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DR 09051 (Project ID: 8326)
Draft for Public Comment Australian/New Zealand Standard
LIABLE TO ALTERATION—DO NOT USE AS A STANDARD
BEGINNING DATE FOR COMMENT: CLOSING DATE FOR COMMENT: 29 June 2009 31 August 2009
Overhead line design Part 1: Detailed procedures
Draft for Public Comment Australian/New Zealand Standard
The committee responsible for the issue of this draft comprised representatives of organizations interested in the subject matter of the proposed Standard. These organizations are listed on the inside back cover. Comments are invited on the technical content, wording and general arrangement of the draft. The preferred method for submission of comment is to download the MS Word comment form found at http://www.standards.com.au/Catalogue/misc/Public Comment Form.doc. This form also includes instructions and examples of comment submission. When completing the comment form ensure that the number of this draft, your name and organization (if applicable) is recorded. Please place relevant clause numbers beside each comment. Editorial matters (i.e. spelling, punctuation, grammar etc.) will be corrected before final publication. The coordination of the requirements of this draft with those of any related Standards is of particular importance and you are invited to point out any areas where this may be necessary. Please provide supporting reasons and suggested wording for each comment. Where you consider that specific content is too simplistic, too complex or too detailed please provide an alternative. If the draft is acceptable without change, an acknowledgment to this effect would be appreciated. When completed, this form should be returned to the Projects Manager, Brian Lester via email to firstname.lastname@example.org. Normally no acknowledgment of comment is sent. All comments received electronically by the due date will be put before the relevant drafting committee. Because Standards committees operate electronically we cannot guarantee that comments submitted in hard copy will be considered along with those submitted electronically. Where appropriate, changes will be incorporated before the Standard is formally approved. If you know of other persons or organizations that may wish to comment on this draft Standard, could you please advise them of its availability. Further copies of the draft are available from the SAI Global Customer Service Centre listed below and from our website at http://www.saiglobal.com/.
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Draft for Public Comment STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND Committee EL-052—Electrical Energy Networks, Construction and Operation Subcommittee EL-052-05 — Design of Overhead Electrical Lines DRAFT Australian/New Zealand Standard Overhead line design Part 1: Detailed procedures (To be AS/NZS XXXX:200X)
Comment on the draft is invited from people and organizations concerned with this subject. It would be appreciated if those submitting comment would follow the guidelines given on the inside front cover. This document is a draft Australian/New Zealand Standard only and is liable to alteration in the light of comment received. It is not to be regarded as an Australian/New Zealand Standard until finally issued as such by Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand.
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee EL-052-05, Electrical Energy Networks, Construction and Operation—Design of Overhead Electrical Lines. The objective of this Standard is to provide Electricity Industry network owners, overhead line maintenance service providers, design consultants, construction contractors, structure designers, and pole manufacturers with an industry standard, that replaces all previously used reference guidelines. This Standard is Part 1 of a series of four document— Part 1: Overhead line design Standard—Detailed procedures, which is a Standard that sets the detailed design requirements for overhead lines. Part 2: Overhead line design Standard—Simplified procedure, which is a Standard that sets simplified design requirements for overhead lines, which are typically at distribution voltages and applying to commonly used pole construction. Part 3: Application guide for the design of overhead lines, which is a Handbook providing supporting information, commentary, worked examples and supporting software (where applicable) for the design of overhead lines. Part 4: ENA guidelines for the construction, maintenance and work practices of overhead lines, which is an Electricity Industry guideline for the purpose of facilitation of standard work practices throughout the electricity supply industry.
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Page SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL 1.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL ............................................................................................ 6 1.2 REFERENCED AND RELATED DOCUMENTS....................................................... 6 1.3 DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................. 6 1.4 NOTATION............................................................................................................... 14 SECTION 2 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES 2.1 GENERAL................................................................................................................. 17 2.2 LIMIT STATE DESIGN............................................................................................ 17 2.3 DESIGN LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES ................................................................... 19 2.4 OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AN OVERHEAD LINE....................... 19 2.5 OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF OVERHEAD LINES.................................. 19 2.6 RELIABILITY........................................................................................................... 19 2.7 COORDINATION OF STRENGTH.......................................................................... 19 2.8 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS............................................................... 20 SECTION 3 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS 3.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS .............................................................................. 21 3.2 CURRENT CONSIDERATIONS .............................................................................. 21 3.3 INSULATION SYSTEM DESIGN ........................................................................... 21 3.4 LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE OF OVERHEAD LINES........................................ 21 3.5 ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE DISTANCES TO AVOID FLASHOVER ................. 22 3.6 DETERMINATION OF STRUCTURE GEOMETRY............................................... 24 3.7 SPACING OF AERIAL CONDUCTORS.................................................................. 25 3.8 INSULATOR AND AERIAL CONDUCTOR MOVEMENT AT STRUCTURE .... 35 3.9 LIVE LINE MAINTENANCE CLEARANCES ........................................................ 38 3.10 CLEARANCES TO GROUND AND AREAS REMOTE FROM BUILDING, ROADS, RAILWAYS AND NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS ................................... 38 3.11 POWER LINE EASEMENTS.................................................................................... 43 3.12 CORONA EFFECT ................................................................................................... 43 3.13 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ................................................................... 44 3.14 SINGLE WIRE EARTH RETURN (SWER) POWERLINES.................................... 44 SECTION 4 AERIAL CONDUCTORS AND OVERHEAD EARTHWIRES (GROUND WIRES) WITH OR WITHOUT TELECOMMUNICATION CIRCUITS 4.1 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................ 46 4.2 MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................... 48 4.3 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................. 53 4.4 AERIAL CONDUCTOR CONSTRUCTIONS .......................................................... 54 4.5 AERIAL CONDUCTOR SELECTION .................................................................... 54 SECTION 5 INSULATORS 5.1 INSULATION BASICS............................................................................................. 56 5.2 LINE AND SUBSTATION INSULATION COORDINATION ................................ 56 5.3 ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN ....................................................... 57 5.4 RELEVANT STANDARDS, TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF INSULATORS........................................................................................................... 58
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....................8 CHARACTERISTICS AND DIMENSIONS OF FITTINGS ...............2 ACTIONS. 61 6........................6 DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS ........................................................... 59 6............... 66 SECTION 7 ACTION ON LINES 7......................................... 68 7..................15/06/2009 13:22:00 ........................................................ 85 10................................................... 91 SECTION 11 LINE EQUIPMENT—OVERHEAD LINE FITTINGS 11......................................................... 73 SECTION 8 SUPPORTS 8.........1 GENERAL.................................................................1 GENERAL............................DRAFT ONLY 4 DRAFT ONLY SECTION 6 BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN 6............ 93 11..................................1 GENERAL.................................................... 92 11.......................................................................................................................................... 93 11. UPGRADING..................................................3 RIV REQUIREMENTS AND CORONA EXTINCTION VOLTAGE.................................................................................................................................................2 REQUIREMENTS...................................... 90 10...................3 DIMENSIONING WITH RESPECT TO CORROSION AND MECHANICAL STRENGTH ....................5 MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS .....................................4 LOAD COMBINATIONS ...................... 77 SECTION 9 FOUNDATIONS 9....................4 ACTIONS ................................................. 59 6............4 SOIL INVESTIGATION .. 92 11.............................................5 BACKFILLING OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS .................................................. 83 SECTION 10 EARTHING SYSTEMS 10...................................................................................................... 72 7. 82 9...................2 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS ................. 92 11........... UPRATING) OF EXISTING OVERHEAD LINES 12..................5 MATERIAL PROPERTIES.......................5 LOADING TESTS ... 92 11............................................................................................................................................................. 65 6.........................7 MATERIAL SELECTION AND SPECIFICATION............... 66 6..................... 68 7......................6 MODELLING FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RESISTANCE.................................3 LIMIT STATES..........7 LOAD TESTING OF FOUNDATIONS ........................................6 FOUNDATION DISPLACEMENTS.1 INTRODUCTION ..........6 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF STAYWIRE DESIGN ........................................................ 75 8.............. 75 8......2 EARTHING MEASURES AGAINST LIGHTNING EFFECTS......................................................................................... 77 8.......... 84 10..........................................4 SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT AND POWER ARC REQUIREMENTS ......................................................................................PERMISSIBLE VALUES ................... 81 9..........................................................3 LOAD COMPONENTS.4 DIMENSIONING WITH RESPECT TO THERMAL STRENGTH ....................... 81 9..................1 GENERAL PURPOSE.......... 76 8.......... 84 10.................................................................................................. 85 10..........2 MATERIALS AND DESIGN ......1 INITIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS......................................................................................................................................................2 DESIGN PRINCIPLES.................................................................................. 95 SECTION 12 LIFE EXTENSION (REFURBISHMENT...........................1 GENERAL................................4 MAINTENANCE FACILITIES....... GENERAL APPROACH ........................................................3 CORROSION PROTECTION AND FINISHES................. 82 9..................... 82 9................9 TEST REQUIREMENTS................................................ 84 10............................................................ 96 DR 09051-PDR ...............7 CHOICE OF EARTHING MATERIALS ....................5 RISK BASED EARTHING ...............8 CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION .. 92 11........................................ 82 9...................................................................................... 82 9............................ 93 11.........3 POLE AND TOWER FOUNDATIONS .................
...................... 163 L STRUCTURE FOOTING DESIGN AND GUIDELINES FOR THE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS .... 151 H ELECTRICAL DESIGN ASPECTS ............................... 207 P INSULATION GUIDELINES ................................... 110 C SPECIAL FORCES ............................................... 96 COMPONENT CAPACITY .................................................3 TELECOMMUNICATIONS REPEATERS EQUIPMENT AND TRAFFIC MIRRORS ................................................................LIMIT STATES........................ 262 AA AERIAL CONDUCTOR SHORT TIME AND SHORT-CIRCUIT RATING......... 156 I CONCRETE POLES ................................................................................ 258 Z AERIAL CONDUCTOR STRESS AND FATIGUE.................................................................................................................2 12................... 257 Y AERIAL CONDUCTOR DEGRADATION and SELECTION FOR DIFFERING ENVIRONMENTS ............................................................................................... 101 APPENDICES A REFERENCE AND RELATED DOCUMENTS ...................................................................... 271 CC MECHANICAL DESIGN OF INSULATOR .................... 127 D SERVICE LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES .........................................................................5 ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES ............. 234 U RISK BASED APPROACH TO EARTHING .......................................... 103 B WIND LOADS ..... 280 FF DETERMINATION OF STRUCTURE GEOMETRY............................ 99 14..................................... 237 V AERIAL CONDUCTOR PERMANENT ELONGATION................................................................................................................................................... 279 EE SNOW AND ICE LOADS................................ 268 BB AERIAL CONDUCTOR ANNEALING AND OPERATING TEMPERATURES ................................................................... 159 J COMPOSITE FIBRE POLES ............................................................................................ 254 X AERIAL CONDUCTOR COEFFICENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION .....................................1 SIGNS AND BANNERS AND TRAFFIC MIRRORS .......... 213 R INSULATION SWING ANGLE CALCULATIONS ......................................... 97 SECTION 13 PROVISIONS FOR CLIMBING AND WORKING AT HEIGHTS SECTION 14 CO-USE OF OVERHEAD LINE SUPPORTS (SIGNAGE........................... 210 Q MID SPAN SEPARATION CALCULATIONS .................................................. 97 UPGRADING OF OVERHEAD LINE STRUCTURES ............................................................................................................................2 COMMUNICATIONS CARRIER CABLES .............................................................. 162 K STEEL POLES ..................................................................................................... 193 N UPGRADING OVERHEAD LINE STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................. BANNERS.. 198 O WATER ABSORPTION TEST ........................ 143 F TIMBER POLES . COMMUNICATIONS CARRIER CABLES...15/06/2009 13:22:00 ...... 101 14..................................... TELECOMMUNICATIONS REPEATERS) 14...................................................................................... 251 W AERIAL CONDUCTOR MODULUS OF ELASTICITY .......................3 12.......................... 97 PROOF LOADING.......................................................DRAFT ONLY 5 DRAFT ONLY 12.............. 134 E DESIGN FOR LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE .......................................... 219 T AERIAL CONDUCTOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND SAG MEASUREMENT ................................................. 145 G LATTICE STEEL TOWERS (SELF SUPPORTING AND GUYED MASTS)................................................... 166 M APPLICATION OF STANDARDIZED WORK METHODS FOR CLIMBING AND WORKING AT HEIGHTS .............................................................................................................................................................. 278 DD EASEMENT WIDTH .. 287 DR 09051-PDR ............................................................... 215 S AERIAL CONDUCTOR SAG AND TENSION.......4 12.............................
1.2 REFERENCED AND RELATED DOCUMENTS See Appendix A for a list of documents referenced in this Standard and for a list of related documents. modified to provide tee-offs.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL This Standard specifies the general requirements that shall be met for the design and construction of new overhead lines to ensure that the line is suitable for its intended purpose. where existing overhead lines are proposed to be upgraded or refurbished including installation of larger aerial conductors. DR 09051-PDR . and meets requirements for environmental considerations. diversions or the erection of additional communication cables and antennae. usually of short duration. It is also applicable to overhead line structures supporting telecommunications equipment. and ongoing life extension of existing overhead lines constructed prior to the issue of this Standard.1 Accidental action Action.3 DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this Standard the definitions below apply.3. Such maintenance and life extension work ensures that lines continue to comply with the original design standards and remain safe and ‘fit for purpose’.DRAFT ONLY 6 DRAFT ONLY STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND Australian/New Zealand Standard Overhead line design Part 1: Detailed procedures SECTI ON 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL 1. NOTE: An accidental action can be expected in many cases to cause severe consequences unless special measures are taken. operation. which has a low probability of occurrence during the design working life. maintenance. This Standard does not apply to catenary systems of electrified railways. This Standard is applicable to overhead lines supporting telecommunication systems or where they are used on overhead lines either attached to the aerial line conductor/earth wire systems or as separate cables supported by the supports such as optical ground wires (OPGWs) and optical aerial conductors or all dielectric self supporting (ADSS) conductors. then the overhead line structures shall be required to be structurally assessed by a competent person for compliance with the provisions of this Standard. such that the original structure design loadings are increased to a point that elements of the support structures may be overloaded or overstressed to the original design standard. 1. However. This Standard is only applicable to new overhead lines and is not intended to be retrospectively applied to the routine maintenance.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . 1. and provides acceptable levels of safety for construction.
in the open air and is suspended between two or more supports.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . 1. means the calculated minimum breaking load determined in accordance with the relevant Australian/New Zealand Standard.3.2 Action (a) (b) Force (load) applied to the (mechanical) system (direct action).3.4 Aerial cable Any insulated or covered aerial conductor or assembly of cores with or without protective covering. and high voltage aerial bundled cable (HVABC) means a cable which meets the requirements of either AS/NZS 3599. by temperature changes. foundations. in the open air and is suspended between two or more supports. aerial conductors. This value generally corresponds to a specified fraction of the assumed statistical distribution of the particular property of the material. DR 09051-PDR .3 Aerial bundled cable Two or more cores twisted together into a single bundled cable assembly.1 or AS/NZS 3560.2 as applicable. 1. 1. 1. Two types of aerial bundled cable are used— (a) (b) low voltage aerial bundled cable (LVABC) means a cable which meets the requirements of either AS/NZS 35184.108.40.206 Coefficient of variation Ratio of the standard deviation to the mean value.1 or AS/NZS 3599. A nominal value is used as the characteristic value in some circumstances. moisture variation.3.5 Aerial conductor Any bare conductor which is placed above ground.9 Clearance The shortest distance between two objects that may have a potential difference between them. An imposed or constrained deformation or an imposed acceleration caused for example. 1. variable or accidental.3. insulator strings and hardware.3. NOTE: An action can be permanent. which is placed above ground.6 Bonding conductor Conductor providing equipotential bonding. 1.8 Characteristic value of a material property Value of a material property having a prescribed probability of not being attained in a hypothetical unlimited test series. 1. uneven settlement or earthquakes (indirect action).2 as applicable.11 Component One of the different principle parts of the overhead electrical line system having a specified purpose.7 Calculated breaking load (CBL) In relation to a conductor.3. 1.3.3. 1. Typical components are supports.DRAFT ONLY 7 DRAFT ONLY 1.
17 Earth Term for the earth as a location as well as for earth as a conductive mass.3.3. which is in contact with the earth via a large surface (for example foundation earth electrode). AS/NZS 3675 specifies two types of covered conductor— (a) (b) CC CCT where the nominal covering thickness is independent of working voltage.16 Design working life or design life Assumed period for which a structure.20 Earth fault Conductive connection caused by a fault between an aerial phase conductor of the main circuit and earth or an earthed part. or a conductor which is embedded in concrete.3. loam sand. 1. DR 09051-PDR .3. components and elements is to be used for its intended purpose with anticipated routine maintenance but without substantial repair being necessary. 1. 1. gravel and stone. 1. 1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .15 Corona Luminous discharge due to ionisation of the air surrounding an electrode caused by a voltage gradient exceeding a certain critical value. suitable for carrying an electric current. hardware. 1. 1.12 Conductor temperature Means the temperature assumed for the purpose of calculation. 1. whichever is applicable.14 Conductor A wire or combination of wires not insulated from one another.3. NOTE: Electrodes may be aerial conductors. or the temperature measured at the core of a conductor by means of a thermometer or similar. accessories or insulators 1.22 Earthing All means and measures for making a proper conductive connection to earth.3. The conductive connection can also occur via an arc. and where the nominal covering thickness is dependent on the working voltage. for example types of soil.3.3.DRAFT ONLY 8 DRAFT ONLY 1.19 Earth electrode Conductor which is embedded in the earth and conductively connected to the earth.3. 1. Earth faults of two or several aerial phase conductors of the same electrical system at different locations are designated as double or multiple earth faults. humus.18 Earth current Current flowing to earth via the impedance to earth.3.3.13 Covered conductor Means a conductor around which is applied a specified thickness of insulating material. 1.21 Earth fault current Current which flows from the main circuit to earth or earthed parts. the temperature determined by the use of ESAA document D(b)5 or other appropriate Standard.23 Earthing conductor Conductor which connects that part of the installation which has to be earthed to an earth electrode.3.
metal cable sheaths]. i.3.25 Earth potential rise (EPR) Voltage between an earthing system and reference earth. 1. buckling.3. E.29 Effective field strength Square root of the sum of the squares of the three root mean square (r.) value of voltage which occurs at any time and at any point of the overhead line under normal operating conditions and for which the overhead electrical line shall be designed. loss of stability. 1.30 Electric field The electric field created in the vicinity of a charged aerial conductor is the vector quantified by the electric field strength.24 Earthing system Locally limited electrical system of conductively connected earth electrodes or earthing conductors and of bonding conductors. 1. 1. component and element whose purpose is terminated. the elements of a steel lattice tower are steel angles.3. collapse.m. 1. which is suspended usually but not necessarily above the aerial line conductors to provide a degree of protection against lightning strokes. 1.3. armourings.) mutually orthogonal components of the field. 1. in which a component has failed by excessive deformation. plates and bolts.33 Everyday temperature (EDT) The average temperature of the region.3.26 Earth rod Earth electrode which is generally buried or driven in vertically to a greater depth. [or metal parts effective in the same way.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . round bar or other profile material. 1. DR 09051-PDR .28 Earth wire An aerial conductor connected to earth at some or all supports. 1. 1. for example tower footings.DRAFT ONLY 9 DRAFT ONLY 1.35 Failure State of a structure. For example it can consist of a pipe.3. to reduce the potential differences between these parts. This quantity is the force exerted by an electric field on a unit charge and is measured in volts per metre (V/m).27 Earth surface potential Voltage between a point on the earth surface and reference earth.32 Equipotential bonding Conductive connection between conductive parts. etc.3.3. NOTE: An earth wire may also contain non-metallic wires for telecommunication purposes. overturning.34 Exclusion limit probability of a variable Value of a variable taken from its distribution function and corresponding to an assigned probability of not being exceeded.3.s.m.e. 1.3.36 Highest system voltage Highest (r.31 Element One of the different parts of a component.3.s. 1. For example.3. rupture.3.
3. sec-1 which results in the excitement of Aeolian vibration frequencies on the aerial conductor. ring or mesh earth electrode or as a combination of these. 1. 1.49 Magnetic field Magnetic field generated by current carrying conductor. For example it can consist of strip.3.3.41 Insulated without earthed screen Includes CCT cable complying with AS/NZS 3675.3. 220.127.116.11. 1.48 Maximum operating temperature (a) Limiting temperature for electrical clearances and long term performance of the conductor.46 Maximum design temperature The maximum steady state temperature under the influence of either steady state current or short time current for an aerial phase conductor or short circuit current for overhead earth wires. For clearance purposes a distinction is made between insulated conductors with and without earthed screens operating at voltages in excess of 1000 V.1 or AS/NZS 3599. components and elements no longer satisfies the design performance requirements.3. round bar or stranded conductor and can be carried out as radial. 1. 1.3.39 Insulated conductor A conductor surrounded by a layer of insulation which provides resistance to the passage of current.40 Insulated with earthed screen Includes aerial bundled cable (ABC) complying with either AS/NZS 3599. or to disruptive discharges through or over the surface of the substance at the operating voltage. The magnetic field strength.2 corresponding to the overhead line design return period.37 Horizontal earth electrode Electrode which is generally buried at a low depth.DRAFT ONLY 10 DRAFT ONLY 1.42 Limit state (electrical) State beyond which the electrical design performance is no longer satisfied.3. is expressed in amperes per metre (A/m). 1.5 m.38 Impedance to earth of an earthing system Impedance between the earthing system and reference earth.3. 1.3.2 as applicable.45 Low velocity everyday wind Laminar wind with velocity between approximately 0. 1. sec-1 and 7 m.43 Limit state (structural) State beyond which the structure.47 Maximum design wind speed Three second gust wind speed in accordance with AS/NZS 1170. 1. 1. 1. H.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . or injurious leakage of current.44 Load case Likely combinations of design actions with defined variable actions and permanent actions for a particular structure analysis.3. DR 09051-PDR .
63 Prospective step voltage Means the prospective or open circuit voltage that may appear between any two points on the surface of the earth spaced one metre apart (measured with two driven electrodes and a high impedance voltmeter).55 Overhead ground wire (aerial earth conductor) An aerial wire which is grounded or earthed at multiple points. 1.58 Permanent action Action that is likely to act continuously and for which variations in magnitude with time are small compared with the mean value. insulators and apparatus used for the transmission or distribution of electrical energy.3. 1.3. 1.51 Maintenance Total set of activities performed during the design working life of the system to maintain its purpose. some or all of which has been tensioned prior to the application of external working loads. 1.3.3. is the force exerted on a unit charge moving in the field and has the units of milliguass (mG) or microtesla (μT).60 Potential grading earth electrode Conductor which due to shape and arrangement is principally used for potential grading rather than for establishing a certain resistance to earth.61 Power frequency flashover distance Withstand airgap for highest anticipated short term power frequency voltage and is typically 1.7 per unit voltage.59 Potential grading Influencing the earth surface potential by means of earth (grading) electrodes.3. 1.54 Optical ground wire (OPGW) An earth wire containing optical telecommunication fibres.53 Optical conductor (OPCON) An electrical phase conductor containing optical telecommunication fibres.DRAFT ONLY 11 DRAFT ONLY 1.3.62 Pre-stressed concrete Means concrete containing reinforcing steel. 1.3. DR 09051-PDR . 1.3. 1.57 Overhead service line An overhead line operating at a voltage less than 1000 V generally located between the electricity supply authority’s overhead line and the point of connection to an electrical installation.52 Nominal voltage Voltage by which the overhead electrical line is designated and to which certain operating characteristics are referred.3. 1. 1. 1.3. also known as the magnetic induction.3.56 Overhead line Aerial conductors or cables together with associated supports. 1.50 Magnetic flux density The magnetic flux density.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .3. 1.3.3.
rod or mesh.3. 1. 1.3. Reliability is thus a measure of the success of a system in accomplishing its purpose.68 Reliability (structural) Probability that a structural system performs a given mechanical purpose.3. operation and maintenance.65 Radio interference voltage (RIV) Any effect on the reception of a required radio signal due to an unwanted disturbance within the radiofrequency spectrum.3. Reliability is thus a measure of the success of a system in accomplishing its purpose.4 m of the ground and any point on the surface of the ground within a horizontal distance of one metre from the vertical projection of the point of contact with the uninsulated metalwork.69 Return period Mean statistical interval between successive recurrencies of a climatic action of at least defined magnitude. The inverse of the return period gives the probability of exceeding the action in one year.3. 1. during a reference period. 1.3.3. 1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . 1.74 Security Ability of a system to be protected from a major collapse (cascading effect) if a failure is triggered in a given component. 1. Tensile forces within the concrete section are usually assumed to be resisted by the reinforcement.70 Risk Chance of or exposure to adverse consequences such as loss. under a set of conditions.64 Prospective touch voltage Means the prospective or open circuit voltage (measured with a driven electrode and a high impedance voltmeter) which may appear between any point of contact with uninsulated metalwork located within 2.73 Safety Ability of a system not to cause human injuries or loss of lives during its construction. means that level dead-end span in which the behaviour of the tension closely follows that of the tension in every span of a series of suspension spans in a tension section under the same loading conditions.3. 1.67 Reliability (electrical) Probability that an electrical system performs a given electrical purpose.3. 1. under a set of conditions. injury or death. This may be caused by electrical or structural factors.72 Ruling span Also known as the equivalent span or the mean effective span (MES). 1. Radio interference is primarily of concern for amplitude-modulated systems (AM radio and television video signals) since other forms of modulation (such as frequency modulation (FM) used for VHF radio broadcasting and television audio signals) are generally much less affected by disturbances that emanate from overhead lines. DR 09051-PDR .71 Road Means a public thoroughfare ordinarily used by motor vehicles.DRAFT ONLY 12 DRAFT ONLY 1.66 Reinforced concrete Means concrete containing reinforcing steel in the form of bar.3. during a reference period.3.
3.3. post or suspension insulators. 1.77 Soil resistivity Volume resistivity of the earth in Ohm metres.88 System that is solidly earthed System (electrical) in which at least one neutral of a transformer. terminal (dead-end) Tension support capable of carrying the total aerial conductor tensile forces in one direction.3. 1.86 System (electrical) All items of equipment which are used in combination for the generation. transmission and distribution ofelectricity.3. 1.90 System with resonant earthing System (electrical) in which at least one neutral of a transformer or earthing transformer is earthed via an arc suppression coil and the combined inductance of all arc suppression coils is essentially tuned to the capacitance of the system to earth for the operating frequency. 1. DR 09051-PDR . earthing transformer or generator is earthed directly or via a low impedance. 1.80 Structure Organized combination of connected elements designed to provide some measure of rigidity. intermediate Support for aerial conductors by pin. 1.85 Support.82 Support. suspension Support for aerial conductors by suspension insulators.84 Support.87 System (mechanical and structural) Set of components connected together to form an overhead electrical line.89 System that is non-effectively earthed System (electrical) with isolated neutral or resonant earthing.3. 1.3.79 Strength Mechanical property of a material.18.104.22.168 Support General term for different structure types that support the aerial conductors of the overhead electrical line. tension Support for aerial conductors by tension or strain insulators.83 Support. 1. usually given in units of stress. 1. 1.3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .76 Serviceability limit state (structural) State beyond which specified service criteria for a structure or structural element are no longer met.3.3. 1.3. 1. 1.3. 1. 1.3.78 Span length Means the centre-line horizontal distance between two adjacent supports.3.DRAFT ONLY 13 DRAFT ONLY 1.75 Serviceability limit state (electrical) State beyond which specified service criteria for an electrical performance is no longer met.
93 Ultimate limit state (electrical) State associated with electrical failure.3. means the equivalent span which gives the horizontal lateral component of the aerial conductor load caused by wind and equals one half of the sum of the spans on either side of that support. 1. 1.92 Transferred potential Potential rise of an earthing system caused by a current to earth transferred by means of a connected conductor (for example cable metal sheath.91 Television interference voltage (TIV) Special case of radio interference for disturbances affecting the frequency ranges used for television broadcasting. importance of structure.96 Weight span For a support. 1.3.3. workmanship etc.94 Ultimate limit state (structural) State associated with collapse. A3 (kN/m2 ) .97 Wind span For a support.95 Variable action A time variable action.3. 1. such as electrical flash over.4 NOTATION The quantity symbols used in this Standard shall have the meanings ascribed to them below. Symbol α Signification = angle of wind to aerial conductor = the strength factor which takes into account variability of material. 1. rail) into areas with low or no potential rise to reference earth. = = = = = = = = shielding factor solidity factor soil density soil angle of friction load factors which take into account variability of loads. is the projected area of one structure section (panel) under (m²) consideration in a vertical plane along the face for square towers is the projected area of the structure section under consideration (m²) in a plane normal to the wind direction projected areas of the longitudinal faces on lattice structures in a (m²) vertical plane along the face DR 09051-PDR . pipeline. 1.3. safety implications etc.3.3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 φ η δ γ ϕ γx A A* A 1 . means the equivalent span which gives the vertical component of the aerial conductor load and equals the span between the lowest points on the catenary curve of the aerial conductor on either side of that support. It corresponds generally to the maximum load-carrying resistance of a structure or a structural element. or with other forms of structural failure.DRAFT ONLY 14 DRAFT ONLY 1. 1.
g. the wind span for a structure embedment depth or length for structural design line reliability bending moment at ground line DR 09051-PDR . wind direction and shielding of the member aerial conductor length under consideration for determining (m) aerial conductor loads due to wind action e. A4 C c Cd COV CRF d D En Fb = = = = = = = = = Signification projected areas of transverse faces on lattice structures in a (m²) vertical plane along the face drag coefficient of wire soil cohesion drag force coefficient for member coefficient of variation component reliability factor conductor diameter ‘effective diameter’ of foundation Earthquake load corresponding to an appropriate return period (mm) (m) (kN) (kPa) = load on structure due to unbalanced aerial conductor tensions resulting from abnormal conditions e.15/06/2009 13:22:00 G Gc Gs H Hcalc HL H max. Kc Kx L (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) L LR M = = = (m) (kNm) .g. kθ Ki Kq. a broken aerial conductor (kN) = aerial conductor loads resulting from wind action on the (kN) projected area of aerial conductors = = force on structural sections (panel) in the direction of the wind (kN) force on structural sections (whole tower) in the direction of the (kN) wind Fc Fs Fsθ Ft = load on the structure due to the intact horizontal component of (kN) aerial conductor tension in the direction of the line for the appropriate wind load = = = = = = = = = = = = vertical dead loads Vertical dead load related to aerial conductors vertical dead loads resulting from non-aerial conductor loads ground line lateral load calculated value using recommended method nominal failure load maximum lateral load factor for angle of incidence θ of wind to frames factor that is function of soil modulus of elasticity and foundation geometry factors that are a function of z/D and φ represents factors accounting for aspect ratio.DRAFT ONLY 15 DRAFT ONLY Symbol A2 .
Refer to gust winds speed multiplier for terrain category at height z.2 Reliability based load multiplier for wind loads topographic multiplier AS/NZS 1170 for gust wind speed. Refer AS/NZS 1170 (V) (m/s) (m/s) wind load acting on all structures and line components pertinent (kN) to each loading condition based on the appropriate 3 second gust site wind speed as defined in AS/NZS 1170.2 and corresponding to the selected return period the applied loads pertinent to each loading condition depth below the ground surface point of rotation at a depth below the surface (kN) (m) (m) X z zr = = = DR 09051-PDR . Refer AS/NZS 1170.2 ultimate soil pressure aerial conductor natural and forced convection cooling aerial conductor joule heating due to the resistance of the aerial conductor aerial conductor radiation cooling aerial conductor solar heat gain dynamic wind pressure vertical overburden pressure at depth z.cat p Pc Pj Pr Ps Q qz qz Re Rm Rn RP S Sγ SRF U VR Vx Wn = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Signification wind direction multiplier. qz = γz (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) = maintenance loads component design strength based on the nominal strength of the (kN) component for the required exclusion limit ‘e’ mean strength of the component The nominal strength of the component return period snow and ice loads (kN) (kN) (years) (kN) = snow and ice loads corresponding to an appropriate return period = = = = = span reduction factor to provide for spatial variation in wind Nominal phase to phase voltage regional wind speed.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .2 design site wind velocity.DRAFT ONLY 16 DRAFT ONLY Symbol Md Mrel Mt Mz. Refer to AS/NZS 1170. Refer AS/NZS 1170.
2 LIMIT STATE DESIGN The design of overhead lines shall be based on limit state principles for serviceability and strength limit states for the various line components.1. The overhead line design shall achieve a number of objectives and some of these may be competing between the related design fields. DR 09051-PDR .1 GENERAL 2 DES I GN P HILOS OPHIE S The design of overhead lines requires that the total system including supports. and meets or exceeds design levels of reliability. RIV. state of system strength limits intact state damaged state failed state damage limit serviceability limit FIGURE 2. helicopter maintenance). meeting of regulations and codes of practice.1 LIMIT STATE DESIGN An explanation of limit state design is given in IEC 60826. has operational characteristics that provide for the safe operation and insulation of the energized components. whole of life cost. reliability (appropriate outage rates). ability to be maintained (provide for climbing corridors. Structure limit state design uses a load and resistance format. security (minimal structural or component failures). The overhead line design process is an iterative one and principles from related design fields (electrical. and satisfaction of power transfer rating requirements. structural and mechanical) need to be applied whilst incorporating regulatory. insulators and fittings.DRAFT ONLY 17 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 2. practicality to construct. environment and maintenance requirements. visual. Australian and International Standards). for a planned design service life. access for elevating work platform vehicles. foundations. 2. meeting of environmental requirements (EMF. aerial conductors. which separates the effects of component strengths and their variability from the effects of external loadings and their uncertainty. TIV and audible noise).15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The objectives which need to be considered are— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) safety (designed to relevant regulatory. live line. The state of system and the damage and failure limits are illustrated in Figure 2.
2. aerial conductors and fittings are used at stresses below the damage limit. These conditions are defined as the damage or serviceability limit state. then the clearance shall also be adequate to maintain safe working distances at a wind pressure of 100 Pa. 2.2.2 Aerial conductors (including earthwires) limit states When the aerial conductor is subjected to increasing loads. The failure containment load is the mechanical failure load of the aerial conductor. aerial conductors may exhibit at some load a permanent deformation particularly if the failure mode is ductile or may exhibit wire and or whole aerial conductor fracture when subjected to wind induced Aeolian vibration.3 Insulator limit states There are three states for the mechanical design of insulators. 2. and serviceability limit state in which the performance of the structure or component under commonly occurring loads or conditions will be satisfactory. serviceable wind load.2. Finally the aerial conductors and or tension fittings are considered to have failed if the aerial conductors and or fittings have reached their failure limit. serviceability limit states may not be maintained.1 Limit states on line components The overhead line is considered intact when its structure. If the load is further increased. • Condition (b)—Moderate wind Under moderate wind of 300 Pa the clearance shall be sufficient to withstand lightning and switching over-voltages. Serviceability limit states include support deflections. 2. For line post insulators.DRAFT ONLY 18 DRAFT ONLY 2.2. DR 09051-PDR . Exceeding the serviceability design load may cause damage to some components.1. If provision is to be made for live line work.1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . these being the— (a) (b) (c) everyday load. The serviceable load is the maximum load that can be applied without causing damage to the insulator or exceeding the desired deflection limit. failure of the aerial conductor and or tension fittings occurs at a level called the failure or ultimate limit state.4 Electrical structure clearances limit states Three serviceability states are defined and shall be considered— • Condition (a)—Low or still wind Under low wind conditions the clearance shall be sufficient for maintenance activities.1 Structure design limit states The limit states to be considered in the design of overhead lines are— (a) (b) ultimate strength limit state in which the structure’s or component’s design capacity exceeds the design load. and failure containment load. insulators.1. When this occurs.1.2.2. the everyday load is a relevant consideration to determine long term deflection of the insulator. NOTE: A structure or part thereof or component may be designed to fail or undergo high deflections under some loading situations in order to relieve loads on other parts of the structural system.
Consideration may be given to the coordination of the relative strength of the components to establish a desired sequence of component failure to minimize overall damage. the clearance shall withstand highest power frequency temporary (dynamic) voltages which are normally taken as between 1.1. The service life of an overhead line is the period over which it will continue to serve its intended purpose safely. of a structure is dependent on its exposure to a number of variable factors such as solar radiation.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The four major components of the overhead line are shown in Table 2.DRAFT ONLY 19 DRAFT ONLY • Condition (c)—High wind Under high wind pressure of 500 Pa and at maximum swing position of the insulators. It shall also be capable of safe operation at a serviceability limit states. 2. or target nominal service life expectancy. Therefore. radio and television interference and electric and magnetic fields. and with due consideration for public safety.7 COORDINATION OF STRENGTH Overhead lines should be regarded as a total spatial structural system that has components constituting the line as set out below. 2. thereby enables the designer to coordinate the relative strengths of components and recognizes the fact that an overhead line is a series of components where the failure of any component could lead to the loss of power transmission capability. ice. its location and exposure to climatic conditions. without undue maintenance or repair disproportionate to its cost of replacement and without exceeding any specified serviceability criteria.6 RELIABILITY All overhead lines shall be designed for a selected reliability level relevant to the lines importance to the system (including consideration of system redundancy). This recognizes that cumulative deterioration of the overhead line will occur over time.5 OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF OVERHEAD LINES The operational performance of a line is dependant on each component of a line being able to meet its assumed performance criteria and to achieve a target reliability level under the serviceability and ultimate strength limit state conditions. wind. 2. at a selected maximum operating temperature. DR 09051-PDR . and with acceptable levels of electrical effects of corona.7 (non-effectively earthed) times the ‘per unit’ voltage. temperature. This approach provides a hierarchical control of the sequence of failure of components within an overhead line system. and seismic effects. due maintenance and possible minor repairs will be required from time to time to maintain the structure in a safe and useable condition over its service life.4 OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AN OVERHEAD LINE Each overhead line shall be designed to be capable of transferring a prescribed electrical power.4 (solidly earthed) to 1. 2. 2. precipitation.3 DESIGN LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES The design life.
bolts etc. poles cross arms etc. Supports Plates. Guys and fittings Anchor bolts. piles. Insulator elements Insulators Brackets. Fittings 2. Foundations Overhead line Aerial conductors Concrete footing Soil Wires Joints Hardware. DR 09051-PDR . cleats etc.DRAFT ONLY 20 DRAFT ONLY TABLE 2.1 OVERHEAD LINE SYSTEM. bolts etc.8 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS All overhead lines should be designed and constructed with consideration for their environmental impact. COMPONENTS AND ELEMENTS Structural system Components Elements Steel sections.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . shackles etc.
2). and to provide the desired outage performance rate. Lightning performance (refer Clause 3. The insulation system comprises air gaps and insulators.4 LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE OF OVERHEAD LINES In the northern parts of Australia where there are moderate to high ceraunic levels.1 General Overhead equipment will be subjected to the effects of pollution and lightning.13). switching and lightning overvoltages (refer Clause 3.3.5). Once an aerial conductor and its maximum operating temperature have been chosen. Design of earthing system (refer Section 10 and Appendix U). All overhead lines shall be designed to coordinate insulation protection schemes to protect sensitive plant and equipment. Electric and magnetic fields (refer Clause 3. 3. Power frequency.3).3. 3. Electrical clearances (refer Clause 3. The principles and rules of insulation co-ordination are described in AS 1824. the aerial conductor rating can be calculated. Determination of current rating to meet power requirements (refer Clause 3. Various methods of determining aerial conductor rating are given in Section 4.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS The electrical design for an overhead line covers the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Design of aerial conductor to minimize losses and meet required voltage drop.2 CURRENT CONSIDERATIONS The cross-section of the aerial phase conductors shall be chosen so that the design maximum temperature for the aerial conductor material. The procedure for insulation co-ordination consists of the selection of a set of standard withstand voltages which characterize the insulation.3 INSULATION SYSTEM DESIGN 3. 3. such as substations. corona and RIV.DRAFT ONLY 21 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 3 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS 3. determined by grease drop point or annealing considerations. Selection of insulation (refer Clause 3.2 Coordination with substations Precautions should be taken to ensure that lightning strikes close to the substation are attenuated to levels which do not cause damage to substation equipment. DR 09051-PDR .3). The design of the overhead line should incorporate a reliability target for the lightning performance. 3. The detailed procedure for assessing design for lightning performance is covered in Appendix E. lightning is a major cause of line outages. These issues are discussed further in the following sections. The overhead line and the earthing system (refer Section 10) shall be designed to withstand without damage the mechanical and thermal effects due to the fault currents and associated fault durations. TVI and audible noise levels (refer Appendix H).4). is not exceeded under operating conditions.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .
structures.2 Clearances to objects and ground The designer shall have regard for State or National based Electricity Safety Regulations which may specify additional or more onerous clearances. to the available freedom or constraint on body movement and the consequence of inadvertent movement in managing risk. Aerial phase conductor to earthwire.5 ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE DISTANCES TO AVOID FLASHOVER 3. The electrical clearances which are outlined in this Standard set the minimum acceptable standards for the safe operation and reliable electrical performance of the overhead line.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . vehicles or vessels (water craft). constructions.5.DRAFT ONLY 22 DRAFT ONLY 3. the movement of the object and the exposure of persons in the vicinity of the energized conductor. The designer should consider the requirement for any over-dimensional vehicle or machinery and make provision. and DR 09051-PDR . Aerial phase conductor to ground. Inspection and maintenance activities include— (a) (b) deadline inspection and/or maintenance—with the line de-energized or earthed for safe access. 3. in selecting corridor width. plant. Clearance for inspection and maintenance. Aerial phase conductor to objects. where necessary. the air gap geometry. The resulting clearance will be above the clearance normally accepted for road purposes. These clearances are classified as— (a) Internal. 3. Gw is dependent on the electrical breakdown voltage of air (around 300 kV per metre for air gaps up to 2 metres). which include the following: (i) (ii) (iv) (b) (i) (ii) Clearance at the structure. Where regulations set line design clearances above road pavement these will typically be based on a minimum electrical clearance (flashover clearance plus margin) plus provision for the maximum likely vehicle height.5. which include the following: (iii) Circuit to circuit (attached to same structure or unattached). The basic approach to electrical clearances is to combine an electrical air gap withstand distance.3 Inspection and maintenance clearances The designer needs to be aware of the different methods used for line maintenance and the impact this may have on circuit availability. particularly for multi-circuit construction. for construction of future subsidiary circuits or under crossings of distribution/sub-transmission lines. relative air density (RAD). The designer should have regard. These objects can be other energized conductors. (G w) with a safety margin (Sm). live line inspection—by provision of a safe access corridor on the structure to inspect components. (iii) Mid span aerial phase conductor to aerial phase conductor. External.5.1 Introduction Overhead lines shall be designed with electrical clearances from the energized conductor to surrounding objects to provide safe and reliable operation. S m is dependent on the type of object.
5.DRAFT ONLY 23 DRAFT ONLY (c) live line maintenance—this could include stick or bare hand work either from the structure or insulated elevated work platform or helicopter (in-span if clearances are appropriate).1 ACCESS CLEARANCE TEST 3. 3. 3. Climbing corridors should be dimensioned to— (a) accommodate the natural climbing action without requiring the constrained movement by the climber to maintain safe electrical distances (refer climbing space test in Figure 3.5. (refer full reach test in Figure 3. 3.6 Clearances at the structure The three serviceability clearance states which shall be considered are given in Section 2 and include— (a) low or still wind.3 Combined wind and snow/ice loads Combined wind and snow/ice loads should be considered in certain regions of Australia and New Zealand. Australian Standards and New Zealand Codes of Practice.5.1 Maximum design temperature All vertical clearances shall be based on the maximum continuous service temperature of the aerial conductors.4 Live access clearance During structure access.5.5. there is a risk of lapse of control than with deliberate approach which may be applied at a working position.1.1). based on regional experience. 3.2 Ice load for determination of electrical clearance The characteristic ice load to be applied shall be specified directly based on regional experience. For safe approach and live line clearances refer to Electricity Networks Association (Australia) publications.1).5 States for calculation of clearances 3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Electricity Engineers’ Association (New Zealand) publications. (b) Power frequency flashover distance Safe approach distance Climbing space test Full reach test FIGURE 22.214.171.124. and maintain at least power frequency flashover distance in the event of a momentary lapse of controlled movement by the climber.5. DR 09051-PDR .
