dismiss test takers. patterns. a testing TO THE FAILURE OF TEST ADMINISTRATION irregularity occurs. including centers to ensure test security. but not THE COLLEGE BOARD HAS BEEN ADVISED OF limited to. or law enforcement agencies. OR ANYONE CLAIMING BY OR THROUGH THEM FOR ANY DAMAGES. or score reporting. THE STUDENTS OR THE SCHOOL. with the administration of a test. or with scoring the test. and used for the purposes of (1) identifying and/or investigating possible SAT When. there is suspected impersonation. the test taker’s identification. in our sole judgment. including your high school reports. stored. but we won’t and (3) enhancing SAT test security. and other them. These questions may appear in any of the test accommodations not approved by the College Board. Grounds for Score Cancellation The College Board and ETS (the College Board’s test INCIDENTAL. unusual answer THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. ARISING FROM. discrepant handwriting.. reviewed. whether to score lost answer sheets that are INCLUDING ITS SUBCONTRACTORS. WHETHER OR NOT deemed invalid for another reason. a test taker is improperly OR THE TEST CENTER TO COMPLY WITH THE admitted to the test center. as applicable. improper timing. prohibited items. The resulting images if investigation indicates attempts to gain an unfair or recordings. INDIRECT. provide a refund of the test fee. CONSEQUENTIAL. SCHOOL DISTRICTS. video. a test taker engages in COLLEGE BOARD’S AND ITS SUBCONTRACTORS’ misconduct. based on a test taker’s testing history TEST SECURITY AND TEST ADMINISTRATION the validity of the score is suspect. (2) collecting evidence in that has already been reported. and property of the College Board or third parties. or audio at any or all test be communicated to intended score recipients. NOT BE LIABLE TO TEST TAKERS. These are the sole remedies for test takers in relation to such issues. we cancel a test score test security incidents. These images disclose the reason for cancellation unless authorized to and/or recordings are maintained following the test do so by the test taker. THE COLLEGE BOARD. sections. s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 49 . may be collected. Thereafter the images and required by law. including.g. answer sheets. improper seating. Pending investigations are kept ƒ The College Board or its designee may use methods confidential. there is an apparent discrepancy in PERSONNEL. and/or cancel any test scores BY. OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES. EXEMPLARY. which may permit the College Board advantage through actions such as impersonation. the relevant essay or other content. SCHOOLS. ƒ EXCEPT AS OTHERWISE INDICATED IN THESE The College Board has sole discretion in determining TERMS AND CONDITIONS. registration records are properly handled and ƒ If the College Board becomes aware that you or processed. problem with shipping or otherwise processing we reserve the right to contact the appropriate registration materials. use of to identify specific individuals.g. but results of completed investigations may to capture images. or score individuals or agencies. and other emergencies). we’ll notify score connection with possible SAT test security incidents. They will not be included in computing disruptions of test administrations (e. administrative ƒ We occasionally pretest new questions to determine if they should be included in a future SAT test form. INCLUDING DIRECT.. or plagiarism. or where for the purposes specified. and testing time will be extended by defective materials. and defective equipment). Such problems include. recordings are securely destroyed. without limitation. they may affect an and/or as reasonably necessary to protect the rights individual or groups of test takers. SPECIAL. WHICH ARE CAUSED decline to score any test. SHALL eventually recovered. In the unlikely event of a a determination based on the content of your essay. Grounds for Score Cancellation SAT Terms and Conditions or group of individuals from registering for and/or ƒ The College Board takes steps to ensure that taking any College Board test. We might also provide the College Board will correct the error. errors (e. or personal information. to those contacted. as requested by law enforcement. administration for as long as reasonably necessary in certain cases that affect a group of test takers. including handled and scored. and that answer sheets are properly someone else may be in imminent danger. or attempts to send/receive test content. natural disasters students’ scores. recipients that the score was canceled. if possible. OR OTHERWISE RELATED when. The College Board Testing Irregularities Testing irregularities refer to will NOT use or disclose such information except as problems or irregular circumstances or events associated described above. or the score is POLICIES AND PROCEDURES. for any of these reasons. evidence of 20 minutes so students have time to answer possible preknowledge of secure test content.