3. NOTE: Appendix FF provides guidance on the determination of structure geometry. Depending on the coincident of lightning and wind. and high wind. Refer to the following documents for live working distances: (i) (ii) ENA LLM 03 for glove and barrier. Clearances are required to be considered for the following cases: (a) (b) (c) Maintenance approach distance for climbing and inspection. Any insulator swing shall be taken into account when determining the structure geometry. For maintenance approach distances refer to ENA NENS 04. 3. Any insulator swing shall be taken into account when determining the structure geometry. In New Zealand the relevant references are— 1 2 EEA SM-EI NZECP 34 DR 09051-PDR .2 Moderate wind serviceability state Switching impulse clearances shall be provided for moderate wind pressure.4 Maintenance Clearances The method of access to the structure needs to be considered and then climbing corridors and work positions defined.6. The structures shall be designed with consideration given to the types of maintenance activities used. a maintenance approach distance between personnel and live parts shall be provided under light winds. 3.DRAFT ONLY 24 DRAFT ONLY (b) (c) moderate wind. 3. Adequate clearances between the workers and live equipment shall be provided for the various maintenance activities to be performed safely. such as climbing patrols. helicopter patrols and live line and bare hand working crews.6 DETERMINATION OF STRUCTURE GEOMETRY Structures shall be designed with adequate air clearances to provide a reliable performance and to allow maintenance to be performed safely. The electrical design determines the structure geometry and shall be coordinated with the structural design.6. Live line working. (iii) ENA LLM 01 for barehand.6.3 Low wind serviceability state Lightning impulse clearances should be considered under low wind conditions to achieve the desired reliability level. 3. Hand reach clearance.1 High wind serviceability state The power frequency clearance is the distance between the structure and the aerial conductor when the aerial conductor is subjected to the high wind serviceability wind pressure. For inspection and maintenance activities.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .6. ENA LLM 02 for live line sticks. lightning impulse clearance may be provided under moderate wind. typically in range 60 Pa to 100 Pa wind pressure.
1. FIGURE 3.7 SPACING OF AERIAL CONDUCTORS 3. Dynamic loading clearance—Refer to Figure 3. the vertical separation at the crossing point should be twice the sag of the lower circuit when both aerial conductors or cables are at their maximum design temperature.2): (a) (b) (c) Where a circuit operates at a voltage below 1000 V it should be placed below any other circuit operating at a higher voltage.2 UNATTACHED CROSSING DR 09051-PDR .3. aerial conductors of a higher voltage circuit should be placed above a lower voltage circuit.7. Where two circuits of different or similar voltage cross each other.1 Aerial conductors of different circuits on different supports (unattached crossing) 3. (This is a simplified calculation method). NOTE: Dynamic load can be caused by vegetation falling on aerial conductors or ice shedding. The vertical separation between any aerial conductor or cable of the higher circuit and any aerial conductor or cable of the lower circuit should satisfy both of the following: (i) (ii) Normal conditions clearance—The vertical separation should be not less than that specified in Table 3.1 General This Clause provides the minimum requirements to prevent circuit to circuit flashover. under both normal operating and fault conditions.7.DRAFT ONLY 25 DRAFT ONLY 3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . between aerial conductors or cables of different circuits that cross each other and are not attached to the same pole or support at the point of crossing (see Figure 3.1. If conditions are such that it is likely that the lower circuit can accidentally contact into the higher circuit.
3 SIMPLIFIED UNATTACHED CROSSINGS FOR FAULT CONDITIONS (DOUBLE ENVELOPE METHOD) DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 26 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE 3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .
2 3.2 3.8 0.6 0.8 2.2 0.8 2.6 3.TABLE 3.6 0.8 2.4 0.2 3.5 2.8 0.6 5.6 5.6 5.8 0.6 0.8 2.8 1.8 2.6 0.1 VERTICAL SEPARATION FOR UNATTACHED CROSSINGS (IN METRES) UPPER CIRCUIT U ≤ 500 kV U > 330 kV Bare 330 kV <U ≤ 500 kV Bare 275 kV < U ≤ 330 kV Bare No wind Wind No wind Wind No wind Wind No wind Wind No wind Wind No wind Wind No wind Wind No wind Wind No wind Wind No wind Wind U ≤ 330 kV U > 275 kV Bare U ≤ 275 kV U >132 kV Bare U ≤ 132 kV U > 66 kV Bare U ≤ 66 kV U > 33 kV Bare U ≤ 33 kV U > 1000 V Bare or covered U ≤ 33 kV U > 1000 V Insulated Other U < 1000 V Other cables cables Bare.2 3.2 NOTES: 1 The above clearances may need to be increased due to local factors such as in Note 7 of Figure 3.5 2.2 2.2 2.6 5.2 0.4 0.4 0.5 27 0.8 2.6 3.6 5.4 0. DRAFT ONLY .6 0.4 0.8 2.6 5.6 3.2 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.8 0.2 3.6 0.5 1.2 2.5 1.5 2.8 2.2 3.6 3.5 1.2 3.2 3.8 1.4 1.8 2. 4 These clearances apply to heights up to 1000 m.6.2 3.6 3.6 2.8 2.6 5.8 2. operation and maintenances and for aerial conductor blow out on large spans.2 0.2 2.6 0.8 0.6 3.6 3.4 1.5 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.6 5. 3 The above clearances are based on the top circuit being at maximum aerial conductor temperature and the bottom circuit at ambient temperature.8 2.5 2.2 DR 09051-PDR . (Noncovered and (Conductive) conductive) insulated DRAFT ONLY L O W E R C I R C U I T 132 kV < U ≤ 275 kV Bare 66 kV < U ≤ 132 kV Bare 33 kV < U ≤ 66 kV Bare 1000 V < U ≤ 33 kV Bare or covered 1000 V < U ≤33 kV Insulated U ≤ 1000 V Bare.8 2.2 2. 2 The clearances in this table may need to be increased to account for safe approach distances required for construction.6 0.15/06/2009 13:22:00 2.4 0.8 1.2 3.2 2.8 2.2 0.8 2.4 0.4 1.6 5.4 1.2 2.8 1.6 3.4 1.5 2.4 0.4 0.8 2.8 1.4 0. covered and insulated Other cables (Conductive) Other cables (Non conductive) 5.5 2.8 2.6 3.2 0.5 1.
and wind conditions. i.2 Determination of aerial conductor separation Vertical separation between circuits is determined by establishing the aerial conductor positions with reference to— (a) (b) aerial conductor temperatures of each circuit. DR 09051-PDR . between aerial conductors or cables that are attached to the same support and cross each other (see Figure 3. NOTE: For voltages in excess of 132 kV separations should be determined by the designer. NOTE: This assumes that the aerial conductor temperatures of both circuits are at the temperature at which wind pressure occurs. P 100 Pa wind High wind on lower aerial conductor (500 Pa) Top aerial conductor. under operating conditions. aerial conductors of a higher voltage circuit should be placed above a lower voltage circuit and the vertical separations between the different circuits at any point on the support under normal working conditions should not be less than specified in Table 3.g.3 Separation in still air The aerial conductor temperature of the higher circuit should be the maximum design temperature. 3.2 Aerial conductors of different circuits on the same support (attached crossing) This Clause provides the minimum requirements to prevent circuit to circuit flashover. Where two circuits of different or similar voltage cross each other and are attached to the same support. and Temperature t°C is the aerial conductor temperature applicable to the wind load conditions.e.g. aerial conductors not displaced by wind. t°C Ambient temp Ambient temp Bottom aerial conductor. In the case of a bearer wire supporting an aerial conductor bundle (e. The temperature of the lower aerial conductor should be the ambient temperature.2 gives the temperature and electrical conditions for determining the electrical clearances TABLE 3.1. e.3.7. 3. Table 3.7. and Temperature t°C is the aerial conductor temperature applicable to the wind load conditions.e.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . if applicable. The aerial conductor temperature of lower circuit should be taken as t°C with aerial conductors displaced by P wind pressure. aerial conductors have cooled to the air temperature. as in Aerial Control Cable to AS/NZS 2373 or HVABC to AS/NZS 3599) the maximum design temperature would be the maximum temperature the bearer wire may reach under the influence of ambient temperature of the air. e. the wind direction is normal to the span. i.4 Separation under wind The aerial conductor temperature of higher circuit should be taken as t°C with aerial conductors hanging in the vertical plane. the wind direction is along the span.7. The following should be used as a guide for selecting appropriate aerial conductor temperatures and wind pressures. t°C Ambient temp Ambient temp Clearance Impulse Power frequency 3.2 CONDITIONS FOR DETERMINING CLEARANCES Condition.4).DRAFT ONLY 28 DRAFT ONLY 3.g.1. solar radiation and heat transferred to it from the aerial phase conductors.1.7.
DRAFT ONLY 29 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE 3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .4 ATTACHED CROSSINGS DR 09051-PDR .
The clearances in this table may need to be increased to account for safe approach distances required for construction.2 0. operation and maintenances.9 0. if the lower circuit is attached by suspension or strain insulators.3 2.3 0.2 .6 0.2 0.4 1.2 0.15/06/2009 13:22:00 U ≤ 66 kV U > 33 kV Bare U ≤ 33 kV U > 1000 V Bare or covered U ≤ 33 kV U > 1000 V Insulated U < 1000 V Bare and covered U < 1000 V Insulated Other cables (Conductive) Other cables (Nonconductive) 2.4 1.3 2.4 1.6 0.2 1.4 2.3 0. Additional clearance is required to allow for aerial conductor movement.9 30 2.6 0.2 0.2 2.6 0.8 1.2 0.2 0.9 0.4 1.8 1.4 1.3 0.2 0. DRAFT ONLY DR 09051-PDR .2 0.8 1.3 VERTICAL SEPARATION FOR ATTACHED CROSSINGS (IN METRES) DRAFT ONLY UPPER CIRCUIT U ≤ 132 kV U > 66 kV Bare 66 kV <U ≤ 132 kV Bare L O W E R 33 kV < U ≤ 66 kV Bare (Note 1) 1000 kV < U ≤ 33 kV Bare or covered 1000 kV < U ≤ 33 kV Insulated C I R C U I T U < 1000 V Bare and covered U < 1000 V Insulated Other cables (Conductive) Other cables (Non conductive) NOTES: 1 2 The clearances in the table are based on the lower circuit aerial conductors being attached to pin or post insulators.TABLE 3.3 0.5 2.2 0.8 1.5 0.5 0.4 1.3 0.
7.5) FIGURE 126.96.36.199.(3. provided that the clearance at the support or at any part in the span is not less than the separation nominated in Item (b) (refer to Figure 3. Any two bare aerial conductors having a difference in voltage with respect to each other should have vertical.1 is intended to cater for differential (out of phase and in phase) movement of aerial conductors under wind conditions with minimum turbulence. .1 At mid span (See Figure 3.2Y ) 2 ≥ U + k D + li 150 . (Y = (Y1 + Y2 )/2) where Y1 is the projected vertical distance in metres between the aerial conductors at one support and Y2 is the projected vertical distance in metres between the aerial conductors at the other support in the same span Y = DR 09051-PDR .6).3.5).3.DRAFT ONLY 31 DRAFT ONLY 3.3. The separation given by Clause 3. 3. and sharing the same span to prevent circuit to circuit or phase to phase flashover under operating conditions.1) where X = is the projected horizontal distance in metres between the aerial conductors at mid span. horizontal or angular separation from each other in accordance with the values required by Clause 3.3 Aerial conductors on the same supports (same or different circuits and shared spans) This Clause provides the minimum requirements between aerial conductors or cables attached to the same support.1 (refer to Figure 3.7. (X = (X1 + X2 )/2) where X1 is the projected horizontal distance in metres between the aerial conductors at one support and X2 is the projected horizontal distance in metres between the aerial conductors at the other support in the same span is the projected vertical distance in metres between the aerial conductors at mid span. The separation given by Clause 3. . Where aerial conductors or cables are carried on the same pole or support as those of a higher voltage the lower voltage aerial conductors should be placed below the higher voltage aerial conductors.7.5 AERIAL CONDUCTOR SEPARATION AT MID SPAN (ONE CIRCUIT) X 2 + (1.2 is a minimum under any circumstances.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .
. . As this Equation 3. .01 (normal). vector difference in potential (kV) between the two aerial conductors when each is operating at its nominal voltage. 0. and in which the horizontal component of the aerial conductor tension is the same as in the original span. normally equal to 0. . The wind is not sufficient to increase the sag. . . .4.m.s.38 m Where U > 11 kV . the aerial conductor sags are calculated at 50°C and the effect of different load currents are ignored (because of the significant cooling effect of the wind in these conditions). . .2) where Va Vb = = = upper circuit nominal voltage phase to earth value (kV) lower circuit nominal voltage phase to earth value (kV) phase angle difference between circuits (degrees) φ 3. regard should be paid to any phase differences in the nominal voltages is a constant. U can be determined by using the formula— U = Va2 + Vb2 − 2 Va Vb Cos φ . .005 to .38 + q (U − 11)) where q = constant which varies from .(3. and therefore sag can be calculated assuming still air. Where regional service experience has shown that other values are appropriate. . . Where experience has shown that other values are appropriate. Refer also to Note 5 of this Clause is the greater of the two aerial conductor sags in metres at the centre of an equivalent level span and at an aerial conductor operating temperature of 50°C in still air is the length in metres of any free swing suspension insulator associated with either aerial conductor k = D = Ii = For the purposes of this Clause an equivalent level span shall mean a span— (a) (b) (c) which has the same span length in the horizontal projection as the original span. . .(3. (0.7. .3. . .1 is intended to cater for out-of-phase movement of aerial conductors under wind conditions with minimum turbulence. . these may be applied. . these may be applied . .3) DR 09051-PDR . .2 At any point in the span Where U ≤ 11 kV . in which aerial conductor attachments at supports are in the same horizontal plane.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .DRAFT ONLY 32 DRAFT ONLY U = is the r. In determining the potential between aerial conductors of different circuits or between an earthwire and an aerial phase conductor. .
000 A and 0.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .6 AERIAL CONDUCTOR SEPARATION—ATTACHED ON SAME STRUCTURE NOTES: 1 When aerial conductors of different circuits are located vertically one above the other. The following k factors are recommended for overhead power lines which have phase to phase clearances at 1200 mm or less at midspan: (i) Extremely turbulent wind conditions—k to be in range 0.000 A (iv) Aerial conductors of different mass/diameter ratios and at different heights—k = 0. It is suggested that the spacer be taken to be an aerial conductor support for the purpose of calculating aerial conductor spacing.6.4 to 0.4 for fault currents up to 4. circumstances do arise where it is not practicable to give guidance or predict outcomes. (See Figure 3.000 A to 6. 4 Where spacers are used.1 applies (b) Any point in span equation 3. and (c) aerial conductors movement under fault conditions (particularly with horizontal construction).4 to 0. 5 The above empirical formula is intended to minimize the risk of aerial conductor clashing.7).4 to 0. 3 The spacing for covered aerial conductors may be reduced providing the covering is adequate to prevent electrical breakdown of the covering when the aerial conductors clash and a risk management strategy is in place to ensure that aerial conductors do not remain entangled for periods beyond what the covering can withstand. Some of these situations involve— (a) extremely turbulent wind conditions.4 is recommended. 2 This clause is not intended to apply to insulated aerial conductors (with or without earthed screens) of any voltage. spacing may be less than those specified. (b) the different amount of movement of aerial conductors of different size and type under the same wind conditions.DRAFT ONLY 33 DRAFT ONLY (a) (b) (a) (b) (b) (a) (a) Mid span separation equation 3.3 applies FIGURE 3. DR 09051-PDR . consideration should be given to the need to prevent clashing of aerial conductors of different circuits under the influence of load current in one or both circuits. (ii) High to extreme bushfire prone areas—k to be in range 0. however.6 (iii) under high phase to phase fault conditions—k = 0.5 for fault currents from 4.6 In all other situations a k factor of 0. 0.6 for fault currents above 6.000 A.
The following situations may also need to be taken into account when considering spacing of aerial conductors but it is not practicable to provide guidance in this document.7 AERIAL CONDUCTOR SEPARATION—INFLUENCE OF LOAD CURRENT— ATTACHED ON SAME STRUCTURE 3.7. causing them to come together. weight) which can cause out of phase movement. (c) Flocks of birds resting on aerial conductors are known to ‘lift off’ simultaneously. (e) Terrain factors that may contribute to aerodynamic lift and/or random motion. operation and maintenance Spacing may need to be increased in locations where bridging of the spacing by birds or animals is experienced or probable. causing violent aerial conductor movement.. (b) Large birds which may collide with aerial conductors. (a) Aircraft warning devices. or whose wingspan is such as to make contact between bare aerial conductors and conducting crossarms.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .5 m (as shown in Figure 3. The minimum separation between the circuit at maximum operating temperature and interspan pole for 11 kV and 33 kV shall be 1. Knowledge of local conditions would be required to make design decisions. FIGURE 3. (f) Spray irrigators.DRAFT ONLY 34 DRAFT ONLY 6 7 8 Mid span clearances will need to be increased in situations where the aerial conductor transition from horizontal to vertical or where the adjacent aerial conductors are of different characteristics (diameter.4 Clearance to inter-span poles Poles may be installed in between spans to accommodate street lights or low voltage services and electrical clearance needs to be provided for maintenance personnel.8). DR 09051-PDR . (d) Ice and snow loading and ice shedding. (g) Safety approach clearances for construction.
or for access or inspection under live conditions.8 m Wo r k i n g zo n e Power DR streetlight pole FIGURE 3. To the extent practicable. The insulation levels and air gap clearances should be selected to withstand these overvoltages so that the desired operational performance is achieved.1 General This clause provides the minimum requirements for the separation between aerial conductors or cables and any earthed structure to prevent flashover under operating conditions. Insulation at the structure is provided by a combination of solid insulators such as porcelain. This clause applies to all transmission and distribution lines using bare aerial conductors and suspension insulators. the air gap clearances change as the insulator string swings from its position at rest. the shape of the electrodes. Guidance in the selection of solid insulation levels is not covered here and should be considered separately. together with the movement of aerial conductors possible under the range of working conditions permitted. hazards under live conditions should be mitigated by provision of adequate air gap clearances in preference to reliance on procedural precautions.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The air breakdown strength at any moment will depend on the physical gap. or a combination of these.5 m 0. It is intended to provide guidance in the selection of suitable air gap clearances between aerial conductors and the structure. switching surges and lightning impulse voltages.DRAFT ONLY 35 DRAFT ONLY Top circuit at max. design temp In span clearance Derivation of in span clearance Lowest superscript conductor ( up to 33kV ) Botom circuit at ambient temp 1.8 CLEARANCE TO INTER-SPAN POLES 3. due to wind action. Consequently the insulation strength of the air gap also changes. DR 09051-PDR . This insulation is subjected to electrical stresses resulting from power frequency voltages. atmospheric conditions and altitude.8. If provision is to be made for live line maintenance.8 INSULATOR AND AERIAL CONDUCTOR MOVEMENT AT STRUCTURE 3. glass or other composite materials and also by wood crossarms. lightning impulse and switching surges constantly changes. These clearances should encompass the ergonomic and electrical distances necessary to safely provide for both natural and inadvertent movements of persons. With suspension insulator strings. air.7 m A p p ro a c h l i m i t to c l o s e s t b a re l i ve c o n d u c to r 0. then the physical distances to access and working positions should be adequate for the safe conduct of this work and to meet any statutory requirements where specified. Hence the ability to withstand different over-voltages resulting from power frequency. A good design should also provide for insulation coordination between the line insulation and terminal station insulation so as to avoid damage to station equipment from over-voltages.
9 CLEARANCE TO STRUCTURES SWING ANGLE DR 09051-PDR . wind direction.DRAFT ONLY 36 DRAFT ONLY Thus for a freely suspended aerial conductor.e.4 A n g l e of sw i n g Ø C l e a r a n c e zo n e C l e a r a n c e zo n e FIGURE 3. Statistical considerations indicate that lightning or switching impulses combined with high swing angles of the insulator string (i. Where unusual or extreme weather and climatic conditions exist. Condition (a)—Low wind Condition (b)—Moderate wind Condition (c)—High wind Table 3. both the air gap and the over-voltages are random variables and probabilistic processes need to be used to determine the optimum coordination.2 Structure clearances Based on operational experience and probabilistic considerations discussed in Clause 3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . time and space distribution of wind. These are suitable for most applications. Refer to Figure 3.4 R efe r Ta b l e 3. 3. topography and ratio of the wind to weight span.9 for suspension insulator swing angle.4 provides recommended structure and aerial conductor clearances for conditions (b) and (c) for different system and impulse withstand voltages.1. a simplified approach consisting of a three envelope system is recommended for the determination of aerial conductor clearances on structures.8. The angle of swing itself depends on several variables such as wind velocity. smaller air gaps to the structure) have a very low probability of occurrence.8. local knowledge and experience should be used to modify the clearances. C ro s s a r m R efe r Ta b l e 3.
DRAFT ONLY 37 DRAFT ONLY TABLE 3.75 kV (r. The latter method should be used when greater precision is required or where unusual and/or extreme local conditions prevail.1 4. DR 09051-PDR . and horizontal vee assemblies. The swing angles of suspension insulator strings for both low and high wind conditions can be estimated using the approach in Appendix R. There are other alternative insulator assemblies and appropriate clearances and line actions need to be considered.16 0. 0. the moderate wind distances recommended can be used to establish structure clearances.8 3.6 2.9 2. vee strings. Condition (b) relates to lighting impulse distance and condition (c) to power frequency flashover distance. These alternative types include— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) bridging insulators. strain insulators. clearances may need to be increased in locations where bridging of insulators by birds or animals is experienced or probable.40 0.1 1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . For altitudes in excess of 1000 m – refer to altitude table (EN 50341-1).10 1.69 1.18 0.4 CLEARANCES TO EARTHED STRUCTURES (IN METRES) Nominal system voltage Lightning/switching impulse withstand voltage kV (peak) 95 150 200 350 550 650 950 1050 1175 1250 1300 1550 Clearance to earthed structure in metres for altitudes up to 1000 m Moderate wind Condition (b) 11 22 33 66 110 132 220 275 330 400 500 NOTES: 1 2 3 4 For structures with line post or pin insulators.2 2.13 0. For voltages up to 66 kV.75 1.38 0.) 3.28 0.s.28 0.10 0.8. line post insulators.50 0.90 1.2 High wind or maximum swing Condition (c) 0.3 1. The estimation of swing angles may be made using a simplified deterministic approach or a detailed procedure using meteorological data.5 1.3 Calculation of swing angles The aerial conductor tension H for insulator swing angle should be based on the relevant reference wind pressure and temperature.75 0.m.
Relevant minimum live line approach clearances are provided in Table 3.5. ROADS.1.6.c. Reference should also be made to the provisions set out in Clause 3. should not be less than the distances specified in Table 3.9 LIVE LINE MAINTENANCE CLEARANCES Structures shall be designed to provide for live line maintenance. In Australia AS 6947 provide guidance on the installing power lines across waterways. In New Zealand. TABLE 3.5 HVAC LIVE LINE APPROACH DISTANCES Nominal phase to phase a.1 Lines other than insulated service lines This clause covers all overhead lines except insulated aerial conductors of an overhead service line and facade mounted insulated cable systems.10. voltage kV 11 22 33 50 66 88 110 132 220 275 330 400 500 Phase to earth selected distance Autoreclose on mm 500 500 500 600 700 850 950 1100 1600 2100 2700 3000 3500 Phase to earth selected distance Autoreclose off mm 500 500 500 550 600 700 800 900 1300 1600 1900 2400 2400 Phase to phase selected distance Autoreclose on mm 600 600 600 750 900 1100 1300 1500 2300 3100 3900 4600 5600 Phase to phase selected distance Autoreclose off mm 600 600 600 700 800 1000 1200 1300 2000 2400 3000 3900 3900 3.10 CLEARANCES TO GROUND AND AREAS REMOTE FROM BUILDING. The aerial conductors or cables of an overhead line should be located so that the distances to level or sloping ground in any direction from any position to which any part of such aerial conductors may either sag at maximum design temperature or move as a result of wind pressure. provides guidance to protect waterway users from electrical hazards.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . as well as protecting power lines and cables from contact by watercraft and the resultant damage DR 09051-PDR . Departures from these specified distances are permissible where a comprehensive risk management assessment has been carried out using the methodology outlined in Appendix U or similar.4.DRAFT ONLY 38 DRAFT ONLY 3. RAILWAYS AND NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS 3. the EEA/Maritime Safety Authority publication Guide to Safety Management of Power Line Waterway Crossings.6.1 Clearances to ground 3. Relevant NZ references include NZECP 46 and EEA Guide to Use of Helicopters in Power Company Work.10.
1.5 7.0 5.0 9.0 9.5 8.7. flood plains and snowfields.5 4. DR 09051-PDR .2 Insulated service lines Insulated aerial conductors of an overhead service line should be located so that the distance to level or sloping ground in any direction from any position to which any part of such aerial conductors may either sag at maximum design temperature or move as a result of wind pressure.5 5. Refer to Appendix S. 6 The distances specified in are designed to protect supports from damage from impact loads on conductors as well as protecting vehicles from contact with aerial conductors 7 The above values are based on vehicles with a maximum height of 4. the clearances should be determined having regard to local conditions and requirements. the term ‘ground’ includes any unroofed elevated area accessible to plant or vehicles.7 7. 5 The distances specified are final conditions for aerial conductors which have ‘settled in’. LINES OTHER THAN INSULATED SERVICE LINES Distance to ground in any direction m Nominal system voltage U Over the carriageway of roads Over land other than the carriageway of roads Over land which due to its steepness or swampiness is not traversable by vehicles more than 3 m in height Bare or insulated aerial conductor or any other cable U ≤ 1000 V OR Insulated aerial conductor with earthed screen U > 1000 V Insulated aerial conductor without earthed screen U > 1000 V Bare or covered aerial conductor 1000 V <U ≤ 33 kV 6.5 8.5 6. the clearances given in this clause may need to be increased.5 6.6 m.7 6.7 7.5 6.0 9.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . should not be less than the distances specified in Table 3.0 9. 3. When conductors are first erected.0 4. 4 Where the usage of land is such that vehicles of unusual height are likely to pass under an overhead line.5 5. 2 In the case of cliff faces or cuttings the clearances specified in the column headed ‘Over land which due to its steepness or swampiness is not traversable by vehicles’ shall apply.5 33 V <U ≤ 132 kV 132 kV <U ≤ 275 kV 275 kV <U ≤ 330 kV 330 kV <U ≤ 400 kV 400 kV <U ≤ 500 kV NOTES: 1 For the purpose of this clause.5 5.6 CLEARANCE FROM GROUND.5 4.0 5. an allowance should be made for ‘settling in’ and ‘aerial conductor creep’.10.7 7.0 6.DRAFT ONLY 39 DRAFT ONLY TABLE 3. 3 In the case of waterways.
10. 2 Table 3. When aerial conductors are first erected. This arc has its centre at the outer extremity of the structure and extends outward to its intersection with a vertical line that is located at a horizontal distance specified in C. 3.10 illustrates the application of Table 3. 2 In the case of waterways.2. should be calculated by the methods specified in Appendix S.5 4.6 3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . 3.7 are final conditions for aerial conductors that have ‘settled in’. other lines and recreational areas 3. traffic routes.7 NOTES: 1 For the purpose of this Clause. from the outer extremities of those parts of any structure on which a person can stand.8 to a particular building. 3 Figure 3. an allowance should be made for ‘settling in’ and ‘aerial conductor creep’.DRAFT ONLY 40 DRAFT ONLY TABLE 3.1 Structures and buildings This clause specifies the minimum clearance from any structure. NOTES: 1 The clearances to be maintained at the outer extremities of those parts on any structure on which a person can stand are defined by an arc of radius A or B as appropriate.7 CLEARANCE FROM GROUND. building. DR 09051-PDR . post or line support (other than a support to which the line under consideration is attached or a support of another overhead line which crosses the line under consideration) to any position to which an aerial conductor in an overhead line may swing under the influence of wind as defined in Appendix B or sag under the influence of load current and solar radiation.0 2. INSULATED LV SERVICE LINES Service line location Over the centre of a road Over any other part of a road Over a footway or land which is likely to be used by vehicles Elsewhere Distance to ground in any direction m 5.2. the clearances given in this clause may need to be increased. 4 The clearances specified in Table 3.10. the clearances should be determined having regard to local conditions and requirements. flood plains and snowfields.8 does not apply to cable systems supported along the facade of a building.8. A safety clearance should also be included.10. (See Figure 3. The letters A to D refer to distances A to D as set out in Table 3. The letter G refers to distance to ground. 3 Where the usage of land is such that vehicles of unusual height are likely to pass under an insulated overhead service line.2 Easements When considering the width of an easement to provide clearance from structures. the term ‘ground’ includes any unroofed elevated area accessible to plant or vehicles. the position of the aerial conductors or cables under the influence of wind at any point along the span should be taken into account.11). Refer to Appendix S.2 Clearances to buildings.
8 3.11 EASEMENT CLEARANCES DR 09051-PDR .15/06/2009 13:22:00 .8 3.8 FIGURE 3.DRAFT ONLY 41 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE 3.10 STRUCTURE CLEARANCES FOR TABLE 3.
5 2.7 Bare active m 3.2.DRAFT ONLY TABLE 3. or from any part not normally accessible to persons but on which a person can stand D In any direction from those parts of any structure not normally accessible to persons G In any direction from ground (1) (1) (1) U > 1000 V 1000 V <U≤ 33 kV Bare or covered m 4.0 0.0 6.0 5.7 Insulated with Insulated without earthed screen earthed screen m 2.1 0.5 7.0 132 kV <U≤ 275 kV Bare m 6. as indicated on Figure 3.7 m 3.1.5 1.7 2.6 Refer to Table 3.5 33 kV <U≤ 132 kV Bare m 5. See also Note 1 in Clause 3.0 330 kV <U≤ 500 kV Bare m 8.5 1.0 Bare neutral m 2. This clearance can be further reduced to allow for termination at the point of attachment.0 Refer to Table 3.5 4.6 1.5 6.11 to determine an actual clearance that is relevant for a particular application.1 3.7 2.1 0.5 275 kV <U≤ 330 kV Bare m 7.1 (2) 0. .8 CLEARANCES FROM STRUCTURES U ≤ 1000 V Clearance Insulated m A Vertically above those parts of any structure normally accessible to persons B Vertically above those parts of any structure not normally accessible to persons but on which a person can stand C In any direction (other than vertically above) from those parts of any structure normally accessible to persons.7 4.6 (2) 0.1 2. DRAFT ONLY NOTE: The interpretation/confirmation of clearances that apply for different situations outlined in this Table may in some instances only be made following reference to Figure 3.3 (2) 0.5 3.5 42 42 0.6 (2) This should not be taken as meaning only the literal vertical.9 1.10.0 6.7 DR 09051-PDR . The actual clearance may also extend outwards in an arc until it intersects with the relevant ‘C’ dimension clearance.0 4.7 2.7 2.5 2.11.5 5.15/06/2009 13:22:00 0.6 Refer to Table 3.7 3.
3 Corona loss In cases where the surface voltage gradient is very high there can be a power loss along the aerial conductor due to corona emission.1 Typical easement widths Appendix DD provides typical easement widths for a range of voltages.12. The allowable levels of Radio Interference Voltage (RIV) and Television Interference (TVI) are given in AS/NZS 2344. DR 09051-PDR . corona loss is expressed in watts per metre (W/m) or kilowatts per kilometre (kW/km). the applicable Standard is NZS 6869. Designers need to ensure that audible noise levels comply with relevant EPA or local council regulations.12. all surfaces on hardware should be smooth and the corners rounded. For New Zealand. In general if the surface voltage gradient is kept below 16 kV/cm. The degree of annoyance caused by radio and television interference is determined by the so-called ‘signal-to-noise ratio’ at the receiving installation. operate and maintain an electricity power line. 3.DRAFT ONLY 43 DRAFT ONLY 3. a constant low frequency (100 Hz) hum may also be heard. corona loss will be negligible compared to joule losses. The power loss due to corona is typically less than a few kilowatts/kilometre in fair weather but it can amount to tens of kilowatts/kilometre during heavy rain and up to one hundred kilowatts/kilometre during frost. When establishing limits for the emission of radio noise. the radio and television signal strengths to be protected have to be determined. or apparatus. working or playing near overhead lines.12 CORONA EFFECT The surface voltage gradient on the aerial conductor should be limited to less than 16 kV/cm to limit the generation of corona discharges. At the higher voltage levels. 3. For higher surface voltage gradients.2 Audible noise The most common form of audible noise is a hissing or frying sound (broadband crackle) audible in wet weather. 3. the use of corona rings should be considered around the hardware to reduce corona. The easement width may be influenced by other factors such as audible noise.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . cable. On overhead power lines.1 Radio and television interference Corona generates interference over a wide band of frequencies. or electric and magnetic fields. Easements are usually obtained or created to ensure electricity utilities can gain ready access to assets for maintenance. 3. An easement width can be established to accommodate an overhead energized line asset which ensures adequate safe electrical and mechanical spatial clearances are provided. The total random audible noise consisting of both broadband and 100 Hz hum needs to be addressed in the design process.12. 3. repair and upgrading the power lines and for the safety of persons living. radio and television interference. During fair weather.11.11 POWER LINE EASEMENTS An easement is legally described as an encumbrance on the title of land limited in width and height above or below the land conferring a right to construct.
14 SINGLE WIRE EARTH RETURN (SWER) POWERLINES 3. conductive roofs.1 General Single wire earth return (SWER) are distribution powerlines that utilize the earth as a return circuit instead of a conventional aerial conductor.13. A more detailed discussion on SWER distribution systems is found in The Electricity Authority of New South Wales document. Mitigation measures should be considered to reduce these effects to acceptable levels contained in relevant Standards and Codes. fences. Relevant Standards and Codes are HB 102 (CJC 6). and for New Zealand—to ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric. DR 09051-PDR .e. communication installations. High Voltage Earth Return for Rural Areas and in NZECP 41.4 Electrostatic induction Electrostatic induction is caused by the electric field surrounding the powerline and these fields can induce charges on nearby metallic objects. Relevant standards and codes are HB 102 (CJC 6) and NZCCPTS Noise Investigation Guide. For a person the thresholds for perception are given in Appendix H.13.g.1 Electric and magnetic fields under a line The design of overhead lines can be influenced by the necessity to limit power frequency electric and magnetic fields produced by energized aerial conductors.14. reference shall be made where relevant to— (a) (b) for Australia—to ARPANSA.DRAFT ONLY 44 DRAFT ONLY 3. This effect is generally only significant at voltages above 200 kV and may influence the minimum ground clearance over parking areas.13. reference shall be made to relevant International and National Standards and/or to qualified Codes of Practice (i.2 Electric and magnetic field induction Electric and magnetic fields near an overhead line may induce currents in and voltages on adjacent conductive objects such as long metal structures (e. 3. For interference calculations and measures to be taken to eliminate the effects or reduce them to acceptable levels. lines or pipes) or bulky objects (e. 3. These distribution lines are economical to construct in lightly loaded rural areas where long spans can be constructed. For such limits. 3. 3. Magnetic.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . tanks or large vehicles) in proximity to power lines.g. Draft Radiation Protection Standard for Exposure Limits to Electrical and Magnetic Fields 0 Hz–3 kHz. VI and/or to particular agreements between the parties concerned. ITU Directives (CCITT) Vol. Limit values for electric and magnetic fields are not provided in this Standard. and Electromagnetic Fields (Up To 300 Ghz). and AS/NZS 4853.3 Interference with telecommunication circuits Telecommunication circuits can suffer electrical interference from power lines.13 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS 3.13.
The transformer supplies a two-wire backbone line to which single phase tee-offs are connected and The ‘un-isolated’ system that uses a conventional 3-phase backbone from which single wire tee-off lines emanate. Local customer supply poletype transformers are connected between the single aerial conductor line and earth. The primary winding of the isolating transformer is connected to a conventional medium voltage distribution system.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . (c) The design issues to be considered for SWER systems are— (i) (ii) (iii) interference with Telecommunications Circuits—there is a limit of 8 A earth current as stipulated in various Codes of Practice for Telecommunications including NZECP 41. limited capacity due to the low conductivity of the aerial conductor commonly used as well as the limited sizes of isolating and customer transformers.14. The ‘duplex’ system that uses an isolating transformer with the secondary earthed at the centre tap. This type of SWER distribution system consists of an isolating supply transformer with the secondary winding connected to a medium voltage single wire pole line and earth. harmonics caused by customer’s equipment overloading SWER system and some 3-phase converting devices.2 Types of SWER distribution systems The ‘isolated’ single wire system is the most common form. (iv) (v) (vi) interference with railway telecommunications and signalling circuits.DRAFT ONLY 45 DRAFT ONLY 3. SWER distribution systems are utilized in the following arrangements: (a) (b) The ‘isolated’ single wire system as described above. This is the most common SWER distribution system. earthing systems need to be designed to take into account broken or poor earth conductor connections. and reduced visibility to low flying aircraft (which may be involved in crop dusting or fire fighting). DR 09051-PDR .
1 DC resistance The aerial conductor DC resistance is a function of the aerial conductor construction and stranding. The steady state thermal current rating shall be determined for coinciding wind velocity and incident angle. 4. The evaporative cooling heat loss term is also not considered. The resistance shall be determined from either— (a) a mathematical determination using the known properties of the aerial conductor materials and construction as described in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on conductors.1. (b) 4. frequency and magnitude of the current.1. hysteresis and magnetic viscosity.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . or published values in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on conductors.3 Steady state thermal current rating The steady state thermal current rating of an aerial conductor is the maximum current inducing the maximum steady state temperature for a given ambient aerial condition and is based on aerial conductor heat gain equals conductor heat loss that is— Pj + Ps = Pr+ Pc where the heat gain terms are Pj which is the joule heating due to the resistance of the aerial conductor and Ps is the solar heat gain The heat loss terms are Pc which is natural and forced convection cooling and Pr is the radiation cooling. daily solar radiation. construction and stranding. and corona heat gain are not considered. For insulated aerial conductors. The resistance shall be determined from mathematical determination using the known properties of the aerial conductor materials and construction as described in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on aerial conductors. 4. material properties. The terms for heat gain for cyclic magnetic flux. material properties and temperature.1 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS 4.2 AC resistance The aerial conductor AC resistance is a function of the aerial conductor DC resistance. the steady state thermal rating shall be in accordance with the appropriate Australian and New Zealand Standards. temperature.1.4 Short time thermal current rating The short time thermal current rating of an aerial conductor is the maximum current inducing the maximum steady state temperature for a given ambient condition and occurs when a step change in current flow results in a short term aerial conductor temperature change and the aerial conductor stored heat = heat gain − heat loss DR 09051-PDR .1. A recommended methodology to establish the steady state thermal ratings for bare aerial conductors is given in IEC TR 61597. ambient temperature and aerial conductor surface condition. which is caused by eddy currents.DRAFT ONLY 46 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 4 AE RIAL CONDUCTORS AND OVER HEAD EART HWIR ES (GROUND WI R ES) WI TH OR WI THOUT TELECOM MUNICATION CIRCUITS 4. A recommended method and guidance to determine the AC resistance is given in IEC TR 61597. Appendices AA and BB provide guidance on aerial conductor maximum operating temperature.
the specific heat capacity of the aerial conductor. the duration of the transient current. the magnitude of the current and maximum permissible temperature. T EM PER AT U R E final initial C U R R EN T I2 I1 TIME FIGURE 4. the conductor temperature coefficient of resistance. In determining the rating for circuits where— (a) (b) the reactance to resistance ratio is greater than 10 then the d.1.5 Short-circuit thermal current rating The short-circuit thermal current rating shall be based on adiabatic heating. Appendix AA provides guidance on establishing the short time thermal current rating for bare aerial conductors. asymmetrical heating component of the current shall be taken into account. 4. The aerial conductor short-circuit thermal rating shall not result in exceeding— (i) DR 09051-PDR .1 SHORT TIME CURRENT RATING AND TEMPERATURE The final aerial conductor temperature shall not exceed the maximum operating temperature. and auto reclose protection is employed then the short-circuit duration shall be the sum of the initial fault duration and the successive auto reclose fault durations and the combined aerial conductor heating shall be cumulative. The rating is a function of the aerial conductor cross sectional area. any specified permissible temperature rating of the aerial conductor including appropriate consideration of short time differential expansion of dissimilar materials (known as birdcaging). For covered and insulated aerial conductor the maximum short-term thermal rating shall be in accordance with the relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards. the thermal conductivity of the aerial conductor. that is due to the transient nature of the current flow the aerial conductor heat gain and loss at the surface of the aerial conductor shall be ignored.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . the aerial conductor initial temperature. Short time current and associated aerial conductor temperature rise is illustrated in Figure 4.DRAFT ONLY 47 DRAFT ONLY The time constant for short time ratings is generally less than 20 min and meteorological conditions other than solar heat gain will generally not have a significant influence on final aerial conductor temperature. Initial aerial conductor conditions shall be assumed and include initial aerial conductor operating temperature. the aerial conductor resistivity.1.c.
1 Limit states The overhead line is considered intact when its aerial conductors and or tension fittings are used at stresses below their damage limit. aluminium and copper respectively.2 LIMIT STATES OF AERIAL CONDUCTOR DESIGN Indicative damage and failure limits of aerial conductors and tension fittings are illustrated in a typical aerial conductor stress strain characteristic illustrated in Figure 4.2. and/or the drop point of any grease applied to the aerial conductor.2 MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS 4. DR 09051-PDR .5 times. s t a te of sy s te m i n t a c t s t a te d a m a g e d s t a te f a i l e d s t a te conductor strength limits damage limit fa i l u r e l i m i t FIGURE 4. (iv) (v) (vi) Appendix AA provides guidance on establishing the short time thermal current rating for bare aerial conductors. 0. When subjected to increasing loads. 4.DRAFT ONLY 48 DRAFT ONLY (ii) for covered and or insulated aerial conductors the insulation temperature rating as specified in the appropriate Australian and New Zealand Standards. or for wind induced Aeolian vibration.2.3.2 times the melting point of zinc. (iii) the temperature rating of fibre optic cores. 0. This level is called the damage limit and aerial conductors and or tension fittings will be in damaged state if the aerial conductors and or tension fittings have exceeded the damage limit. permanent deformation particularly if the failure mode is ductile. aerial conductors may exhibit wire and or whole aerial conductor fracture. failure of the aerial conductor and or tension fittings occurs at a level called the failure limit.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . If the load is further increased. The aerial conductors and or tension fittings will be in a failed state if the aerial conductors and or tension fittings have exceeded the failure limit. aerial conductors and or tension fittings may exhibit at some level. The state of system and the damage and failure limits are illustrated in Figure 4. For covered and insulated aerial conductor the maximum short term thermal rating shall be in accordance with the relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards.3 times and 0. the permissible loss of strength due to annealing as specified in Appendix BB.
2 plus the everyday low velocity wind condition (defined in Clause 1.3 LIMIT STATES OF AERIAL CONDUCTOR DESIGN The damage and failure limits of aerial conductors and tension fittings shall be in accordance with Table 4. 5 c b l Operating region using non linear model failure limit = 0.DRAFT ONLY 49 DRAFT ONLY cbl Calculated breaking load Te n s i o n f i t t i n g f a i l u r e r e g i o n Pe r m a n e nt e l o n g at i o n region v i b r at i o n li m i t E l a st i c e l o n g at i o n r e g i o n S t r a i n (% e l o n g a t i o n) FIGURE 4.7 c b l .15/06/2009 13:22:00 Operating region using linear model d amag e limit = 0. DR 09051-PDR .1 for the direct applied variable action consisting of the imposed loads specified in Clause 188.8.131.52).
The maximum static aerial conductor tension shall be determined for the low velocity everyday wind direct applied variable action condition defined in Clause 1. the governing criteria for aerial conductor tension will be the vibration limit state. Damage strength limit state is 0.2 Aerial conductor tension Aerial conductor tension change behaviour for any given span length and or equivalent span. wire fatigue and in some cases complete aerial conductor fracture. Appendix S provides guidance on aerial conductor sag and tension calculations. permanent elongation and loading conditions such as temperature. or OPGW – 0.DRAFT ONLY 50 DRAFT ONLY TABLE 4. Additional allowance for loss of strength due to aerial conductor annealing is not required. 2 3 4. Additional allowance for loss of strength due to aerial conductor annealing is not required. aerial conductor construction. is a function of the aerial conductor mass. terrain.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Aerial conductor tension changes shall be determined in accordance with Table 4. initial aerial conductor tension. In most situations.2. aerial conductor modulus of elasticity and coefficient of thermal expansion.7 by application of a non-linear stress strain model. Consideration shall be given in determining the damage limit state to any prestressing. the type of aerial conductor fittings.7 aerial conductor CBL (see Note 3) Damage limit Failure limit 0.7 factor is based on the failure performance of tensions fittings.3. The 0. or – 0. wind loading. or ADSS – maximum tension corresponding to the optical figure strain free condition – optical fibre failure (rupture) – optical tensile stress (rupture) – optical fibre failure (rupture) – 0.7 aerial conductor CBL (see Note 3) 0. The aerial conductor vibration limit shall be based on determining maximum static aerial conductor tension with or without any dynamic stress control that will result in fatigue free endurance for the design life of the overhead line.5CBL for the linear model and shall not be exceeded for the maximum wind direct applied variable action condition specified in Section 7.7 aerial conductor CBL (see Note 3) NOTES: 1 Long-term wind induced Aeolian vibration causes permanent aerial conductor damage.5 aerial conductor CBL (see Note 2) ABC and CC Not greater than the specified maximum working tension as described in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards Lowest of— – vibration limit (see Note 1).5 may be increased to 0. The factor of 0. aerial conductor cross sectional area. Damage limit may be the governing criteria for a small diameter aerial conductor subject to ice and or high wind loadings. DR 09051-PDR .7 may be used based on statistical analysis of tension fitting rupture tests and considerations of installation quality control.1 DAMAGE AND FAILURE LIMITS OF AERIAL CONDUCTORS Aerial conductors and tension fittings Lowest of— Bare – vibration limit (see Note 1). Aerial conductor vibration limit is a function of wind velocity and direction. Factors greater than 0.45. temperature.5 aerial conductor CBL (see Note 2) – maximum tension corresponding to the optical fibre strain free condition Lowest of— – as agreed with the manufacturer. and or ice loading.2. over tensioning or temperature allowances to compensate for initial radial wire movement and longer term metallurgical creep of the aerial conductor material. aerial conductor tension and aerial conductor vibration control.
aerial conductor fittings. vibration control.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Permanent elongation begins at the instant of applied axial tensile load and continues at a decreasing rate providing tension and temperature remain constant. For multiple predicted load cases aerial conductor creep shall be considered cumulative. terrain and climates may be used to validate the aerial conductor vibration limit. Appendix S provides guidance on determining aerial conductor static tensions. The aerial conductor vibration limit shall be based on limiting the static and dynamic stresses to less than aerial conductor fatigue endurance limit for the design life of the overhead line. Aerial conductor creep will result in changes in aerial conductor sag and tension with time. Aerial conductor constants used to predict creep for the specific aerial conductors shall be determined in accordance with AS 3822 or equivalent Standards. bending stress over aerial conductor support fittings and compressive stress caused by aerial conductor fittings.2 AERIAL CONDUCTOR TENSION DETERMINATION MODELS Model Non-linear stress strain – – – Linear stress strain – – – Application aerial conductors with maximum operating temperatures greater than 120°C ultimate design tensions exceeding the damage limit aerial conductors with maximum operating temperatures less than 120°C ultimate design tensions not exceeding the damage limit steel aerial conductors aerial bundled conductors Aerial conductor creep shall be taken into account in the determination of aerial conductor tension change for aerial conductors under everyday conditions with catenary constants greater than 1000 m (see Appendix S). Static stress is a function of aerial conductor tension. Aerial conductor creep shall. Proven performance of overhead lines with aerial conductor damage free endurance based on a service history with similar aerial conductors.2. DR 09051-PDR . aerial conductor temperature and time.4 Aerial conductor permanent elongation Aerial conductor permanent elongation consists of strand settling and metallurgical creep. wire fracture and in some cases complete aerial conductor fracture. Metallurgical creep is plastic deformation that is a logarithmic in behaviour and a function of the aerial conductor type.2. Dynamic stress is a function of aerial conductor vibration amplitude and frequency.DRAFT ONLY 51 DRAFT ONLY TABLE 4. 4. aerial conductor construction. aerial conductor stress.3 Aerial conductor stress and fatigue Aerial conductor stress is a combination of the static stress and dynamic stress. Appendix S provides guidance on aerial conductor change of state determination. Aerial conductors operating at continuous elevated temperatures and or tensions are subject to elevated levels of metallurgical creep. Fatigue damage generally occurs at points where the aerial conductor is secured to fittings and the combined static and dynamic stresses are a maximum. 4. as a minimum be determined for the average aerial conductor temperature and tension for the design life of the overhead line. Elevated aerial conductor static stresses combined with elevated dynamic stress caused by wind induced Aeolian vibration will result in permanent aerial conductor fatigue damage.
2.DRAFT ONLY 52 DRAFT ONLY Allowance shall be made for permanent elongation to ensure that the required electrical clearance specified in Section 3 is maintained for the design life of the overhead line.2. 4. Appendix V provides guidance on aerial conductor permanent elongation. Appendix BB provides guidance on aerial conductor annealing and maximum operating temperatures. Annealing shall be considered for copper. Annealing damage is cumulative and shall be determined by summing the loss of tensile strength for temperatures arising from the steady state. 4.6 Aerial conductor final modulus of elasticity The final modulus of elasticity of an aerial conductor is a function of a number of factors including the aerial conductor construction and stranding and material properties. (b) (c) Appendix W provides guidance on the determination of aerial conductor final modulus of elasticity. or a mathematical determination using the known properties of the aerial conductor materials and construction as described in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on aerial conductors. 4. 80° and 200°C respectively. The final modulus of elasticity shall be determined from either— (a) a stress strain test carried out in accordance with AS 3822 or equivalent by which a complete understanding of the aerial conductor stress strain behaviour may be derived. During the annealing process the aerial conductor material experiences a change in its microstructure which results in a loss of tensile strength.5 Aerial conductor annealing and operating temperatures Annealing damage is caused by the heating excursions of the aerial conductor. or published values in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on insulated aerial conductors. DR 09051-PDR .2. or published values in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on insulated aerial conductors. an increase in conductivity and an improvement in material ductility. The CTE shall be determined from either— (a) (b) a thermal elongation test carried out in accordance with AS 3822 or equivalent. The permissible aerial conductor cumulative annealing damage shall not exceed 15% of the CBL for the design life of the overhead line. aluminium and steel aerial conductors operating at temperatures greater than 70°. The allowance shall consider independently. short time and short-circuit thermal ratings and associated durations for the design life of the overhead line. strand settling at the damage limit and cumulative metallurgical creep.7 Aerial conductor coefficient of thermal expansion The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of an aerial conductor is a function of the aerial conductor construction and stranding and material properties. (c) Appendix X provides guidance on the determination of aerial conductor coefficient of thermal expansion.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . No further allowance is to be made in the aerial conductor strength factor for annealing. or mathematical determination using the known properties of the aerial conductor materials and construction as described in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on bare aerial conductors.
Aerial conductor vertical sag for low-tension spans is also influenced by the length and mass of supporting insulators.2.9 Aerial conductor diameter The mean of two measurements at right angles is taken at one cross section.1 Aerial conductor damage risks Consideration shall be given to the potential damage arising from bushfires. Aerial conductor horizontal sag.4 and 7. the largest section shall be one of the two measurements.3 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 4. over time aerial conductor vertical sag changes and is a function of aerial conductor permanent elongation.2.3 respectively. 4. Sy is a function of the aerial conductor tension. Aerial conductor permanent elongation and ice load shall be determined in accordance with Clauses 4.0.2. aerial warning markers. 4. 4. Aerial conductor equivalent diameter is a function of the aerial conductor diameter and any increase in diameter from deposited ice. For other than uniform round wires.2.3. 4.11 Aerial conductor calculated breaking load The calculated breaking load (CBL) of an aerial conductor shall be determined from the relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards for bare aerial conductors and or insulated aerial conductors. aerial conductor equivalent diameter.12 Aerial conductor vertical and horizontal sag Aerial conductor vertical sag. symmetrically stranded and or wind velocities greater than 60 m. or ‘blow out’ is a function of the aerial conductor tension. aerial warning markers. s−1 the aerial conductor drag coefficient shall be equal to 1. 4.2.DRAFT ONLY 53 DRAFT ONLY 4. The aerial conductor selection shall consider the risk and damage arising from exceeding the damage limit of the aerial conductor. which may result in an aerial conductor being in a damaged or failure limit.10 Aerial conductor drag coefficient For uniform round wires symmetrically stranded and wind velocities less than 60 m. For nonsymmetrical sections.2. aerial conductor equivalent mass and span length. sugar cane fires.2. aerial conductor spacers and any contributing ice load. In addition. lightning impact and cyclones. Aerial conductor equivalent mass is a function of the aerial conductor mass. Appendix S provides guidance on conductor sag determination. direct applied action and span length.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . s−1 the conductor drag coefficient shall be either measured or calculated. Aerial conductor inclined sag inclusive of any insulator swing component shall be determined using the same applied action for the vertical and horizontal sag to ensure that the required electrical clearance specified in Section 3 is maintained. Aerial conductor vertical sag shall be determined for the maximum operating temperature of the overhead line to ensure that the required electrical clearance specified in Section 3 is maintained. DR 09051-PDR .8 Aerial conductor cross sectional area The aerial conductor cross sectional area shall be the total area of the mechanical load bearing wires. Aerial conductor horizontal sag inclusive of any insulator swing component shall be determined for the electrical power frequency clearance condition specified in Section 3.
4.3 Covered aerial conductors Covered aerial conductors shall be supplied and manufactured in accordance with the AS/NZS 3675 or an equivalent International Standard.4. selected and tested to meet the electrical. AS 1531. environmental and telecommunication requirements of the overhead line. 4. comealongs. mechanical. AS/NZS 1222.4.5 AERIAL CONDUCTOR SELECTION Aerial conductor selection consists of consideration of wire size and material. 4. etc.4 Optical fibres Optical fibre aerial conductors shall be supplied and manufactured in accordance with international standard description and numbers IEC 60794-4. This is the limit for transferring the conductor tension through the insulation to the strain clamp and is based on French experience with heavily filled XLPE compound. Also for three or four core cables experience has shown that the cores are difficult to separate to fit insulation piercing connectors at cable tensions exceeding 4. The highest horizontal tension used for the everyday load should take into account the working ratings of cable tensioning equipment such as lugalls.2 or an equivalent International Standard. (b) 4. Pit corrosion particularly for aluminium wires may arise in atmospheres of elevated chloride and sulphur.1. 4. AS/NZS 3560.4.4. 4. galvanic corrosion.2 Insulated aerial conductors and cable systems Insulated aerial conductors and cable systems shall be supplied and manufactured in accordance with AS/NZS 3560.1. electrical. 4. mechanical.3. AS/NZS 1746.4.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . This is based on maximum working conductor stress of 40 MPa on 95 mm2 LVABC.DRAFT ONLY 54 DRAFT ONLY 4.4 AERIAL CONDUCTOR CONSTRUCTIONS 4.2. Copper wires are also susceptible to pit corrosion in the presence of elevated levels of atmospheric ammonia or where aerial crop dusting is common. environmental and economic factors. AS/NZS 3607 or an equivalent International Standard.184.108.40.206.1 Bare aerial conductors Bare aerial conductors shall be supplied and manufactured in accordance with AS/NZS 1222. AS/NZS 3599.2 Aerial conductor degradation Consideration shall be given to aerial conductor degradation arising from surface pit corrosion of wires and in the case of non-homogeneous aerial conductors and or aerial conductors in contact with dissimilar metal fittings.1 Aerial conductor types and standards Aerial conductors shall be designed.4. Aerial conductors shall be selected to minimize pit and or galvanic corrosion and where considered appropriate aerial conductor protective coatings such as partly or fully greased aerial conductors shall be used. Aerial conductor selection shall satisfy the— DR 09051-PDR .1.1.5 kN. AS/NZS 3599. Appendix Y provides guidance on the selection for various environments.1.5 Low-voltage aerial bundled cables (LVABC) The following considerations apply: (a) The tangential tension in the cable should not exceed 28% CBL.
DRAFT ONLY 55 DRAFT ONLY (a) (b) electrical requirements for steady state and transient current ratings. capital costs. load growth. load profile. wire shape. interest rate. drag coefficient. inventory costs and construction costs (ratio of tension to suspension structures) (c) (d) Factors to be considered in the selection of aerial conductors are wire materials.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . and economic requirements for cost of losses. mechanical requirements including annealing. joule losses. environmental requirements for corrosion and lightning damage. DR 09051-PDR . constructability (no birdcaging or unravelling). audible noise and radio and televisions interference. corona discharge. wire sizes and conductor constructions. sag and strength relationship. permanent elongation fatigue endurance. aerial conductor diameter. operating temperature.
not zero probability of flashover. Contamination will build up on insulator surfaces over time and when the surfaces are lightly wetted because of high humidity. thereby reducing its life expectancy. This is termed non-self restoring insulation and must be protected from over voltages.DRAFT ONLY 56 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 5. in particular. oil and solid dielectric systems where any flashover may be destructive.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . a transient impulse study including line entry is required to determine the placement and number of surge arresters required to protect substation plant from lightning and switching overvoltages. precautions should be taken to ensure that lightning strikes close to the substation are attenuated to levels which do not cause damage to substation equipment (close to the substation is in the range 800 m to 5 km). particularly transformers. Proper co-ordination is required to ensure acceptable flashover performance. fog or dew. switching and lightning overvoltages and the mechanical stresses include the tensile. To ensure protection of the substation plant. Often line insulation levels exceed that of the substation equipment connected at either end. A lightning backflashover or direct strike close to the substation can create a large voltage transient that may damage insulation in substation plant.1 INSULATION BASICS 5 INSULATORS Insulation is required to withstand the electrical and mechanical stresses applied to it during its lifetime. Lightning protection for transmission lines may include one or more overhead earthwires and low structure earthing values. Substation plant is available in standardized impulse insulation levels. consideration is given to the contamination of the insulator surfaces. Lightning impulses and switching surges exceeding the capability of the substation plant can be conducted into the substation. compressive or cantilever loadings from aerial conductor tension and weight. When assessing the ability of insulation to withstand power frequency voltages. up to around 1 m in diameter. It should be noted that lightning causes corona around the aerial conductor. Line insulation is self-restoring and is designed for some low probability of flashover. RIV and TIV interference causing annoyance to the public. for the first 2. Power frequency flashover and subsequent outage. DR 09051-PDR .2 LINE AND SUBSTATION INSULATION COORDINATION Substation insulation incorporates paper. say below 5 ohms. 5. The flashover performance of an overhead line is dependent on the electrical withstand of the insulator and the air gap distances.5 km of any line from a substation to prevent back flashovers. The electrical stresses include power frequency. This corona envelope dissipates energy and reduces the rise time and peak voltage as the transient travels along the aerial conductor. the leakage current increases and can result in the following undesirable outcomes: (a) (b) (c) Visual sparking. the arc distance on the insulator should be comparable to the air gap distance. In high lightning areas or for high reliability lines. light rain. Degradation of the insulator surface. audible noise.
In particular.1. AS 4436 provides guidance on the selection of insulators for polluted conditions. 5.2 Design for pollution When determining the insulation requirements for an overhead power line or an outdoor substation in a contaminated environment. When high-speed autoreclosing is installed.1 General The insulators shall be designed to meet the general requirements for reliability and life for the overhead line.4 Design for switching surge voltages Switching surge overvoltages up to 3 per unit peak voltage can arise when overhead lines are switched. 5. 5. A simplified approach to the design of insulators is given in Appendix CC. Lightning performance. particularly on transmission lines.3. The ability of the material to endure the electrical activity without being degraded. The extent of this overvoltage is dependent on— (a) (b) (c) the point of voltage wave when the line is switched.3 Design for power frequency voltages (wet withstand requirement) The line insulation should withstand the maximum voltage expected on the line.1 per unit voltage and up to 1. 5.3 ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN 5. Power frequency voltage.3. and other equipment connected to the line.3.4 per unit for effectively earthed systems during system disturbances. In these cases. the design shall consider the relevant electrical and mechanical requirements as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Pollution.3. The basic concept is to increase the surface creepage distance so that it is long enough to prevent a pollution flashover across the surface. Mechanical strength. Overhead powerlines can operate continuously up to 1. The recommendations for the insulator strength factor are given in Table 6. overvoltage can exceed 3 per unit voltage.2. such as faults and load rejection.DRAFT ONLY 57 DRAFT ONLY 5.5 Insulator mechanical design The loads on an insulator shall be calculated using the limit state methodology outlined in Section 2.3. it would be common to install surge arresters on the line to limit the overvoltages to the designed line insulation. Switching surge voltage. The wet power frequency withstand voltage of the line insulation should be selected to exceed this maximum dynamic overvoltage.3. The shape of the insulator to assist in reducing the likelihood of contamination collection and facilitate washing.2. the capacitance or amount of trapped charges on the line.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . the following criteria need to be considered: (a) (b) (c) Creepage (or leakage) distance. This voltage is regarded as the maximum dynamic overvoltage. DR 09051-PDR .
2 STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .c.c— Standard strength classes and end fittings for string insulator units Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1000 V—Ceramic or glass insulator units for a. MANUFACTURE AND TESTING OF INSULATORS STANDARD AS 1154 3608 3609 4398 4435.DRAFT ONLY 58 DRAFT ONLY 5. Insulators—Ceramic or glass—Station post for indoor and outdoor use—Voltages greater than 1000 V a.c— Definitions.c. Insulators—Composite for overhead lines—Voltages greater than 1000 V a.c. systems—Characteristics of insulator units of the cap and pin type Insulators—Porcelain and glass for overhead power lines—Voltages greater than 1000 V a.c.2.c.1 4436 60305 TITLE Insulator and conductor fittings for overhead power lines Insulators—Porcelain and glass.2 IEC 60433 60575 60720 61466-2 DR 09051-PDR . Insulators—Composite for overhead lines—Voltages greater than 1000 V a. systems—Characteristics of insulator units of the long rod type Thermal-mechanical performance test and mechanical performance test on string insulator units Characteristics of line post insulators Composite string insulator units for overhead lines with a nominal voltage greater than 1000 V – Part 2: Dimensional and electrical characteristics AS/NZS 2947 4435.c. Insulators—Porcelain stay type—Voltages greater than 1000 a. pin and shackle type—Voltages not exceeding 1000 V a. TABLE 5. TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF The Standards that are used to specify the various types of insulators in usage in Australia are shown in Table 5.4 RELEVANT INSULATORS STANDARDS. test methods and acceptance criteria for string insulatr units Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1000 V—Ceramic or glass insulator units for a.
and public safety and design working life. (Higher security transmission lines) Level II Level III DR 09051-PDR . or is a secondary structural or framing element should be considered as a ‘structural element’ of the line support structure in the context of this clause. (Normal distribution lines) Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line would cause negligible danger to life and property and alternative arrangements can be provided if loss of support services occurs. and component strength factors are based on achieving an acceptable risk of failure and operational performance for the line. This clause should be read in conjunction with the relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards where applicable. The performance of the structural system shall be evaluated for an appropriate combination of serviceability and strength limit states as set out in the following clauses.1 GENERAL 6 BAS I S OF STRUCTUR AL DE SIGN This Section of the Standard provides the basis and the general principles for the structural. The structural design methods are based on ‘limit state’ concepts. resistances. based on the lines importance to the system (including system redundancy).15/06/2009 13:22:00 . 6. The selection of load factors. the type of structure and the type of limit state.2.DRAFT ONLY 59 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 6. material properties. geotechnical and mechanical design of overhead lines.1 Basic requirements An overhead electrical line shall be designed to withstand the ultimate load case combinations for the selected security level as defined below. in particular for weather related loads. NOTE:Some States and Territories of Australia and New Zealand may have Acts and Regulations which may have requirements in excess of this Standard 6. (Higher security distribution lines and normal transmission lines) Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line would cause unacceptable danger to life or significant economic loss to the community and sever vital post disaster services. These factors can also depend on the strength co-ordination principles envisaged for the line. geotechnical parameters. Any element of an overhead line which carries structural load. The general principles of structural design are based on the limit state concept used in conjunction with a load and material strength factor appropriate to the reference limit state. design model. The values of the factors for actions and material properties depend on the degree of uncertainty for the loads.2 REQUIREMENTS 6. geometrical quantities. its location and exposure to climatic conditions.2 Security levels Security levels shall be distinguished as follows: Level I Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line may be tolerable with respect to social and economic consequences. Structures and components should be designed using a reliability-based (risk of failure) approach.2.
DRAFT ONLY 60 DRAFT ONLY 6.1.2. The design loads for an overhead line shall be based on 50-year return period wind speeds as defined in AS/NZ 1170.2.0 1.0 1.0 1.9 1. additional factors such as the line length.2 0.1 TABLE 6. Level I 0.5 for which line components have to be designed. e.6 and 7.9 1.77 0. pole deflection combined with partial foundation failure may provide adequate containment. For snow.5 Safety requirements during construction and maintenance Safety requirements are intended to ensure that construction and maintenance operations do not pose safety hazards to people.4 1.2 1.4 1. In general.4 Security requirements Security requirements shall be provided in all designs to prevent or limit progressive or cascading structure failures in the event of collapse or failure of a support structure resulting from any external cause. ice and seismic loadings.67 Level II 0.2.3 Reliability load multiplier and security requirements Reliability load multipliers for an expected design working life and security levels are provided in Table 6. 6.1 RELIABILITY MULTIPLIER FOR DESIGN WORKING LIFE AND LINE SECURITY LEVELS Minimum reliability load multiplier M rel Line security level Design working life Temporary construction and construction equipment. longitudinal design loads relevant to residual loads for broken or terminated aerial phase conductor are provided to meet this requirement.g.4 3 6.2. DR 09051-PDR .2. number of circuits and proximity to other lines or infrastructure should be considered. scaffolding and temporary line diversions with design life of less than 6 months < 5 years 25 years 50 years 100 years NOTES: 1 2 When selecting the appropriate security level. a higher security level may be adopted for a particular structure or short sections of the line. The safety requirements in this Standard consist of special loads. hurdles. the designer should use local experience in determining the appropriate M rel .2 1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . On distribution overhead pole lines. or difficult to access locations (where time and cost to restore the construction can be high). The calculated wind loads shall be then multiplied by an appropriate reliability load multiplier based on the required security level and design life as selected from Table 6.77 0. For special exposed locations such as long span water or valley crossings.2. as defined in Clauses 6.67 Level III 0.
6.3. 6. however.7 Design working life The design working life is the assumed period for which an overhead line could be expected to be used for its intended purpose with anticipated maintenance but without substantial repair being necessary. shall be properly considered.g.2 Environmental considerations Consideration shall be given to any environmental and legal requirements that may exist. 6. transmission/distribution lines are largely unresponsive to the dynamic forces associated with seismic activity.6 Additional considerations 6. cattle. due consideration should be given to structures where the normal dynamic response is altered.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . DR 09051-PDR .2. e.2. ancillary devices such as pole mounted transformers.2.1 Dynamic load effects—Seismic loads In general.8 Durability The durability of an overhead line support or part of it in its environmental exposure shall be such that it remains fit for use during the design working life given an appropriate level of maintenance. depending on a number of factors including the level of preventative and corrective maintenance carried out on the total asset during its life.3 LIMIT STATES 6. The environmental. NOTE: The operating life of an overhead line can be normally be expected be in the range of 30 to 80 years.6. etc.DRAFT ONLY 61 DRAFT ONLY 6. Structures and components shall be designed using a reliability-based (risk of failure) approach. atmospheric and climatic conditions shall be appraised at the design stage to assess their significance in relation to durability and to enable adequate provisions to be made for protection of the materials for the target design life. Appendix D provides guidance on the service life of overhead lines.1 General The structural design methods provided by this Standard are based on ‘limit state’ concepts. for example birds. Structure loading for such devices shall be considered in design. and component strength factors are based on achieving an acceptable risk of failure for the loading condition being considered. in particular for weather related loads. 6. 6. etc.2. and the selection of load factors. This may require the installation of special deterrent devices for birds and reptiles: aerial markers for aircraft and ground based vehicle warning and deflection devices. Safety of human beings and protection of wild life and livestock. Vehicle impact and the effects of falling trees and airborne vegetation during high winds are accidental loads beyond the scope of this Standard. Their effects can however be mitigated by care in placement of support structures and the ongoing management of the overhead line corridor.2.
foundations. Structural elements that fail essentially by ductile yielding may. are also to be treated as ultimate limit states. stringing. deformations and displacements which affect the appearance or effective use of the support. foundations.2 Strength limit states Ultimate strength limit states are those associated with collapse or with other similar forms of structural failure due to excessive deformation. Damage states prior to structural collapse. should be designed to withstand the design load without permanent distortion.DRAFT ONLY 62 DRAFT ONLY The performance of the structural system can be evaluated for different circumstances. or localized failure. 6. the nominal strength of the component φ Rn Limit states are states beyond which the overhead line no longer satisfies the design performance requirements. Maintaining prescribed electrical clearances. DR 09051-PDR . be allowed to exhibit elastic-plastic yielding prior to failure. such as plastic deformation or local buckling of redundant structural elements. or brittle fracture with little warning of impending failure. aerial conductors and equipment.15/06/2009 13:22:00 In addition. rupture. importance of structure.3. 6. workmanship etc.3 Serviceability limit states Serviceability limit states shall provide for the following defined conditions beyond which specified service requirements for an overhead line are no longer met: (a) (b) (i) Mechanical and structural functioning of supports. Structural elements that fail essentially in buckling. wind load based on a 50 year return period scaled by the appropriate reliability load factor or specified design wind pressure the strength factor which takes into account variability of material. at the discretion of the designer. in accordance with the relevant Standard. known as limit states with the following general limit state design equation for overhead lines: φRn > effect of loads ( MRelWn + ΣγxX) where X MRel γx Wn = = = = = = the applied loads pertinent to each loading condition Reliability multiplier are load factors which take into account variability of loads.3. for simplicity. which. loss of stability. serviceability limit states that require consideration include— . maintenance and safety considerations etc. All support structures shall be designed for both ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states. Ultimate strength limit states concern— (a) (b) the reliability and security of supports. overturning. buckling. aerial conductors and equipment. in accordance with the appropriate standard. and the safety of people. are considered in place of the structural collapse itself.
3. TABLE 6. (iv) (v) damage (including cracking) which is likely to affect the durability or the function of the supports.g. (iii) vibrations which cause damage to aerial conductors. 6.9 Unless otherwise specified Component Steel angle member elements Limit state Strength factor φ Reference Standard ASCE 10-97 AS 3995 AS/NZS 4600 ASCE 48-05 EN 50341 AS 4100 AS 1559 ASCE 10-97 AS 3600 AS/NZS 4065 NZS 3101 AS/NZS 4676 AS 3600 AS/NZS 4065 NZS 3101 AS/NZS 4676 Strength Refer Appendix G Strength Reinforced or prestressed concrete structures and members. and verifying that the limit states are not exceeded when design values for actions. Design based on design Standards Concrete or steel structures and members.9 (max) Poles Cross arms Strength 0. Design values are generally obtained by using characteristic or combination values (as defined in this Standard) in conjunction with strength and load factors as defined in this Standard and other Australian and New Zealand Standards.2 STRENGTH FACTOR φ FOR COMPONENT STRENGTH Part of overhead line (R n ) Lattice steel towers Tubular steel structures Tubular structure Fasteners Bolts nuts and washers Refer Appendix K ≤0. These φ values reflect accepted industry practice.4. Design based primarily on testing. and aerial conductors. e.3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .5 AS 2209 AS 1720 (continued) DR 09051-PDR . insulators and line accessories adversely affected. poles or members (not preserved by full length treatment) (see Note 3 and Appendix F) Poles Cross arms Strength Refer Appendix I Poles Cross arms Strength 0.DRAFT ONLY 63 DRAFT ONLY (ii) a reduction of critical electrical clearances.4 Limit state design Limit state design shall be carried out by— (a) (b) setting up structural and load models for the relevant ultimate and serviceability limit states to be considered in the various design situations and load cases. supports or equipment or which limit their functional effectiveness. concrete poles (see Note 2) Wood structures.2 Strength factors ( φ) Table 6.2 provides strength factors (φ) which takes into account variability of material and workmanship for structural components used in overhead lines. 6. material properties and geometrical data are used in the models.
8 AS 3608 Strength 0.5 (one minute mechanical strength) 0.9 Strength 0. poles or members (not preserved by full length treatment) Wood structures.DRAFT ONLY 64 DRAFT ONLY TABLE 6. forged or fabricated Fittings.8 0. poles or members (preserved by full length treatment) (see Note 3 and Appendix F) Wood structures.8 AS 2209 AS 1720 Poles Cross arms Serviceability 0.4 to 0.4 Strength Strength AS 2159 AS 2159 and AS1726 Strength Strength Strength (continued) DR 09051-PDR . poles or members (preserved by full length treatment) Fibre reinforced composite poles.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .9 (maximum design cantilever load) Subject to further research 0.5 (linear model) AS 4435.1 Strength AS 4435.7 0.4 to 0.6 Refer Appendix L 0.3 Poles Cross arms Strength 0.8 Refer Appendix L 0. cast Porcelain or glass cap and pin string insulator units Porcelain or glass insulators other than cap and pin string insulator units Synthetic composite suspension or strain insulators (See Note 2) Synthetic composite line post insulators (See Note 2) Other synthetic composite insulators Foundations relying on strength of soil (with conventional soil testing) Foundations relying on strength of soil based on empirical assessment Foundations relying on weight of soil Aerial conductors Strength Strength Strength 0. Design based primarily on testing (see Note 7 and Appendix J) Fittings and pins.8 (electro-mechanical strength) AS 1154 AS 1154 AS 3608 Component Limit state Strength factor φ Reference Standard AS 2209 AS1720 Poles Cross arms Serviceability 0.2 (continued) Part of overhead line (R n ) Wood structures.4 (see Note 3) AS 2209 AS 1720 Poles Cross arms Strength 0.7 Refer Appendix L 0.7 (non linear model) 0.
for example. For laminated timber cross-arms. All data from testing of similar designs should be included in the statistical analysis. caused. the strength factor may be based on the requirements of that code. i. When the φ factor is part of the code’s design equations it should not be applied again. force (load) applied to the supports. as well as uneven settlements of supports are regarded as permanent actions. Where component manufacturers have included appropriate strength factors in their designs. i. Component Limit state Serviceability Strength Strength factor φ Refer Section 4 0. Where design Standards are used that do not employ similar strength factors. ground water variation or uneven settlement. or an indirect action. the uncertainty in such a variation.2 (continued) Part of overhead line (R n ) Aerial conductors Stay or guy and termination (cable) members NOTES 1 Design Standards based on limit state formats (usually) take into account exclusion limits and the coefficient of variation of structural members. Permanent action (G). Where the design of wood structures is based on AS 1720. unfavourable or favourable.e. fittings and fixed equipment Self-weight of aerial conductors and the effects of the applicable aerial conductor tension at the reference temperature. foundations.1.e.4. by temperature changes. i. and other line components. DR 09051-PDR .7 AS 1222 AS 3995 ASCE 10-97 Reference Standard 2 3 4 5 6 6. NOTE: The vertical reaction from self-weight of the aerial conductor at the support (in other words the weight span) is affected by deviations from the reference state of the aerial conductor tension due to aerial conductor creep temperature variations and wind action. Where there are sufficient material property tests of components to provide reasonable statistical data. refer to AS/NZS 1328. the φ factor should not be applied again. If sufficient material or product data is available to support ± variation of these tabulated values then alternative values may be adopted. aerial conductors.e.4 ACTIONS 6. Due to this uncertainty it is recommended that a strength factor at the lower end of the range be used in the absence of specific data suggesting high confidence 7 Composite fibre poles are highly flexible and serviceability limit due to deflection at working load may be limiting factor.15/06/2009 13:22:00 Actions are classified by their variation in time— (i) . can be either— (a) (b) a direct action.1 Principal classifications An action F. an imposed or constrained deformation. should be considered by use of a factor on the self-weight (or on the weight span).DRAFT ONLY 65 DRAFT ONLY TABLE 6. however the following should also be taken into account: (a) The recommended aerial conductor wind loads in this document incorporate a span reduction factor that has the effect of increasing the duration of the wind load being considered. (b) Tests of poles and cross-arms that have been in service for long periods show a wide variation in the ratio of calculated to actual strength. designers should decide where further application of relevant factors from the above table is appropriate to achieve the desired reliability level. self-weight of supports including foundations. especially if no other climatic conditions are present. Where critical for the design. the φ factor may be based on statistical analysis.
Imposed actions (Q), i.e. wind loads, ice loads or other imposed loads Wind loads and ice loads as well as applicable temperatures are climatic conditions which can be assessed by probabilistic methods (reliability concept) or on a deterministic basis. Aerial conductor tension effects due to wind and ice and temperature deviations from the reference temperature are variable actions. Imposed loads arising from aerial conductor stringing, climbing on the structures, etc. are assessed on a deterministic basis and refer to the safety aspect.
(iii) Accidental actions (A), i.e. failure containment loads, flood debris loads, avalanches, etc. These relate to the security aspect of the overhead line Exceptional ice loads in alpine/sub-alpine regions including unbalanced ice loads can be treated as accidental actions by their nature and/or the structural response— (A) (B) static actions, which do not cause significant acceleration of the components or elements; and dynamic actions, which cause significant acceleration of the components or elements
It is usually sufficient to consider the equivalent static effect of quasi-static actions, such as wind loads, in the design of overhead line supports (including foundations). Special attention should be paid to extraordinarily high and/or slender supports. 6.5 MATERIAL PROPERTIES As general principle, a material property is represented by a characteristic value, which corresponds to that value of the material property having a prescribed probability of not being attained in a hypothetical unlimited test series. It generally corresponds to a specified exclusion limit of the assumed statistical distribution of that property of the material. These values are used to determine the nominal strengths of the components (Rn ) values discussed in Clause 6.3.1. A material property value shall normally be determined from standardized tests performed under specified conditions. A conversion factor shall be applied where it is necessary to convert the test results into values, which can be assumed to represent the behaviour of the material in the overhead line.
NOTE: Material properties specified in other Australian/New Zealand Standards and in particular, Standards referred to herein may generally be applied if not determined otherwise in this Standard.
6.6 MODELLING FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RESISTANCE 6.6.1 General Calculations shall be performed using appropriate design models for the type of structure being analysed. In the case of three dimensional space frames, such as lattice steel towers, it is normal practice to create geometrical models for the full range of heights and base leg combinations. These models normally simulate a fixed or pinned nodal base and should include the effects of settlement of foundations, and any vertical eccentricities that may be applied. Full scale load testing may be applied to verify experimentally, the structural capacity, or assumed force distribution and adequacy of structural element connectivity for a given structural geometry in the case of space frame structures; and to verify flexural bending, axial load and shear capacity strengths for pole elements. (Refer also to Clause 8.5).
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It should be understood that such tests constitute a sample test for a particular height tower or length of a particular batch of pole. Different configuration of towers and poles may not necessarily perform to the same characteristics. 6.6.2 Interactions between support foundations and soil Special attention shall be paid to the interaction of the following: (a) (b) (c) Loads deriving from the support. Loads resulting from active soil pressures and the permanent weight of foundation and soil. Buoyancy effects of ground water on soil and foundation.
These, together with the reaction forces of the soil strata shall be taken into account in the calculation of the support foundations. In the limit state the following criteria shall be taken into consideration: (i) (ii) (iv) Acceptable/unacceptable settlement. settlement of the foundation including differential
Imposed deformations on the support or support members. Load duration.
(iii) Inclinations of the support. Provisions regarding the interaction of loads and recommendations on limit state criteria are given in Sections 7 and 8.
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The following clauses are based on well-established principles supported by experience and long-term operation of overhead lines within Australia and New Zealand. 7.2 ACTIONS, GENERAL APPROACH 7.2.1 Permanent loads Self-weight of structures, insulator sets, other fixed equipment and aerial conductors resulting from the adjacent spans act as permanent loads. Aircraft warning spheres and similar elements are to be considered as permanent dead loads. These vertical loads are designated as Gs and Gc Gs represents the vertical loads on poles, towers, foundations, crossarms, insulators and fittings and shall be the vertical force due to their own mass plus the mass of all ancillaries and attachments. Gc represents the vertical loads of aerial conductors/cables and attachments such as marker balls, spacers and dampers and forms the design weight span. These are loads on the structural system with conductor temperature equivalent to the mean of the winter season temperatures with negligible wind loads, i.e. in still air. 7.2.2 Wind loads Wind loadings shall be applied to all elements of an overhead line as determined in accordance with Appendix B. Consideration shall be given to the design of structures for wind attack for a range of directions and shall include transverse, longitudinal and oblique directions. The following wind events and directions shall be considered: (a) Synoptic and downdraft wind (i) Transverse direction Apply full transverse wind load on the aerial conductors, insulators and fittings and support, together with deviation loads at maximum wind tension and all relevant vertical loads. Longitudinal direction Apply full longitudinal wind load on the support and insulators and fittings together with corresponding deviation loads and all relevant vertical loads.
(iii) Oblique (or yawed) wind—(Refer Appendix B) Apply full oblique wind at an angle to the transverse axis on the aerial conductors, insulators, fittings and support, together with deviation loads at maximum wind tension and all relevant vertical loads. (b) Tornado wind (applicable to high security lines—(Refer Appendix B) (i) (ii) Apply maximum wind load to the structure only to act from any direction, together with everyday deviation loads and all relevant vertical loads. Torsional (for wide transverse structures, e.g. horizontal single circuit towers) Apply maximum wind torsion with rotation about the support centre. Each tower body face is subjected to in-plane wind, and each crossarm face to projected perpendicular wind in a consistent rotational direction, together with everyday deviation loads and all relevant vertical loads.
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7.2.3 Snow and ice loads Snow and ice loadings shall be applied to all elements of an overhead line in appropriate regions, as determined in accordance with Appendix EE. 7.2.4 Special loads 220.127.116.11 Forces due to short-circuit currents Consideration should be given to the effects of the forces imposed on those overhead lines forming part of an overhead line system with very high short-circuit characteristics, typically within 1 span of a substation. These fault currents generally occur for very short durations. Appendix C provides guidance on forces caused by short-circuit currents. 18.104.22.168 Avalanches and creeping snow loads When overhead lines are to be routed in or through mountainous regions where they may be exposed to avalanches or creeping snow on hill slopes consideration shall be given to the possible additional loads that may act on the supports, foundations and/or aerial conductors. Guidance information on this subject is given in Appendix C. 22.214.171.124 Earthquakes When overhead lines are to be constructed in seismically active regions, consideration shall be given to forces on lines due to earthquakes and/or seismic tremors. Guidance information on this subject is given in Appendix C. 126.96.36.199 Other special loads Other special loads such as impact from vehicles or flood shall be considered where appropriate. 7.2.5 Construction and maintenance loads 188.8.131.52 General The supports shall be able to withstand all construction and maintenance loads, Q m, which are likely to be imposed on them with an appropriate load factor, taking into account working procedures, temporary guying, lifting arrangement, etc. Overstressing of the support should be prevented by specification of allowable procedures and/or load capacities. The conditions should be based on the worst weather conditions (wind and temperature) under which maintenance will be carried out. The limiting design wind pressure for general maintenance work shall be 100 Pa. The designer needs to consider all potential aspects that may arise from maintenance practices affecting Gc, e.g. lowering the aerial conductor at the adjacent structure may result in the doubling of the weight span on the structure under consideration. 184.108.40.206 Loads related to line maintenance/construction personnel The vertical maintenance load to be applied to a structure for a single person shall be 1.0 kN acting together with the permanent loads and other imposed loads resulting from the maintenance work method. For lattice steel structures, these forces shall act at any point of structural elements. For pole type structures, these forces shall act at any point on the superstructure to which it could be reasonably expected that construction or maintenance loading may be applied. In particular, the following minimum loading allowances shall be made: (a) Transmission structures ( including lattice steel towers and steel and concrete poles)— (i) Earthwire peaks—provision for two persons plus 100 kg of tools and equipment
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Crossarms—provision for 4 persons plus 500 kg of tools and equipment
Distribution structures (including wood and concrete pole structure if climbing provision is required)— (i) (ii) Pole head and crossarm—provision for two persons plus 100 kg of tools and equipment. Pole—component load of ladder with one person climbing
In addition, provision is to be considered for all structures required to be climbed for the provision of anchorage from any structural node point for the attachment of fall arrest system anchorage with a load capacity of 15 kN. Under this condition structural elements must be able to restrain this load in an elastic or plastic deformed state without release of the attached tackle system. Where walkways or working platforms are installed, they shall be designed for the maximum loads required under the relevant code but provide not less than the provision for two men at any point; i.e. 2.8 kN point load. For all structural elements that can be climbed and are inclined with an angle less than 30 to the horizontal, a characteristic load of 1.4 kN acting vertically in the centre of the member shall be assumed without any other co-existent loads. Climbing steps (of any kind) shall be capable of supporting a concentrated load of 1.4 kN acting vertically at a position 50 mm horizontally from the underside of the extended step bolt head or step iron end slip restraint. 7.2.6 Coincident temperatures Temperature effects for the following loading conditions shall be considered in the determination of aerial conductor tension on overhead lines: (a) A minimum temperature condition to be considered with no other climatic action for the particular regional location, if relevant. Particular attention is to be given for short spans cases and minimum overnight winter temperatures The ambient temperature assumed for the ultimate wind speed condition. A minimum temperature coinciding with a reduced wind speed should be considered, if relevant. Particular attention is to be given in sub-alpine and alpine regions. A temperature to be assumed with icing. For both of the main types of icing a temperature of 0°C may be used, if not otherwise specified. A lower temperature should be taken into account in regions where the temperature often drops significantly after a snowfall. A maximum aerial conductor temperature to be assumed for the calculation of electrical clearances.
(b) (c) (d)
7.2.7 Security loads Security loads in this Standard are specified to give minimum requirements on the torsional and longitudinal resistance of the supports by defining failure containment loads. The loads considered are the one-sided release of static tension in an aerial conductor and unbalanced longitudinal loads.
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4 Distribution systems In distribution systems using pin or post insulators with wire ties or equivalent fixing.1. For structure types having limited longitudinal strength alternative failure containment methods need to be applied (e. and translational deformation of the supporting soil can occur in most cases at the structure directly impacted by overload conditions. DR 09051-PDR .2. use of guys). 7.25 times the ultimate design wind. shall be designed for the RSL.3 Tension supports Depending on the intended purpose.7.2. the structures adjacent to the collapsing structure may be subjected to both longitudinal loads and high winds. and relatively flexible structures and their foundations. 7. The unbalance tension (Fb ) resulting from these broken aerial conductors is the residual static load (RSL) in the aerial phase conductor after severance of an aerial conductor.220.127.116.11 Suspension or intermediate supports For a single circuit support. If the initial (primary) failure is caused by extreme winds. supports shall be designed for the equivalent longitudinal loads resulting from aerial conductors on the structure being broken with a minimum coincident wind pressure of 0. the number of aerial conductors to be considered is the worst loading combination of either any two phases.2. or any phase and the earthwire. For termination supports. Consequently. In the case of direct buried pole type structures. Tension and terminal distribution pole supports however.2. or the collapse of an aerial conductor support system. such that the load impacts are dissipated and contained within one or two structures.1 Failure containment loads F b 7. tension supports shall be designed to withstand equivalent longitudinal load of one or two earthwires together with one phase per circuit.g. longitudinal loads shall be applied for all the attached wires. For the failure containment condition. the number of aerial conductors to be considered is one phase (with allowance for bundles) or the earthwire. The possibility of a structure failure initiating aerial conductor breakages should also be considered. 7.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . it is not necessary to design suspension supports for the RSL .1 General The loads on a structure arising from the failure of an adjacent structure are unpredictable.1. Fb and Ft tensions for aerial conductors shall be based on the temperature corresponding to the everyday load condition with a minimum nominal wind pressure of 0.25 times the ultimate design wind pressure.7. the design approaches to failure containment are largely based on empirical observations and on reducing the effects of longitudinal loads. For a double circuit support.DRAFT ONLY 71 DRAFT ONLY 7. Intact aerial conductor tensions (Ft) shall be used for all other aerial conductors.7.7. This is particularly relevant to AAC and AAAC type aerial conductors when used on high voltage transmission where aerial conductors may be severed by falling sharp edged metal structure components.2. sufficient rotational release from applied torsional loads.
DR 09051-PDR . horizontal component of aerial conductor tension perpendicular to the line (part of Wn ).DRAFT ONLY 72 DRAFT ONLY 7.2 Conductor tensions 7.2. FIGURE 7. designers should be aware that if the span lengths in a line section have considerable variation.1 AERIAL CONDUCTOR SHAPE AND FORCES UNDER WIND CONDITIONS 7.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .1)— 1 2 3 horizontal component of aerial conductor tension in the line direction (Ft).2.3.3 LOAD COMPONENTS 7. NOTE: While the equivalent span may be used to calculate tensions in a section of line.3. a RSL based on the equivalent span may underestimate broken aerial conductor tensions for some spans. The RSL load applies to all sub conductors in a phase.70 should be adopted for aerial phase conductors supported by suspension strings. 7.1. an RSL factor of 0. and vertical component of the aerial conductor tension (Gc) In load combinations. Ft and Gc components are further multiplied by load factors.1 General The horizontal component of the conductor tensions Ft used for design shall be based on the lowest temperature likely to coexist with the design wind pressure as provided in the following conditions.3.1 Loads from the supported wires Although any attached wire will act as a single force.7.5 Residual static load (RSL) In absence of a more detailed assessment. traditionally the force is split and calculated as three separate components (See Figure 7.