cell phones. or after in greater detail. We are solely responsible for determining whether testing irregularities have occurred. them to anyone else. text similar to that in other essays.. unusual answer patterns. or the photo doesn’t meet our given by test center staff. we may ƒ Refusing to follow any of the test administration regulations in The SAT and SAT Subject Tests Student decline to score the test. score. or looking through. in addition. ƒ Attempting to take the test for someone else or attempting to have someone else impersonate you to Identification Discrepancies When there’s a discrepancy take the test. Evidence of invalid scores may include. discrepant handwriting. or after a review of to. of taking a makeup test. but not limited to. SAT Terms and Conditions Grounds for Score Cancellation When testing irregularities occur. or that the scores aren’t valid. but not limited If at any time before. discussion or sharing of test content Service Questions Test Scores. These are the sole remedies administration. When appropriate. requirements. a part of the test. or about our concerns. Repeated infractions during the test may result in dismissal from the test center or score Invalid Scores We may also cancel scores if there is cancellation. or discussing them with anyone else through any means. we give affected ƒ Leaving the test room without permission. Before canceling scores under this Invalid Scores section. or the internet. including during breaks. Misconduct When we find misconduct in connection their scores may be canceled without applying procedures with a test. we notify the test taker in writing (via email if possible) ƒ Improperly accessing the test. available to test takers as a result of testing irregularities. ƒ Taking any test questions or essay topics from the paraphrasing of text from published sources. any test or test arbitration in accordance with ETS’s standard Arbitration section while leaving the answer sheet blank. the test taker may be denied admission to or dismissed from the test center. smartphones. decline to connection with the test. made via email if an email address is available.) Notification of the concern may be form while testing is in session in the testing room. Test takers whose scores are canceled substantial evidence that they’re invalid for any other due to misconduct will forfeit test and registration fees. including may do this whether or not the affected students caused using a calculator on a test or test section you’re not the testing irregularities. you might not be admitted to the test center. in administration or individual registrations. Agreement. including during breaks. smartwatches. When ETS notifying the test taker we send ƒ Attempting to give or receive assistance. If substantial evidence still exists ƒ Referring to. during. a free retest under closely monitored conditions. in other registration materials. email. and our ƒ Consuming food or drink in unauthorized areas. we offer the test taker options test section in the test book or answer sheet. notes and reference books. We ƒ Sharing or other misuse of equipment. without Misconduct includes. the test taker may be dismissed from the normally used for students as explained in the Invalid test center. If the photo on your admission ticket doesn’t match or given by the test supervisor. we may treat the matter under our misconduct 50 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . addressing the concerns. or engaged allowed to use calculators for. including through memorization. or ETS may decline to score the test or may Scores section. other questionable scores we find that test misconduct has oral or written communication devices or wearable occurred. See more information about makeup testing below. your ID. let the test taker submit information information about the test. cancel the test score. without charge. score all or part of the test. including. including a copy of the booklet Why and How Educational Testing by copying. ƒ Using any prohibited aids such as. in misconduct. text messages. or working on any test. decisions are final. but is not limited to: limitation. looking through. reason. (Any test taker may request a copy of this the test. communication with other test takers in any booklet at any time. ƒ Attempting in any manner to remove from the test Students and parents may not review scores from the room any part of a test book or any notes relating to affected administration before choosing the option the test. etc. plagiarism. we may cancel an technology. and consider any such information submitted. other than that may include voluntary score cancellation or third-party during the testing period for that test or test section. and essays testing room. Testing History Based on a test taker’s testing history. or ƒ Referring to. or the test center. or cancel the test score. review. or immediately cancel the test Registration Booklet. benefited from them. test takers the opportunity to take the test again as soon ƒ Leaving the building at any time during the test as possible. giving that aren’t independent compositions. during breaks. in a test taker’s identification or photograph on the ƒ Disturbing others or refusing to follow instructions admission ticket. which explains this process during the test administration.