2. This tension is calculated in still air and an average ambient temperature for the region.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS 7. 7. 7. will not affect all spans between tension structures simultaneously.2.3 Maintenance condition Ft m Ft m is the horizontal component of the aerial conductor tensions in the direction of the line when subject to maintenance conditions. DR 09051-PDR . This condition provides the maximum aerial conductor tension under which it can be reasonably expected for workmen to be expected to work transferring loads of aerial conductors during construction or maintenance activities.3. This tension is calculated based on a maximum transverse wind pressure of 100 Pa.2.3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . 7.3.DRAFT ONLY 73 DRAFT ONLY 7. This condition provides the nominal tension that can be expected to occur at the everyday temperature (Te) for the line location. a range of loading conditions shall be considered that will provide due consideration for all possible service conditions that the line and individual supports may be subjected to through out its service life.4. an extreme 3 s peak wind gust. Consideration should also be given for tension increase under minimum temperature conditions.2 Maximum wind condition Ftw Ftw is the horizontal component of the aerial conductor tensions in the direction of the line when subject to wind Due to the spatial variation of wind velocities within a wind storm.4 Everyday condition Fte Fte is the horizontal component of the aerial conductor tension in the direction of the line under no wind.1 General In the design of an overhead line.
0.5 (see Note 4) 1.1 1.5 (see Note 4) 1.0 1. insulator and fitting strength ratings.1 1.9 0.25 1. 2 3 4 7.25 18.104.22.168 1. range from 0.3 (see Note 3) 1. Wind loads from all directions shall be considered.25 1.0 Load factor and application Wn 1.1 1.4.0 (see Note 2) 1. This condition may also be used as an upper limit for cracking criteria in prestressed concrete poles.9 1.25 (see Note 1) 1.3. particularly in mountainous terrain to allow for uplift loads under normal service conditions including low temperature effects.25 1.25 NOTES: 1 Adequate allowance shall be made for differential loadings that can occur between adjoining spans at a structure.1 1.0 1.25 1. Aerial conductor tension and weight of aerial conductors under maintenance shall be treated as a live load Q with corresponding load factor of 2.1 1.25 F tm F tw 1. DR 09051-PDR .25 F te Fb Q 0.0 (see Note 1) 1.1 Gc 1.1.0 1.1 1.25 1.0 1.1 1.1 Limit states loading conditions TABLE 7.25 1. such as poles.8 to 1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .1 1.3 LOAD COMBINATIONS AND LOAD FACTORS Loading condition Maximum wind and maximum weight Maximum wind and minimum weight Maximum wind and uplift Everyday condition (sustained loads) Snow and ice Failure containment Serviceability— deflection limit Serviceability— damage limit Maintenance 1.0 Sγ Gs 1.DRAFT ONLY 74 DRAFT ONLY 7. The serviceability damage limit loading condition shall be used where the damage is of a ductile nature.0 0.0 2. Due considerations for vertical load effects.0 1. in situations where the electrical clearances will not be infringed.2 Deflections and serviceability limit state Ultimate and serviceability limit state loads are to be considered in determining structure deflections and aerial conductor.1 1.25 Seismic 1. The serviceability deflection limit loading condition is to be used for setting deflection limits of structures.0 1.3 1.
DR 09051-PDR .1 INITIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Designs of overhead line structures shall be carried out in accordance with this Standard and referenced Standards Australian/Standards New Zealand. AS 4600.2. a normal design value of L/1000 shall be considered.2. 8.2 MATERIALS AND DESIGN 8.2. the material characteristics should be in accordance with the performance requirements of the finished product and shall also meet the functional requirements regarding both strength and serviceability (deformation.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . the design and performance characteristics of the pole element shall be supported by load tests. etc. catenary.2. The following additional requirements shall apply.6 Guyed structures 8.DRAFT ONLY 75 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 8 SUP PORTS 8.2. carbon or steel microfilament fibres.2. 8. ASCE 48-05 and Appendix K. Materials used in the fabrication of overhead line supports should comply with the requirements of the relevant Australian and New Zealand material Standard or equivalent International Standards.2 Second order analysis In larger more complex guyed structures where a second order analysis is justified the following aspects shall be taken into account: (a) An initial out of straightness shall be assumed for sections hinged at both ends (tower legs). durability and aesthetics) and be in accordance with the relevant Australian. 8. Where composite materials are used in pole elements. AS/NZS 1328 or AS 2209 and Appendix F. AS 4100. Lattice steel tower designs shall be carried out in accordance with AS 3995.2.1. multi-level guyed tubular leg structures. 8. double guyed timber leg structures. Various types of configurations exist such as V-tower.6. fibre reinforced concrete. AS 4100.1 General A guyed support can be any type of structure that is supported by guy wires for stability . AS/NZS 4065 and Appendix I. using fibreglass. such as fibre reinforced resin or polymer.1 Lattice steel towers and guyed masts. portal.5 Other materials For all other materials. guyed timber poles. IEC and ASCE documents.4 Timber poles Timber poles shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of AS 1720. New Zealand. 8.2. 8.6.2 Steel poles Steel poles shall be designed in accordance with AS/NZS 4677. ASCE 10-97 and Appendix G.3 Concrete poles Concrete poles shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of AS/NZS 3600. IEC or equivalent International Standard. 8. column.
8. Refer to AS/NZS 2312. On guyed tower structures. 8. Where cast steel sockets or cast wedge sockets are used in the guy terminations. Due care shall be taken for protection of the guy in populated areas for possible galvanic corrosion and flashover. instructions for the erection work are needed because the structure is sensitive to the pre-tensioning of the guys. DR 09051-PDR .6. in order to reduce the deformation at extreme loads. and shall be equipped with devices for retightening during the service life of the structure. such that a guy wire could become energized.2. then vibration damping protection should be considered. the guys shall be pre-tensioned to an appropriate force (5-10% CBL) after the erection of the structure. The angle or termination structures shall be vertical after the stringing of the aerial conductors at the everyday temperature.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The connection between the guy rope and the anchor device shall be readily accessible. In order to minimize the possibility of aerodynamic guy vibrations in stabilizing guy wires the pretension should be less than 10%. taking into account the planned maintenance regime. Regions with constant low velocity prevailing winds and low temperatures need investigation.3 CORROSION PROTECTION AND FINISHES 8.2 Galvanizing All galvanized steel material and fastenings used in support structures shall be hot-dip galvanized and tested in accordance with AS/NZS 4680 or equivalent International Standard unless an alternative anti-corrosion coating system is utilized. galvanised steel wire strands or steel ropes with steel core shall be used for the guys. appropriate step and touch potential mitigating systems shall be adopted. Insulation of the guy above a point accessible from the ground by the public should be provided if a risk of failure of the energized conductors may exist. manufacturer or test may be used in analysis. however if service experience indicates that aerodynamic vibrations are significant. 8. For a multi-level guyed support. The effective elastic modulus of the guy determined from a Standard. freedom from defects in the casting should be ensured by an acceptable non-destructive test or manufacturer's certificate. The following clauses set minimum requirements that should be provided.3 Design details for guys The characteristic resistance of the guy shall be the nominal value for ultimate breaking strength specified in appropriate standards with due consideration of the method of termination.3.1 General Metallic components of supports may be protected against corrosion in order to meet their design service life. For permanently loaded structural load carrying guy wires this requirement is not applicable. Special attention shall be paid to preventing possible vibration. For guyed tower structures. galloping and fluttering phenomena if this is a known characteristic of the region.DRAFT ONLY 76 DRAFT ONLY (b) The slackening of one or more guys at different loading conditions shall be taken into consideration.3. and the connections and tightening devices shall be secured against loosening in service. Where no insulation in guy wires is used.
1 Tower structures Full scale load testing may be carried out to verify experimentally the structural capacity.g. and to provide public awareness of operational safety issues. 8. circuit identification markings). the provision of rigging and load transfer attachments. when carried out.2 Maintainability In addition to climbing attachments.5.3 Safety requirements Provision shall be made on all climbable structures for the fixing of signage and devices to ensure the protection of the public from hazards associated with access to electrical works. When this system is used.4 MAINTENANCE FACILITIES 8. and for confirming force distribution in redundant bracing elements.4.3 Metal spraying Where required by design considerations or where steel materials are too large or difficult to galvanize. performed in accordance with ISO 14713 to provide zinc deposit thickness not less than 200 μm.3. this coating shall be applied in accordance with a coating manufacturer’s recommendation. suitable facilities shall be incorporated in the designs of supports. DR 09051-PDR . 8. 8.5 LOADING TESTS Full scale loading tests on overhead lines supports.4 Paint over galvanizing (duplex system ) When an enhanced coloured cosmetic surface treatment paint coating is to be applied after hot-dip galvanizing of steel structures. 8. shall be generally in accordance with IEC 60652 and the following provisions. provision of aids to authorized personnel to enable them to correctly identify energized and de-energized aerial conductors (e. 8.5 Use of weather-resistant steels The use of weather resistance steels requires special design considerations and full-scale experience. or assumed the force distribution and efficiency of structural element connectivity for a given structural geometry. and equipotential bonding. 8.3.4. prevention of unauthorized climbing. Reference should be made to Appendix M for guidance on industry standards. telephone number for emergency contact).3. provision for bonding of earthwire and earthing of the support structure. This may include— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) provision of safety information for the general public (e.4. Reference should be made to Appendix M for guidance on industry standards. by authorized personnel. they may be protected against corrosion by thermal spraying a zinc or zinc/aluminium coating over the base metal.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .DRAFT ONLY 77 DRAFT ONLY 8. 8. holes or fittings for the installation and use of maintenance equipment shall be provided in designs.g. warning signs.1 Climbing and working at heights Where climbing and working at heights from the structure is required. the inside surface of hollow sections shall also be protected against corrosion.
It should be understood that such tests are a sample test for a particular height tower. Taller or shorter towers of the same structure type may not have identical performance characteristics. 8.5.2 Pole type structures Full-scale load testing of prototype poles may be used as an acceptable alternative to strength calculations to verify flexural bending and shear capacity strengths for pole type elements. Routine sample poles shall be tested to determine whether structurally similar poles are deemed to comply with the requirements for strength and serviceability of this Standard. Deflection characteristics of repetitive sample pole tests compared to prototype test deflections provides a useful tool for monitoring quality of pole product manufacture. 22.214.171.124 Test specimens Specimen poles for prototype testing shall be manufactured, as a group for a normal production run, in sufficient numbers so that each required test can be carried out on a pole that is unaffected by any previous testing. However, serviceability and strength testing may be carried out sequentially, in that order, on the same pole. The manufacture of the test specimens shall take into account the intended production procedures and the quality of materials and workmanship to be used during normal production. The specimens shall be chosen to represent poles of similar structural design and may include poles of different nominal sizes. 126.96.36.199 Test requirements Test loads shall be determined to reflect as close as possible design loadings. Loading devices shall be properly calibrated and care exercised to ensure that no artificial restraints to pole deformations are imposed by the loading systems. Test loads shall be applied to the test specimen at a rate that is as uniform as practicable. Test loading and support conditions shall simulate the relevant design conditions as closely as is practicable. Test arrangements depend on whether the pole elements are tested horizontally or in a vertical mode. Performance indicators shall be measured and recorded, as a minimum, at least at the following times: (a) (b) (c) Immediately before the application of the test load. When the test load is reached. Immediately after the entire test load has been removed.
188.8.131.52 Testing and acceptance Test loads shall reproduce at critical cross-sections not less than the design action effect at the relevant limit state, multiplied by the appropriate factor given in Table 8.1, unless a reliability analysis shows that a smaller factor can be adopted safely. The value of the coefficient of variation to be used in Table 8.1 shall be obtained from historical test data for the material, manufacturing method and action effect being considered. In the absence of such data the values given in Table 8.2 may be adopted. Load testing of prototype poles may be used as an acceptable alternative to strength calculations to verify flexural bending and shear capacity strengths for pole types. Regular full scale load testing may be applied to verify the structural capacity, in the case of poles to verify strengths and quality of materials and workmanship.
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Where routine samples of poles are load tested to determine their quality and strength conformance, the lowest test result shall be divided by the COV factor in Table 8.1. All previously tested poles of similar types and lengths shall be included in the numbers of poles tested to select the correct COV factor. Deflection characteristics of repetitive sample pole tests compared to prototype test deflections provides a useful tool for monitoring quality of pole product manufacture. TABLE 8.1 VALUES OF MULTIPLIER FOR TEST LOAD FOR ESTIMATED COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
No. of similar units tested(1) 1 2 3 4 5 10 30 50 100 NOTES: 1 2 3 The cumulative number of tested poles having the same characteristics, not per batch. The coefficient of variation is equal to the standard deviation divided by the mean and usually expressed as a percentage. Design strength by testing = lowest test result divided by the multiplier. Coefficient of variation of structural characteristics 5% 1.20 1.17 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.10 1.07 1.05 1.00 10% 1.46 1.38 1.33 1.30 1.28 1.21 1.15 1.10 1.00 15% 1.79 1.64 1.56 1.50 1.46 1.34 1.24 1.17 1.00 20% 2.21 1.96 1.83 1.74 1.67 1.49 1.34 1.24 1.00 25% 2.75 2.36 2.16 2.03 1.93 1.66 1.46 1.33 1.00 30% 3.45 2.86 2.56 2.37 2.23 1.85 1.60 1.42 1.00
TABLE 8.2 MINIMUM VALUES OF COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION (COV) FOR DIFFERENT MATERIALS AND ACTION EFFECTS
Material Method of manufacture or assembly Bending Minimum COV% Steel All welded 5 Concrete Spun or cast 5 Stress graded 25 Timber Visually graded 30
NOTE: For on-site welded connections, a higher coefficient of variation may be appropriate.
8.5.3 Acceptance criteria The acceptance criteria for strength and serviceability shall be as follows: (a) For serviceability, the test specimen shall be deemed to comply with the serviceability requirements of this Standard if, under the serviceability limit-state test load, the measured serviceability indicators are within the specified limits appropriate to the pole application. For strength, the test specimens shall be deemed to comply with the strength requirements of this Standard if the specimens are able to withstand the strength limit-state test load for not less than 2 min.
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8.5.4 Test reports The results of the tests on each test specimen shall be recorded in a report. The report shall contain at least the following information: (a) (b) (c) (d) A clear statement of the conditions of testing, including the methods of supporting and loading the specimen and the methods of measuring serviceability indicators. Identification of the test specimen. The values of the relevant test loads and, where appropriate, measured performance indicators. A statement as to whether or not the specimen satisfied the acceptance criteria.
If a specimen fails to satisfy an acceptance criterion, the load at which such failure occurred shall be recorded and reported.
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Foundations for supports may take the form of single foundations in the case of pole type structures and guy anchors or separate footings for each leg of towers. The loading on single footings is predominantly in the form of overturning moment, which is usually resisted by lateral soil pressure, together with additional shear and vertical forces resisted by upwards soil pressure. Common types of single foundations are direct buried poles, bored caissons, mono-bloc footings, pad or raft footings, bored pier foundations, and single pile or pile group foundations. When separate footings are provided for each leg the predominant loadings are compression and uplift forces, however, shear forces should be considered. Uplift and compression forces are usually resisted by combinations of dead weight of the foundation bulk, earth surcharges, shear forces and bearing in the soil. This also applies to guy foundations. Common types of separate footing foundations are (stepped) block footings with or without undercut (pad and chimney, spread footings); auger bored footings with or without expanded base; pier or caisson foundations; grillage foundations; and vertical or raked pile foundations. 9.2 DESIGN PRINCIPLES Foundations for structures and the anchor of any stays or guy wires shall be capable of withstanding loads specified for the ultimate strength limit state and serviceability limit states conditions. Foundation design should be based on appropriate engineering soil properties. Where soil test information is not available, an estimate of soil parameters should be made based on an appraisal of site conditions, soil types and geological structure. Construction personnel shall be made aware of the assumed parameters and guidelines should be issued that will allow recognition of soils not conforming to the adopted design parameters. In calculating the strength of foundations, recognition should be given for the different strength characteristics of soil under short-term and long term loads, and the difference in saturated and dry properties of the soil. Failing the availability of soil tests, Appendix L provides guidance on various soil properties. As a general principle, the foundation should not have component reliability less than that of the structure. The consequences of foundation failure (excessive movement or differential settlement) on rigid structures may induce high stress levels in the structure. The φ values provided in Table 6.2 are based on a component reliability factor of 1.0, and take into account the normal high coefficient of variation (COV) of soil generally.
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The consequences of partial foundation failure for pole structures or flexible guyed structures are not normally as severe. Designers should assess the cost of providing foundations that will remain elastic for all design loads versus the cost of straightening poles (or re-tensioning stays) that have been subjected to extreme weather events. It should be noted that the deflection of foundations of deviation structures most likely will reduce aerial conductor tension loadings. Pole head offsets provide a convenient means of negating this effect. Permanent deflections due to extreme windstorm or floodwater events and long term creep of materials will increase stresses in the structure and its foundation due to the eccentricity of the structure vertical loads relative to the foundation centre (pΔ effect). This can cause foundation failure. 9.3 POLE AND TOWER FOUNDATIONS Structure foundation design methods together with typical soil parameters are provided in Appendix L. 9.4 SOIL INVESTIGATION Where carried out, soil investigations shall be to a depth that includes all layers which significantly influence the foundation strength. The type, condition, extent, stratification and depth of the soil layers as well as groundwater conditions can be examined by boring and/or testing such as cone penetration test (CPT), standard penetration test (SPT), penetrometer, trial pits or other standardized tests, if available knowledge base does not provide sufficient information. The results of the soil investigations shall be recorded, in accordance with relevant standards or codes of practice. In the absence of better information from soil investigations, the soil parameters provided in Appendix L may be used as a guideline for design. However it should be confirmed by inspection or testing, during construction, that the soil parameters used are appropriate. 9.5 BACKFILLING OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS When backfilling is used, sufficient compaction shall be carried out to ensured foundation actions can be developed as designed. In certain circumstances, a possible reduction of consistency of cohesive soils should be taken into account in the calculations if compaction standards are to be relaxed. When backfilling with granular soil in cohesive soil, the tendency of water to accumulate in the backfill shall be considered or lower values shall be used. 9.6 FOUNDATION DISPLACEMENTS The design values for the limiting displacement of foundations will depend on the type of foundations, the type of structure, and the serviceably criteria assumed.
NOTE: As a guide, damage and failure limits given in IEC 60826 may be adopted.
9.7 LOAD TESTING OF FOUNDATIONS Loading tests or tests on experimental models form a valuable method for justifying the design of foundations or to test the strengths of individual foundations, whether test or production foundations. There are two categories of tests normally performed, i.e. proof tests, or design and research tests.
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Difference in the ground conditions between the test and the actual construction.2 Design and research tests These tests are carried out on specially installed foundations typically up to failure and are intended to verify specific design approaches or assumptions for the geotechnical parameters. Such tests require efforts for ensuring accuracy of installation and monitoring the test. 9.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .7. Designs of foundations should include consideration of the method of construction and installation of foundations to ensure the assumed or designed geotechnical parameters are able to be realised. Scale effects.1 Proof tests These tests are undertaken on production foundations and they shall successfully pass the test at a percentage of the design load (nominally 85%) such that they remain fully serviceable after testing. the testing arrangement. Duration of test loading.8 CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION Details of the proposed method of interconnection between the support and the foundation shall be incorporated in the design. especially if smaller models are used. DR 09051-PDR . 9.DRAFT ONLY 83 DRAFT ONLY 9. Details concerning the preparation of the tests. Provision for the following factors should be included: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Design loading conditions. the test procedure and evaluation of results are given in AS 2159.7. Climatic effects.
etc.3 DIMENSIONING WITH RESPECT TO CORROSION AND MECHANICAL STRENGTH 10. electrolysis. shall be of materials capable of withstanding corrosion (chemical or biological attack. Guidelines on individual cases should be determined by the utility.1 Earth electrodes The electrodes. earth down leads.). They shall resist the mechanical influences during their installation as well as those occurring during normal service. Provide a conductive path for fault current. oxidation. for example stainless steel. If a different material. Avoid damage to properties and equipment. Provide acceptable reliability (lightning performance) on the line. the highest fault current as determined by calculation The dimensioning of earthing systems shall consider the following requirements: (iii) Limit lightning induced voltages on earth down leads The transfer of potential by nearby metallic objects may occur due to fault currents flowing in the earth system.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . These effects shall be reduced to acceptable levels contained in AS/NZS 3835 and HB 101(CJC5). 10. A low resistance provides good lightning performance and recommended values for high reliability lines are given in Appendix E. formation of an electrolytic couple. DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 84 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 10. To ensure mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. grading rings and counterpoise earthing addresses the following objectives: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (i) (ii) Ensure protective equipment will operate in faulted situations. NOTE: It is acceptable to use steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete foundations and steel piles as a part of the earthing system. To withstand. Mechanical strength and corrosion considerations dictate the minimum dimensions for earth electrodes given in EN 50341. is used.3.2 EARTHING MEASURES AGAINST LIGHTNING EFFECTS The structure footing resistance values have an influence on the backflashover rate of the line and therefore affect the reliability. this material and its dimensions shall meet the requirements of (a) and (b) in Clause 10.1.1 GENERAL PURPOSE 10 EARTHING SYSTEMS An earthing system of overhead earthwires. Control touch and step potentials around the base of the structure. from a thermal point of view. being directly in contact with the soil. 10.
3. 10. NOTE: Composite conductors can also be used for earthing provided that their resistance is equivalent to the examples given. The final temperatures involved in the design and to which reference is made in the following subclause shall be chosen in order to avoid reduction of the material strength and to avoid damage to the surrounding materials. therefore. In some cases steady-state zero-sequence currents should be taken into account for the dimensioning of the relevant earthing system. The fault current is often subdivided in the earth electrode system. possible to dimension each electrode for only a fraction of the fault current. There is discrimination between fault duration lower than 5 s (adiabatic temperature rise) and greater than 5 s. the minimum cross-sections in Clause 10.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . DR 09051-PDR .4. For aluminium conductors corrosion affects should be considered. 50 mm2 . Nevertheless. The final temperature shall be chosen with regard to the material and the surroundings.2 Earthing and bonding conductors For mechanical and electrical reasons.2 shall be observed. the currents used to calculate the conductor size should take into account the possibility of future growth. 10.2 or be based on a risk based approach. Earthing and bonding conductors made of steel require protection against corrosion.1 and Figure 10.4 DIMENSIONING WITH RESPECT TO THERMAL STRENGTH 10.2 Current rating calculation The calculation of the cross-section of the earthing conductors or earth electrodes depending on the value and the duration of the fault current is given in EN 50341. for example concrete or insulating materials.5 RISK BASED EARTHING .DRAFT ONLY 85 DRAFT ONLY 10.PERMISSIBLE VALUES Overhead lines shall comply with the respective touch voltage curves shown in Figures 10.1 General Because fault current levels are governed by the electrical system rather than the overhead line the values should be provided by the network utility.3. 35 mm2 .4. it is. 10. the minimum cross-sections shall be— (a) (b) (c) copper aluminium steel 16 mm2 . No permissible temperature rise of the soil surrounding the earth electrodes is given in this Standard because experience shows that soil temperature rise is usually not significant. For design purposes.
DRAFT ONLY 86 DRAFT ONLY 100.000 Prospective touch voltages ( V ) 10.1 PROSPECTIVE TOUCH VOLTAGE CURVES EXCLUDING FOOTWEAR RESISTANCE 100.000 Asphalt Crushed rock 1000 500 -m -m -m -m 1. 2. 2.000 Ωm for asphalt.000 Ωm for asphalt.000 200 50 100 10 10 100 Fault duration (ms) 1.000 Ωm has been used for crushed rock and 10.000 10. FIGURE 10. a resistivity value of 3. FIGURE 10.000 NOTE: For the curves in Figure 10 1 and Figure 10.000 Prospective touch voltages (V) 10.000 Ω FOOTWEAR RESISTANCE DR 09051-PDR .000 NOTE: For the curves in Figure 10 1 and Figure 10.000 Asphalt Crushed rock 1000 -m 500 -m 1.000 200 -m 50 -m 100 10 10 100 Fault duration (ms) 1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . a resistivity value of 3.000 Ωm has been used for crushed rock and 10.2 PROSPECTIVE TOUCH VOLTAGE CURVES INCLUDING 2.000 10.
g. are earthed.15/06/2009 13:22:00 (j) (k) . if appropriate. the design is completed. proceed with mitigation measures. a probability based approach is recommended. verification is necessary to ensure that all safety requirements are met. If it cannot be demonstrated that interconnection via either the primary or secondary supply systems is sufficient.5. Determine the tolerable step and touch voltages (see Appendix U). taking into account the seasonal variation of the soil parameters. Determine the zone of interest. Determine if transferred potentials present a hazard outside or inside the high voltage installation.5.1. (iv) (v) calculate the probability of individuals being at risk through exposure to hazardous voltages.1 Introduction Risks associated with earthing include the possibility of human and livestock fatalities.1 Risk based approach to earthing 10.5. If not bonded. estimate the extent of hazard areas or zones. and compare the level of probability of an event against the risk criteria and establish the cost benefit of reducing the level of probability to below acceptable levels (if required). Typical treatment measures are discussed in Appendix U. (i) Identify and implement appropriate risk treatment measures (if required) and then re calculate the residual risk level following treatment. Extraneous conductive parts shall be earthed.1. For human fatalities. 10. (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (iii) estimate the total length of time per year that individuals are within hazardous areas or zones. determine the minimum earthing system that could meet the functional requirement. Refer to Appendix U for definitions of the High. determine if step and touch voltages inside and near the earthing system are below the tolerable limits.3 and described in the points following: (a) (b) Identify the scenarios and the risks (e. Intermediate and Low risk categories and associated actions required. If yes. a person touching a substation fence at the time of a fault). Detailed design is necessary to ensure that all exposed conductive parts. If not. which can include separation of HV and LV earthing systems. proceed with risk treatment at exposed location. All these risks shall be assessed on the basis of cost and benefit.2 Risk of fatality approach Design of an earthing system based on a risk approach to human fatalities can be accomplished by the process outlined in Figure 10. determine earth potential rise (EPR). Based on the likely proportion of total earth fault currents flowing into the local earthing system and durations). If yes. Any structural earth electrodes associated with the installation shall be bonded and form part of the earthing system. Determine if low voltage equipment is exposed to excessive stress voltage. equipment damage and property loss. DR 09051-PDR . Based on soil characteristics and the estimated fault current discharged into the soil by the earthing system of the installation site. If the EPR is below the tolerable step and touch voltages. assess the risk as detailed in Appendix U and as summarized below— (i) (ii) estimate the frequency and duration of the fault events. then determine the soil characteristics of the zone of interest. If not.DRAFT ONLY 87 DRAFT ONLY 10.
e. given a tolerable level of risk of fatalities. design decisions. pipelines.DRAFT ONLY 88 DRAFT ONLY (l) Determine if the circulating transformer neutral current can lead to excessive potential differences between different parts of the earthing system. what is the maximum allowable number of contact events by people per unit time? DR 09051-PDR . the design can be refined. proceed with mitigation measures.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Provide installation support as necessary to ensure design requirements fulfilled and staff safety risk effectively managed. commissioning.g.g. by repeating the above steps. telecommunications. Review installation for physical and safety compliance following the commissioning programme. data and supervision and maintenance requirements. Once the above criteria have been met. Assess and manage any inductive and conductive interference with other utility plant and personnel (e. Documentation to include physical installation description. Consider the need to implement any particular precautions against lightning and other transients. rail). If yes. drawing. as well as electrical assumptions. (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) The risk assessment can also be formulated as. if necessary.
3 EARTHING SYSTEM DESIGN FLOW CHART DR 09051-PDR . However. Carr y ou t sensitivity analys is wh ere required. the risk is generally acceptable. FIGURE 10. risk treatment should be applied if the cost of the risk treatment was small compared to the overall project cost.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . No Ar e all ha zard s mitigated? Risk generally acceptab le (see NOT E 2) Yes 1. fault clearing time.DRAFT ONLY 89 DRAFT ONLY B asic d ata Earth fault cu rrent. so il resist ivity and prob ability of ear th fault o ccur r ing M inimum d esign to m eet fun ction al requirem ents Determ ination of step and tou ch voltage limits (refer Appendix U ) EPR ≤ step and Yes tou ch voltage limits? No Identify the risk by identifying all hazard s and extent of hazard areas. A cost benefit analysis may be required to assess the cost of the risk treatment against the overall project cost. 2. This is Lightning and tran sient design con sideration s achieved by comparin g vo ltage limits (derived in Appendix U) with calculated o r measured voltages for all hazard s Construction sup p or t Estimate peop le expo sure to the h azard s. Com mis sioning Assess the risk associated with a structure or group of structures where appropriate. For low risk category. Refer to Appendix U for definitions of the high. intermediate and low risk outcome categories and associated actions required. Assess according to risk matrix. Risk outcome pro gramme and safet y comp lian ce revie w Do cum en tation Low High Intermediate Carr y out C ost Benefit A nalysis De sign comp lete Is r isk redu ction impractical and costs gro ssly d ispropo rtionate to safet y gained? Yes No Ch eck transferred potentials Ch eck inter co nn ectio n of H V and LV ear th ing systems Ch eck circulating currents Mitigate hazard s.
1 Corrosion and leakage currents The net flow of leakage current off a staywire will lead to eventual corrosion of the staywire. Typical examples of staywire insulators are outlined in AS 3609. or the reinforcing steel in the staywire foundation.6. or a dropped aerial conductor directly onto the structure stay. There may be some situations. 10. Common examples that can cause hazards in stay wires consist of power follow currents flowing to earth via the stay on a conductive structure. the provision of a stay insulator in the stay wire assembly will mitigate corrosion issues related to leakage current flow. 10. can also mitigate touch voltage hazards on stay wires. DR 09051-PDR .6 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF STAYWIRE DESIGN Important electrical considerations to be incorporated into the design for structure staywires consist of— (a) (b) corrosion of staywires and foundation steelwork due to leakage currents. the structural design of the stay will need to account for corrosion. which are not sufficient to operate protection systems.2. For these instances. There may be applications were a stay type insulator cannot be used. possible degradation and reduction in mechanical rating of the stay over the design lifetime of the staywire. which do not utilize insulators.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . One example may be the use of high tensile stay wires with loads in excess of the specified mechanical rating of stay type insulators. due to high prospective fault currents. and installation of buried grading control conductors to control touch voltages. Stay insulators should be positioned such that the staywire on the structure side of the stay insulator cannot be accessed from the ground by the public.2 Transmission lines The addition of the stay insulator for leakage current. soil and concrete encasement interfaces may still be an issue even with stay insulator fitted and these aspects should be considered in the structural design aspects of the stay assembly foundation.2 Stay earthing for control of touch potentials 10. In addition to the specified mechanical requirements for the stay.6. shall require by default additional safety measures in the form of stay earthing.6. and control of touch potentials on structure staywires.1 Distribution and sub transmission lines The addition of the stay insulator for leakage current. that the stay insulator is insufficient to control touch voltages in the event of a fault occurring at this structure. and installation of buried grading control conductors may need consideration by the designer.6. Therefore. an evaluation of electrical capability of the stay wire should also be considered. For most transmission and distribution applications. However. corrosion at the ground line interfaces between stay rods. additional safety measures in the form of stay earthing. without damage being caused to the stay wire due to flow of fault current.DRAFT ONLY 90 DRAFT ONLY 10. Fault currents shall be allowed to flow to earth via the structure and its associated stay wires. 10. Stay wires. may only partly address touch voltage hazards on stay wires for transmission applications. Stay insulators should be positioned such that the staywire on the structure side of the stay insulator cannot be accessed from the ground by the general public when intact or when in a broken stay wire state and also positioned such to maximise the ability to insulate the stay to ground in the event of a fallen aerial conductor directly onto the stay.2.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The performance of earthing materials when bonded and installed in proximity to stay wires and their foundations shall be considered. consideration should be given to the suitability of the various earthing materials.DRAFT ONLY 91 DRAFT ONLY 10. Problems with dissimilar metals and galvanic corrosion should be avoided. DR 09051-PDR .7 CHOICE OF EARTHING MATERIALS Where additional earthing and installation of buried grading conductors are used.
for the complete design service life of the fittings.DRAFT ONLY 92 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 11. manufactured and erected in such a way as to meet the overall performance requirement for the operation and maintenance for the line. In particular insulator set fittings shall be such that if a short-circuit current or power arc test is required they retain. including spacers and vibration dampers. 11. at least 80% of their specified mechanical failing load on completion of the test.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .2 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS 11. In addition. 11. Where accelerated corrosion due to electrical effects exists.2 Requirements applicable to current carrying fittings Aerial conductor fittings intended to carry the operating current of the aerial conductor shall not. 11. 11. due allowance shall be made in the design or in the planned maintenance of the line to ensure the integrity of the line reliability. the voltage drop across current carrying aerial conductor fittings shall not be greater than the voltage drop across an equivalent length of aerial conductor. exhibit corresponding temperature rises greater than those of the associated aerial conductor. including the compression terminations of composite insulators. when required. 11. Arcing horns shall be capable of safely carrying the anticipated fault level current for the anticipated duration of the fault without adverse effect on the safety aspects of overhead line maintenance. or if there is a high potential for mechanical abrasion and wear of fittings.1 GENERAL 11 LINE EQUIPMENT—OVERHE AD LINE FITTINGS Overhead line fittings shall be designed. comply with the specified short-circuit current or power arc requirements.2.4 SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT AND POWER ARC REQUIREMENTS Fittings shall.1 Requirements applicable to all fittings The design of all fittings shall be such that they are compatible with the specified electrical requirements for the overhead line. The design life of fittings and components shall be based on the design working life of the line. when subjected to the maximum continuous current in the aerial conductor or to short-circuit currents. for overhead lines shall be designed such that under test conditions the levels of radio interference are consistent with the overall level specified for the installation.2.3 RIV REQUIREMENTS AND CORONA EXTINCTION VOLTAGE Fittings.5 MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS Aerial conductor termination fitting and all component fittings in insulator string assemblies shall be capable of transferring the aerial conductor design failure containment load Fb to the structure termination point. Grading rings or similar devices shall be used where necessary to reduce the electric field intensity at the line end of insulator sets. DR 09051-PDR .
Terminations shall be designed to carry the steady state thermal aerial conductor current rating. short time thermal current rating and short-circuit current rating for the design life of the overhead line. including material selection.7 MATERIAL SELECTION AND SPECIFICATION Materials used in the manufacture of overhead line fittings shall be selected having regard to their relevant characteristics. Fittings subjected to articulation or wear shall be designed.1 or IEC 60471. 11. 11. DR 09051-PDR .3 for helical fittings or equivalent International Standards. When selecting non-metallic materials their possible reaction to temperature extremes. and be undamaged by the passage of the steady state thermal aerial conductor current rating. Locking devices used in the assembly of fittings with socket connectors shall comply with the requirements of IEC 60372. Termination fittings shall be designed for the holding strength nominated in the relevant standard.8. The choice of materials and/or the design of fittings shall be such that bimetallic (galvanic) corrosion of fittings or aerial conductor is minimized. armour grip suspensions and wire ties. Suspension and support fittings shall be designed to— (a) (b) (c) achieve the mechanical strength nominated by the manufacturer or required by the purchaser.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . NOTE: When selecting metals or alloys for line fittings the possible effects of low temperature should. Termination fittings shall be generally designed and manufactured in accordance with AS 1154. 11.DRAFT ONLY 93 DRAFT ONLY 11.1 Termination fittings Termination fittings include deadends and joints. All ferrous materials.1 or AS 1154. The manufacturer shall ensure that the specification and quality control of materials is sufficient to ensure continuous achievement of the specified characteristics and performance requirements.8 CHARACTERISTICS AND DIMENSIONS OF FITTINGS The mechanical characteristics of insulator set fittings shall comply with the mechanical strength requirements of AS 1154.8. ozone and atmospheric pollution should be considered. Suspension and support fittings shall be designed and manufactured in accordance AS 1154. used in the construction of fittings shall be protected against atmospheric corrosion by hot dip galvanizing or other methods specified in the project specification or agreed by the purchaser with the supplier. hold the slip strength nominated by the manufacturer or required by the purchaser. and manufactured to ensure maximum wear resistant properties. UV radiation. which may affect their performance. short time thermal current rating and short-circuit current rating for the design life of the overhead line.1 or AS 1154. 11.2 Suspension and support fittings Suspension and support fittings include bolted suspension clamps. where relevant. be considered.6 DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS All materials used in the construction of overhead line fittings shall be inherently resistant to atmospheric corrosion.3 for helical fittings or equivalent International standards. other than stainless steels.
11. 11.3 Repair fittings Repair fittings shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with AS 1154. 11. Vibration dampers shall be designed to minimize damage to the aerial conductors. withstand the fatigue loads imparted by the aerial conductors as a result of the action of the wind.3 or equivalent International Standards. Repair fittings shall not be used to make good damaged steel wires.8. have an elastomer material which is semi-conducting and does not cause electrochemical corrosion with the aerial conductor. fittings such as armour grip types of suspension clamps which use elastomer inserts shall be selected to ensure the elastomer components can withstand the steady state current rating. suspension clamps and other hardware cause by wind induced Aeolian vibration.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Vibration dampers shall be installed on all aerial conductors in accordance with Appendix Z. the moisture may freeze and expand and cause the fitting to loosen on the aerial conductor or fracture of the fitting. and be installed in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturers. Repair fittings shall be designed to make good aerial conductors of which not more than 20% of the strands in the outermost layer have been fractured or have other equivalent damage to that outermost layer. NOTE: Thermal ratcheting can occur when dissimilar metals are used together such as a steel bolt in an aluminium clamp where the expansion coefficient of the aluminium is much higher than the steel and loosening of the bolt can occur as a result of the differential movement of each material during heating and cooling.8.8.7 Aerial conductor fittings used at near freezing temperatures Aerial conductor fitting shall be designed and manufactured to ensure the ingress of moisture and subsequent freezing does not compromise mechanical performance. DR 09051-PDR . Spacers and spacer dampers shall— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) be designed to maintain the nominated sub-conductor separation. 11.5 Vibration dampers Vibration dampers shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with AS 1154.4 Spacers and spacer dampers Spacers and Spacer Dampers shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with AS 1154. short time thermal current rating and short-circuit current rating for the design life of the overhead line. In particular.8. For low tension aerial conductors (less than 10% CBL) repair fittings can be used for not more than 40% of fractured strands in the outermost layer. The fittings shall be designed so the fitting is not prone to loosening because of thermal ratcheting.8.1 or equivalent International Standards.DRAFT ONLY 94 DRAFT ONLY 11.6 Aerial conductor fittings for use at elevated temperatures Aerial conductor fittings for high temperature aerial conductors shall be selected to meet the steady state thermal aerial conductor current rating. be designed to minimize damage caused to the aerial conductors by the action of the wind. withstand the compressive forces associated with short-circuit currents.1 or equivalent International Standards. NOTE: Should moisture ingress occur in enclosed fittings such as termination fittings. Vibration dampers shall be installed in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturers.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 . DR 09051-PDR .9 TEST REQUIREMENTS All tests on overhead line fittings shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of AS 1154 and IEC 60471.DRAFT ONLY 95 DRAFT ONLY 11.
but protection of life.it shall be subjected to a complete engineering assessment. UPGR ADING. or safety to the public or ongoing maintenance . the design requirements have increased over time). it shall be subjected to a complete engineering assessment.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . functional or economic loss. UP RATING) OF EXISTING OVE RHEAD LINES 12.e.2 ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES Current design requirements provide a useful ‘bench mark’ for existing construction. legislation has changed since original construction (i. 12. DR 09051-PDR . This reliability level is not related to remaining life. Whether the overall line performance can be improved to an acceptable level by modification or replacement of line components.1 GENERAL All overhead lines shall have ongoing planned maintenance to ensure they remain in an operationally serviceable condition without jeopardizing public safety. However there is a minimum limit required to provide adequate safety to both the public and line personnel working on the structure. or this approach will achieve a more favourable network assessment outcome. Where the line is to be refurbished by modification of the support structures. This assessment shall consider the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) Whether the support structures are no longer safe to the public or their ongoing maintenance as determined by further structural analysis and detailed assessment. This reduced standard could be achieved using one or a combination of factors mentioned below. Whether the line should be taken out of service and decommissioned. The reasons for a lower standard being appropriate are— (a) (b) (c) most asset owners have overhead lines which have undergone ‘piecemeal’ replacement of individual supports since original construction. 12. hence allowing reduced loads to reflect the reduced remaining life of the assets. but it is often appropriate to adopt a lower standard consistent with the ‘fitness for purpose’ for the overall network. Whether the support structures can economically be refurbished. or has exhibited degradation to a level that raises question concerning any component of the overall lines’ serviceability. If it is identified that an overhead line is no longer meeting its operational performance standard. replacement of aerial conductors and insulation.2 Line importance Asset owners often adopt a uniform risk profile throughout the network.2.DRAFT ONLY 96 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 12 LIFE EXT ENSION (REFURBISHMENT. This ensures that all assets have the same likelihood of failure during their remaining lives.
2. Verification of dimensional information. Proof loading shall be carried out in accordance with this Standard or the relevant material Standard. From nominal historical values.DRAFT ONLY 97 DRAFT ONLY 12. the results of the testing need to be adjusted using statistical methods.3 COMPONENT CAPACITY Each component strength capacity shall be based on the appropriate material standard and take into account the observed condition including effects of deterioration and reduction in gross section properties. Identification of any defective and unsafe components. The statistical adjustment factor is usually based on— (i) (ii) The number of units The coefficient of variation (COV) of structural property (iii) The minimum structural property value (R min ) 12. Any sampling shall be representative of the structure or entire group of similar components. 12.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . From cores or samples removed from the pole or component.4 Material properties The material properties assumed for analysis shall be based on one of the following methods: (a) (b) (c) From drawings. In order to obtain the characteristic value for calculation purposes.5 UPGRADING OF OVERHEAD LINE STRUCTURES Reference should be made to Appendix N for guidelines on the upgrading of structures for service life extension.3 Inspection An inspection of the complete line shall be carried out as part of the evaluation process. 12. 12.2. if required. It shall also allow for any deterioration likely to take place before the next inspection or modification or replacement. DR 09051-PDR . It shall involve at least the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) An assessment of the condition of materials and elements including extent and significance of any deterioration found by physical measurement. Assessment of design loads.4 PROOF LOADING Proof loading may be undertaken either to verify the calculations and assumptions made or to increase the load limit. Material sampling. specifications or other construction records.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 . provision should be made in the line layout design to provide means for access of mobile plant to maintain the facility. Where a design decision has been taken to provide no climbing facilities. DR 09051-PDR . Reference should be made to Appendix M for guidelines on climbing and working at heights on overhead lines. then information to this extent should be clearly identified on the design documents.DRAFT ONLY 98 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 13 PROVISIONS FOR CLI M BING AND WORKING AT HEIGHTS All overhead line structures shall be designed from a whole of life concept and where necessary the provision shall be made in the design to provide facilities for climbing and working at heights from the support structure. In addition.
it is incumbent on the designer to place limitations on the location. attachment for 10 to 15 weeks in any 12 consecutive months may provide an acceptable level of control. .8 m2 and the total face area of banners on any single pole should not exceed 2. For example.5. B ANNE RS. 14.0 m2 . they resemble flags in a strong wind for which the total wind force on the flag may be determined from the following equation: ⎛ C + Cdf × G ⎞ Fwf = ⎜ ff ⎟ pd × Af b×κ ⎝ ⎠ where Fwf = total force on the banner (N) DR 09051-PDR . TELECOMMUNICATIONS RE PE A T E R S) 14.1 Location (a) (b) The positioning of a banner on a pole should be not greater than 6 m above ground level. 14.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .5 Wind loads on signs and banners 14. which minimizes torsion effects with respect to any outreach arms.1. . This could result in the development of excessive stresses or fatigue stresses which could lead to catastrophic failure.2 Attachments Where banners are attached at top and bottom to their mounting arms. 14. 14. COMMUNICATIONS CARRIER CABL ES. Double banners should be located diametrically opposite one another and in a vertical plane. eg along main thoroughfares and selected streets. The attachment of all banners should be capable of retaining the banner on its top-mounting arm at the ultimate design wind pressure. designers should make allowance for increased loadings.1.1 .1.1 SIGNS AND BANNERS AND TRAFFIC MIRRORS While the design of flagpoles is outside the scope of this Standard. where it is likely to occur.1 Strength limit state At the strength limit state. all banners are assumed to be attached only to the top mounting arm and almost horizontal. In order to make this practicable. 14. Unless pole structures are specifically designed for banner loadings.1. As the presence of banners may add appreciable lateral loads to these poles under wind conditions. size and duration of banner attachments to these poles. the attachment of banners to roadside poles is not uncommon for promoting special civic or community activities.3 Size of banners The area of one face of any single banner should not exceed 0. In these circumstances.4 Duration of attachment Banners or flags attached to poles may induce an undue aerodynamic response in the structure. the risk of premature failure should be minimized by limiting the duration of the banner attachment.1. the bottom attachment should be designed to release as soon as the design serviceability wind pressure is exceeded.DRAFT ONLY 99 DRAFT ONLY SECTI ON 14 CO-USE OF OVE RHEAD LINE SUPP ORTS (SIGNAGE.1.14.