law enforcement. the options described under hand-scored verification or essay score verification or this Invalid Scores section or in the Testing Irregularities both. aspect of how a college or scholarship program uses a not for makeup testing. ƒ Score Choice lets you choose which scores are sent.S. or abroad. During check-in only. student’s score for admission decisions. in that case. and sent to your designated colleges 1–3 weeks after the any other government agencies in the U. The following policies apply to makeup testing: ƒ The availability of makeup testing and the conditions About Score Choice that make test takers eligible to take a makeup test College and scholarship program–specific SAT score- are at the sole discretion of the College Board. ƒ Each time you take the SAT. and U. test centers may be closed. additionally. If you used a fee waiver to pay in the United States and Canada.org/verify-scores. other unusual conditions. by printing and section. Suspected Impersonation In cases where we believe that someone other than the registered test taker took the Score Reporting test for the registered test taker. high school. be able to change your SAT Essay option. territories. and in other cases where Score reports will be automatically sent to you and your required or permitted by law. even if it was available for that you verify the SAT score-use practices of the colleges the original test date. we reserve the right to share this information with your high ƒ You can order additional score reports. will not be available. SAT with Essay. power outages. natural disasters. in the Score Choice materials might not include every ƒ Sunday testing is offered for religious reasons only. explained at sat. as applicable. All of your scores are reported If we find that you have gained or attempted to gain or to your high school. We’re not responsible for the accuracy of the information Verifying Your Scores or the consequences of your decisions. any other score recipients. The registered test taker specifically have access to a copy of your essay if you took the acknowledges. and colleges and other institutions the registered test taker requested ƒ The colleges you choose to receive score reports will scores be sent to. such disclosure. your scores. program may change periodically and may not be ƒ The Question-and-Answer Service (QAS) isn’t automatically updated in Score Choice. After that. or Reporting Violations an SAT Subject Test. You can request a more comprehensive multiple-choice s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 51 . options were previously offered. you’ll be charged the additional score report request During bad weather. we may refer the matter to high school and to the institutions you choose when you law enforcement and inform the registered test taker’s register.org/verify-scores.S. the scores are added to your College Board record. and agrees to. or scholarship programs you’re sending your scores to. ƒ If you want to change where your scores are sent. SAT with Essay. Score verification services include the Student Answer Your high school will continue to have access to all of Services for the SAT. Read the information on the form carefully before requesting this service. request is received. the score verification fee will be available only for tests administered in the United States reduced. use practices referenced in Score Choice materials are ƒ You may only take tests that you registered to take based on information provided to us by each participating on the original date. legal guardian(s). There The retest option is available only for tests administered is a fee for this service. even if those completing a Request for SAT Score Verification form. The arbitration option is SAT registration fees. or fee for any added or changed report requests. They’ll be school. up to five months after the test date. parent(s). We recommend offered for makeup tests. share an unfair advantage on any College Board test. SAT ƒ Access to scores from makeup administrations may score-use practices for a particular college or scholarship be delayed by several weeks. you have until 9 days after the published test date to Makeup Testing alter your 4 free score reports at no charge. available at sat. if the The description of a particular SAT score-use practice supervisor can accommodate this request. Makeup Testing SAT Terms and Conditions procedures. you may college or scholarship program.