0 0.11 NOTE:See Figure 14.1 DRAG FACTORS FOR BANNERS A f /b 2 C df 0.14.008Cdf wg ⎞ ⎤ Fwf = ⎢ 0. taken as 1. .4 2.024 a drag factor determined from Table 14.8 2.36 4.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .1. Kz and KT are obtained from Appendix B for the strength limit state.6 1. is usually quoted in grams per square metre (g/m2).2 4. .1 mass per unit area of wet flag material (g/m2) Dimension of banner at right angles to wind direction (m) area of one face of the banner and p d.0 0.024 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ pd K Z K T Af b ⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .6 0.1 unit mass of wet banner material (kg/m2) dimension of banner at right angles to wind direction (m) density of air. and converting to units consistent with Clause 1.0 0. It is assumed that Fwf acts horizontally at the level of the support arm where the arm intersects a vertical plane through the centroid of area of the banner.1 becomes— ⎡ ⎛ 0. Equation 14. in a similar manner to paper.DRAFT ONLY 100 DRAFT ONLY Cff Cdf G b κ pd Af = = = = = = = = a friction factor 0.4 1.0 0.23 kg/m3 design wind pressure at the strength limit state (Pa) area of (one) banner face (m2) The mass per unit area of cloth materials. substituting the numerical values for Cff and κ. Making this substitution.1 10 0. and p uKz for p d.2 0. TABLE 14. DR 09051-PDR .4.2 where Fwf Cdf wg b Af = = = = = total force on the banner (kN) a drag factor obtained from Table 14.17 6.
DRAFT ONLY 101 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE 14. 14. Traffic mirrors are installed to aid motorists in viewing around visually obstructed locations.184.108.40.206. each banner can be treated for wind load in a manner similar to any other attachment to the pole. when pd is obtained from Appendix B for the serviceability limit state.1 BANNER DIMENSIONS 14. The total force (Fwf ) is calculated from the following equation: Fwf = 1. These cables may be of an insulated self-supporting type (ADSS) or as a catenary cable supported system.2 by substituting p s for pu.3.1 General Telecommunications repeater installations on overhead line supports normally require the installation of microwave dishes.2 COMMUNICATIONS CARRIER CABLES 14. DR 09051-PDR . 14.1 General Where it is a likely requirement that an overhead line may be required to support aerial communications carrier cables that are owned by third parties. and cables to a ground level relay station.2. . .1.5.3 TELECOMMUNICATIONS MIRRORS 14. provision shall be made for their safe placement on the supports preferably in an under built mode. Fwf is calculated from Equation 14.3 Top and bottom attached banners For banners attached at both the top and bottom.1 General For the serviceability limit state. On existing overhead lines. antennae mounting support steelwork.6 is the drag factor for a sharp-edged flat surface.5. 14.6 pd × Kz × KT × Af .3 where 1. there is a need to differentiate between banners attached at the top only and those attached at the top and bottom to mounting arms. The size of these mirrors can vary significantly. multiple cellular telephone antennae.220.127.116.11/06/2009 13:22:00 REPEATERS EQUIPMENT AND TRAFFIC . where such cables are to be installed the structure designs shall be subject to a full engineering assessment.2 Serviceability limit state 14. 14.1.2 Top attached banners For top attached banners.2.
repeater sites the performance of the telecommunications facility may be sensitive to rotational deflection limits.DRAFT ONLY 102 DRAFT ONLY All overhead line structures to be fitted with these devices shall be subject to a full engineering assessment. DR 09051-PDR . and these should be checked.2 Safety considerations Radiation effects from antennae are an operational and maintenance issue that must considered and appropriate safety measures deployed.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .3. 14. In the case of telecommunication.
1 1222. by either normative or informative reference. general requirements and dimensions Part 3: Performance and general requirements for helical fittings Structural design actions Part 4: Earthquake actions in Australia Steel conductors and stays Part 1: Bare overhead—Galvanized (SC/GZ) Part 2: Aluminium clad (SC/AC) Conductors—Bare overhead—Aluminium and aluminium alloy Fasteners—Bolts. All references are undated and the latest edition of the publication referred to applies. AS 1154 1154. above 1 kV) Part 2: Application guide Switchgear assemblies and ancillary equipment for alternating voltages above 1 kV Piling—Design and installation Timber—Poles for overhead lines Concrete structures Conductors—Bare reinforced overhead. nuts and washers for tower construction Specification for preservative treatment—Sawn and round timber Timber structures Part 1: Design methods Part 2: Timber properties Geotechnical site investigations Conductors—Bare overhead—Hard-drawn copper Insulation coordination (phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase.3 1170 1170.1 1154.2 1531 1559 1604 1720 1720. aluminium and aluminium alloy—Steel Insulators—Porcelain and glass. These references are cited at the appropriate places in the text together with a statement indicating whether the reference is normative in this Standard or informative. Test methods for bare overhead conductors Design of steel lattice towers and masts Precast concrete pipes (pressure and non-pressure) DR 09051-PDR .c.4 1222 1222. Insulators—Porcelain stay type—Voltages greater than 1000 V a.2 1726 1746 1824 1824. pin and shackle type—Voltages not exceeding 1000 V a. material.c.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .2 2067 2159 2209 3600 3607 3608 3609 3822 3995 4058 Insulator and conductor fittings for overhead power lines Part 1: Performance. provisions from other publications.DRAFT ONLY 103 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX A REFERENCE AND RELATED DOCUMENTS (Normative) A1 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS This Standard incorporates.1 1720.
35/11(12) kV up to and including 19/33(36) kV DR 09051-PDR .1 3599.1 3560.2 3675 Electric cables—Aerial bundled—Polymeric 6.6/1(1.c.7/22(24) kV Part 1: Metallic screened Part 2: Non-metallic screened Conductors—Covered overhead—For working voltages 6.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .2 1170.c.35/11(12) kV up to and including 19/33(36) kV Electric working Part 1: Part 2: cables—Cross-linked polyethylene insulated—Aerial bundled—For voltages up to and including 0.4 2312 2344 2373 2947 3675 3560 3560. powerlines and high voltage equipment installations in the frequency range 0.35/11(12) kV and 12.2 1891.2 3599 3599.4 4436 6947 60305 Steel structures Insulators—Ceramic or glass—Station post for indoor and outdoor use— Voltages greater than 1000 V a.1 1891. test methods and acceptance criteria for string insulator units Part 4: Definitions.c. systems—Characteristics of insulator units of the cap and pin type Structural design actions Part 0: General principles Part 2: Wind actions Part 3: Snow and ice actions High strength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for structural engineering Glued laminated structural timber Lightning protection Industrial fall arrest-systems and devices Part 1: Harnesses and ancillary equipment Part 2: Horizontal lifeline and rail systems Part 3: Fall-arrest devices Part 4: Selection. Insulators—Composite for overhead power lines—Voltages greater than 1000 V a.2) kV Aluminium conductors Copper conductors insulated—Voltages AS/NZS 1170 1170.c.15 to 1000 MHz Electric cables— Twisted pair for control and protection circuits Insulators—Porcelain and glass for overhead power lines—Voltages greater than 1000 V a. Part 1: Definitions.1 4435. use and maintenance Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric corrosion by the use of protective coatings Limits of electromagnetic interference from overhead a.c Conductors—Covered overhead—For working voltages 6.0 1170.3 1891.DRAFT ONLY 104 DRAFT ONLY AS 4100 4398 4435 4435.3 1252 1328 1768 1891 1891. test methods. acceptance criteria for post insulator units Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions Crossing of waterways by electricity infrastructure Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1000 V—Ceramic or glass insulator units for a.
AS/NZS 3835 4065 4435 4435.2
Earth potential rise—Protection of telecommunications network users, personnel and plant Concrete utility services poles Insulators—Composite for overhead power lines—Voltages greater than 1000 V a.c. Part 2: Insulators—Composite for overhead power lines—Voltages greater than 1000 V a.c.—Standard strength classes and end fittings for string insulator units Cold-formed steel structures Structural design requirements for utility services poles Steel utility services poles Hot-dip galvanized (zinc) coatings on fabricated ferrous articles Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines
4600 4676 4677 4680 4653
HB 101 (CJC5) Coordination of power and telecommunications—Low frequency induction (LFI): Code of practice 102 (CJC6) Coordination of power and telecommunications—Low frequency induction NZS 1170 1170.5 3101 3101.1 3404 3404.1 3603 6869 NZECP 34 41 46 NZCCPTS Noise Investigation Guide EEA\NZ SM-EI Industry Safety Rules Guide to Use of Helicopters in Power Company Work Use of Personal Fall Arrest Systems Maritime Safety Authority publication Guide to Safety Management of Power Line Waterway Crossings Guide -Operation and Maintenance of Elevating Work Platforms Guidelines for live line barehand work Guidelines for live line stick work Guidelines for live line glove and barrier work
DR 09051-PDR - 15/06/2009 13:22:00
Structural design actions Part 5: Earthquake actions—New Zealand Concrete structures Part 1: The design of concrete structures Steel structures standard Part 1: Steel structures standard Timber structures standard Limits and measurement methods of electromagnetic noise from high voltage a.c. power systems, 0.15 New Zealand Electrical Code of Practice for Electrical Safe Distances New Zealand Electrical Code of Practice for SWER Systems New Zealand Electrical Code of Practice for High Voltage Live Line Work
ENA LLM 01 LLM 02 LLM 03
ENA NENS 04 NENS 05 ESAA D(b)5* EANSW * IEC 60372 60433
National guidelines for safe approach distances to electrical and mechanical apparatus National fall protection guidelines for the electricity industry Current rating of bare overhead line conductors High Voltage Earth Return for Rural Areas Locking devices for ball and socket couplings of string insulator units— Dimensions and tests Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1 000 V—Ceramic insulators for a.c. systems—Characteristics of insulator units of the long rod type Dimensions of clevis and tongue couplings of string insulator units Loading tests on overhead line towers Characteristics of line post insulators Optical fibre cables Part 4: Aerial optical cables along electrical power lines Loading and strength of overhead transmission lines Short-circuit currents Part 1: Calculation of effects Composite string insulator units for overhead lines with a nominal voltage greater than 1000 V Part 2: Dimensional and electrical characteristics Overhead electrical conductors—Calculation methods for stranded bare conductors Atmospheric icing of structures Protection against corrosion of iron and steel in structures—Zinc and aluminium coatings—Guidelines
60471 60652 60720 60794 60794-4 TR 60826 60865 60865-1 61466 61466-2 TR 61597 ISO 12494 14713
EN 1993 Design of steel structures—General rules Eurocode 3 1993-1-1 50341 50341-1 BS 8100 8100-1 ASCE 10-97 48-05 Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV Part 1-1: General requirements—Common specifications Lattice towers and masts Part 1: Code of practice for loading Design of latticed steel transmission structures Design of steel transmission pole structures
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CIGRE TB196 TB256 IEEE 691
Diaphragms for lattice steel supports Current Practices regarding frequencies and magnitude of high intensity winds Guide for Transmission Structure Foundation Design and Testing
ARPANSA Draft Radiation Protection Standard for Exposure Limits to Electric and Magnetic Fields 0 Hz – 3 kHz ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (Up To 300 Ghz)
* Available to members though Energy Networks Australia (ENA)
A2 RELATED DOCUMENTS Attention is drawn to the following related documents: AS 1289 1218.104.22.168 1657 1798 2560 2979 AS/NZS 1158 1158.1.3 1170 1170.1 NZS 3115 4203 IEC 60038 60050 60050-441 60050-466 60050-471 60050-601 60050-604 60287 60287-3-1 Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes Method 6.3.1: Determination of the penetration resistance of a soil—Standard penetration test (SPT) Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders—Design, construction and installation Lighting poles and bracket arms—Preferred dimensions Guide to sports lighting Traffic signal mast arms Road lighting Part 1.3: Vehicular traffic (Category V) Lighting—Guide to design, installation, operation and maintenance Minimum design loads on structures Part 1: Dead and live loads and load combination Specification for concrete poles for electrical transmission and distribution Code of practice for general structural design and design loadings for buildings—Vol 1 IEC standard voltages International Electrotechnical Vocabulary Chapter 441: Switchgear, controlgear and fuses Chapter 466: Overhead lines Chapter 471: Insulators Chapter 601: Generation, transmission and distribution of electricity— General Chapter 604: Generation, transmission and distribution of electricity— Operation Electric cables—Calculation of the current rating Part 3-1: Sections on operating conditions—Reference conditions and selection of cable type
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IEC TR 60479 Guide to effects of current on human beings and livestock TR 60479-1 Part 1: General aspects TR 60575 60724 60797 60909 61109 TR 61211 61467 TR 61774 62219 NZECP 35 Thermal-mechanical performance test and mechanical performance test on string insulator units Short-circuit temperature limits of electric cables with rated voltages of 1 kV (Um = 1,2 kV) and 3 kV (Um = 3,6 kV) Residual strength of string insulator units of glass or ceramic material for overhead lines after mechanical damage of the dielectric Short-circuit current calculation in three-phase a.c. systems Composite insulators for a.c. overhead lines with a nominal voltage greater than 1 000 V—Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria Insulators of ceramic material or glass for overhead lines with a nominal voltage greater than 1 000 V—Puncture testing Insulators for overhead lines with nominal voltage over 1 000 V—AC power arc tests on insulator sets Overhead lines—Meteorological data for assessing climatic loads Formed wire concentric lay overhead electrical stranded conductors1 New Zealand Electrical Code of Practice for risk based earthing
EN EN ISO 1461 Hot dip galvanised coatings on fabricated ferrous products—Specifications and test methods EN ISO 9001 Quality systems. Model for quality assurance in design, development, production A3 REFERENCES 1 BURGESS, S., SALINGER, J., TURNER, R. and REID, S., 2007. Climate Hazards and extremes – Taranaki region. High winds and tornadoes. NIWA report WLG2007048, 84 pp. CARMAN, W.D. and BAXTER, B. Transmission Structure Hazard Mitigation Strategies. 11th CEPSI Conference, Kuala Lumpur, October 1996. CIGRE STUDY COMMITTEE 23 – 1996, Brochure 105, The Mechanical Effects Of Short-Circuit Currents in Open Air Substations (Rigid and Flexible Bus-Bars), Volume 1. CIGRE STUDY COMMITTEE 23 (Substations) Working Group 23-03, The Mechanical Effects Of Short-Circuit Currents in Open Air Substations (Rigid and Flexible Bus-Bars), Volume 2 CIGRE STUDY COMMITTEE 23—1996, Companion Book Of CIGRE Brochure 105 (Part II) DURAŇONA, V., STERLING, M. and BAKER, C., 2007. An analysis of extreme non-synoptic winds. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 95, 1000-1027 ESAA EG-1(1997) ESAA Substation Earthing Guide.
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GIBBS, H. Inquiry into Community Needs and High Voltage Transmission Line Development. Published by New South Wales Government, 1991. Guidelines for the Management of Electricity Easements. EC20, Electricity Council of NSW, February 1992. HOWAT, C. and COOK, J. An Assessment of the Hazards Associated with Siting Swimming Pools Near Substations and Transmission Lines. ESEA Conference, Sydney, August 1991. KIESSLING, NEFZGER, NOLASCO and KAINTZY, K. Overhead Power Lines (planning design construction). ISBN 3-540-00297-9, pp. 162-163. MORGAN, V.T. Thermal Behaviour of Electrical Conductors, Steady, Dynamic and Fault-Current Ratings. Published in Brisbane by John Wiley and Sons Inc, 1991. RAD, F.N., GARG, V.K. and COURTS, A.L. Study of Distribution of Ground Fault Currents in Below Grade Swimming Pools Located Near Transmission Lines. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 1980. REESE, S., REVELL, M., TURNER, R., THURSTON, S., REID, S., UMA, S.R. and SCHROEDER, S., 2007. Taranaki Tornadoes of 4-5 July 2007: Post event damage survey. NIWA report WLG2007-71, 43 pp.Reid, S.J., 1987. Wind speeds for engineering design. New Zealand Engineering, March 1, 1987, pp 15-18. REID, S. and TURNER, R., 2008. Gust speeds for downslope sites using 2D modelling. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. Submitted. ROSS H.E. et al, Recommended procedures for the safety performance evaluation of highway safety features, NCHRP Report 350, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1993 SMOOT, A.W. and BENTEL, C.A. Electric Shock Hazard of Underwater Swimming Pool Lighting Fixtures. IEE Transactions of Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 83, September 1964, pp.945-964. TAIT, A., and REID, S., 2007. An analysis of extreme high winds in the Gisborne district. NIWA report WLG2007-25. 30pp WOODHOUSE, D.J., NEWLAND, K.D, and CARMAN, W.D. Development of a Risk Management Policy for Transmission Line Easements. Distribution 2000, 4th International Distribution Utility Conference, November 1997, Sydney. HOLMES, J.D., Physical modelling of thunderstorms downdrafts by wind tunnel jet. 2nd AWES Workshop 20-21 February 1992. Monash University, Clayton, Victoria. LETCHFORD, C.W. and ILLIDGE, Topographical effects in simulated thunderstorm downdrafts by wind tunnel jet. 7th AWES Workshop, 28-29 September 1998. Auckland, New Zealand. PANEER R., SELVAM and HOLMES, J.D., Thunderstorm downdrafts from a point of view of building design. 1st AWES Workshop, 7-8 February 1991. Pokolbin, New South Wales. DAVENPORT, A.G., SURRY, D., GEORGIOU, P.N and LYTHE,G., The response of transmission towers in hilly terrain to typhoon winds. The University of Western Ontario, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, London, Ontario. GEORGIOU, P.N., SURRY, D. and DAVENPORT, A.G., Codification of wind loading in a region with typhoons and hills. Proc. of the Fourth Int. Conference on Tall Buildings, Hong Kong and Shanghai, April/May 1988. CHENG, Y.K. and LEE, P.K.K. Eds. Organizing Committee of the Conference, Hong Kong, 1988. Vol. 1, 252258.
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microbursts) and synoptic winds (e. (i. using multipliers from AS/NZS 1170. Zone I—shown in blue in Figure B1. although the number of extreme convective downdraft gusts from small thunderstorms are similar. both events can occur.e.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 110 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX B WIND LOADS (Normative) B1 AUSTRALIA In Australia. At coastal locations in the non-tropical regions. and designs are to provide for both types of events. large gusts can be produced by both large-scale synoptic events or by convective downdrafts. together with ‘conventional’ span reduction factors as provided in the following sections. Zone II—shown in beige. Reference should be made to AS/NZS 1170. Figure B1 shows a zoning map to determine which storm type should be considered in design for wind. gales from East Coast lows in NSW. designs are to provide only for winds from synoptic events (including tropical cyclones in Northern Australia). NOTE: Figure B1 is not intended to show the zoning system for the magnitude of the wind gust speed – just the types of event producing the extreme gusts required to be considered for design.2 for the relevant wind velocities relevant to the line for the selected security level and design life as defined in Section 6. Zone III—shown in green in Figure B1. On the mainland. the regions on this map are delineated by a boundary 200 kilometres from the smoothed coastline. inland Australia) designs are to provide only for convective downdrafts.g. and topography and span reduction factors for these events are as provided in the following sections. Wind multipliers for terrain-height. Generally it is clear that large gusts at inland stations within Australia are all generated by convective downdrafts. Analysis of all extreme winds in Australia has shown that coastal stations experience many more high gusts per annum than do inland stations. tropical cyclones in Queensland and WA). transmission lines and their supporting towers and poles are vulnerable to extreme wind loads from both convective downdrafts (downbursts. with approximately equal probability.2.
Generally it is clear that large gusts at inland stations outside of leeward zones are generated by convective downdrafts. In addition there are regions in the leeward zones close to high mountain ranges where katabatic or downslope high velocity winds occur in which these structures are also vulnerable. transmission lines and their supporting towers and poles are vulnerable to extreme wind loads from both convective downdrafts (downbursts and micro-bursts) and synoptic winds (e.C o nve c ti ve d ow n d raf ts o n l y G e ra l d to n PERT H 20 0 k m Zo n e III .S y n o pti c a n d c o nve c ti ve Zo n e I . gales associated with mid-latitude cyclones throughout the country and high winds from ex-tropical cyclones over the North Island). Wind zones for the North and South Islands of New Zealand are shown in Figure B2 DR 09051-PDR .S y n o pti c w i n d s o n l y HOBART FIGURE B1 WIND REGIONS FOR AUSTRALIAN DESIGN WIND GUST TYPES B2 NEW ZEALAND In New Zealand.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .DRAFT ONLY 111 DRAFT ONLY Zo n e I .S y n o pti c winds only B ro o m e 20 0 k m C royd o n O n s l ow Ca r n a r vo n DA RWIN We i pa M c D o n n e l C re e k M o reto n C o o k tow n Ca ir ns 20 0 k m Tow nsv i l l e B owe n M a c k ay Ro c k h a m pto n B u n d a b e rg M a r y b o ro u g h 25˚ B R I S BA N E G raf to n C of f s H a r b o u r SY D N E Y Zo n e II ..g.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 .2. A6 AND A7 ) All structures shall be designed for a 3 s gust regional wind speeds for various return periods as defined in AS/NZS 1170.2. The basic site design velocity shall be determined by selecting an appropriate return period for the line (See Section 6) and applying formula variables from AS/NZS 1170.DRAFT ONLY 112 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE B2 WIND REGIONS FOR NEW ZEALAND B3 SYNOPTIC WIND REGIONS (AUSTRALIA ZONE I AND ZONE III AND NEW ZEALAND ZONES REGIONS W. DR 09051-PDR .
The selection of the regional wind speed should be based on the line’s location. Refer to AS/NZS 1170.2 provides regional wind speeds for the 50-year return periods.0 for all overhead lines. Refer AS/NZS 1170. AS/NZS 1170. Refer to AS/NZS 1170. variations in wind loading may be required. DR 09051-PDR .2 = V50 MdMz. They take the form of downdrafts associated with cold air and hail columns. The equations presented here are intended to provide a context for the drag (or force) coefficients that are of particular relevance to overhead lines. B4 DOWNDRAFT WIND REGIONS REGIONS (AUSTRALIA ZONE II AND ZONE III AND NEW ZEALAND ZONES REGION A7) Convective downdraft wind gust sometimes referred to as high intensity winds (HIW) are generated by severe thunderstorms and are the dominant design winds that occur across most regions of Australia and New Zealand. z z for the aerial conductors may be taken as the mean height of the aerial conductors at EDT above the terrain.cat = Md Ms Mt V50 = = = = gust winds speed multiplier for terrain category at height z. Md < 1. for structures under 50 m may be taken at the 2/3 structure height or at the centre of each panel in lattice towers. based on performance of overhead lines in cyclonic areas over time.1(A). Refer AS/NZS 1170.2 basic regional wind velocity for the region corresponding to the 50-year return period.2 deals with the calculation of wind velocities (for synoptic conditions) and drag coefficients for the more common structural shapes.DRAFT ONLY 113 DRAFT ONLY Cyclonic wind amplification factors Fc and Fd provided in AS/NZS 1170 shall be taken as 1. and embedded in many severe thunderstorms.2 for all regions use Table 4. They can also occur within tropical cyclone storm cells.0 may be applied when determining design loads for sections of lines. The site design wind speed is the 50-year basic regional wind speed modified for the effects of the topography and terrain that the line traverses.2 as appropriate.catMsMt Designers should be aware that changing land usage may alter the terrain category. The design site wind speed shall be taken as— Vz where Mz. meso–cyclonic cells and tornadoes within storm front systems or mature subtropical thunderstorm cells. shielding multiplier. Designers are referred to AS/NZS 1170. wind direction multiplier.2. Refer to AS/NZS 1170. Ms is normally taken as 1. They occur in both coastal and inland regions and are associated with.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . AS/NZS 1170. The calculation of wind forces on structural elements is based on the wind pressure on the structural element and the net drag coefficient for the element. Evidence from the damage of many severe storms across Australia and New Zealand suggests that these events are responsible for many of the wind-related failures on overhead lines.0.2 topographic multiplier for gust wind speed. Where an overhead line is of significant length.
cat has been found from laboratory and field tests to vary with height as shown in Figure B3 and according to the following rules: Height (m) 0–50 50–100 Above 100 Mz.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Terrain -Height Multiplier Mz. A span reduction factor shall be applied as provided in Figure B7.2 for each region and for the range of return periods.DRAFT ONLY 114 DRAFT ONLY B4. more commonly referred to as downbursts.0–0. or microbursts. These gusts create damage swaths in vegetation at ground level and the wind can envelop one or more spans simultaneously and renders the application of the synoptic wind based span reduction factors inappropriate. Studies have indicated that downdraft winds can have significant variability in direction due to their association with hail and cold air downdrafts and are also influenced by large scale topographical features. The resulting gust widths can vary in width from typically a hundred metres to a kilometre.5 DR 09051-PDR .5*(H–50)/50 0.cat 1..0 1. The maximum velocity also has been observed in recent failures to be generally above a plane at approximately 15 m above ground as a result of the localized influence of vegetation and ground surface roughness. usually but not always associated with a hail column.1 Downdraft winds Downdraft winds. macrobursts. the wind draft radiates from the impact site. Wind pressures are to be calculated as for synoptic winds except for modification to Mz and Mt factors as provided below. are high velocity wind columns of cold air that can form within a thunderstorm cell. The cold air column falls vertically from great height and strikes the ground. Downdraft gust wind speeds are provided in AS/NZS 1170. and due to the translation of the storm cell.
8 1 FIGURE B3 TERRAIN-HEIGHT MULTIPLIER FOR CONVECTIVE DOWNDRAFTS Topographic multiplier Mt. Most are either EF0 or EF1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . in particular. Tornadoes can be considered very rare events at particular locations and should not be considered in normal range of overhead line designs.4 0.2.6 M z .2 High security and high reliability overhead lines The following provision should be made for tornado wind loads on long high security and high reliability lines. Tornadoes are small rotational (50–100 m diameter) cells usually embedded within and traversing at the same speed and direction as the thunderstorm.DRAFT ONLY 115 DRAFT ONLY D ow n d r a f t M z . The thunderstorm translational speed could be in the order of 10–20 m/s and the tornado circumferential speed of 50 m/s or higher. downdraft = 1 + 0. Combining the two speeds gives a resultant gust speed of the order of 60+m/s DR 09051-PDR .c a t 0.e. Mt.downdraft has also been found from research to be half of the modification provided in AS/NZS 1170. B4.5 (Mt. However. maximum velocities <50 m/s.c a t 140 120 10 0 H e i g h t [m] 80 60 40 20 0 0. 2 0. two regions of New Zealand (the coastal zones near New Plymouth and Greymouth) are known to experience on average one tornado a year.1 General Evidence exists of the occurrence of Tornadoes in several regions around Australia and New Zealand of an intensity <EF3 (Enhanced Fujita Tornado Scale) classification with maximum velocities in the 45–74 m/s range.synoptic −1) B4. important long lines.downdraft values shall be calculated in accordance with the following: Mt.2 Tornadoes (applies to all high security/high reliability overhead lines only such as regional transmission interconnectors) B4. No evidence currently exists of either EF4 or EF5 tornadoes having occurred in Australia or New Zealand.2.2 for synoptic winds. i.
2. Refer to AS/NZS 1170. . .B1 B5.1 Wind pressures on lattice steel towers For each panel in the tower.0 gives a design dynamic wind pressure of 2. the force on structural sections in the direction of the wind shall be calculated as follows: Fx where Kx Cd A* represents factors accounting for aspect ratio. Tornadoes intercepting with supports have caused isolated known lattice structure failures in recent decades in Australia and with a higher frequency in overseas countries. In addition wide tower structures shall be also designed for a torsion wind (of the same pressure) rotating about the support centroid. is the projected area of the structure section under consideration in a plane normal to the wind direction. = q zKxCdA* . and taking all the wind (M) multipliers as 1. wind direction and shielding of the member. . FIGURE B4.2 RECTANGULAR BASED OR WIDE TOWERS B5 WIND PRESSURES The design pressure q z shall be calculated as follows: qz = Mrel × 0.6Vz2 × 10−3 kPa .2 for specific values. is the drag force coefficient of the member. Each tower body face should be simultaneously subjected to in plane wind.B2 DR 09051-PDR . . and each crossarm face to projected perpendicular wind in a consistent rotational direction as indicated in Figure B4.2 kPa. No wind is applied to the aerial conductors in either case.1 and Figure B4.1 SQUARE BASED TOWERS FIGURE B4.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . This shall be applied as a uniform pressure (ie unmodified for height) to the support and insulators from any direction.DRAFT ONLY 116 DRAFT ONLY Tornadoes crossing lines between supports are unlikely to cause any structural damage but may cause aerial conductors to clash resulting in feeder trips. Adopting the 60 m/s as the ultimate regional tornado wind speed (for all but the high importance lines).
9 3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . .2 0.4 2. DR 09051-PDR . signage and banners are attached to a tower that have significant area. The interference factor (Kin) shall be taken as 1.7 1. .5 0. .4 0.9 1.0 1.0 = = = = drag force coefficient for single frames (panels) (See Table B1) shielding factor (See Table B1) factor for angle of incidence θ of wind to frames (calculated by the equation)— 1 + k1 k2 sin2(2θ).6 1.6 3.6 1.2 TABLE B1 LATTICE TOWER PANEL DRAG COEFFICIENTS FOR MULTIPLE FRAMES AND SINGLE FRAMES Solidity C d 0° 0.5 2.0 2.2 for δ ≤ 0.DRAFT ONLY 117 DRAFT ONLY For lattice towers that are essentially square in plan the force in the direction of the wind on the whole tower section under consideration shall be calculated as follows: Fsθ where A Cd = = is the projected area of one face of the structure section under consideration in a vertical plane along the face.B4 = q z [Cd1 (A1 + ηA3) kθcos2 θ + Cd2 (A2 + ηA4) kθsin2θ] .3 0.7 2.8 Square tower C d 45° 3.2. cable runways.8 0.2 2.9 2.2 for 0.4 0.8 0. they should be included in the calculated force using the appropriate Cd.2 δ for 0.2 CD 1.3 0. drag force coefficient in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.5 2. A4 are projected areas on longitudinal and transverse faces respectively Cd η kθ kθ where k1 k2 k2 k2 k2 = = = = = 0. For rectangular towers which are symmetrical about each axis— Fsθ where A1. . Refer to AS/NZS 1170.55 0.8 < δ ≤ 1.3 3.5 0.7 0.2 < δ ≤ 0.2 = qzCdA Solidity is the ratio of solid projected area to total enclosed area.8 1. A3 and A2. .5 1 − δ for 0.1 0.6 Single frames Shielding η 0.0 in all cases for lattice towers. mounting frames. area and shading factor from Australian Standards and component manufacturers information.B3 Where ancillaries such as antennae.5 < δ ≤ 0.
M Wind W T = D Fm FIGURE B5 FORCES ON A MEMBER The force is determined by the following equation: F m = Cfq zA mcos2(α) where Fm qz Am Cf = = = = resultant force on the member dynamic pressure at the member mid height simplified member area – length x width drag force factor angle members Cf = 1. Alternatively computational techniques may be used that provide for the automatic calculation of wind effects on individual structural elements of tower structures. An example of such tower geometry is a flat configuration single circuit tower with 4 longitudinal faces in the upper body and a large cross beam with a small longitudinal face area.6 round members Cf = 1.DRAFT ONLY 118 DRAFT ONLY There is some variation in recommended Cd factors for single and multiple frames between the various national codes. The BS 8100 Part 1 approach has been used here. an average drag factor and simplified member area calculations. The resulting force on each member is perpendicular to the member longitudinal axis and in the plane formed by the wind velocity vector and the member axis. (See Figure B5).0 α = angle between wind velocity vector and the normal to the member axes DR 09051-PDR .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . This method would be difficult to implement using hand calculations but very simple to implement in a computer program. The approach used in BS 8100 Part 1 provides detailed procedures for calculation of drag coefficients for rectangular (in plan) towers for different angle of incidence of wind. The results are generally conservative in comparison to the face method. The alternative method is to load all members of the tower based on fluid dynamic principles. particularly for some towers of less common geometry where the wind on face method can be difficult to implement.
(ii) (iii) if the pole surface is smooth and the projected area of the ancillaries is greater than 0. . Z) can be finally calculated by multiplying the resultant force value by the normalized direction vector. then the total force on the section shall use the Cfig/Cd of the smooth pole only and Az shall be the projected area of the pole only.B5 The resultant force components in the global coordinate directions (X. B5.01 and 0. DR 09051-PDR . pipes etc will induce aerodynamic separation and in these case is Cd = 1. For other poles. of circular or polygonal cross section— (a) (b) the determination of the appropriate forces can be taken as the sum of the forces for the components of the pole and the ancillaries attached to the pole.2. if the pole surface is smooth and the projected area of the ancillaries is between 0.05 of the projected area of the pole section under consideration. The aerodynamic shape factor Cfig shall be determined for specific elements.05 of the projected area of the pole section under consideration. A minimum of 5 sections should be considered and each section should be of similar construction. or a detailed approach can be adopted by considering the height of the structure as a series of sections. the resultant force direction vector can be determined using the vector products: T D W M T D = = – – – – W×M T×M wind velocity vector member axis vector vector perpendicular to the wind-member plane resultant force direction vector Angle a can be calculated ffrom scalar product of the wind direction and resultant force direction vectors: cos(a) = WD W D .2 Wind pressure on poles Due consideration shall be taken on the affect on the aerodynamic shape factor Cfig for poles due to the attachment of all ancillaries Significant attachments to circular cross-sections such as ladders.9 applies. . surfaces or parts of surfaces in accordance with AS/NZS 1170. then the total force on the section shall use the Cfig/Cd of the non smooth pole only and Az shall be the projected area of the pole only. Each section shall in turn be assessed to determine the proportion of projected area of the ancillaries to that of the pole to determine the appropriate Cfig/Cd and the appropriate Az. as follows: (i) if the pole surface is smooth and the projected area of the ancillaries is less than 0.85 applies. then the total force on the section shall use the Cfig/Cd of the non smooth pole and the appropriate Cfig/Cd of the ancillary and Az shall be determined for both the projected area of the pole and the ancillary.DRAFT ONLY 119 DRAFT ONLY From 3D geometry. a minimum Cd of 0.01 of the projected area of the pole section under consideration.2 For round timber poles. For round smooth surface poles. a minimum Cd of 0.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Y.
B5. qc = qz .8 dependent on aerial conductor diameter outer surface roughness.41e ⎛ −L ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 210 ⎠ DR 09051-PDR .C. = qz.59 + 0. SRF cos2(α) qc – aerial conductor tension related wind pressure The tension section is the overhead line length between the related strain supports where the suspension supports provide a sufficient longitudinal flexibility to enable aerial conductor tension equalization between the strain supports.DRAFT ONLY 120 DRAFT ONLY (iv) if the pole is not smooth then the same procedure as i). NOTE: This value may vary between 1.SRF..1 Span reduction factor (SRF) for synoptic wind regions For regions governed by synoptic winds Figure B6 applies. This is assumed to be equal to 1 in the absence of more accurate information. and wind velocity.2 and 0. L d SRF = = = aerial conductor length under consideration (m) aerial conductor diameter (m) span reduction factor (see below) angle between wind direction and the normal to the aerial conductor α = (deg) The span reduction factor takes account of the spatial characteristics of wind gusts and inertia of aerial conductors. The curve in Figure B6 is based on the following relationship: SRF = 0. ii) and iii) shall be adopted with the Cfig/Cd of the pole being that for a non-smooth section. Smooth profile aerial conductors are available that specifically provide even lower wind drag. The SRF for the related tension section should be used. When determining wind pressure on aerial conductor for aerial conductor tension calculations.3 Wind forces on aerial conductors Wind force perpendicular to aerial conductors shall be calculated as follows: Fc where C = drag coefficient of aerial conductor.L.d.cos2α (N) .3. The tension section is the overhead line length between the related strain supports where the suspension supports provide a sufficient longitudinal flexibility to enable aerial conductor tension equalization between the strain supports B5.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .C..
DR 09051-PDR . The curve of Figure B7 is based on the following expressions: For spans ≤200 m For spans >200 m SRF = 1.60 0.90 0.3.70 0.40 0 100 200 300 400 500 S p a n [m] 600 700 800 900 1000 FIGURE B6 SRF FOR SYNOPTIC WIND B5.3125 1000 For tension calculations on tension sections greater than 1000 m.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .0 − ( L − 200) 0.10 1.0 SRT = 1.80 SRF 0.00 0.2 Span reduction factor (SRF) for downdraft wind regions For regions governed by downdraft wind Figure B7 applies.DRAFT ONLY 121 DRAFT ONLY S p a n R e d u c t i o n Fa c to r 1.50 0. the synoptic wind should be used instead of the downdraft wind.
80 SRF 0.9 0 0.0 0 0.40 0 20 0 40 0 S p a n [m] 600 80 0 10 0 0 FIGURE B7 SRF FOR DOWNDRAFT WIND REGIONS B5.DRAFT ONLY 122 DRAFT ONLY S p a n R e d u c t i o n Fa c to r 1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .CdA These forces shall be considered to act on the attachment point on the support in the wind direction.4 Wind forces on insulators and fittings Force on insulators and fitting assemblies shall be considered and is given by the following expression: Fi where C A = = 1.70 0.50 0.10 1. DR 09051-PDR .6 0 0.2 projected area of insulators and fittings in true length normal to wind (m²) – (See Figure B8) = q z.
Local wind speeds can be reduced or increased due to the topography.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . that can be encountered in the siting of an overhead line route. have revealed that many of these effects were neither known of at that time nor taken into account by designers. It is a matter of fact in hydrodynamics that when the wind is reduced in some places. on the side of hills and mountains ‘corner effect’.2 provides general rules for speed-up of winds over hills and escarpments. and behind steep mountain sides (or edges) where particular turbulence may be formed ‘vortex streets’. near sharp edges (escarpments) exposed to high level winds over surrounding terrain. topographic generated features such as corner effects along the foot of mountains and hills.C d A True length View along line Projected area is shaded View transverse to line FIGURE B8 PROJECTED AREA OF INSULATOR STRINGS B6 TOPOGRAPHICAL EFFECTS The following information is provided for guidance in the design layout of overhead lines. down to the scale of an overhead line span. AS/NZS 1170. predominate hill forms and high mountainous escarpments. Experiences from overhead line collapses and damage to buildings and other structures during the last fifty years. vortex formation behind steep terrain as well as other effects that may cause significantly increased wind speeds in the local terrain. in valleys or fjords where the airflow may be compressed locally ‘funnelling effect’. Such increases are often found in places like— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) over hill crests.DRAFT ONLY 123 DRAFT ONLY Attachment point F i = q z . DR 09051-PDR . Such topographic features may have length scales ranging from a hundred metres up to several kilometres. In particular closer attention needs to be given to the effects on wind speeds in more varying terrain where the roughness characteristics change significantly over short distances. it shall likewise be increased in other places in order to comply with the equation of continuity. Reference should be made to CIGRE TB 256 for detailed design methods where required. funnelling effects in valleys or in between hills. rotor formation behind a mountain. There are however limitations for the application of these general rules for treating extreme terrain roughness.
(See Paragraph A3. (See Paragraph A3.3 Escarpments Observations of high wind damage during tropical cyclones in Northern Queensland indicate that speed up effects can also occur during high winds on the upper slopes of coastal mountain range escarpments. The upper level of amplification of this speedup is dependent on the escarpment slope profile. This may occur both on— (a) (b) the leeward side of a rounded mountain ridge perpendicular to the wind. reference ). reference ) investigated a single hill of slope 0.2 × basic gust wind velocities can frequently occur.2 to 0. in the absence of further data.3 and 0. and in the zone immediately behind the crest. a value of Mt = 1 + slope to be adopted and be applied at a height of 10 m above the ridge where the slope exceeds 0. and the possible lack of recent reported wind damage.DRAFT ONLY 124 DRAFT ONLY B6. and behind singular hills with steep slopes on the windward side. B6. Typical areas for such phenomena are within and on the downwind side of high mountain ranges. Selvam and Holmes. Effects of this kind are generally known as ‘rotors’ and ‘vortex streets’. it is often experienced that wind speeds on the leeward side of a steep mountain or hill may be significantly higher than they are on the windward side. height and basic wind velocity.10.5. Holmes.2 near ground and decreased linearly to an effective height of 100 m above the crest of the hill. These studies have also examined the speed up effect that occurs over hills and ridges. Above this height the velocity has been found to drop off markedly.6 delta above ground. mainly because of more limited extensions of each hill. these potential extreme gust zones immediately below the escarpment edge. Analysis of damage patterns suggest a speed up of 1. reference ) have shown that there is a maximum wind speed developed between 0. Overhead lines traversing an escarpment need to be carefully evaluated and have structures position to avoid as far as possible. The distribution of wind velocity with height is known to be significantly different in narrow windstorms such as severe thunderstorms than in fully developed gales or cyclones. which is the ratio of speed at a height over the feature to the speed at the same height in flat terrain.2 Turbulence generation behind steep hills and ridges In complex terrain. (See Paragraph A3. The occurrence of the second phenomenon b) is not as well known as the first. These studies indicate that a structure approximating a 50–70 m tower will be fully loaded over its height if impacted by these high wind gusts.25 and found that the speedup on the crest was a maximum of 1. crest of escarpments.6 found similar results with a slight increase for the steeper ridges. If siting cannot be avoided then stronger structure types should be assessed. reference ). Physical and numerical modelling of thunderstorm downdrafts by Holmes. (See Paragraph A3. Studies by Letchford. reference ) on embankments from 0.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . AS/NZS 1170 provides for values up to 1. This speed up is usually referred to as a topographical multiplier Mt. DR 09051-PDR . Letchford. Where delta is the height at which the velocity reaches half its maximum value. The same effects are also frequently found on the downwind side of a major mountain or isolated hill ridges of even smaller scale. This later work recommends. (See Paragraph A3.
Where there is a narrowing of these valleys. there is the potential for wind speed up effects to occur. Where vegetation has survived over time evidence usually exists of wind effects to plant growth. Tower failure investigations carried out by Prof A. B6. thunderstorm winds generated from such systems occur as outflow winds or as isolated wind phenomena such as down bursts or severe downdrafts. and from high altitude airflows because of large scale temperature inversion or draw down effects from weather systems. Placement of structures within predominate features such as gaps between mountain ridges.DRAFT ONLY 125 DRAFT ONLY Structures located on the slopes of escarpments and subject to the speed up effects also need to accommodate the potential for resonance caused to the structure by localised wake turbulence from terrain variations. Evidence from transmission line tower failures within a narrow valley between 500 m high mountain ridges in Queensland. Velocity speedup.2 Funneling effects High intensity wind flows along valleys provide directional control of wind flow patterns. (See Paragraph A3. When these high intensity wind gusts with velocities ranging from 30–60 m/s approach local mountains. they normally travel in a predominate direction. are normally characterized by narrow damage paths with widths up to 2000 m at ground level. Structure sites located within narrow passes need to be carefully considered. during a severe thunderstorm downburst has indicated speedup effects of 30% at 10 m reference wind velocities and possible high turbulent effects 30m height above the valley floor as they affected a 54 m high structure. Generally this type of wind occurs for extended periods with the potential to significantly damage any structure placed within its path. These valley areas are in most cases denuded of vegetation and have normally never been used for residential purposes. local turbulence and wind eddies can have complex effects on structure wind loadings. In a similar way to the channelling effects of valleys. such as towards and at the valley head. However.4.1 Channelling effects Where windstorms have the potential to track within frontal weather system over relatively flat to undulating land. Wind gust directional changes of 45° were also observed. These are sometimes more pronounced in some falling valleys from these mountainous regions and wind velocities up to 60 m/s have been recorded. DR 09051-PDR . can occur. B6. converging mountain ranges and passes have a similar effect on wind velocities. and on low ridges and plateaus within higher mountain zones can be severely effected. down drafts of cold air from high plateaus. B6. Davenport. ice and snow regions.4. references  and ) in Hong Kong confirmed that earthwork benching to enable towers to be constructed created vortex shedding during a Typhoon wind storm that resulted in severe resonance of tower members and resultant fatigue failure of towers.3 Katabatic wind effects In many high mountainous regions. Studies for wind turbine sites indicate velocity speeds can increase typically up to 20% above the crest.4 Local effects B6.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . in narrow river valleys through mountainous zones. the wind flow patterns may be significantly modified and can be channelled and redirected.4.
Under grounding of overhead lines should be adopted if these effects are experienced.4.) Consideration should be given to providing increased structure design wind loadings.4 Extensive fetch distances Overhead line structure placement often needs to occur on elevated positions where the line route passes over low ranges or around other significant topographical features.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . DR 09051-PDR . or strength for such situations. Rotating vortexes have been found to spin off the wingtip zones of the aircraft and cause clashing of aerial conductors as these turbulent effects impact lines. B6.DRAFT ONLY 126 DRAFT ONLY B6. (Reference AS/NZS 1170.2.5 Air turbulence near airports Overhead lines located in close proximity to the flight paths of major airport runways may be subject to the effects of wind turbulence effects from some types of aircraft during take off. Such positions are more exposed to any approaching significant windstorm and in some cases the terrain at the elevated site may be Category 1 even though the immediate local terrain could appear to be Category 4.4.
Ff (tensile force in the aerial conductor) when the span falls down from the highest point of movement Horizontal displacement At short-circuit inception * bundled aerial conductors Horizontal displacement. a simplified method is stated for calculation of maximum values of the following: Effect Force 1 at time t1** Pinch force. These aerial conductor tensile forces when compared in magnitude with the maximum wind tensions can be significantly high and require the designers to consider these when designing the supporting structures. bh. The systems of equations required to represent the mechanical response of the supporting systems are non-linear. the initial static tension or everyday tension is an important parameter in the calculation of the above forces. during swing-out of the span At short-circuit inception *single aerial conductor — Horizontal displacement. such as. Ft due to swingout in the aerial conductor during or at the end of the shortcircuit current flow Force 3 at time t3** Short-circuit drop force. landing spans to the substation gantries from towers/poles and spans within close proximity to the substation. Ft and Ff are related to the initial static tension existing within the span. Ft due to swingout in the aerial conductor bundle during or at the end of the short-circuit current flow Short-circuit tensile force.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . DR 09051-PDR . In the IEC 60865-1. Therefore. Fpi. C2 FORCES DUE TO SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS In flexible aerial conductor systems. Ff (tensile force in the aerial conductor) when the span falls down from the highest point of movement Short-circuit drop force. the mechanical effects due to short-circuit effects produce aerial conductor tensile forces resulting from the swing-out of elastically and thermally expanded aerial conductors. The above forces. t2 and t3 are derived from the total short-circuit duration.DRAFT ONLY 127 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX C SPECIAL FORCES (Informative) C1 GENERAL This Appendix sets out requirements to be considered in overhead line design regarding special forces that may be encountered on some lines. Fpi (tensile force in the aerial conductor) when the subconductors clash or reduce their distance without clashing Force 2 at time t2** Short-circuit tensile force. which in turn can be the cause of secondary short-circuits. during swing-out of the span * ** The times t1. bh.
1Gs + 1.DRAFT ONLY 128 DRAFT ONLY The simplified approach depends on general data such as span length. the following load combinations are to be considered for the landing gantries to the first span from poles/towers under short-circuit loadings— Short-circuit load φRn > 0. Ff and Fpi tensions from the calculation methods described above. everyday tension.25Ft + 1. In particular. . and distance between phases.. short circuit loadings are treated as dynamic loadings due to their short time evolution. structure stiffness.3Fsc* .C1 Ft tensions for aerial conductors not in short-circuit on one of the 3-phases shall be based on temperature corresponding to everyday load condition with a nominal wind pressure of 0. only 1 span is affected by the excessive swinging and 1 or 2 supports adjacent to the substation are subjected to the mechanical overloads from short-circuits. This rule should be applied to check 5 to 10 spans from the substation. Usually. this load is treated as an ‘exceptional load’ and a safety factor of 1.25Gc + 1. Based on the above.25 is recommended. whereas the normal load conditions are suitable for the foundation design.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The primary fault clearing time should be used. In the case of short impulsive loads for which large stress rates occur. Design of foundations under short-circuit loadings is not practical due to the short duration of the forces and the response of the heavy and inert foundations. Wind load and short-circuit load both vary in time. it would be sufficient to consider a 25% ultimate wind effect in the load combination related to shortcircuit loadings. Only the 2-phase short-circuit currentshould be checked. in addition the safety factors taken into account on the generated tensile forces due to short-circuit is important so as not to over-estimate this effect. independently of each other. aerial conductor data. the direction of wind varies. Therefore the reactions resulting from the short-circuit loadings can be considered for the steel anchor bolts and the steel structure itself. The supports close to the substation should be checked taking into account the reduction of the short-circuit current due to line impedance. The support check ceases where the short-circuit current decreases to less than the above specified levels. Therefore. In practice.25Wn + 1. DR 09051-PDR . this may involve the following: (a) (b) A short-circuit level should be specified with reference to the levels specified for switchgear rating. . structural steels experience a delayed plastic flow phenomenon that results in a temporary increase in strength (yield point). The short-circuit current used for checking is the maximum level allowed by the substation equipment (even if it is not attained in the present stage of development of the transmission system) in order to facilitate further evolution of the system.25 times the ultimate design wind pressure. There are no mathematical procedures available or standards for a true or reasonable combination of short-circuit and wind loads. In the simplified approach. Fsc* short-circuit tensions are the maximum of the Ft. The load combinations required to assess and design structures able to withstand shortcircuit forces is of considerable interest. (c) (d) (e) (f) The reduction of short-circuit current with time should also be taken into account according to the electrical characteristics to the system. In addition. short-circuit current and duration.
Reference should be made to AS 1170. particularly pole mounted transformer supports. shall be designed to resist earthquake loads: (a) (b) Pole structures supporting heavy equipment (i. the dynamic load from aerial conductors obviously is not significant. and the height.5 for appropriate general design provisions. DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 129 DRAFT ONLY C3 CREEPING SNOW Creeping snow is to be considered with regard to the potential for additional loadings on foundations and lower parts of supports (especially bracing members). In this case. shall recognize the large movements which may result from settlement. Appropriate loading assumptions or protective measures should be adopted to reduce the risk of failures of supports. (c) Pole structures with a longer fundamental period (T 1) and located in deep alluvial soils are often sensitive to the amplification effects of ground motion. Pole structures in alpine areas subject to high ice loads (as defined in AS/NZS 1170.3) where at least 50% of the contributing mass (including ice) is located in the top third of the structure height.4 and NZS 1170. the site-structure resonance factor (depending on the soil conditions).15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Structures of the following types however. In general.e. Pole structures supporting a short span attached to a rigid termination structure (e. This should be taken into account as appropriate. substation termination). weight and mass distribution of the support structure. C4. however seismic loads may lead to additional loading forces that should be considered in known very active seismic zones. Since the frequency of the support is higher than that of aerial conductors. Protection measures should be taken where possible to deflect or restrain by means of an independent structure any potential creeping snow accumulations C4 EARTHQUAKES Wind loadings are usually the more determining factor in the design of overhead line towers. rotation and translation of foundations. transformers). pole and tower structures have proven not to be susceptible to damage from earthquake shaking motions.1 General principles relating to overhead lines The design of any overhead line near a known active fault or in an area susceptible to earthquake-induced liquefaction. In addition the following specific provisions for overhead lines should be considered. Principles of calculation of loadings caused by creeping snow cannot be fully defined and local experience is important. However. the ground acceleration due to earthquakes may influence the design of rigid and heavy concrete pole structures. For the same reasons no important effects from the support on aerial conductors should be expected.g. consideration should be given to the social and economic consequences of failure in developing mitigation options. In these locations consideration needs to be given to the natural period of vibration of the structure.
Alternative calculation methods can be found in ANSI/TIA-222G.5 or by computer analysis.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The typical fundamental frequency of power structures is typically— (a) (b) (c) Single pole H-frames Lattice structures 0.25 3 3 . and the mass of aerial conductors and stays.C2 If this is to be modelled as a horizontal spring. . . then the horizontal component of cable tension should be taken as— K eff . . equipment.3 Fundamental period of structure (T 1 ) The fundamental period can determined using the Rayleigh method in NZS 1170.2 Seismic mass The seismic mass of the pole/tower structure shall include— (a) the dead load arising from all permanent parts of the structure including hardware. 1 to 3 Hz.4 Ductility factor The maximum ductility factor (μ) used for design of any structure is limited to— Structure type Free standing pole Maximum ductility factor (μ) Timber Steel Concrete Free standing lattice tower Guyed tower C4. ladders and climbing facilities.5 Modelling of cables and aerial conductors The aerial conductors and cables may be modelled as linear spring (with due allowance for sag of the cable) by adjusting the modulus of elasticity as follows: Eeff = Ec (γ L) 2 1+ Ec 12σ 3 1 2 1.5 Hz. h = cos 2 α Ac E ff L . .C3 where Ac Ec Eeff σ = = = is the cross sectional area of the aerial conductor or cable (mm2 ) the modulus of elasticity of the aerial conductor or cable the effective modulus of elasticity (MPa) the tensile stress in the aerial conductor or cable (MPa) DR 09051-PDR . C4. and 2 to 6 Hz. (b) If the pole structure is located in an alpine area. the additional weight of snow/ice on the aerial conductors and towers shall be considered in determining the seismic weight.5 to 1. the self weight of tower and any maintenance platforms.DRAFT ONLY 130 DRAFT ONLY C4. C4.
6.6.e. C4. significant mass or stiffness irregularities exist) and the height is less than (a) (b) Poles Lattice towers 60 m 180 m A modal analysis should be undertaken where the relative displacement between points on the structure is important. The vertical regularity should be also constant with no abrupt changes of stiffness. i.1 Equivalent static force method The equivalent static force method may be used provided all of the following conditions are met: (a) The plan stiffness and mass distribution should be approximately symmetrical in both orthogonal directions. platforms.e. C4. The mass regularity of a section (mass per unit length) should not vary by more than 200% from an adjacent section.DRAFT ONLY 131 DRAFT ONLY L γ α = = = the cable length (m) the cable unit weight (N/m) the angle of the cable to the horizontal (degrees) If the horizontal distance between the structure base and stay anchor point exceeds 300 m. 3 Antenna mounts.6 Methods of analysis C4. the stiffness does vary by more than 50% between adjacent sections. torque arms and cross arms shall not be considered a stiffness irregularity.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The structure height is less than— (i) (ii) Poles Lattice towers 15 m 30 m no limit (b) (c) (d) (iii) Guyed structures NOTES: 1 On a lattice tower.2 Modal response spectrum analysis A modal analysis is required when the structure does not meet the requirements of Equivalent Static Force Method (i. the eccentricity between the centre of mass and centre of stiffness is less than 30% of the smallest plan dimension of the structure. a section shall be considered the distance between vertical leg connections but not exceeding 15 m. C4. 2 The mass of stays is excluded from determining mass irregularities. DR 09051-PDR . out-of-phase excitation of the anchor point shall be included in the analysis.e. i.6. Concentrated masses within the top third of the structure which contribute less than 50% to the total base overturning moment are acceptable. (The lateral force method underestimates the magnitude of differential displacement between points on a structure due to the contribution of higher modes).3 Time history analysis A time history analysis is required when the relative displacement between points on the structure is important or where the horizontal distance between the structure base and stay anchor point exceeds 300 m (out of plane movements are included in the analysis) or exceeds the height requirements for a modal analysis.
5. Structure height less than 15 m and the fundamental period is less than 0.10 where δM is the overturning effect due to second order effects and Mo is the first order overturning moment. Sp are factors in NZS 1170.8 Second order effect analysis (Pδ) Second order effects (Pδ) need not be considered when δM/Mo < 0. Lattice towers less than 140 m height where height (h/W) to face ratio is less than 10. Z. A rational analysis method which takes into account the post elastic deflections of the structure shall be used to determine the PΔ effects. Second order effects shall be considered for all guyed structures.81 ms2 the fundamental period of the structure (s) . C4. This shall be considered to act non-concurrently with the horizontal seismic response. C4.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .7 Combination of effects A combination of effects of orthogonal actions shall be applied to the structure to account for the simultaneous effects of shaking in the two perpendicular directions using either— (a) combination of effects from two orthogonal directions for a static analysis— (i) (ii) (b) (c) CASE 1: 100% from direction X plus 30% from direction Y CASE 2: 100% from direction Y plus 30% from direction X. . R. the square root of sum of the squares (SRSS) or CQC methods for a modal analysis. DR 09051-PDR .12 Liquefaction Liquefaction of loose saturated. . the seismic displacement at the centre of mass can be taken as follows. unless a more detailed study is undertaken: Δ= μ C (T ) gZRS pT12 4π 2 = = = the seismic displacement at centre of mass (m) 9. C4.9 P-Δ Effects Second order effects (PΔ) need not be considered when at least one of the following conditions is met: (a) (b) (c) (d) Fundamental period is less than 0. C4.8 s. cohesion-less soils (sands.C4 where Δ g T1 C(T). The ductility factor is less than 1. silts and loose sandy gravels) during strong seismic tremors shall be taken into consideration in the route selection of lines. or 3D time history analysis using the Z orthogonal earthquake component.DRAFT ONLY 132 DRAFT ONLY C4.11 Seismic displacements Where the structural system can be simulated as a single degree of freedom structure.10 Vertical seismic response The structures shall be designed to remain elastic under both positive and negative vertical acceleration.45 s.5 C4.
This has the effect of translating rapid subsidence to the surface and progressively to ‘bend’ the surface strata as the earth mass settles. In the case of other mineral mining. C4.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . and lateral spreading of slopes. However in the case of older coal mines. embankments and ground towards river banks. subsidence. Mine workings at greater depths normally have no impact at the ground surface.DRAFT ONLY 133 DRAFT ONLY The consequences of liquefaction shall be considered. including— (a) (b) (c) (d) foundation failure in saturated sands and sandy clays. damage to the above ground structure can be limited or avoided. This type of mining is generally carried out in softer sedimentary rock strata. have been observed to be in the range of 100–300 mm. these pillars weather over time and can collapse and cause general subsidence at the surface. holding-down bolts shall provide a minimum net vertical uplift reaction under design earthquake conditions not less than 50% of the dead load reaction. and it has been common practice to locate tower structures over these columns where mine workings are within 100 m of the surface. can be affected due primarily to the spread of the tower base.13 Holding-down bolts Where base plate mounting of structures are used. If the tower bases in these locations are tied together with reinforced concrete or steel tie beams. Transmission line towers however. Consideration needs to be given however to the horizontal forces applied to the structure foundation in these situations. however progressively remove all material and allow the overburden to settle behind the advancing working face. C5 MINING SUBSIDENCE Where overhead lines are located in areas subject to underground coal mining the impact of ground subsidence and horizontal displacement of soil strata shall be considered in design.1 General design provisions Pole lines at lower voltage are not sensitive to mining subsidence unless electrical clearances are breached. Horizontal displacements over a 10 m base spread. These bends cause stretching effects and horizontal displacement will occur. they are normally in hard rock formations and the impact on overhead lines can be ignored. loss of pole or pile lateral or vertical capacity. The risk of liquefaction shall be consistent with the other performance requirements for the pole or line section. C5. This effect can normally be expected to occur over a period of time and to have limited or no damage to tower lines. ‘Long wall’ coal mining techniques. DR 09051-PDR . In general ‘bore and pillar’ mining techniques provide columns of rock that safely support the mine overburden.
or target nominal service life expectancy. the selection of a particular structure type for given site conditions. This recognizes that cumulative deterioration of the structure over time will occur.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . consideration should be given to the potential effects of condensation entrapment due to pumping action due to temperature variations. The presence of landscaped gardens and lawn and the associated effects of water and fertilizers should be considered. without undue maintenance or repair disproportionate to its cost of replacement and without exceeding any specified serviceability criteria. D3. or the selection of suitable materials or protective treatment.3 Accumulation of condensation When assessing the life of a hollow steel or concrete pole structure. due to ‘wear and tear’ or environmental effects. DR 09051-PDR . The design life.DRAFT ONLY 134 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX D SERVICE LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES (Normative) D1 GENERAL The service life of a structure is the period (generally in years) over which it will continue to serve its intended purpose safely. the detail design of a particular structure. Alternatively. due maintenance and possible minor repairs will be required from time to time to maintain the structure in a safe and useable condition over its service life. an extended service life is usually expected when compared to regions of more humid conditions.2 High water tables Poles embedded in sites prone to high water tables should be suitably treated to maintain consistent performance above and below ground.1 Soil type Support structures and their foundations constructed or embedded in aggressive soils should have suitable protective barriers or preventative measures incorporated in their construction. It is generally considered that structures and fittings located within 1. Therefore. a significantly reduced service life should be considered.4 Regions of low humidity In regions of low humidity.0 km of the sea will be subjected to more severe exposure and would normally require either special protection or a shorter service life. D3 ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS D3. D3. The information contained in this Appendix is given as a reasonable basis for the economic evaluation of alternative support systems. D2 SUGGESTED NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE Based on the aboveground exposure classes defined in Table D1 and Figures D2 and D3 the nominal service lives given in Table D2 are suggested. of a structure is dependent on a number of variable factors. if the internal void does not have adequate venting or drainage. D3.
Wind speeds in excess of the design wind speeds can similarly create substantial overloads.8 Timber poles The values of design life given in Table D4 assume that the poles are subject to a systematic program of inspection. Studies have shown that the depth of carbonation in spun concrete has been immeasurable (less than 1 mm) after a period of typically 30 years. Poles being vertical structures have an inherent ability to shed surface contaminants. cracks are barely measurable in most concrete poles. like other concrete structures. Exposure Classification C. at least as rigorous as that recommended in Table D3. such as airborne sea spray.1 mm Generally. consideration should be given to the use of fireresistant materials. The self-healing process (autogenous healing) normally seals cracks after some time.5 Accidental damage Accidental damage. long service life and good aesthetics.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . such as vehicle impact or falling trees. to a certain extent but the in-ground portion can be highly exposed.2 mm Exposure Classifications A1. and that appropriate maintenance is promptly carried out when an inspection indicates a need for it. The exposure classifications in Table D1 refer to generalized conditions. Allowance for this has been made in the design provisions of Appendix F by the use of pole degradation (kd) factors. A2. the service life of poles will be shorter.DRAFT ONLY 135 DRAFT ONLY D3. (b) Cracking Excessive cracks will reduce the service life. provided that the concrete is proven to be high quality by achieving a water absorption value less than 5. are typified by minimal maintenance. Exposure Classification B2. Many such accidents can occur and thus reduce the service life. and it should be kept in mind that timber poles are susceptible to localized microclimatic effects. The commonly accepted crack-width criteria for different exposures are as follows: (i) (ii) Width <0. (iii) Width <0. termites and weathering. The existence of chlorides in the environment is much more damaging.6 Fire In regions susceptible to uncontrolled fires. The post-fire strength and durability of poles should be assessed by a competent person. D3. The primary hazard agencies that need to be considered with respect to timber poles are decay. D3. This Standard recognizes this fact and specifies a minimum cover of 9 mm.3 mm Width <0. can cause substantial overloads and even complete structure failure.7 Concrete poles Concrete poles. Service life considerations include the following: (a) Environmental High quality concrete exposed to normal ‘arid’ or ‘temperate’ conditions would be regarded as having an indeterminate service life—a life beyond 100 years.5%. DR 09051-PDR . Aggressive termites can be found in most parts of Australia and the following termite hazard map Figure D1 provides a general guide to the extent of the potential problem. D3. Where supplementary maintenance such as the provision of diffusion preservatives (boron rods) or specific protection systems for termites are provided. B1 (see Table D1). Except in marine splash conditions it is generally the below-ground portion of a pole that needs the most attention to cope with chlorides.
Hot-dip galvanizing provides a minimum average coating mass of 350 g/m2 on steel less than 2 mm thick.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The use of untreated mild steel in normal arid conditions may provide a service life in excess of 75 years.1 General Steel materials are normally used with zinc coating applied by a hot-dip galvanizing process to extend the service life.9 Steel poles and lattice steel towers D3. they do not pose a concern to timber poles. D3.9. DR 09051-PDR . DA RWIN Ca ir ns B ro o m e Po r t H e d l a n d Alice Springs Mount Isa Tow nsv i l l e R o c k h a m pto n C h a r l ev i l l e B R I S BA N E N a r ra b i m G e ra l d to n PERT H Kalgoorlie Mildura Albur y A l ba ny A D EL A ID E M o u nt G a m b i e r M EL B O U R N E Dubbo N ewc a s tl e SY D N E Y CA N B ER R A Bega L EG EN D : = = = = = = Ve r y h i g h High M o d e rate Low Ve r y l ow Negligible H O BA R T FIGURE D1 TERMITE HAZARD MAP OF AUSTRALIA D3. The expected life for a given coating mass (years) in different atmospheric environments is shown in Table D2. 450 g/m2 on steel between 2 mm and 5 mm thickness and 600 g/m2 on steel over 5 mm thick.9. There are however potential imports of Australian termites that need to be monitored and eradicated if identified.2 Environmental The protective life of metallic zinc coatings on steel is roughly proportional to the mass of zinc per unit of surface area. regardless of method of application.DRAFT ONLY 136 DRAFT ONLY While New Zealand has three known native termites species.
therefore will vary from place to place. 2 Industrial proximity is classed as non-industrial if it is greater than 3. However. for coastal locations. It is only appropriate for inland regions.0 km from industrial plants that discharge air pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). and the regions to which the Exposure Class A2 applies is taken directly from Figure D3. In general. (b) Near-coastal — between 1 km and 50 km from coast.g.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . except where it can be shown that there is an absence of airborne chlorides. the lesser exposure classification B1 applies. e. due to the nature of the coastal topography. exposure classification B2 applies. for exposure classification purposes the regions are defined in Australia as follows: (a) Inland — greater than 50 km from coast.DRAFT ONLY 137 DRAFT ONLY TABLE D1 ABOVE-GROUND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION (AUSTRALIA) Climatic zone (see Figure D2) Arid Geographic region (1) Inland Near-coastal Coastal Inland Near-coastal Coastal Inland Near-coastal Coastal Any Industrial proximity (2) Non-industrial Industrial — — Non-industrial Industrial — — Non-industrial Industrial — — — Exposure class (3) A1 B1 B1 B2 A2 B1 B1 B2 B1 B2 B1 B2 C Temperate (4) Tropical (See Note 4) NOTES: 1 The boundaries of the regions are related to the distance from the coastline to which prevailing onshore winds carry salt-laden air. The coastal region for application of Exposure Class B2 extends shoreward for 500 m from the high-tide mark. Active volcanic/geothermal areas may be regarded as Exposure Class C. (c) Coast — less than 1 km from coast. The New Zealand climate is classified as ‘temperate’ throughout. which form acids with airborne moisture. The near-coastal region to which Exposure Class B1 applies extends from there to the boundary of the A2 region. The boundaries will be affected by both latitude and local topography and. 3 4 DR 09051-PDR . Classes A1 to C represent increasing degrees of severity of exposure. sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and sulphur trioxide (SO 3 ).
15/06/2009 13:22:00 .DRAFT ONLY 138 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE D2 CLIMATIC ZONES FOR AUSTRALIA DR 09051-PDR .
15/06/2009 13:22:00 .DRAFT ONLY 139 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE D3 (in part) NEW ZEALAND REGIONS FOR EXPOSURE CLASSES A2 and B1 DR 09051-PDR .
15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The longest experience is in North America where a service life of 40 years has been experienced. Moisture ingress into the fibre cores will cause fibre ‘blooming’ and lead to failure if the pole is not maintained.10 Composite fibre poles (fibre reinforced resin composite material ) There is limited service history of composite fibre poles in Australia and the world. Composite fibre poles should have a UV protective coating or additives applied during manufacture to extend the service life of the pole.DRAFT ONLY 140 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE D3 (in part) NEW ZEALAND REGIONS FOR EXPOSURE CLASSES A2 and B1 D3. DR 09051-PDR .
for the mass/square metre as noted.DRAFT ONLY 141 DRAFT ONLY TABLE D2 SUGGESTED RANGE OF NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE OF STEEL STRUCTURES AND CONCRETE POLES Suggested nominal service life (years) Exposure class 200 g/m A1 A2 B1 B2 C ( 3) 2(1) Galvanized steel(5) 400 g/m 100+ 60–100 25–50 15–50 6–25 (6) 2(1) Concrete 600 g/m 2(1) C (2) 100+ 80–100 60–80 50–60 50 (4) 60–100+ 25–60 12–25 8–25 3–12 (6) 100++ 75–100+ 35–75 35–75 9–35 (6) NOTES: 1 Preservative treatment is hot-dip galvanized. C = 9 mm.Spp) Durability Class 1 Hardwood (Euc.Spp) Durability Class 1 Hardwood (Euc. These figures are indicative only and make no allowance for any corrosion of the underlying steel. 3 It should be noted that above-ground conditions may differ from below-ground conditions. Aggressive below-ground environments may be regarded as a Class C exposure. 2 Cover to reinforcement.Spp) Durability Class 2 Softwood (Australian) Softwood (New Zealand) Preservative treatment Nil H5 to sapwood Nil H5 to sapwood H5 H5 Recommended inspection periods (years) First 10 20 10 20 20 10 Subsequent every 3 to 6 every 3 to 6 every 3 to 6 every 3 to 6 every 3 to 6 every 3 to 6 DR 09051-PDR . 4 Past experience has shown that uncoated steel can have a reasonable service life in arid conditions. paint or plastic. TABLE D3 RECOMMENDED INSPECTION PERIODS FOR TIMBER POLES Species and class Hardwood (Euc. with no additional coatings such as chromate. or 19 mm.Spp) Durability Class 2 Hardwood (Euc.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .
DRAFT ONLY 142 DRAFT ONLY TABLE D4 SUGGESTED RANGE OF NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE OF TIMBER POLES Zone (see Figure D4) 1 2 3 Service life expectancy (years) H5 treated timber to AS 1604 Class 1 45–55 50+ 50+ Class 2 35–45 50+ 50+ Class 3 25–35 30–40 40–50 Class 4 40–50 50+ 50+ Desapped untreated timber Class 1 25–35 30–40 50+ Class 2 15–25 25–35 30–40 DR 09051-PDR .15/06/2009 13:22:00 NOTE: Criteria for Zone 2 applies to all parts of New Zealand. FIGURE D4 NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE ZONES FOR TIMBER POLES .
E1 When an overhead earthwire is installed on powerlines. and high level above 2. One earthwire is usually sufficient to cater for shielding flashovers on structures below 20 m. and pole footing resistance.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Overhead earthwires are used to shield the line from lightning strikes and are usually installed on high reliability lines operating at sub-transmission and transmission voltage levels. The acceptable outage rate due to lightning is therefore one of the most dominant design parameters for an overhead line. the shielding angle is usually in the range of 30 to 40°. A low pole footing resistance not only reduces the probability of lightning induced backflashovers but also offers the following advantages: (i) Reduces risk of injury to persons or animals due to rises in earth potential at the structure and the surrounding soil. When wood is added to the insulation path. DR 09051-PDR . A moderate ceraunic level is between 1. . The higher the impulse strength of the insulator/wood combination. generally a down lead is run to earth to provide a low resistance path to ground. E2 ESTIMATION OF LINE OUTAGES DUE TO LIGHTNING The prediction of lightning outages is not an exact science and the methods adopted in one Authority may not be appropriate in others. the higher the resistance to flashover (see reference at the end of this Appendix) for the electrical properties of wood. critical flashover voltage (CFO) of the insulators.5 and 2.5 ground strikes per sq km per year (30 and 50 thunderdays).DRAFT ONLY 143 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX E DESIGN FOR LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE (Normative) E1 GENERAL Lightning induced outages are one of the major cause of outages on overhead lines in areas of moderate to high ceraunic activity. The arc quenching property of wood has been used by Authorities to reduce lightning induced outages on the network.5 ground strikes per sq km per year (50 thunderdays). With a single earthwire. but higher structures will need two earthwires to achieve effective shielding. . They are also installed on overhead distribution lines for short distances (typically 800 m) out of a substation to protect the substation equipment from damaging overvoltages. The effective impulse strength of a series wood and insulator path can be calculated as follows: I total = where Iwood = Impulse strength of wood Impulse strength of insulator Iinsulator = [Iwood2 + Iinsulator2]1/2 . the combined insulation strength of the insulator and wood is increased. having wood in the flashover circuit (crossarm or pole). It has been found that the parameters which can be varied to achieve the largest influence on the lightning performance of overhead lines are— (a) (b) (c) (d) installation of earthwire.
The wood increases the impulse strength of the line to ground and can quench the lightning arcs thereby avoiding a power frequency fault. E3 MEASURES TO IMPROVE LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE A reduction in lightning outage time on transmission lines can be achieved by installing auto-reclosing schemes. particularly for distribution lines can be achieved by using wood in the crossarms or poles. DR 09051-PDR . The height of the overhead line. Rsf. Electrical Properties of Wood and Line Design published by University of Queensland. Rb. The installation of surge arresters on the overhead line.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . An improvement in lightning outage rates.DRAFT ONLY 144 DRAFT ONLY (ii) Provides a low impedance path for earth faults to ensure there is sufficient fault current to operate protection relays. 1978. The protection by shield wire (s). and by the backflashover rate. M. This performance can be described by the shielding failure flashover rate. The aerial conductor configuration. It is fixed by operational considerations and depends on the insulation strength of the line and on the following parameters: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) The lightning ground flash density. Reference: DARVENIZA. The tower earthing.
DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 145 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX F TIMBER POLES (Normative) F1 GENERAL Design properties and design methods for timber utility poles and components shall be in accordance with AS 1720.1 5.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .1 2.1. unless verified by ingrade testing. F1.2 6.2 to F1. they shall be in accordance with Paragraphs F1.5 The equivalence expressed in the table above is based upon the assumption that the poles are cut from mature trees. See Paragraph F2.1 or AS/NZS 1328.1 Characteristic strengths and elastic moduli The characteristic strengths and elastic moduli for untrimmed poles that conform in quality to the grade requirements specified in AS 2209 shall be as specified in Tables F1 and F2.7 3. TABLE F1 POLE TIMBERS GRADED TO AS 2209—RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRENGTH GROUPS AND CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES (MPa) Strength group Stress grade Bending (f′ b ) (3) Tension parallel to grain (f′ t ) (3) Hardwood 60 50 40 30 25 20 15 Softwood — — — 26 21 17 13 Shear (f′ s ) (3) Compression parallel to grain (f′ c ) (3) 75 60 50 40 30 25 20 Short duration modulus-of elasticity (E) 21500 18500 16000 14000 12000 10500 9100 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 NOTES: 1 2 3 F34 F27 F22 F17 F14 F11 F8 100 80 65 50 40 35 25 7. Where specifically defined for round timbers. Strength groups and joint group classifications shall be assigned to species in accordance with AS 1720.4. The modulus of elasticity includes an allowance of about 5% for shear deformation.3 3.0 4.2.
The effect of duration of load on stiffness of timber poles and components shall be determined in accordance with AS 1720. shall be determined using Table F3.2 22.214.171.124.0 4.2 Design factors—Material F1. as given in AS 1720.1 or NZS 3603. The effective duration of load refers to the cumulative duration for which the peak load occurs.5 F1.3 3.95 0.1. F1. For other timber components. Perpendicular to grain (f′ n ) (see Note) 60 50 40 30 25 20 15 Parallel to grain (f′ t ) (see Note) — — — 26 21 17 13 Shear at joint details (f′ s ) (see Note) 7.7 3. F1.1 2. TABLE F3 CAPACITY FACTORS FOR TIMBER POLES Basis for determining characteristic strength properties Characteristic design property to which the value of ø shall apply for calculating the design capacity All properties (f′ b ) (see Note) All other properties (f′ b ) (see Note) All other properties 0. the short-term deflection shall be multiplied by the appropriate creep factor j2 or j3.90 φ Poles graded to AS 2209 Poles graded using proof grading in accordance with Section 7 of draft code Poles with bending properties established from in grade evaluation and subject to periodic testing/monitoring of properties NOTE:See Paragraph F2.2 Duration of load effects (strength) The effect of duration of load on strength of timber poles and components is given by the modification factor k1.3 Duration of load effects (stiffness) For timber poles subject to sustained bending.2.1 5. as defined in Table F4. Guidelines for determination of the effective duration of load are detailed in AS 1720.95 0.90 0.2. for calculating the design capacity of poles ( φR).1 Capacity factor Values for the capacity factor ( φ). creep effects should be considered.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .1 or NZS 3603 DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 146 DRAFT ONLY TABLE F2 CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH PROPERTIES (MPa) FOR BEARING AND SHEAR AT JOINTS Bearing Strength group S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 NOTE:See Paragraph F2.90 0.
45 DR 09051-PDR .70 0.00 0. due to excessive moisture or high probability of insect attack) more conservative values may be appropriate.85 0. the design shall allow for loss of strength and stiffness associated with degradation of the critical section of the pole at and below the ground line over its expected design life.4 Pole degradation factors For all timber poles.0 0.55 0. ultimate wind and earthquake) Short-term (e.80 1. NOTE: Where a systematic inspection and maintenance program is in place and where any evidence of degradation is effectively preservative treated (e.80 0.0 0. snow/ice in alpine areas) Permanent NOTE:See Paragraph F2.0 0.50 0. In cases where the local environment in which the pole will be located is known.40 Pole diameter d >400 mm kd 1.57 Modification factor (k 1) (see Note) for strength of timber connections using laterally loaded fasteners 1.0 0.g.90 0.DRAFT ONLY 147 DRAFT ONLY TABLE F4 DURATION OF LOAD FACTOR FOR STRENGTH Type of load Effective duration of peak load Modification factor (k 1) for strength of poles and timber components (see Note) 1.90 1.60 0.80 0. TABLE F5 POLE DEGRADATION FACTORS Type of pole Design life (years) Pole diameter d <250 mm kd Full length preservative-treated softwood in accordance with As 2209 Full length preservative-treated hardwood in accordance with AS 2209 Durability Class 1 untreated hardwood in accordance with AS 2209 Durability Class 2 untreated hardwood in accordance with AS 2209 20 50 20 50 20 50 20 50 1.90 1.0 0. then the values of kd given in Table F5 for untreated timbers will be conservative and higher values may be appropriate.77 0.g.g.86 0. The values of kd given in Table F5 are based upon expected loss of effective section.94 0.69 0. construction maintenance) Medium term (e.14 0. to be of high hazard (e.2.0 0.1. 3 seconds 3 hours 3 days 3 months >1 year F1. snow/ice in subalpine areas) Long-term (e.80 0.80 0.90 0.30 Pole diameter 250 ≤d ≤400 mm kd 1.g.85 1. unless more accurate durability information is available.57 Instantaneous (e.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .97 0. using diffusion preservatives). The degradation factor (kd) shall be determined from Table F5.g.0 0.g.
85. The shaving factor for strength k21 shall be determined as specified in Table F7.90 1. the design characteristic strength properties shall be reduced if the poles have been shaved.95 1.DRAFT ONLY 148 DRAFT ONLY F1. k22 = 0. the characteristic strength properties shall be reduced using k22.00 0.0 F2 DESIGN CAPACITY F2.00 0. In addition to this modification for strength.00 0. determined in accordance with Section 3 of AS 1720.75 d = 125 m 1.00 F1.00 0. due allowance shall be made for the properties of immature timber.7 Processing factor Where poles are steamed as a part of the manufacturing and fabrication process.2.1 Notation The following notation is used in this Clause: k1 k12 = = the duration of load factor the stability factor for compression. the nominal mid length diameter between the points of restraint the immaturity factor the shaving factor DR 09051-PDR .90 d = 200 m 1.2.2.00 0. the values specified for stiffness in Table F1 shall be reduced by 5% for shaved poles.85 0.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .75 F1. when modified from the natural pole form.80 d = 150 m 1.95 d = 225 m 1.00 d = 250 m 1. TABLE F6 IMMATURITY FACTORS k 20 FOR DESIGN CAPACITY AND IMMATURITY FACTORS j 9 FOR STIFFNESS Species Eucalypt and Corymbia Softwoods Immaturity factor k 20/j 9 d = 100 m 0.5 Factor for immaturity For poles having mid-length diameters less than 250 mm.00 1.90 0. For poles that are steamed.15 L/dp where— L dp k20 k21 = = = = the distance between effective restraints in any plane and. except that the slenderness coefficient (S) shall equal 1.1. TABLE F7 SHAVING FACTOR k 21 Characteristic property Bending Compression parallel to grain Compression perpendicular to grain Tension Eucalypt and Corymbia species k 21 0. for strength and stiffness respectively.00 1.00 0.85 d = 175 m 1.75 0. otherwise k22 = 1.85 Softwood species k 21 0.6 Shaving factor For timber members. using the modification factors k20 and j9 from Table F6.
. shall satisfy the following: φV ≥ V* φV = φk1 k20 k22 kd [f′s As] F2. . . . shall satisfy the following: φM ≤ M* φM = φk1 k20 k21 k22 kd [f′ b Z] F2.4 Compressive strength .F4 The design capacity of poles in axial compression (φNc) for the strength limit state.F2 The design capacity of poles in shear ( φV) for the strength limit state. .F3 . . . . shall satisfy the following: φNc ≥ N* φNc = φk1 k12 k20 k21 k22 kd [f′ c Ac ] .F5 .2 Bending strength The design capacity of poles in bending (φM) for the strength limit state. . . .3 Shear strength . .15/06/2009 13:22:00 .F1 .DRAFT ONLY 149 DRAFT ONLY k22 kd f′ t f′ c f′ n f′ b f′ s Ac = = = = = = = = = the processing factor the degradation factor the characteristic strength in tension the characteristic strength in compression parallel to grain the characteristic strength of timber in bearing perpendicular to grain the characteristic strength in bending the characteristic strength in shear the cross-sectional area at the critical section π d p2 4 the shear plane area 3 3π d p As = = Z = = 16 the section modulus 3 π dp dp ZT = = = 32 the pole diameter at the critical section torsional section modulus 3 π dp 16 F2.F6 DR 09051-PDR .
Specific guidance on design for serviceability limit states is presented in AS 1720. For poles.DRAFT ONLY 150 DRAFT ONLY F2. For situations where pole deflection is critical. F2. torsional strength is only considered in exceptional circumstances where the pole is embedded rigidly into a foundation. street light fitting or slight angle.F8 . with the result that in most situations the pole will rotate in the ground rather than induce resultant torsional forces in the wood.1. designers shall use fifth percentile values of MOE. may result in the structure developing a pronounced permanent bend as it undergoes in-situ drying. can be significantly less than that of dry or seasoned poles.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .6 Torsional strength . As such. For example. .5 Combined bending and compression strength Where a pole is subjected to combined bending and compression load effects. DR 09051-PDR .F7 The design capacity of poles under torsion about the pole axis ( φT) for the strength limit state shall satisfy the following equations: φT φT ≥ = T* . The values of modulus of elasticity (MOE) specified in Appendix F and in AS 1720. . . . an approximation of the fifth percentile MOE is obtained by multiplying the average MOE by 0.5. . a service. the diameter shall be such that the following is satisfied: ⎛ M * ⎞ ⎛ N c* ⎞ ⎟ ≤1 ⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎝ φ M ⎠ ⎝ φ Nc ⎠ F2. or re-wetted by waterborne CCA preservative.F9 φk1 k20 k22 kd [f′s ZT] NOTE: The torsional rigidity of timber poles is normally very high.1 are average values for unseasoned timber. It is recommended that poles subjected to sustained resultant loads be considered deflection sensitive. .7 Pole top deflection Designers shall note that the modulus of elasticity (or stiffness) of poles in the ‘green’ state.
It is normally unnecessary to consider deflections or vibration of lattice towers. Moments from normal framing. but they may need to be considered in the design of slender bracings or horizontal edge members. In a second-order (geometrically nonlinear) elastic analysis. careful attention shall be given to the method of analysis employed when the structure was originally designed by manual algebraic or graphical methods. and assumes that the loaded configuration of the structure is identical to its unloaded configuration consequently ignoring the secondary effects of the deflected structure stipulating that the forces in the redundant members are equal to zero. Bending moments caused by wind loads on individual member are generally negligible.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . However. As many of the tower models will have a non-symmetrical leg combination it is important to consider loading from all possible directions. Primarily latticed towers are analysed as ideal elastic three dimensional trusses pinned connected at joints. First-order linear elastic truss analysis treats all members as linearly elastic (capable of carrying compression as well as tension). This type of analysis is generally used for conventional. distributed wind load on members can affect the member selection.1 Method of analysis of lattice steel towers In most cases.DRAFT ONLY 151 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX G LATTICE STEEL TOWERS (SELF SUPPORTING AND GUYED MASTS) (Normative) G1 GENERAL Lattice steel tower designs shall comply with the requirements of AS 3995 or ASCE 10-97 and the following special provisions: G2 CALCULATION OF INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS G2. self-supporting structures. eccentricities are not calculated in the analysis. DR 09051-PDR . A second-order elastic analysis may show that redundant members carry some load. Each of these configurations will result in a unique force distribution. it is recommended to model all the likely configurations and select the member sizes to satisfy each of these configurations. To capture the most unfavourable forces in the tower members. bending moments in members because of framing eccentricities. relatively rigid. Such elastic analyses produce only joint displacements tension. and compression in tower members and tension in guy stays. eccentric loads. A three-dimensional computer analysis may indicate forces in the members that are different from those used by manual methods. Flexible self-supporting structures and guyed structures normally require a second-order analysis. structure displacements under loads create member forces and these additional member forces are called the P∆ effects. a single tower type can be used in various configurations with a number of different body extensions and leg combinations. When performing a computer analysis of an existing structure.
2 Guyed structures Guys produce uplift loads on the guy foundation or anchor and compression loads on the structure and its foundation. creep in the guy and any initial movement of the uplift anchor. No bending moment in cleats or studs should be considered. The guys shall be adjustable in length to permit plumbing of the structure during construction and to account for elastic shortening of the mast. G3 EMBEDMENT OF STEEL MEMBERS INTO CONCRETE BY MEANS OF ANCHORING ELEMENTS The total tensile or compression load of steel leg members anchored in concrete is transferred to the concrete by two methods— (a) steel angle stubs with anchoring elements such as angle cleats or studs These shall be checked for shear due to the compression stresses between the element and the concrete. effective lengths of diagonals being related to the lengths to the knee joint. (b) G4 CRANKED K BRACING For large tower widths.e. Diagonals and horizontals should be designed as for K bracing.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . a bend may be introduced into the main diagonals (see Figure G1). guyed masts) utilizing multiple stay arrangements are sensitive to inaccurate amount of pretension in the guys. The main disadvantage of this is the lack of articulation present in the K brace. and base plate and holding-down bolts The holding-down bolts shall be checked for shear. FIGURE G1 CRANKED K BRACING G5 PORTAL FRAMES A horizontal member is sometimes introduced at the bend to turn a braced panel into a portal frame (see Figure G2). DR 09051-PDR . Externally guyed supports (i. axial load as well as possible bending moments due to lateral displacement of the bolts. creep of the guys together with the flexibility of the tower shall be used to compute the forces in tower members and foundation reactions. This system is sensitive to foundation settlement or movement and special consideration should be given to this possibility.DRAFT ONLY 152 DRAFT ONLY G2. This has the effect of reducing the length and size of the redundant members but produces high stresses in the members meeting at the bend and necessitates transverse support at the joint. The initial and final modulus of elasticity of the guys.
DRAFT ONLY 153 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE G2 PORTAL FRAME G6 SECONDARY (REDUNDANT) MEMBERS The following rules should be applied to the nominal bracing design. Bending check is independent from the axial load check.5% main member force Members inclined >10°— 2.5% = 1.25% of main member force Load = 2 (iii) Members inclined >10° and not connected to the main leg— Force to balance vertical component of the connected inclined members (iv) (b) Members inclined ≤30° to be checked for bending with 1.4 kN load in the middle of member.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .5% = 1.77% of main member force Load = 2 (ii) Members inclined >10° and connected to the main leg— 2.5% Load = = 1.77% of main member force 2 Hip bracing— (i) (ii) DR 09051-PDR . (See Figure G3): (a) Face bracing— (i) All members inclined ≤10° are considered horizontal— 2. All members inclined ≤10° are considered horizontal— Load = 2.