State the SAT prior to November 1. For requests to have a permanent will be reported automatically if your mailing address or College Board student record removed. Scholarship application forms are request student information based on a variety of criteria. If you’re not sure whether the school you’re applying to is part of such a The New York State Standardized Testing Law requires system. and other Some of the scholarship programs in the SAT Code List identifying information of seniors who registered to take have restrictions or prerequisites for eligibility.O. formance at specific postsecondary institutions. U. Box 025505. However. College Board. These are time. it’s still important for you to send your deadline is October 6. Georgia. P. phone numbers. the College Board does help individual colleges and univer­ Releasing Your Scores to the sities use and interpret SAT and SAT Subject Test scores. other schools in that Scholarships at Cornell University on the basis of their system will also have access to your score. Delaware. that you specifically authorize the sending of all reports. notify The College Board SAT Program. However. 2018. SAT scores to each individual school. but organizations can Scholarship Program. Rhode Island. you scores that offer insights into your skill levels. Miami.S. to be used as one Scholarship Program. Byrd Honors Scholarships and Regents submit your score to one school. Miami. Idaho. contact the school’s admission office. or West Virginia. P. The College Board automatically reports scores and Keeping Scores on File identifying information (including email address) for Your test scores. and for U. colleges and universities may identify you to authorize the release of your scores when you apply for a give you materials about college admission and financial scholarship. of this booklet for the phone number and address. the District of Columbia. contain scores that have been converted to the College Board’s 200–800-point scale. Pennsylvania. or Social Security no fee when your report is sent to the New York State number to these organizations. who are New York scholarship program participants may change at any State residents and applied for scholarship(s). 52 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  . who authorized their release are sent to the program. Attention: scaled score by itself or in combination with any other Confidentiality. individuals must high school is in one of the following states: call College Board Customer Service or write to the Alaska. Washington. unless you tested before have to use one of your free score reports. January. 2018. Illinois. once you the Robert C. and related personal information that you states. New York State Scholarship Program Test scores are the property of the College Board. 2018. North Carolina. Missouri. New Jersey. The College can stop the automatic reporting of your test scores by Board doesn’t use either your raw score or your reported writing to The College Board SAT Program. FL 33102 by no information to predict your individual future academic per­ later than the 15th day after the test date. government and state scholarship programs. source of information to recognize student achievement. Box 025505. To do that. Attention Customer Service. The College Board releases to the New York State Scholarships Scholarship Program names. test scores. your high school. FL 33102. Kentucky. sent by the State Education Department to principals which may include score range or other variables such as of all high schools in New York State in December or geographical location or expressed interests. The you’re applying to more than one school in a college or latest published SAT administration date that meets this university system. NYS as the Presidential Scholars Program. and colleges residence. Tennessee.S. The SAT includes additional If you attend school or live in one of the above states. matched to student files and the scores of all students date information. such purpose. The New York State Scholarship Program requires that New York State students who wish to be considered for In certain college and university systems. If The College Board automatically reports scores to certain you don’t want your name and address released for this U. answer “yes” and sign the score aid. and the list may not always reflect the most up-to. Your SAT score entering the ninth grade. addresses. SAT Terms and Conditions Score Reporting Sending Scores to College For students who meet certain specific criteria (last and University Systems name and score range). your responses to the SAT Presidential Scholar consideration for test takers in all Questionnaire.S. if SAT scores take the SAT before November 1. North Carolina State University may provide a scholarship regardless of your state of The reports received by you. Student Search Service does not report your course release statement in the scholarship application. citizens abroad so you don’t record and are kept indefinitely.O. There’s grades. See the front Maryland. Your SAT scores and other information from your If you’ve decided to participate in the Student Search record will be sent to the scholarship program if you Service. territories. and provide to the College Board become part of your student Puerto Rico.