G8 ANTI CLIMBING DEVICES Unauthorised climbing of structures supporting energized overhead lines is a public safety issue that requires a national uniform standard of approach.5% P/ 2 a1 a2 B2 Force balancing ver tical component of member connected to the main leg B1= B2* sin ( a2) / sin ( a1) H o r i zo nta l b r a c e s 2. to prevent or DR 09051-PDR . G7.DRAFT ONLY 154 1.5% P/√2 L EG EN D : P = M a x i m u m m a i n m e m b e r c o m p re s s i o n fo rc e B1 Inclined braces 2. G7 SECURITY OF FASTENERS G7.3 Deterrent to vandalism All bolts within 3000 mm of the ground should be secured to prevent or significantly deter their removal by vandalism.2 Bolts in tension Where bolts on major loaded connection points are in permanent tension. main leg shortening and bolt slip).15/06/2009 13:22:00 .5% P/ 2 e ac h Inclined brace 2.5% P/√2 e ac h FIGURE G3 SECONDARY (REDUNDANT) MEMBERS In case of cranked K bracing with an angle between the diagonal and main leg close to 15°. secondary effects should be taken into consideration (global instability. they shall be fitted with lock nuts.1 General application All bolt nuts on lattice steel towers shall be locked in their tightened position against loosing by aerodynamic induced vibration by the use of heavy-duty spring washers or locking pins.5% P R e s tr a i nt 2. G7.0 % of th e m a i n l e g l o ad ba l a n c i n g 1. Consideration should be given to anti climbing devices or measures significantly deter unauthorised climbing.5% P/√2 H o r i zo nta l b r a c e 2.25% f ro m th e c o n n e c te d b r a c e DRAFT ONLY B rac e l o ad 2.
0 m in the tower body. the lower face of all crossarms. changes of leg slope. G10 STRENGTH FACTORS ( φ) Strength factors ( φ) which takes into account variability of material and workmanship for structural components used in lattice steel towers shall be taken as 0. Reference may be made to CIGRE TB 196 for guidance on choice of an appropriate bracing panel arrangement.DRAFT ONLY 155 DRAFT ONLY G9 PLAN BRACING Horizontal plan bracing should be installed on all lattice steel towers at— (a) (b) (c) (d) the first horizontal structural member above ground. DR 09051-PDR .15/06/2009 13:22:00 .9 unless otherwise provided in the reference standard being used. and vertical intervals not exceeding 15.
it is often the requirement to meet the RIV.1 Design The radial electric field at the aerial conductor surface is known as the surface voltage gradient. television interference and audible noise. Care is required during stringing to ensure there is no damage to aerial conductor surfaces.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Over time. H1. line phasing. line configuration. line phasing. television interference and audible noise can be estimated based on empirical formulae using aerial conductor surface voltage gradient as an input. DR 09051-PDR . In the first few months of energized operation. number of aerial conductors per phase bundle. and line proximity to other lines or wires. Spark discharges can generate radio interference. and to a lesser extent. Other possible sources of corona are hardware surfaces and insulators. During dry weather there is almost negligible corona generated. The secondary effects of radio interference. line height. size of aerial conductors. and corona levels can be above expectations. television interference and audible noise. Corona discharges usually occur during inclement weather (i. size of aerial conductors. When the electric field on the surface of an aerial conductor exceeds the corona inception voltage. Any high points due to scratches on the aerial conductor will have a high electric field and may act as a source for corona generation.2 Radio interference voltage The most important design influence on the corona-generated radio noise levels produced by any high voltage line is the electric field very close to the aerial conductors. line configuration. TVI and audible noise levels which decide the aerial conductor to install on the overhead line rather than thermal rating requirements. The most important corona effect for overhead lines is around the aerial conductors. This field is influenced by voltage. Aerial conductor surface finish also has an effect. The recommended design approach to control corona is to limit the surface voltage gradient to less than 16 kV/cm.DRAFT ONLY 156 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX H ELECTRICAL DESIGN ASPECTS (Normative) H1 CORONA Corona occurs when air is ionized. Radio noise levels are also influenced by the local earth conductivity and the relative smoothness of aerial conductor and hardware surfaces.e. It is influenced by voltage. Bundling has the effect of reducing the electric field on the surface of the aerial conductors. line height. and to a lesser extent. phase spacing. phase spacing. Avoiding corona is the main reason that aerial conductors are bundled on lines at the higher voltage levels. fog ) when the surface voltage gradient on the aerial conductor exceeds 16 kV/cm. Another related effect is spark discharges that may occur between discs of bridging strings that are lightly loaded. and line proximity to other lines or wires. aerial conductor surfaces are not yet weathered. the high points are burnt off and the corona activity reduces. At voltages above 110 kV. the corona discharges in the form of arcs and streamers can generate radio interference. number of aerial conductors per phase bundle. Polluted insulators may have significant surface leakage current activity that can also cause corona. mechanically. rain. H1.
1 Design influences The most important design influence on the audible noise levels produced by a high-voltage line is the electric field very close to the aerial conductors (surface electric gradient). Audible noise levels are further influenced by the relative smoothness of aerial conductor and hardware surfaces and contamination due to hydrophobic materials. and radio noise levels can be a few decibels above ultimate expectations. For these high voltages. line configuration. aerial conductor surfaces are not yet weathered.3 Audible noise The principal source of foul weather acoustic noise is water drops. Snow and ice rime on aerial conductors may also give rise to noise. phase spacing. For these high voltages.DRAFT ONLY 157 DRAFT ONLY Generally. line height. DR 09051-PDR . On overhead power lines. The power loss due to corona is typically less than a few kilowatts/kilometre in fair weather but it can amount to tens of kilowatts/kilometre during heavy rain and up to one hundred kilowatts/kilometre during frost. audible noise levels become a significant design concern only for lines operating at voltages of 110 kV or above. This field is influenced by voltage. In the first few months of energized operation. H1. noise-level prediction methods assume that line hardware is designed or shielded so that only the corona on aerial conductors will be responsible for observed radio noise levels. fair weather losses occur for a large percentage of time and affect the value of the total energy consumed by the line (yearly average corona loss). noise-level prediction methods assume that line hardware is designed or shielded so that only the corona on aerial conductors will be responsible for observed audible noise levels in wet weather. Unless these charges are addressed properly by proper earthing. arriving at the line as raindrops. The thresholds for these sensations are given in Table H1. water can give rise to various types of discharge. H1. corona generated radio-noise levels become a significant design concern only for lines operating at voltages of 110 kV or above. H1. Guidance on limits for electromagnetic interference from overhead lines can be found in AS/NZS 2344.4 Corona loss In cases where the surface voltage gradient is very high there can be a power loss along the aerial conductor due to corona emission. or streaming from the line.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . they can cause shock to the public. and to a lesser extent. and that aerial conductors are installed taking care not to damage their surfaces. line phasing. However. audible noise levels may be a little above ultimate expectations during an initial weathering period. and that aerial conductors are installed taking care not to damage their surface. and line proximity to other lines or wires. H2 ELECTROSTATIC INDUCTION Electrostatic induction is caused by the electric field surrounding the powerline and these fields can induce charges on nearby metallic objects. The magnitude of fair-weather corona loss is insignificant in comparison with foul-weather loss (maximum corona loss). size of aerial conductors. number of aerial conductors per phase bundle. Whether hanging from a wet line or on insulators. corona loss is expressed in watts per metre (W/m) or kilowatts per kilometre (kW/km). In general. These shocks can range from fingertip touch perceptible to hand grab annoyance. As with radio noise.3.
These high induced voltages into nearby circuits or objects can be mitigated by the following methods: (a) (b) (c) (d) Earthing the circuit or object at regular intervals.30 0. On extra high voltage lines (above 345 kV) the electric field strength on the power line can be quite high and lead to high charges on large vehicles parked under the line.50 1. The installation of insulators to sectionalize the object. H3 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION Electromagnetic induction is caused by the load current and/or fault currents flowing in the overhead line.30 4. Installing a shield wire on the overhead line.50 0. These currents can generate high voltages in parallel metallic circuits. For telecommunication coordination. The high discharge currents can be a hazard to the public in proximity to the vehicle.DRAFT ONLY 158 DRAFT ONLY TABLE H1 REACTION TO SPARK DISCHARGES Reaction/sensation Threshold Energy (milliJoules Fingertip touch perception Hand grab perception Fingertip touch annoyance Hand grab annoyance 0. The charge can safely be discharged to earth by installing earth leads to the metallic object.60 The charge induced to the metallic object is dependent on the surface area of the object and the overhead line’s electric field strength. DR 09051-PDR .14 0. Increase the separation between the circuit or object and the overhead line. the levels are outlined in AS/NZS 4853.90 1.00 Charge (μCoulombs) 0.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . the limits are set out in SA HB 102 For pipelines.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 .1.1 Characteristic or specified compressive strength The characteristic or specified compressive strength at 28 days (fNc ). φ shall be taken as not greater than the following values. or any of these in combination. shear. For poles designed by calculation. reinforcement and tendons shall be as given in AS 3600 or NZS 3101. 0. 0. Combined bending and compression 0. DR 09051-PDR .2 Deflection and rotation For electromotive transport poles. or as may be otherwise specified. Bearing. For pole elements subject to transient tensile stresses.2 Characteristic flexural tensile strength or modulus of rupture The characteristic flexural tensile strength or modulus of rupture after 28 days of standard curing may be taken as one of the following values as appropriate: (a) (b) I2. Compression.3 For pole elements subject to sustained tensile stresses. I2 STRENGTH I2.6√fNc. For most other uses. 0. and some floodlighting poles.5. . or torsion.3.9. I2. set out in Paragraphs I4. the diameter shall be such that the following is satisfied: ⎛ M * ⎞ ⎛ N c* ⎞ ⎟ ≤1 ⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎝ φ M ⎠ ⎝ φ Nc ⎠ I3 STRENGTH CAPACITY FACTOR . I4. 0.1 General Concrete poles shall meet the serviceability criteria. as appropriate for the type of action effect being considered: (a) (b) (c) (d) Bending.9 I4 SERVICEABILITY I4. deflection and rotation parameter shall be determined by the operating system constraints.7. the strength capacity factor (φ) should not be taken as greater than 1.2 to I4. Combined bending and compression strength Where a pole is subjected to combined bending and compression load effects.I1 For poles designed by load testing in accordance with Clause 8.8. . communication equipment poles. shall be not less than 40 MPa.DRAFT ONLY 159 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX I CONCRETE POLES (Normative) I1 GENERAL Design properties for concrete. 0.8 √fNc. deflection and rotation shall not be considered a serviceability constraint unless specified by the purchaser. appropriate to the use of the pole.0.
or U more severe than C.1 General All reinforcement and tendons shall be effectively maintained in their correct position during manufacture of the pole.5%. 5. wire or tendon to which the cover is measured.25 mm unless otherwise provided in design calculations. if— (i) (ii) (iv) absorption ≤5. Apply a corrosion-resistant coating to the reinforcement or tendons. For sustained dead loads or cable tension loads.5% < absorption ≤6. All supports used for this purpose shall be made from durable and stable materials that are not deleterious to the concrete or the reinforcement. other methods of providing suitable durability. cover = 9 mm. Increase the specified strength grade.5%. or when tested in accordance with Appendix O.3 Exposure classification C. or I5. the longterm effects of creep and shrinkage shall be considered. cover = 19 mm.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Provide cathodic protection to the reinforcement or tendons.2 Exposure classifications other than C. I5 CONCRETE COVER I5. (iii) absorption >6.1 Exposure classifications The exposure classification for poles shall be determined in accordance with AS 3600 or NZS 3101. I5. or otherwise reduce the permeability of the concrete. cover as per AS 3600 or NZS 3101.1 as appropriate.5%. Apply a protective coating to exposed surfaces. the clear cover to reinforcement (including tie wires) and tendons shall be not less than the greatest of— (a) (b) (c) the maximum nominal aggregate size. or for poles within 1 km from a coastline with prevailing onshore winds. I6 REINFORCEMENT AND TENDONS I6. three-quarters of the nominal diameter of the bar. NOTE: For further information on concrete crack width see Appendix D.1.3 Crack width Crack widths at the serviceability limit state shall not exceed 0. Any other appropriate action. one or more of the following additional protective actions should be adopted to achieve the required design life: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Increase the thickness of concrete cover. Seal the base of spun concrete poles.DRAFT ONLY 160 DRAFT ONLY I4. or U more severe than C For exposure classification C. or other than U more severe than C. DR 09051-PDR . or U more severe than C For all exposure classification other than C.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 . may be omitted. the following exceptions apply to the requirements for reinforcement and tendons specified in AS 3600 or NZS 3101. Shear reinforcement may be omitted if the tested prototypes contain no shear reinforcement and the tests demonstrate that the design strength can be achieved without failure.2 Poles designed by load testing For poles designed by load testing in accordance with Section 8. I6. I7 ELECTRICAL EARTHING Provision shall be made for bonding electrical equipment and external metalwork to steel reinforcing and any earthing electrode.DRAFT ONLY 161 DRAFT ONLY I6. within ties or similar fitments may be omitted. Lateral restraint of compression reinforcement by ties. Enclosure of bundled bars.1 for the omission of shear reinforcement in beams. shear reinforcement may be omitted if the calculated shear strength provided by the concrete alone is not less than the minimum levels specified in AS 3600 or NZS 3101.1: (a) (b) (c) (d) The minimum clear distances between parallel bars and tendons may be waived. DR 09051-PDR . or bundled tendons. or similar fitments.3 Poles designed by calculation For poles designed by calculation.
DR 09051-PDR . Manufacturer test data will provide deflection limits at appropriate loads for use in design of the pole.DRAFT ONLY 162 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX J COMPOSITE FIBRE POLES (Normative) J1 GENERAL Poles made from composite materials shall be designed in accordance with the appropriate and relevant Australian or New Zealand Standard or by theories supported by rigorous prototype testing. Special attention shall be given to use of fire resistant materials in rural/semi rural applications. J2 STRENGTH Composite fibre poles are thin walled structures and typically fail due to buckling. The materials used shall be suitable for the exposure and design service conditions without jeopardising operational security of the line. J3 SERVICABILITY LIMITS Composite fibre poles typically exhibit large deflection limits and these limits must be considered in the design. Pull through strength on the wall of the pole applied by bolts may be limited with standard washers and large curved plates may be required for surface bearing. Crushing torque is limited and is typically less than 150 Nm.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .
DR 09051-PDR . welding and during galvanizing due to release of locked in stresses. NZS 3404. K6 WELDING PROCEDURE FOR THICK BASE PLATES Care should be applied in the use of thick base plates that have been cut from thick steel blooms that may contain string inclusions that have the potential to open and delaminate after cutting. Loading considered in design shall include combined bending and axial loading of the pole element. K4 REQUIREMENTS FOR PLATE THICKNESS LESS THAN 3MM Where the thickness of steel plate used in a pole is less than 3 mm. the following requirements apply: (a) (b) Welding Special attention shall be given to weld quality in thin-walled elements and in particular to the avoidance of weld undercut.1 as appropriate.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . K3 MINIMUM THICKNESS The thickness of steel plate used in any structural pole elements shall be not less than 1. Fatigue Structural detailing shall avoid stress concentrations and connections subject to cyclic loading which rely on the localized bending resistance of thin-walled components.1 or AS/NZS 4600. or ASCE 48-05 as appropriate. and the following provisions. K2 STRENGTH FACTORS ( φ) Strength factors ( φ) which takes into account variability of material and workmanship for steel pole components used shall be taken as 0. Handling Consideration should be given to the need for special handling of thinwalled elements to avoid localized distortion. (c) (d) K5 LOW TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS Steel grades for poles subject to low temperature conditions shall be chosen in accordance with the requirements for brittle fracture resistance given in AS 4100 or NZS 3404.6 mm. Durability Due consideration should be given to the potential for accelerated corrosion at and below ground level where pole elements are direct buried into soil or where special backfill is used around the embedded pole element.9 unless otherwise provided in the reference standard being used.DRAFT ONLY 163 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX K STEEL POLES (Normative) K1 GENERAL Steel pole structure designs shall comply with the requirements of AS 4100.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 . K9 SLIP JOINTING Where joints in segmented construction make use of overlapping close tolerance slip joints they shall be detailed such as to provide a minimum overlap of 1. K8 INTERNAL TREATMENT OF STEEL POLES All closed steel sections will have the potential to accumulate and trap condensation from the air due to temperature variations. to minimize corrosion effects. or to provide for limited corrosion of the internal surfaces over its intended design service life. K11 ELECTRICAL EARTHING Provision shall be made for bonding electrical equipment and external metalwork to steel reinforcing and any earthing electrode. Designs shall nominate required dimensional tolerances of fitted sections together with recommended jacking forces for lap joints to ensure full load transfer can be achieved between sections being joined. K10 ANCHOR BOLTS Pole footing base plate holding-down bolts may be proportioned to comply with Table K1. Consideration shall be included in designs for the appropriate treatment of the internal surface to eliminate corrosion.3 times the largest inscribed circle of the components being joined. DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 164 DRAFT ONLY K7 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT ISSUES WITH HOT DIP GALVANIZING AFTER INCREMENTAL BENDING Where incremental bending techniques or pressing is employed to form thick plates generally greater than 16 mm and the finished product is acid de-scaled and hot dip galvanized. This has the potential to accelerate corrosion of the internal surfaces if the internal space cannot vent to the atmosphere. care needs to be applied to avoid hydrogen embrittlement of cold worked materials.
2 MPa.8 NOTE: According to ENV 1993-1-1.3 MPa for deformed bars The anchoring length shall be such that— Fa.05 = characteristic strength of concrete in tension γc = bonding reduction factor of 0.05 γc for deformed bars = 0.Sd where Ft.7 fctm and fctm = 0.SD ≤ Ft.DRAFT ONLY 165 DRAFT ONLY TABLE K1 DESIGN OF HOLDING-DOWN BOLTS Straight anchor Anchor with bend Anchor with plate D = 4 Lb v = m i n ( l.05 = 1. fctm = 2.45 φ f cd fbd ⎛ r2 ⎞⎛ r ⎞ ⎜ 2 − 0.5l2) Fa.9 × fub × As × γMb where fub = ultimate tensile strength of holding-down bolt As = tensile stress area of holding-down bolt γMb = component strength factor on resistance of holding-down bolt = 0. or fbd = 2. and fbd = 1.25 ⎟ ⎜1 − ⎟ + l0 ⎝Φ ⎠⎝ v ⎠ Fbd = bonding stress of steel into concrete with: with: where f bd = fck 0.Rd = π × Φ × Lb × fbd with Lb = (l1 + 3.Rd = π × Φ × Lb × fbd ≥ Ft.Rd = π × Φ × Lb × fbd with Lb = 2.Rd = π × Φ × Lb × fbd Fa.Rd shall be reduced by multiplying it by a factor of 0. fctk0.3 r t D l2 d1 Fa. the relevant value of T r.d1) Io I1 D t > 0.3fck2/3 fck = characteristic strength of concrete in compression fctm = average strength of concrete in tension fctk0.Sd = design tensile force per bolt for the ultimate limit state The size of the bolt shall be such that— Ft.2D + 3.36 f ck γc for plain bars and f bd = 2.55 MPa.1 MPa for plain bars.25 f c t k 0.67 for example with N20/25 concrete— fck = 20 MPa. when threads are cut by a non-specialist bolt manufacturer.85. DR 09051-PDR .15/06/2009 13:22:00 .Rd = 0.
and the designer should exercise sound engineering judgment in determining which method is most appropriate for the situation. should be considered. the relative distribution of the loads between the guys and the support (lattice tower or pole) depends on the guy pretension and the potential creep of the foundation. to determine the foundation ultimate load carrying capacity the shear strength of soil is required. the investigation should provide geotechnical parameters required to establish the ultimate load-bearing capacity of the subsurface foundation material and the overlying material properties. together with the creep of the guys. If the foundations are upgraded to meet new loading requirements. the designer has the option to design each footing for site-specific loadings and subsurface conditions or to develop standard designs that can be used at predetermined similar sites.L1 where s c σn shear strength cohesion normal stress angle of internal friction φ DR 09051-PDR . s = = = = = c + σntan φ . Reference should be made to IEEE Standard 691. When designing overhead line foundations. Generally. . L2 GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS Geotechnical investigation should be carried out along the easement of transmission line to obtain geotechnical parameters required to design the transmission structure footings. and are not to be considered as a rigid set of rules.DRAFT ONLY 166 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX L STRUCTURE FOOTING DESIGN AND GUIDELINES FOR THE GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS (Informative) L1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES This Standard addresses fundamental performance criteria and the design methods associated with overhead line footings and their foundations. In addition.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . together with the flexibility of the structure is needed to compute the ultimate footing reactions and anchor loads. As a minimum. The principles of this design standard are equally aimed at the design of new and existing foundations. care must be taken to assure the structural adequacy of the foundation. Many alternative approaches can be used for the design of footings and the interpretation of the foundation conditions. . At the completion of a geotechnical site investigation a report should be prepared. The flexibility of the guy. The initial and final modulus of elasticity of the guys.
The foundation design for long duration loads should be based on the effective stresses and drained properties of the soil. TABLE L1 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF COHESIVE SOILS Term Very soft Soft Firm Stiff Very stiff Hard Weight (kN/m 3 ) 16–19 17–20 17. Typically OMC range is 10% to 20%. Soils that have cohesive properties in short term loading usually exhibit no cohesion under long term loads. The values in Table L3 are based on research data and pull out tests on test piles. they may result in excessive displacements. this produces the maximum dry density. though there is minimal increase in the degree of saturation required to produce a buoyant condition. Can be indented by thumb Can be indented by thumb nail Can be indented with difficulty by thumb nail NOTE: Saturated means that all voids are filled with water. In addition. DR 09051-PDR . The reduction in shear strength may occur when the soil is partially saturated (see below).15/06/2009 13:22:00 .DRAFT ONLY 167 DRAFT ONLY A cohesive soil can generally be expected to resist design loads for a short duration of time without experiencing significant movements. Dense saturated granular materials typically show a reduction in internal friction of 1° to 2° from the dense dry values L2. Granular soils have similar properties under short and long-term conditions and this standard recommends that for ‘granular’ soils the same properties are to be used under both long and short term loads. C u (kPa) Unsaturated 0 to 10 10 to 25 25 to 50 50 to 100 100 to 200 ≥200 Saturated ≤6 6 to 12 12 to 25 25 to 50 50 to 100 ≥100 Field guide to consistency Exudes between fingers when squeezed in hand Can be moulded by light finger pressure Can be moulded by strong finger pressure Cannot be moulded by fingers. L2. At optimum moisture content. though the angle of internal friction will increase to typically between 20° and 40°. The saturated weight is not necessarily buoyant weight. and their use should be assessed against any known properties from soil tests where these are available. and L4. Soils may be partially saturated. however when the design loads are applied over the service life of the structure. Exceeding that figure will progressively reduce density.5–21 18–22 21–22 20–23 Shear strength. soft clay (or even firm clay) may become very soft clay when it is partially saturated.1 Typical soil properties Geotechnical parameters for soil strata may be taken from Tables L1.
coarse to fine sand Dense to very dense.DRAFT ONLY 168 DRAFT ONLY TABLE L2 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF NON-COHESIVE SOILS Soil type Unit weight (kN/m3) Loose gravel with sand content Medium dense gravel with low sand content Dense to very dense gravel with low sand content Loose well graded sandy gravel Medium dense clayey sandy gravel Dense to very dense clayey sandy gravel Loose. fine and silty sand Dense to very dense. coarse to fine sand Loose.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . coarse to fine sand Medium dense. fine and silty sand 16–19 18–20 19–21 18–20 19–21 21–22 17–22 20–21 21–22 15–17 17–19 19–21 Angle of friction. fine and silty sand Medium dense. ϕ (degrees) 28º–30º 30º–36º 36º–45º 28º–30º 30º–35º 35º–40º 28º–30º 30º–35º 35º–40º 20°–22° 25º–30º 35º–40º TABLE L3 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK Type/classification Hard Igneous Basalt Granite Granodiorites Metamorphic Greywacke Hornfelds Quartzite Limestone Schists Sedimentary Hard sandstone Medium rock Highly fractured hard rocks Medium sandstones Hard shale Conglomerates Weathered Granite Rhyolites Soft rock Soft sandstone Mudstone Medium shale Phyllite 275 450 22 750 1500 24 1000 2500 24 1200 6000 27 Ultimate design values Shear (kPa) Bearing (kPa) Dry density (kg/m 3 ) DR 09051-PDR .
1 Foundation types Common types of pole footings are bored piers in soil. This method is applicable to a wide variety of soil types and provides consistent results. anchored footings (in soil or rock). DR 09051-PDR . These breaks promoted/produced by these activities should be included in the estimated rock quality. The Brinch Hansen method does not provide an indication of the pole rotation at the HL load.e.37 nominal failure load calculated value using recommended method coefficient of variation It should be borne in mind that the accuracy of any solution will be limited by the accuracy of the input data. The initial slope is dependent on the modulus of elasticity for the soil and the foundation geometry.) If the load displacement plot is assumed to be hyperbolic and the initial slope and Hmax. In addition. and single pile or pile group foundations (in soils unable to support loads in surface formations) This section concentrates on the design requirements for lateral loads and moments only. When there are special requirement for compression loading the footings should be checked using established principles. Typically. The appropriate component strength factor (Table 6. the correlation between predicted and observed test results has been: (b) (c) where HL Hcalc COV undrained conditions: drained conditions: = = = HL = 1. L3. The rock properties are related to rock defects i.01 Hcalc with COV = 0. faults.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . ground line rotational displacements of 1– 2° may be expected at HL. during an investigation (or construction works) when the core hole penetrates a fault zone additional breaks in rock may occur. joints. large diameter bored or driven caissons (normally with permanent liners). value are known. then values along the curve may be calculated. bored and socketed piers into rock.60 Hcalc with COV = 0.36 HL = 0. shear and bedding zones etc. L3 FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR POLES L3. Other design methods may be used. weathering.2) should be applied to HL. buried slab or raft footings.DRAFT ONLY 169 DRAFT ONLY It should be acknowledge that the engineering properties of rock cannot be predicted with the accuracy typical in a soil investigation. (As a general indication. though the centre of rotation is dependent on the foundation geometry and soil parameters. This should be calculated separately using methods recommended in AS 2159 or another suitable source.2 Bored Piers The Brinch Hansen method presented here is considered to be appropriate to the dimensional range and characteristics of poles in transmission and distribution line structures.
The pole is assumed to rotate as a rigid body under the applied loads about a point of rotation at an unknown depth. below the surface. At the point of failure. Kc = Values of Kq are given in Table L5. this rotation produces a soil stress distribution as depicted in Figure L2 with the ultimate soil pressure. DR 09051-PDR . M. The ‘effective diameter’.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . . and those of Kc are plotted in Table L6. can be taken as the average pole diameter below ground for soil backfill situations and the auger diameters for situations where concrete or soil/cement backfill is used. The ultimate lateral soil resistance at any depth. H. zr.DRAFT ONLY 170 DRAFT ONLY L3. z.3 Analytical procedure for determination of failure load/moment The mathematical model of the pole/soil system is shown in Figure L1. D. varying with depth below the ground surface. z. p . . φ (see Table L2) Kq. M H G ro u n d s u r fac e Zr L Z Rigid body rotati o n Backfill C e ntre of rotati o n F2 Z2 P2 Z1 F2 D S o i l p re s s u re d i s tr i b u ti o n FIGURE L1 MODEL OF THE POLE/SOIL SYSTEM The system is subjected to a ground line lateral load. below the surface can be expressed as— Pz = = = = qzKq + cuKc .L2 where qz γ cu vertical overburden pressure at depth z = γz soil density (see Table L4) soil cohesion (see Table L1) factors that are a function of z/D and the soil angle of friction. and bending moment.
5 11–16 6. The process is repeated by varying L until the required M is obtained. In general form the equations are— (a) Horizontal equilibrium H = F1 − F2 zr .5 13–19 9.5 9.5 Density (kN/m3 ) Unsaturated 16–18 Saturated 9–11 NOTE: The saturated densities given above result from the presence of ground water and soil porosity for the different soil types. H. dry sand. Where a bed log is used the calculated soil forces F1 and F2 may be based on the Brinch Hansen method.g. and moment.5–21 17.5–12. As the eccentricity of load increases zr converges to either 2/3 or 1/2 of the total depth. For non-cohesive soils. the depth of rotation is typically 2/3 of the total depth. .5–12. e. For cohesive soils.5–12. zr.5 9. and solving the resulting simultaneous equations for the unknown depth of the centre of rotation. L.5 17.L4 pz Ddz zr (b) Moment equilibrium M = = = F 2 z2 − F 1 z1 .5–22. The limiting combination of H and M to cause failure may be obtained by considering the equilibrium of horizontal forces and moments. . the unknown depth of rotation. for a given horizontal load.5–12.L5 where z1 z2 distance to resultant load F1 distance to resultant load F2 It is usually more convenient to solve the resulting equations by trial and error. clayey sands. That is.g. and a trial embedment depth.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . . . . zr. can be determined.5–12. M.L3 where F2 F2 = = ∫ 0 pz Ddz ∫ L . . The forces should be based on soil pressure pz and the areas of the bed log and the pole foundation.5 9.5–21. the depth of rotation is typically slightly more than half depth. DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 171 DRAFT ONLY TABLE L4 TYPICAL SOIL DENSITIES Soil type Cohesive soils Non-cohesive soils: Gravel Coarse and medium sands Fine and silty sands Rock/soil mix—Granite and shales Rock/soil mix—Basalts and dolerites Rock/soil mix—Limestones and sandstones 16–20 17–21 17. e.
0 14.04 5.85 9.72 25.37 21.44 2.71 2.33 1.46 4.25 4.44 11.82 22.26 1.50 0.0 16.72 10° 1.20 17.19 7.0 3.24 19.17 11.81 61.81 3.47 4.54 51.66 0.56 0.59 48.65 2.02 7.96 17.51 3.12 13.0 8.64 0.68 0.16 2.69 71.53 7.5 2.65 0.50 14.12 4.82 7.24 9.02 7.99 6.55 45.21 1.68 1.0 2.0 10.10 1.55 0.62 1.0 4.37 4.58 0.0 1.89 8.52 0.90 13.88 6.89 2.02 3.49 12.86 12.01 3.82 2.39 1.57 0.65 1.0 7.97 2.70 14.12 18.45 36.13 39.92 5.55 35° 8.90 66.00 12.07 2.05 6.77 2.50 5.37 3.53 1.19 30° 5.77 37.36 1.93 9.39 56.88 8.0 18.67 10.32 2.69 0.69 11.81 23.60 6.20 75.53 0.75 3.72 15° 1.60 0.DRAFT ONLY 172 DRAFT ONLY TABLE L5 EARTH PRESSURE COEFFICIENT FOR OVERBURDEN PRESSURE.58 2.96 39.47 7.25 15.70 1.56 1.05 17.82 4.58 1.0 6.96 3.56 4.11 4.46 DR 09051-PDR .21 3.36 24.79 10.26 8.27 10.38 22.50 1.98 27.86 3.00 5.16 1.39 42.95 41.46 1.24 2.49 2.63 0.65 23.70 0.0 12.5 5.05 3.25 13.64 33.50 13.74 34.18 30.79 20.38 40° 13.42 1.70 5.46 7.0 9.41 12.43 29.00 32. Kq Angle of friction φ z/D 1.23 25.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .34 35.23 31.71 4.08 20° 2.28 5.35 6.62 0.64 3.63 29.30 1.0 0° 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5° 0.77 45° 21.07 25° 4.07 11.88 21.38 2.05 8.5 4.61 8.82 18.27 16.76 5.75 15.59 0.53 19.59 27.85 1.71 0.95 4.0 20.32 20.5 3.70 7.
5 11.7 15.1 54.8 7.2 12.0 45.3 130.1 293. .4 7.0 20.0 14.3 7.0 2.7 8.4 9.6 7.4 98.1 16. .7 49.5 9.1 15.1 13.0 22.7 6.1 7.0 8. .1 56.9 12.0 9.8 64.9 13.L6 .8 5.5 10.6 7.2 9.5 15.1 100.7 115.0 12.3 82.7 30.8 221.5 135.0 32.9 90.0 4.2 44.9 7.5 51.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .0 10.8 146.8 49.8 267.8 237.4 9.9 123.3 14.9 14. .1 8.3 The over burden pressure and earth pressure coefficients.7 112.0 9.9 11.7 22. .5 21.6 23.3 12.3 8.0 1.1 85.7 8.4 15.8 174.4 28.2 6.1 20.4 9. . . .3 87.4 167.7 28.9 160.4 8.7 26.4 186.1 10.7 7.8 28.L12 DR 09051-PDR .3 7.L7 .5 4.L11 K z q = 1+ α q z D z D .1 11.3 5.4 17.1 41.2 35.6 38. KC Angle of friction φ z/D 1.8 32.5 10.L8 ⎛1 ⎞ d c∞ Nc 0 Kq = = = e⎝ 2 ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ π + ϕ ⎟ tan ϕ ⎠ 1 ⎞ −⎜ π −ϕ ⎟ tan ϕ 1 ⎞ ⎛1 ⎛1 cos ϕ tan ⎜ π + ϕ ⎟ − e ⎝ 2 ⎠ cos ϕ tan ⎜ π − ϕ ⎟ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ ⎝4 ⎝4 .9 70.4 30° 16. .3 14.7 204.0 6.2 40° 31.9 8.6 78.5 3.0 18.6 9. . .8 63.3 10.L9 .0 42.9 31.9 40.7 18.0 21.0 7.7 23.7 167.7 20.9 15.6 107.4 25.0 6.0 67.2 25° 12.3 75.7 5° 5.8 13.2 11.0 3.5 29.2 11.8 12.8 9.4 15° 8.8 88. K cz at depth z as given in the table above can be calculated from the formulae below.5 48.2 20° 10.3 35° 22.2 9.5 11.8 26.8 10. K0 = = = 1−sinϕ 1.0 ~0° 4.4 13.4 21.6 34. NOTE: For more information on these formulas refer to the original Brinch Hansen paper (see reference at the end of this Appendix).5 32.6 9.4 21.7 10° 6.1 20.6 6.5 7.7 22.0 52.8 73.4 33.7 11.5 46.0 88.1 16.9 15.0 357.9 151.09tan 4ϕ ⎡ π tan ϕ 1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎛1 tan 2 ⎜ π + ϕ ⎟ −1⎥ cot ϕ ⎢e 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝4 ⎣ .9 82. .8 7.8 43.9 16.2 7.DRAFT ONLY 173 DRAFT ONLY TABLE L6 EARTH PRESSURE COEFFICIENT FOR COHESION.1 19.1 141.7 17.8 27.4 19.3 45° 47.1 30.3 17.7 6.8 124.6 76.1 9.3 316.6 7.0 16.5 2.0 12.2 61.4 6. .6 24.8 59.0 9.4 6.3 16.7 6.8 338.5 19.L10 ∞ Kq N c dc∞ K o tan ϕ K o sin ϕ 1 ⎞ (K − K ) ⎛1 sin ⎜ π + ϕ ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝4 ∞ q 0 q 0 ∞ Kq + Kq α q αq 0 Kq . .5 5.3 11.4 12.58 + 4.4 50.9 20.5 38.6 70. K qz .1 30.0 40.7 14.0 7.1 49.
.L13 .1. . .L16 where z D = = = depth (metres) pile diameter (metres) soil friction angle (degrees) ϕ L3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . . Soil pressures are assumed to be developed as indicated in Figure L2. . d Pile Soil pressure Compression strut FIGURE L2 THEORETICAL SOIL PRESSURE DIAGRAM The maximum shear value to be used in design calculations is as indicated in Figure L3.DRAFT ONLY 174 DRAFT ONLY K 0 c = e ⎛1 ⎞ ⎜ π + ϕ ⎟ tan ϕ ⎝2 ⎠ 1 ⎛1 ⎞ cos ϕ tan ⎜ π + ϕ − 1 ⎟ cot ϕ 2 ⎝4 ⎠ .3. DR 09051-PDR . the following approach is recommended.1 Shear design for bored piers While several theories are available to assist in the analysis of forces developed in bored piers. .L15 Kc∞ αc = = N c dc∞ K c0 1 ⎞ ⎛1 2 sin ⎜ π + ϕ ⎟ 0 (K − Kc ) 2 ⎠ ⎝4 ∞ c K z c = K c0 + K c∞α c 1+ α c z D z D . . .L14 .
2 Design of shear reinforcement Basic requirements for calculation shall be based on provisions of AS 3600.1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . and as set out below: A bd d do C FIGURE L4 CALCULATION OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 175 DRAFT ONLY Shear design values d d FIGURE L3 EQUIVALENT PILE SHEAR DIAGRAM L3.3.
≤ φV u
φ(Vuc + Vus)
. . .L17
Concrete and longitudinal reinforcement contribution— Vuc where =
⎛ Ast f c′ ⎞ 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ Abd ⎠
. . .L18
β1as per AS 3600 β2 as per AS 3600 β3
Ast Abd Abd α do bv
= = = = = = =
1.0 half of the longitudinal reinforcement area concrete area equivalent to AS3600 ‘bvdo’ to be calculated as follows:
d2 ⎛d ⎞ (Π − α ) + ⎜ − c ⎟ tan(α ) 4 ⎝2 ⎠
⎛ d − 2c ⎞ arccos ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠
. . .L19
Remaining symbols are as per AS 3600
Shear reinforcement contribution— Vus
⎛ Π ⎞ ⎛ Asv f sv.f d o ⎜ ⎟⎜ s ⎝ 4⎠⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎠
. . .L20
The minimum shear reinforcement shall be provided as per AS 3600 and the shear strength of a column with minimum reinforcement is given by the following:
⎛Π⎞ Vuc + ⎜ ⎟ 0.6Abd ⎝4⎠
. . .L21
L4 FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR LATTICE STEEL TOWERS L4.1 Foundation types
Lattice tower footings typically are designed for vertical forces (uplift or compression) combined with horizontal shear forces. The affect of footing movements due to differential settlement and variation in material types at the same site, should be included in the design. There are many footing types used for transmission lines. This Standard recommends design principles for the common types only i.e.— (a) (b) (c) (d) bored straight-sided (and undercut (belled)) piers in clays and sands; bored piers socketed in soft to medium strength rock; guy anchors; and excavated footings.
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Common types of tower footings are bored piers in soil, bored and socketed piers into rock, large diameter bored or driven caissons (normally with permanent liners), buried slab or raft footings, grillage footings (constructed on older lines or where access for plant is difficult), anchored footings (in soil or rock), and single pile or pile group foundations (in soils unable to support loads in surface formations) Refer to Figure L5 for typical details.
G ro u n d l eve l
G ro u n d l eve l Column re i nfo rc i n g to tra nsfe r l o ad
G ro u n d l eve l
Column re i nfo rc i n g Ro c k l eve l
Va r i a b l e d e pth to ro c k
Shear c o n n e c to r s S h o r t s tu b
Column re i nfo rc i n g
Ro c k S o c ket A LT ER N AT I V E C O LU M N A R R A NG EM EN T
Le g stu b a n c h o rag e
Le g stu b a n c h o rag e
BO R ED SO CK E T ED PIER
BO R ED U N D ER R E A M ED PIER
C o nstr u c ti o n ex te ns i o n
G ro u n d l eve l
G ro u n d l eve l C o m p a c te d backfill C o m p a c te d backfill Ro c k l eve l Column re i nfo rc i n g
C o m pac te d backfill
O ve r th e m ate r i a l s
Le g stu b a n c h o rag e
Le g stu b a n c h o rag e C e m e nt o r chemical g ro u te d te n d o ns Base slab BU R IED SL A B T Y PE RO C K A NCH O R T Y PE
T Y PICA L CL E AT A NCH O R AG E
FIGURE L5 TYPICAL TOWER FOOTING ARRANGEMENTS
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L4.2 Footing design L4.2.1 Bored piers
Bored piers are formed by auguring a hole into soil (or soft rock), installing a full-length stub angle or shorter stub angle and a reinforcing cage, and then filling with concrete. Transfer of force from the stub angle to the surrounding concrete is usually by cleats, though stud bolts are occasionally used. The base of the bored pier may be enlarged to form a ‘bell’ using an under-reaming tool. ‘Belling’ a pier in such soil conditions provides enhanced uplift capacity but only for shallow piers. Belled piers are not suitable for soils which may collapse due to water inflow, or other causes, during construction. Soil conditions with strong water inflows or weak soil strata may necessitate a permanent liner/steel casing for at least part of the depth of the pier being installed. Installation of permanent liner will reduce the pier’s side resistance that should be accounted for in the analysis.
L4.2.2 Uplift analysis
The general ultimate pier uplift capacity is given as—
= = = = = =
GP + GS + QS +QB
. . .L22
QU GP GS QS QB
uplift capacity of foundation pier weight (dead load) soil weight (dead load) side resistance of pier or along cylinder of soil contribution of bearing on top of bell (where applicable)
Tip suction should not be used in the design of footings. The failure mechanism depends significantly on the ratio of soil strength to soil stiffness. Since reliable data on soil stiffness is seldom available, it is recommended that three simplified failure models be used. The ultimate capacity should be taken for the model giving the lowest value of QU. The interaction between soil and the footing is complex. The relative stiffness, strength and stress state of the soil, all of which vary with depth and are rarely known (outside the laboratory) with the precision associated with engineered material has lead to the development of simplified foundation failure models. It is recommended that three simplified failure models be examined in the design of piers. The ultimate capacity should be taken for the model giving the lowest value of QU. The pier capacity in uplift is invariably less than that in compression because movement of the pier will create tension in the soil mass and will tend to reduce of the lateral stress state in the soil.
L126.96.36.199 Pier pull-out by shear failure model
A pullout capacity is calculated by assuming failure of shaft friction along the depth of shaft plus the bearing on shoulder of the under-cut if present. (See Figure L6). The shaft adhesion is a fraction of the soil cohesion. For low cohesion values, the adhesion is nearly equal to the cohesion. As the soil strength increases, the fraction of cohesion that can be relied upon for adhesion reduces.
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DS GP QS QS L1 L
FIGURE L6 SHEAR FAILURE MODEL
= = = = = = = = =
GP + QS +QB
. . .L23
QU GP QS QB QP
uplift capacity of pier pier weight (dead load) side resistance of pier bearing on top of bell (where applicable)
φV C γ C
volume of concrete concrete density
. . .L24
capacity reduction factor typically 0.9 for concrete foundation (weights and aerial conductor vertical loads are known)
⎛ pD L2 ⎞ φ gfsπDSL1 + γsKtan δ ⎜ s ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠
shaft adhesion factor (see Figure L7) length shaft shaft diameter effective unit weight of soil coefficient of horizontal soil stress friction angle between shaft material and surrounding soil geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5
. . .L25
fs L1 Ds γs K δ
= = = = = = =
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Undrained Shear Strength cu (kPa)
FIGURE L7 SHAFT ADHESION FACTOR
For undrained condition—
φgπ ( Du2 − Ds2 )
(4(7cB + po ))
2 ⎛ π ( Du − Ds2 ⎞ ⎟σ v Nc 4 ⎝ ⎠
. . .L26
For drained condition—
. . .L27
= = = = =
= = =
bell shear undercut (bell) diameter bearing capacity factors effective vertical stress = γ(L − L1) .5 for uniform soil profile soil weight geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5
eπtan φ tan2 (45 + φ/2)
Nc, Nq =
Nq Nc Nγ
(Nq − 1)cot φ 2(Nq − 1)tan φ
L188.8.131.52 Pier pull-out by cylinder failure model
This model of failure is based on failure of cohesion on the surface of an equivalent cylinder which diameter equals to the effective diameter of the undercut DE. The effective diameter of the undercut DE = Ds + ( Du − Ds)/ ζ should be based on ultimate soil properties and should be not less than shaft diameter. (See Figure L8).
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QU = = = = GP + QC+QB .L28 where QU GP QC uplift capacity of pier pier weight (dead load) side resistance of cylinder of effective pier diameter .5 .L29 QC = φ g fcπDEL where fc DE = = = = soil cohesion i.e.L31 soil weight (dead load) volume of soil effective unit weight of soil capacity reduction factor typically 0. . .e.8 φ Gs = φ g Vsγs where Gs Vs γCs = = = = φ DR 09051-PDR . . soil-to-soil friction that is equal to cu in clays and φs in sands effective pier diameter = Ds + ( Du − Ds ) ζ ζ bell diameter reduction coefficient varies from 1. . soil-to-soil friction that is equal to cu in clays and φs in sands.L30 φ g QP = φ g VCγC where VC γC = = = volume of concrete concrete density capacity reduction factor typically 0.5 to 3 geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0. .8 to 0.9 for concrete foundation as weight and aerial conductor vertical loads are known) . . . .15/06/2009 13:22:00 .DRAFT ONLY 181 DRAFT ONLY The method uses soil cohesion i.
Theoretically. For that portion of the failure cone or pyramid below the groundwater table. the submerged weight of the footing and soil should be used to determine the uplift capacity. This method generally does not govern for deeper footings and tend to underestimate the uplift capacity for shallow footings (depth ≤10 times shaft diameter) with soil of medium to dense consistency and stress states corresponding to normally consolidated or lightly over consolidated. and there is no rational basis to establish these angles in a general manner.3 The earth cone pull-out model The earth cone pullout assumes that the uplift resistance is given only by the weight of soil and foundation within the cone. this method is a lower limit to the uplift capacity because it disregards the soil stresses and strength. For deeper piers.2.2. This difference between observed and computed values suggests that the method does not accurately model the influence of embedment depth on uplift capacity. (See Figure L9).DRAFT ONLY 182 DRAFT ONLY Ground Level GS Qu GP GS QC QC DE DU FIGURE L8 CYLINDRICAL FAILURE MODEL L4.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . when the cone angle is zero. reference should be made to IEEE 691 for Kulhawy’s work regarding modification for cone breakout. Different soils characteristics require different cone angles. In addition. Ground Level Qu GS GP GS 0S FIGURE L9 CONE FAILURE MODEL DR 09051-PDR . the computed uplift resistance increases rapidly with depth while the results of model and field tests show only 1/4 to 1/7 the increase expected from computed values.