while the that certain information concerning the purposes of the correlation between high school GPA and freshman GPA test. independent educators students who took the SAT in California in December from throughout the United States. Required Information for Students Testing in California or New York State SAT Terms and Conditions Ordering Older Scores Predicting College Grades The College Board can’t guarantee that older scores can The main purpose of the SAT is to determine how always be retrieved. the multiple score interpretation. message also notifies colleges that for SAT Subject Tests. Under standardized conditions.51. But the SAT should not be used as the sole performance than more recent scores would be. along with information on test preparation and ongoing research into the redesigned SAT will be released sample questions. and GPA alone.48.050 first- time. inappropriate for any particular group of students based on race/ethnicity or gender.org/verify-scores. In addition. information about the relationship between the SAT and college grades. procedures for GPA raised the correlation 0. SAT scores provide meaningful after a test date will include a message explaining that information about a student’s likelihood of success in they may be less valid predictors of college academic college. releasing score reports and for reviewing challenges about and 0.49. 2. are provided in the booklets The SAT as they become available. the test taker’s knowledge of the subject may A pilot predictive validity study was conducted in the change given additional study in the area.53. and score interpretation be given to test adjusted for restriction of range to account for enrolled takers along with the registration form or score report. Find out more at sat. The New York State Standardized Testing Law requires the correlation with freshman GPA is 0. For both sections (SAT Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and SAT Math). Procedures to Ensure See how to request our SAT Answer Verification Services: Fairness and Equity Question-and-Answer Service (QAS) and Student Answer All SAT Program test questions and editions of the Service (SAS) at sat. The correlation between the predicting future grade point averages must be provided Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section scores and to test takers prior to the administration of the test or freshman GPA is 0. procedures for releasing score reports. which are available free of charge from school offices for students who plan to register for these tests. The results of the tests. Complete descriptions of the content of well as its rigorous validity research agenda. The normal response time for score prepared students are to succeed. and scores may fall semester of 2014 to give colleges and universities become less valid predictors within a shorter time period. Student Guide and The SAT Subject Tests Student Guide.05 over SAT scores alone. Results The California Education Code requires that you be of this research indicate that SAT scores. This source of information for high-stakes decisions. test fairness and equity.org. Students Testing in California First-year college performance data—courses taken and grades in those courses— for those students provided by or New York State the institutions in June 2015 inform the relationship of the predictive validity of redesigned SAT scores. and between the SAT Math section coinciding with the initial reporting of test scores. first-year students across 15 four-year institutions Required Information for were administered a pilot form of the redesigned SAT.. by calling (925) 808-2000. All correlations are test questions. students’ narrower band of scores as compared to the The information for both California and New York State wider range of scores observed in an applicant pool. both in college and delivery may not apply.10 over high school GPA alone. test takers is furnished in The SAT and SAT Subject Tests The College Board is committed to maintaining and Student Registration Booklet and in the materials included improving the high level of technical quality of the SAT as with score reports. predict freshman property rights of the test subject and test agency to the GPA more accurately than SAT scores or high school test scores. tests are reviewed by external. The combination of SAT scores and high school the test scores. Because the SAT assesses the content that research shows matters most for college Official score reports sent to colleges five or more years and career readiness. scores and freshman GPA is 0. correlation between both SAT scores and high school Statistical information related to the use of test scores in and freshman GPA is 0. in career training programs. For the students in the study. with a student’s high school GPA. in combination given certain information about the purposes of the tests. property rights of the test taker and test agency to is 0. The test as a whole includes s 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide 53 . These reviews help 2018 can review the test questions under secure ensure that wording and content are unambiguous and conditions at the ETS Western Field Office in Concord. relevant and that the language used is not offensive to or Calif.58.

Seniors who graduated in 2015 with reported family income below $40. obtain the full range of SAT scores.000 obtained scores at or above the national average. SAT Terms and Conditions Required Information for Students Testing in California or New York State references to men and women. Many based on their performance on other questions in the test students from low-income families do well on the test.40s. and cultural backgrounds. ethnic. students Questions that were statistically harder than expected from every income level. Relationship of SAT Scores to Family Income The correlation of SAT scores and student-reported family income tends to be in the 0. are excluded from the tests.20s–0. as reported on the SAT for a particular group of students to answer correctly Questionnaire. as well as to individuals Although average SAT scores tend to be higher for from varied racial. which is consistent with general research findings on the relationship between educational measures and family income level. students from higher-income families. 54 2018–2019 SAT Student Guide  .

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