.3 Compression analysis The failure model for compression loading involves a bearing failure in the soil below the toe of the pier and a shear failure between the pier shaft and soil or within the soil close to the soil/pier interface.DRAFT ONLY 183 DRAFT ONLY QU where = = = = = = = = = = = = = GP + GS uplift capacity of pier pier weight (dead load) weight of soil . Piers loaded in compression do not reach a clearly defined ultimate capacity. (See Figure L10).L34 VS γ θS φg L4. The side resistance of stiff piers (the usual case for transmission structure foundations) has been shown to be fully developed at displacements of less than 20 mm. by which stage the side resistance is usually fully mobilized together with a significant proportion of the end bearing resistance. . load tests demonstrate that pile capacity continues to increase indefinitely as pier settlement increases. .8 . DR 09051-PDR .8 to 0. whereas the development of bearing resistance under the toe of the pier is scale dependent. .L32 QU GP GS QP where φVCγC volume of concrete concrete density capacity reduction factor typically 0. . . Rather.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . allowing the pier to move downwards in relation to the surrounding soil.2. For this design standard.5 . ultimate capacity for compression loading of piers is defined as the compression load reached at a settlement of 5% of the pier diameter (or bell diameter for the case of belled piers).L33 VC γC φ GS where φgVSγ volume of soil soil density varies between 10° to 30° geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 .8 to 0.DRAFT ONLY 184 DRAFT ONLY Ground Level QC DS QS GP QS L1 L QB DU FIGURE L10 COMPRESSION ANALYSIS MODEL QC where = = = = = = = = = − GP + QS +QB compression capacity of pier pier weight (dead load) side resistance of pier bearing under pier tip (bell where applicable) . . . .2 . .L36 VC γC φg Qs = φ g fcπDs(L1 − L0) where .5 φg DR 09051-PDR .5*DS whichever is greater geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.L35 QC GP QS QB GP where φgVCγC volume of concrete concrete density geotechnical capacity reduction factor typically 1. . .L37 fs L1 Ds L0 = = = = = shaft adhesion length of shaft = L for straight-sided pier shaft diameter ignore first 0.5 m or 0.
L4.4 Bored piers socketed into rock In fractured rock. . then uplift capacity should be based only on rock – concrete shear strength. the failure mechanism is complex and is dependent on strength of the rock.L38 where CB DU p0 γ = = = = = bell shear undercut (bell) diameter = DS for straight-sided pier overburden pressure = γL for uniform soil profile soil weight geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0. The failure mode in rock is (nearly) the same as for pier in soil.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .DRAFT ONLY 185 DRAFT ONLY φπ Du 2 (4(9CB + p0 )) .4. If there is concern about fractures in rock. no fractures bedding planes etc. i. . Soil friction – adhesion is largely irrelevant as the footing must move (i. may assume a 45° fracture surface with weight only. bedding and fracture planes. the critical case shall be that giving the lowest capacity. Rock can be treated as hard clay or as rock with substantially more stiffness/rigidity.e. fail in rock) before adhesion-friction is realised (conservative assumptions). jointed or shattered rock a failure cone of 30° should be assumed. If heavily.2.1 Mobilization of rock mass Ground Level GS QS GP Qu Soil QS 0S GS GR GR 0R Rock FIGURE L11 ROCK MOBILIZATION MODEL DR 09051-PDR .5 φg L4.8 to 0. If rock is assumed to be sound.2. Two uplift cases (pier and cone pullouts) shall be considered for piers socketed into rock.e. and the depth to rock.
5 Guyed anchors L4. The analysis of buried concrete guy anchors foundation subjected to uplift is complex and consequently the following simplified approach may be adopted to enable the guy foundation to be checked for uplift and sliding resistance.8GS + 0. .2.DRAFT ONLY 186 DRAFT ONLY The general ultimate pier pull-out capacity is similar to the straight-sided bored pier and is given as (see Figure L11)— QU where = = = = = = = = = 0.2.2 Pier pull-out by shear failure model Refer to Paragraph L4.1 Cast in-situ anchor blocks Anchors for guys can be installed by boring or excavating a vertical shaft into which feeds an inclined hole containing the below ground anchor tendon. (See Figure L12).5 and not less than the factor applicable to the stay tension.8 to 0. θA QU Ground level QS GS GA S1 QS DG PP S2 S3 S2 P A DA B * L FIGURE L12 CAST IN-SITU ANCHOR BLOCK The capacity reduction factor should be 0. DR 09051-PDR .8GR + φg QS +φg QR uplift capacity of foundation concrete density (dead load) soil density (dead load) rock density (dead load) side resistance of pier in soil side resistance of pier in rock cone angle in rock 35° for rock masses that are closely jointed and/or weathered 45° for other rock masses cone angle in soil varies between 10° to 30° geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.2. L4.8GP + 0.2. .1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .4.4.5 .5. The base section of the shaft is then partially filled with concrete to form an anchor block.L39 QU GP GS GR QS QR θR θS φg = = L4.
8 to 0. In some cases.8GA + φgQS + φgS2 ultimate anchor tension force coefficient of earth pressure at rest vertical component of QU .DRAFT ONLY 187 DRAFT ONLY Anchor concrete blocks are frequently installed without any reliable knowledge of geotechnical soil properties.5DA)BL shearing resistance at top of anchor γDGBLtan φ shearing resistance on sides of anchor 2γKDA(DG+0. this may be backfill material.5DA)(B + L)tan φ geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.15/06/2009 13:22:00 φg .5DA)BL passive earth pressure on front of anchor γKA(DG+0.8 to 0. The appropriate soil properties should be adopted based on the weakest material in contact with the anchor block. . .5 DR 09051-PDR .L40 QU K0 QV GA GS QU*sinθA concrete density (dead load) soil density (dead load) angle of shearing resistance soil depth above anchor anchor width anchor length anchor depth side resistance along soil above anchor φ DG B L DA QS S2 γK0D2G (B + L)tanφ shearing resistance on perimeter of anchor 2γK0DA (DG + 0.5 φg Sliding resistance is— QH where = = = = = = = = = = = = = φg ( P P + P A + S 1 + 2 S3 ) ultimate anchor tension force horizontal component of QU . . . Uplift resistance is— QV where = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0.8GS + 0.5DA)BLtanφ geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.L41 QU QH PA PP S1 S3 QUcosθA active back pressure on back of anchor γKP(DG+0.
The base of spread footings may be straight sided. or cast against ground.e. except for undercut footings where the failure may be in natural in situ materials.5. The anchorage is only designed to withstand the applied guy tensile load. (other than a small amount of initial bedding in). When cast against ground an undercut or bell may be formed depending on soil conditions and the construction methods adopted. The principles used in the design are similar to that for normal bored piers. The design methodology for these types of footings is similar to bored piers. Where possible the installed anchors should be proof-tested to their designed load capacity.2 Bored pier anchors Bored pier anchors or micropiles comprise a single small diameter inclined concrete filled bored pier into which the anchor tendon has been inserted prior to pouring the concrete. Anchors should be designed and installed to eliminate in-service creep. DR 09051-PDR . The diameter of the drilled holes for the rock anchors is dependent on the grout used.2. L4. so that guys loads are sustained without the need for subsequent re-tensioning of the guy wire.5. Typically grillage footings consists of steel members forming the pyramid which are fixed to the tower stub.2. L4. Their use is now restricted to sites where access is difficult. Uplift capacity of the anchorage should be determined in accordance with AS 3600 and AS 4100 using rock’s ultimate bond stress and the capacity reduction factor determined by the geotechnical investigation. rectangular or cylindrical holes in soil or rock using machines or hand-operated tools.2. If quick setting epoxy resin grout is used the hole diameter should be no larger than the anchor rod diameter + margin as recommended by manufacturer. L4. particularly in the case of the thick mass concrete types.DRAFT ONLY 188 DRAFT ONLY L4. Concrete encasement can provide a suitable means of corrosion protection. with appropriate modification for their geometry and the failure occurring in disturbed backfill material.6 Spread footings Spread footings consist of concrete shaft and an enlarged base of either of mass concrete or a pad (slab) of reinforced concrete.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The load applied to the anchorage is transferred to the base of the footing by a centrally located tension tendon. excavated soils improved by cement or lime stabilisation. which had common use in the past.2. Grillage footings are also a type of spread footings. Backfill requirements are essentially the same as concrete footings. the hole diameter should be larger enough to enable the grout column to be injected and compacted. Where the stub extends to base of the footing the shaft may not be reinforced.4 Proprietary ground anchor systems The analysis of proprietary ground anchors i.5. Excavated footings are backfilled with the excavated soil. screw-in anchors and other forms of soil anchor systems should comply with the manufactures recommendations. or imported backfill materials when the natural ground is cannot be compacted to achieve the required uniform strength and/or density. which requires formwork. Adequate corrosion protection should be applied to the zone above the rock to 300 mm above ground. Spread footings are formed by excavating square.3 Rock anchors Where firm drillable rock is encountered within 1000 mm of the ground surface small diameter grouted rock anchors can provide an economical solution . If cement grout is used.
It is a more likely mode of failure in deep footings (depth: width ratios in the order of 4 or more) where the limit on bearing capacity has reached or where the backfill compaction is inadequate.DRAFT ONLY 189 DRAFT ONLY The three types of failure mechanism considered in the design of spread footings are— (a) Shear failure—The backfill moves upward in relation to the natural soil. Grillage foundation foundations are more susceptible to bearing failure because the high bearing stresses generated by relatively small surface area of the steel in contact with the soil. The design process should check all three proposed models. the incremental bearing capacity should be based on the plan area of the undercut. (c) Cone failure—The grillage or pad uplifts a wedge of soil in the form of a truncated. The strength of foundation is highly dependent on the method of backfilling. The Qsu term is modified as follows: ⎛2+ β ⎞ Qsu modified = ⎜ ⎟ Qsu original ⎝ 3β ⎠ in which β (b) is K tan δ Bearing failure—The backfill experiences a bearing failure just above the top of the grillage or pad. uplift loads are resisted by the weight of the soil and grillage or pad. which should be factored into any calculations. inverted pyramid. provided that the excavation and backfilling has not significantly affected the in situ materials. which usually has superior strength properties to the backfill. Cone failures are possible because the spread footings are usually shallow and the horizontal soil stresses (such as might be found in over consolidated soils) are relatively high.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The bearing capacity of the undercut may be treated in a similar manner to the design of belled pier and should incorporate the capacity reduction factor determined by the geotechnical investigation. leaving a vertically sided ‘shear’ surface with plan dimensions equal to the base of the foundation. Where an undercut is formed. with soil shear along the failure surface taken as zero. The uplift capacity Qu is— Qu = φ (W + Qsu + Qtu ) where . and undercut. The deformation required to develop the ultimate bearing capacity is usually well in excess of acceptable movement to ensure the tower’s structural integrity. . Where an undercut is formed in natural ground. The critical case will be that with the lowest ultimate strength and acceptable deformations. The material above the footing compresses and ‘flows’ around the bearing surface to the surround soil. the shear surface will be in natural material. DR 09051-PDR . .L42 W Qsu Qtu = = = is foundation weight (Wf) and soil weight (Ws) within foundation volume side resistance = 2(B + L ) σ K tan δ tip resistance typically assumed to be zero If the K tanδ over the foundation depth is greater than 1 and D/B is less than 6 a cone/wedge breakout is possible. if formed.
moment and shears forces form tower and any localised effects from anchor bolts e. DR 09051-PDR .9 Raft footings Where construction is required in difficult soft soil areas or where limited construction access is available for heavy plant to install deep foundation systems.2. L4.10 Load transfer from tower leg to footings Connections between tower leg stubs and concrete footings may be means of a base plate and anchor bolt extending into the concrete of the footing. shear stress on bolts) and AS 3600 requirements for bolt anchor length. corrosion protection.2. or by extending the stub into the shaft and providing suitable means to transfer the stub forces to the concrete.2.g.2. Such systems should be designed to comply with the requirements of AS 2159. Note friction of base plate is net friction dependent on degree of prestress in anchor bolts. Bending of base plates should be checked using yield line methods of analysis.7 Rock or soil anchored footings This type of footing is based on the applied load being transferred to the soil or foundation material by a number of soil or rock anchors extending below a load transfer cap.10.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . connections to the pier cap. pile caps or suitable bearing blocks should be used to provide resistance to lateral loads. These may take a variety of forms and can be based on cast in-situ systems. Anchor tendons should not be designed to resist lateral (shear) loads that are not parallel to the bar lengths. the use of shouldow depth raft slab footings above or partially below ground may provide a design solution.2. a more conservative capacity reduction factor should be used.e.g. they are post-tensioned after installation. Concrete column shafts should be proportioned to resist axial. L4. If bolt distribution or gusset plate geometry is non-symmetrical. If all possible yield lines patterns have been investigated.8 Deep piled footings Where weaker foundation strata are encountered deep piled systems can be used. and steel and precast concrete pile systems. the lowest computed value for the ultimate moment (assuming plastic section properties) is the ultimate capacity. The progressive de-bonding of the anchor system employed with increasing load due to elastic extension of the tension tendon should be considered. centralisers and grout. In these cases. bursting. and connected to tower stubs by a pier cap. spacers. L4.DRAFT ONLY 190 DRAFT ONLY L4.1 Design of base plates Base plate design should be generally based on ASCE 10-97 recommendations. The concrete slab is normally designed to encompass the complete structure site and has strengthening ribs extending above to also provide containment of soil or rock ballast to resit vertical uplift loads. precast driven systems. Post-tensioned ground anchor systems can also be used to transfer tensile loads to the ground and provide anchor tendons (bars or pre-stressing strands). The stability of the footing and structure is provided by the composite action of the mass of the completed raft. except when modified by AS 4100 (e. The normal design principle is for the transfer cap to transmit compression forces to the foundation material and for the anchors to provide uplift capacity. and locked off with an initial load to keep anchor extensions at the design load compatible with pile cap displacements. grouted into soil or rock. Ground anchors are active anchors i. Footings are restrained against uplift by post-tensioned ground anchors. L4.
and shaft reinforcement if applicable. in a bearing mode to the concrete. the spacing should be sufficient not to restrict the flow of concrete around the stub and cleats and to ensure that a punching type shear failure in the concrete between the cleats will not occur. When the stub end is within the shaft. concrete and reinforcement) imperfect concrete construction methods and the tolerances in bolted cleat connector may result in some connectors resisting a higher portion of the load.10. Strain compatibility between the various elements (stub. longitudinal reinforcement is required to transmit the axial force to the concrete base. Minimizing the distance between cleat levels will result in a more equal distribution of load between cleats. Tests should be generally in accordance to AS 2159. The design of the shear connectors is based on the bearing capacity of the concrete and load capacity of the connectors as determined by their stiff bearing area and bending capacity of the connector at its yields stress.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . It is recommended that only ‘friction’ bond be considered in the transfer of force above the studs or cleats. In stubs that do not extend to the base of the footings. It is recommended that connectors that are placed in several levels along the stub be designed to resist axial loads not less than 25% greater than the stub design forces. Where the load transfer cleats are positioned at the base of the footing.35 MPa if the stress in the stub is less than 300 MPa. The length of the reinforcement above the cone intersection should be sufficient for the development of full bond strength in the reinforcement. such as in reinforced concrete shafts.2. connectors. L4. It cannot be assumed that where multiple levels of connectors are required that the loads will be shared equally between connectors. reinforcement in the shaft transfers the stub forces to the base of the footing. When the stub is tension assumed friction bond should limited to 0. ground conditions. A vertical spacing between the horizontal legs of the cleats of twice the cleat flange size will generally satisfy this requirement. However. loads and conditions the foundation will be subjected to while in service. Bond between the stub and the surrounding concrete is adversely affected by the shape and finish on galvanised steel stubs.2 Design of stubs The transfer of force from the stub to the surrounding concrete is by a combination of steelconcrete bond and by shear connectors on the stub that transfer force.DRAFT ONLY 191 DRAFT ONLY L4. Assumed friction bond in compression should not exceed 0. The normal method is to provide bolted or welded cleats or studs attached to the lower end of the leg stub in sufficient number and spacing to transfer the force below the zone of bond development to the surrounding concrete. The forces transfer is usually assumed to be in a 45° cone between the shear connectors and reinforcement.3 Foundation testing Foundation testing may be used as a means of determining the load capacity of the footing or its components and its foundation materials to meet design requirements. Most of the stub axial force is resisted by shear connections. the footing design should also be checked for punching shear under both maximum compression and uplift loads. or ignored in the design calculations if the stress is greater than 300MPa.7 MPa. DR 09051-PDR . The method of testing should be appropriate to the types of footing. Cropping of the ineffective part of the horizontal cleat leg will assist the flow of concrete when space may be limited.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 .. N.H.. Model tests with transversally loaded rigid piles in sand. CHRISTENSEN. The ultimate resistance of rigid piles against transversal forces.DRAFT ONLY 192 DRAFT ONLY L4. L5 REFERENCE 1 Bulletin No. DR 09051-PDR . 12 issued by the Geoteknisk Institut (The Danish Geotechnical Institute – Copenhagen 1961) Topics: BRINCH HANSEN. Such systems can be of the sacrificial anode or impressed current types.4 Cathodic protection Consideration should be given in the design process to the inclusion of an appropriate cathodic protection system where aggressive soil conditions may exist that could adversely affect the design life of the footing. J.
and to provide uniform work practices around Australia and New Zealand. If due to access constraints or the need to access poles and towers by climbing then attached climbing is permissible if appropriate fall arrest systems are used.1 Pole structures Where access for the safe use of an EWP is not available.1 1891. This will require the provision of fittings and devices to assist with the safe access and positioning of workers on the structure.3 1891.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The following sets out a standardized approach for construction and maintenance work practices on overhead lines. This is coupled with an increasing need for all overhead line feeders to have greater operational availability and increased use of live line maintenance techniques. use and maintenance National fall protection guidelines for the electricity industry Use of personal fall arrest systems Guide—Operation and maintenance of elevating work platforms M3 METHODS FOR ACCESSING WORK POSITIONS M3. The use of man boxes attached to cranes may provide an alternative to use of EWPs .1 Use of elevating work platforms (EWP) All line construction and maintenance work on both pole and steel tower overhead line construction should be assessed on the basis of use of using EWPs as the first option to gain access and work at heights. M2 REFERENCE STANDARDS FOR CLIMBING AND WORKING AT HEIGHTS AS/NZS 1891 1891. the structure should be designed for climbing access.2 Climbing techniques M3.2 1891. Where structures are placed in difficult terrain and access for EWPs is not possible.2. work methods should consider the use of EWP’s to the maximum extent. climbing access may be used only if safe climbing work methods on the structure are possible. M3.4 NENS 05 EEA/NZ EEA/NZ Industrial fall arrest systems and devices Part 1: Harnesses and ancillary equipment Part 2: Horizontal life line and rail systems Part 3: Fall arrest devices Part 4: Selection. in an effort to reduce further unnecessary hazards for personnel moving between overhead line networks. and for safe work from the structure.DRAFT ONLY 193 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX M APPLICATION OF STANDARDIZED WORK METHODS FOR CLIMBING AND WORKING AT HEIGHTS (Informative) M1 GENERAL OVERVIEW There have been significant changes in legislation and work practices in the building and construction industries to make work sites safer and this has necessitated changes in work practices. DR 09051-PDR .
M4 FALL PREVENTION SYSTEMS Where any climbing or working at height is likely to be required the structure is to be designed to provide for linepersons to use a portable fall prevention system in accordance with AS/NZS 1891.2 ‘Limited free fall’ fall arrest M4.2 Lattice steel tower structures All lattice steel structures should be fitted with facilities to allow climbing access to any work position to permit both de-energized and energized maintenance work. which will permit only a restrained fall. Some live line maintenance techniques on high voltage lines require the placement of workers on the structure as well as in the bucket of an EWP. M4. DR 09051-PDR . This requires 6 kN ultimate strength anchorage for restraint devices.DRAFT ONLY 194 DRAFT ONLY M3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . For overhead line construction and maintenance activities this requires the provision of the following to minimize risk of potential injury with attachment at all times to provide either ‘restrained fall’ or ‘limited free fall’ restraint.1 Provision and use of a line workers body belt or work positioning harness This is a full body harness that also has inbuilt shock absorption characteristics.1 Provision and use of a line workers body belt or work positioning harness This is a full body harness that also has inbuilt shock absorption characteristics. A combination of anchorage placement and fixed length restraint line or pole strap length.2. This may require the transfer of personnel from an EWP to a structure superstructure in order to provide the safest means of access. M4.1. Any structural element should be capable of supporting this load as a single point load application.1 ‘Restrained fall’ fall arrest M4.2. in a deformed state but without failure.
This can be achieved by attachment of a fibre sling around a climbing leg-bracing node point or other structural member node points. Where the above is not possible due to the structural framing arrangement in relation to the required work position then an alternative restraint technique should be used and considered in the design with anchorage above the work position. This may require the provision of anchorage points to support devices such as inertia reels and static lines.3 Use of static lines Where multiple workers are required to ascend or descend a structure or to be able to move from position to position on a horizontal plane.DRAFT ONLY 195 DRAFT ONLY A combination of anchorage placement and fixed restraint line or length of pole strap which will permit only a limited free fall to <600 mm This requires the anchorage point to have a 12 kN ultimate strength anchorage. the attachment/detachment of lanyard or pole strap is to be always above the waist position. In all cases of restrained work.4 Double lanyard restraint In order to provide for M4.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . the use of a static line may be used as a means of restraint. DR 09051-PDR .3 above a double lanyard or double pole strap restrain arrangement should be used to provide for the worker to be attached at all times while climbing or while in a work position or moving while in a work area. Where static lines are to be used a maximum of two people may be attached to the line at any one time and a top anchorage capacity of 21 kN is required.2 and M4. M4. M4.
Once a work position is reached. each pole step may need to support the weight of two persons. the worker is required to use a work positioning restraint pole strap. Typical horizontal restraint of any member in a tower—6 kN. and this requires the selection of anchorage points with at least 6 kN capacity. The following anchorage capacities are required to be provided by the structure design: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Inertia reel attachment points for work on cross-arm tips—15 kN. For safety in climbing a step bolt size of 20 mm diameter and a clear shank length of 180 mm may be considered. Attachment to bracing node points for work on E/W peak—15 kN.DRAFT ONLY 196 DRAFT ONLY M5 SPECIFIC STRUCTURE DESIGN PROVISIONS Where pole steps or step bolts are required they should be in accordance with the provision of AS/NZS 1559. attachment should be at bracing node points wherever possible in order to provide containment of any potential lanyard movement. in a ‘restrained fall’ position. Any structural load carrying or redundant brace member fixed with a single 16-diameter bolt at each end can provide this load restraint capacity in a nondeformed or deformed state.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Refer to Figure M1 for typical arrangement of anchorage points on lattice steel structures. In general. DR 09051-PDR . and afford more secure anchorage. Attachment to bracing node points—15 kN. NOTE: Where a tower or pole rescue is required. Attachment to any bracing node points on a lattice steel tower in general will provide an anchorage capacity of 15 kN. Typical static line attachment point above climbing step bolts—21 KN.
– 6 k N D O N OT AT TACH TO 16 m m ST EP BO LTS L i m i t of l a nya rd at t a c h m e n t a n c h o r a g e re stra int – Ine r ti a re e l m u s t b e u s e d b eyo n d th i s p o i nt L i m i t of l a nya rd at tac h m e nt a n c h o rag e re stra i nt – at t a c h m e nt p o i nt m u s t b e a b ove wa i s t p o s i ti o n ( exc e pt fo r L i ve L i n e ac c e s s i n c ro u c h e d p o s i ti o n to C ro s s-a r m ti p b u t w i th at t ac h m e nt a l ways a b ove wa i st ) FIGURE M1 TYPICAL STEEL TOWER CLIMBING ATTACHMENT POINTS AND ANCHORAGE CAPACITIES DR 09051-PDR .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . o r a n c h o r l o o ps.DRAFT ONLY 197 DRAFT ONLY Ty p i c a l s t ati c l i n e at t a c h m e nt p o i nt a b ove c l i m b i n g s te p b o l ts – 21 k N Inte r tia Re e l at tachme nt p o i nts fo r wo r k o n c ro s s a r m ti ps – 15 k N At tac h me nt to bracing n o d e p o i nts fo r wo r k o n E / W p e a k – 15 k N At tac h me nt to bracing n o d e p o i nts – 15 k N At tac h m e nt to 20 m m s te p b o l ts.
Change in maintenance procedures. The designer should consider changes in OHS legislative requirements. This may be undertaken for a variety of purposes including the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Improve structure reliability. Structures should include transmission or distribution towers/poles supporting high voltage electrical aerial conductors or radio communication masts/poles and associated foundations. Adding of new/larger telecommunication equipment. Modify structure geometry to accommodate increased electrical aerial conductor operating temperature or improve electrical/radiation clearances. work practices or other directives related to construction safety and personnel access that need to be accommodated in preparation of the scope of modifications. Criteria for condition assessment of existing structure. The designer should select an appropriate structure model for analysis that provides an accurate representation of the actual structure performance and justify assumptions regarding load transfer between existing components and modified components and to foundations. Change in structure load criteria or operational duty. strength and serviceability limit states defined elsewhere in this Standard. N2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS The following factors should be considered for the up-gradation of transmission structures: (a) Structure upgrade designs should be prepared and authorised by a qualified structural design engineer with appropriate experience in transmission/distribution structures or radio communication structures. (b) (c) (d) N3 PURPOSE OF UPGRADE Structural upgrade is defined as actions taken to improve structural and foundation performance beyond the initial design specifications.DRAFT ONLY 198 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX N UPGRADING OVERHEAD LINE STRUCTURES (Informative) N1 SCOPE This Appendix provides guidelines on the requirements to be fulfilled for the modifications of existing structures and foundations to maintain structural integrity or upgrade structural capacity. remedial work to repair corrosion and third party damage or disrupted members due to overload conditions are excluded from the scope of this Appendix.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . DR 09051-PDR . Fixture of new components to comply with updated OHS criteria for personnel access. The structure as a whole and its component parts should comply with stability.
Consideration should be given by the designer to any influence the test rig may have on the performance of the structure or component. which is prepared to demonstrate or test the performance in sympathy with the design process. The tests should be carried out to a test plan. DR 09051-PDR . This should happen due to the modified stiffness matrix at a joint and/or pre-loading on existing member. availability of materials or conservative 2-D method of analysis. Existing aerial conductor tensions. These loads should have to be evaluated as per requirements specified in this Standard for the changed operational condition. structure and/or foundation modification. site-specific restrictions. Testing should preferably be continued maximum 150% of ultimate load or to destruction (whichever occurs first) to verify the presence of any brittle failure close to ultimate load. This should reflect the accuracy of the calculations. material testing and careful engineering assessment is required. component dead weight and resulting loads transferred onto structural supports should be carefully examined and taken into account when developing work procedures and selecting required equipment. However. The records of the test should include as a minimum— (a) test plan and purpose of each test.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . personnel access. The designer should have to prepare documents for such material testing and engineering assessment that should form an integral part of the structural up-gradation proposal. structure upgrade can possibly be achieved with minimum effort. The number of tests and applied load to suit the required COV should be in accordance with AS/NZS 1170. N6 LOAD TEST ON STRUCTURES Load testing can be used to verify that the performance of the structure or component is consistent with the theoretical design or the trialing of options without design. In such cases. If the steel material property and member properties are not documented. plus the dead weight of the structure. A correlation of past model assumptions with new model assumptions should have to be performed for the entire structure.DRAFT ONLY 199 DRAFT ONLY N4 STRUCTURAL ASSESMENT The appropriate stress analysis of transmission tower requires calculation of the total forces in each member of the tower under action of combination of loads externally applied. the degree of difficulty in installation of the reinforcement and the security required.0 or an equivalent recognized standard. When performing an analysis of an existing structure. Some subjective judgement may be required on the part of the designer to establish loading and performance criteria. all original design assumptions should be reexamined again and the designer should determine and document if there is any major difference in the load distribution of the structure with new analysis. N5 WORKING ON LOADED STRUCTURES The designer should carryout a comprehensive structural analysis of the transmission structures considered for upgrading prior to any fieldwork. It is possible that the original structure capacity was not utilized fully for various reasons such as unusual terrain conditions. careful attention should be given to the method of analysis employed when the structure originally designed. Field inspection is a pre-requisite for the structural assessment of existing structures to ensure that the structures are in good condition and/or to adjust the capacity of individual structural member. Testing of components should account for actual stiffness and possible variations of the surrounding structure.
It is preferable to weld (or service level non-slip bolted joint) the splice angle at the circumference with fillet seams to the supplemented sections in the workshop and after galvanizing.1. and conclusion.1. increase in wind area should have to be taken into consideration for reassessment of the structure with this arrangement. the sub-members should have to be bolted in such a way so that the composite member can be treated as a single member (i. Refer to Paragraph N7.2 Compression members upgrade The strength of compression member can be increased by reducing its unsupported length or end restrained condition.4 for load transfer between old and new members. Increasing the number of bolts at end of single bolted members should change the endrestrained condition of compression member. Welding is not desirable in many cases due to the poor fatigue performance of welded connections.1 Tension member upgrade Strength of tension member can be achieved by replacing existing member with higher profile or by adding new member to the existing member.1. Addition of new member should also increase compression strength of members. Tensile strength can also be increased with the use of splice angles bolted with the existing leg member and supplementing angle section to cruciform/T-section by an additional angle.1.DRAFT ONLY 200 DRAFT ONLY (b) (c) (d) (e) load and deflection. Strengthening within the nodes and across. DR 09051-PDR .3 for connection details and Paragraph N7. Refer to Paragraph N7.1.1 for the requirement of such modification. fully composite section). N7. any variations of the tested structure or component from the proposed final design and what influence this may have on the test outcome. The designer should have to propose the temporary load transfer arrangement as well as sequential working procedure for the replacement of any existing member with new one. However. N7 STRUCTURE UPGRADE N7. the same adjust them to the existing members at site. localized deformation. Unsupported length can be reduced by inserting additional redundant members or changing the redundant pattern.1 Lattice steel structure upgrade The main purpose to upgrade the existing structure is to keep the resistance of the structure (including individual elements of a structure) within the limit of design resistance for the modified loading conditions and/or line design criteria. If strengthening within the nodes and across the joint is required. The splice angles should be arranged at least at one-third distance of the total buckling length. the supplemented angle should have to pass through the joints by providing adequate distance to clear the bolt threads of existing joint by providing splice angles with appropriate thickness.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . However. the joint is not necessary if the net cross section multiplied by the yield strength of the material is higher than the maximum force. N7. However. A list of preferred modification options is given in Paragraph N9. which in turn should increase the compression strength.e.
the supplemented member will not carry the load proportionately with respect to the relative stiffness. slip in the serviceability limit state is required to be limited and connections should be designed for bolts serviceability limit state (see AS 4100). Special attention should be given while designing connection between supplemented and existing angle sections. due care should be given to verify the bolt pretension and the faying surface condition at site to ensure the requirements considered during design are properly implemented. The bolt spacing should not be more than 6 xdb. Y 0. changing compression member to that profile (especially to increase the diaphragm strength by providing T-shaped horizontal edge member) should increase the compression strength.3 Connection upgrade and consideration in connection design Connection can be upgraded by the use of high strength bolts confirming to specification AS/NZS 1252. or remove the coating. The surface should be roughened by means of hand wire brushing (after hot dip galvanization) and the treatment should be controlled to achieve visible roughening or scoring (but not removing the coating). N7. FIGURE N1 CRITICAL SLENDERNESS RATIO OF T-SECTION However.1. improvement in buckling performance is the best way to increase the compression strength of any member unless the modification in angle section yields an efficient load transfer.DRAFT ONLY 201 DRAFT ONLY T-section should have the improved slenderness ratio and hence. However. (See Figure N1).15/06/2009 13:22:00 . However. N7. Due care should have to be taken during design to account such effect arising from the installation condition. At least two bolts should be used at each connection. This initial loading condition causes a higher proportionate axial load to the existing member and a lower one to the supplemented section.1 and N7.1. where db is the diameter of hole.1. DR 09051-PDR . See Paragraph N7. The connection between existing member and the supplementing member may be designed as non-slip joint.1.1.5% of the composite member compression force. In such case. It is essential to confirm minimum relative movement of submembers of the newly formed compound member to ensure balanced load distribution.51/rxx and L/ryy. Use of additional bolts at joint should also increase the connection capacity.2) moves the centroidal axis of the leg members outwards. The connection between old member and supplemented member should have to be designed for a shear force equal to 2.4 for load transfer between old and new members. since the existing member is preloaded with external forces. The slip factor should have to be assumed as per recommendation given in AS 4100. Power wire brushing is not permitted because it may polish rather than roughen the surface.3 for connection details and Paragraph N7.1.4 Force distribution in newly formed composite section Addition of an angle section (as described in Paragraphs N7.5 L L X NOTE: Critical slenderness ratio should be the maximum of 0.
only steel cables should be used for temporary or permanent guys. which may be defined as the percent of the guy RBS up to which the guy fitting is able to sustain. If the guying system is designed as a structural components the guy fittings should have suitable WLL markings and be selected in accordance with the WLL under EDT and WLL*3 under ultimate loads. tension measurement of the installed guys (by vibration frequency. The initial and final modulus of elasticity of the guys together with the creep should have to be considered. Tower and anchors can be designed for the maximum amount of specified anchor slippage.DRAFT ONLY 202 DRAFT ONLY N7. As a minimum it is recommended that combinations of guy stiffness varying to 150% and 50% of the proposed cable be considered. The mechanical efficiency should be marked on guy fittings. measurement of sag). temporary removal of load to allow adjustment of the length and attachment points on the anchors for temporary replacement of the normal guys. This can be assessed by comparing the depth of embedment of the foundation and likely soil heave or settlement. Load testing of the guy anchors is recommended to ensure against excessive slippage. mechanical tensiometer. the flexibility of the guy. The designer should check that the selected components have an ultimate capacity of at least 5*WLL. DR 09051-PDR . Buried components of the guying system should be designed to allow for the extreme level of corrosion for the type of installation. The guy cable should be as a minimum earthed for fault currents.5 Guying of structures Guys can be used in various arrangements to reinforce structures. The design of the guy system and supported structure should as a minimum account for— (a) possible variations in the effective stiffness of individual guys within the system caused by variations in initial installed tension. The guy anchor foundations may be designed for less than the full capacity of the anchor. Consideration should be given to the sizing of the cable for suitable stiffness. (b) (c) Selection of the guy cable should satisfy strength requirements in accordance with AS 3995. together with the flexibility of the tower. Guying systems may be considered either as a continuation of the aerial conductors (i) OR as structural components (ii)— (i) if the guying system is designed as continuation of the aerial conductors using aerial conductor hardware then allowance should be made for broken cables and attachments. usually the guy fittings will not be able to develop the full rated breaking strength (RBS) of the guy but should have to be designed for 70% of RBS under weather loads and 85% of RBS under failure containment conditions. is needed to compute the foundation reactions and anchor loads. Other considerations such as relaxation of individual guys should be made.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . variation in structure stiffness compared to actual stiffness.1. small movements of the footing may relieve load. Consideration should be given to the termination fittings of the guy to allow coarse and fine length adjustment. and differential movement of the structure foundations relative to the guy anchor foundations. ii) (iii) (as alternate of (ii)) If the guying system is designed as a structural components. Because of the large elongation of non-steel ropes. The guy attachments should be designed for the full tensile capacity of the guy cable. foundation movement. On narrow masts.
Various strengths and types of pole nails or nail systems that are rigidly attached to the pole are available to either temporarily reinforce or to replace completely the base section of poles.g. Pretensioning of the guy cable can be used to pre-load the foundations of the reinforced structure.2.2. Guy systems can be used to carry torsional load at a level in a tower but the effectiveness is dependent on the stiffness of the structure.Depending on the procedure.1. Guy fittings should have split pins or double nuts for locking against vibration.2.2.2. Where temporary reinforcing type systems are used careful consideration needs to be made of the level of serviceable strength that is provided over time under conditions where the wood pole butt suffers further deterioration.1. or a tensioning sequence controlled by the pole top displacement. Galvanized steel in direct contact with soils will not have significant life unless in low rainfall or semi arid areas and replacement of the base section is likely during the life of the structure. Pole nails provide a means of providing reinforcement of poles and extending their service life. DR 09051-PDR . the designer should specify either— (A) (B) pretension values. Where soft rot is detected in its early stages. yearly wind) or other everyday weather related load combination. N7.1 Direct embedded poles and socketed base type poles Tubular form steel poles directly embedded into soil will normally have either a hot dip galvanized finish or a duplex tar epoxy coating applied over the galvanized.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . N7.2 Structure upgrade N7. the sag of the cable may be excessive for visual and stiffness considerations.2.2 Steel pole structure upgrade N7. poles can be assessed for loss of strength and limits set on the minimum permissible load factor to be provided before further reinforcement of the pole element is required. The minimum pretension should be such that the leeward guys do not go slack under frequently occurring winds (e. Duplex coated poles should not require upgrading during its design service life unless the coating system breaks down. At the lower range.1 Hardwood poles Timber poles have been found to deteriorate over time in the ground line zone due to termites attack or soft rot mechanisms and at height due to the long term exposure to the natural elements. N7. The guy attachment points on the structure should allow for possible variations in the installation of the guy position causing changes in the force components at the attachment.1 Wooden pole structure upgrade N7.2 Softwood poles In general CCA treated softwood poles should not require upgrading during their design service life.DRAFT ONLY 203 DRAFT ONLY Pretension of guys should be at least 5% of CBL of the cable and preferably closer to 10% of CBL (with maximum ±10% tolerance).
the old foundation may be abounded or may be used as a part of new foundation. It should be assumed that any cast in situ socket will fill with water over time. N8 FOUNDATION UPGRADE Increased reaction from super-structure for the purposes stated in Paragraph N3 should be transferred safely to the existing foundation system.2.3 Concrete pole structure upgrade Most concrete poles are made from high strength concrete using a high compaction process. Poles of this type have been in service for over 80 years without any degradation of the pole element.DRAFT ONLY 204 DRAFT ONLY Poles socketed into concrete base sockets will perform generally in accordance with the above provisions.2. Specific maintenance of the region is required in order to extend the service life of the structure. N7. In such case. Limited scope exists to upgrade the design capacity of these structures unless by the use of composite elements attached to the outer or inner surfaces of the pole. Accelerated loss of zinc coating will most likely occur to some extent. N7. N7. The designer should have to design an appropriate anchoring system to satisfy this requirement. Condensation will then occur during low temperature cycles that will cause corrosion of the inner zinc surfaces.2. To counteract this complete sealing of the inner void will limit available oxygen. Some are also prestressed. New foundation can be installed to transfer higher load from super structure and after completion of the new foundation construction.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . DR 09051-PDR .2. Other methods may include enlarging the footing bearing area or installing tie beams between individual footings. but needs to be checked over the life of the line. Periodic internal boroscope inspection of the inner base section would be beneficial to extending the service life of poles. due to capillary action on the pole/seal interface.2 Base plate mounted poles The weakest element in this type of construction is the corrosion protection of the holding down bolts and any projections of bolt threads. soil stabilising). N7.2. However.3 Slip joints and internal surface protection All cylindrical galvanized steel poles joined in the field with slip joints can be expected to have some but limited corrosion of the mating surfaces of the joint without any significant loss of strength. Additional uplift force can be counter measured by increasing the dead weight of the footing. Lateral support can be achieved by methods as simple as modifying engineering properties of soil adjacent to the footing member (compaction. in the immediate above ground zone due to the daily drying/wetting cycle with dew particularly in grassed footpath areas. due attention is required for the integrity between the new concrete section to the old concrete section.4 Composite pole structure upgrade This type of pole has limited service experience at the time this Standard was prepared but is seen to be similar to concrete poles. Temperature effects can have a major effect on the ingress of moisture into the inner void of steel poles due to the ‘breathing’/expansion of the pole drawing in moist air. the structure can be re-positioned onto the new foundation.2.
Addition of guy (stay) wires. Replacement of angle sections with larger section members.g. Appropriate geotechnical investigation is required prior to any foundation modification or installation of new foundation for increased load transfer. N9 MODIFICATION OF LATTICE STEEL STRUCTURE Lattice steel structures can be strengthened by means of following measures: (a) Adding new profile with existing structural element (e. Install tower on new base and/or use of tower extension above waist to increase height (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) N10 MODIFICATION OF POLE STRUCTURE Pole structures can be strengthened by means of following measures: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Adding stays. Modification in tower top geometry for thermal or voltage uprating of line. N11 SAFETY N11. Modifying tower geometry to optimize the load distribution pattern within the structure (e.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Introducing additional redundant members/modifying redundant pattern to increase the compression strength of the structure component. The designer should have to carry out appropriate investigation to predict any potential stability hazard that may arise to existing foundation while constructing new foundation or modifying existing foundation causing soil disturbance. Use of fibre reinforced polymer to increase the flexural capacity of steel monopoles. adding back-to-back angle with existing angle at horizontal edge members/bracing members/compression chord of X-arm to enhance the buckling resistance). Inserting the steel section on the base of a wooden pole to increase height.g. Addition of bolts/splice plates to enhance end restrained condition of compression member or Up-gradation of bolts to higher grade and/or diameter. some times even a small pole maybe added. introducing additional diaphragm between panels).1 Construction and maintenance work procedures The designer should have to confirm the following aspects: (a) (b) Production of construction and maintenance procedures complying the design assumptions and requirements. All potential constraints are documented.DRAFT ONLY 205 DRAFT ONLY The designer should have to prepare the temporary load transfer arrangement as well as sequential working procedure required for safe strengthening of existing foundation system/construction of new foundation or safe re-positioning of structure onto the new foundation. Pole nails for wooden poles. Doubling up concrete poles. DR 09051-PDR .
2 Personnel access Personnel access controls developed to comply with OHS legislative requirements and other directives have seen the specification of significantly increased maintenance and fall-arrest loads and fixing of more sophisticated climbing aids.DRAFT ONLY 206 DRAFT ONLY However. DR 09051-PDR . review of working procedures for independent engineering assessment to ensure the compliance with design assumptions and specified constraints should be required prior to commencing the fieldwork.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . N11. The designer should consider whether such scope for the upgrade work on structures installed prior to these requirements should be inclusive of these requirements.
The area of the surface from which the test specimens are to be cut shall be free from cracks visible by normal or corrected vision.DRAFT ONLY 207 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX O WATER ABSORPTION TEST (Normative) O1 SCOPE This Appendix sets out the method for the determination of the water absorptive property of concrete poles.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Cutting and grinding equipment for preparing the specimen. A weighing mechanism capable of determining the mass of the test piece. O5 PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMEN From each sample pole.0 × 104 mm2 and 1. Drying cloths and implements for handling the specimen from oven to desiccator to bath. O2 PRINCIPLE The relative water absorption of the pole concrete is taken as a measure of the resistance of the concrete to atmospheric moisture penetration. or 125 mm nominal diameter. A water bath of sufficient plan area and depth for the test specimen to be completely immersed in water and in which the water can be maintained continuously at boiling point for at least 5 h. The relative water absorption is measured as the difference in mass between an oven-dried specimen and the saturated surface-dry mass of the specimen after a fixed period of immersion in boiling water.5 g. with end faces corresponding to the internal and external surfaces of the pole of area between 1. would satisfy these area requirements. to an accuracy of ±0. from the time of casting to the time of preparation of the test specimens. which would affect the absorptive properties of the concrete. DR 09051-PDR . extract a radial core that extends through the entire thickness of the wall. expressed as a percentage of the oven-dried mass. made by cutting radially through the wall with a coring bit of 115 mm diameter. in a batch of poles. The cut surfaces of the specimen shall be ground smooth and the specimen kept in a damp condition until tested. O3 APPARATUS The apparatus consists of the following items: (a) (b) (c) A ventilated drying oven of sufficient capacity to hold a test specimen and capable of maintaining a temperature of 105 ±3°C. (d) (e) (f) O4 CONDITION OF SAMPLE POLES The age of the sample pole(s). shall not be less than 14 days nor greater than 28 days.5 × 104 mm2. A desiccator of sufficient capacity to hold the test specimen from Item (a). NOTE: The test method is based on AS 4058. NOTE: A cylindrical specimen. The poles shall not have been subjected to any previous testing. during the various stages.
O6. Record the lowest value. cooling it to room temperature in the desiccator and reweighing it as soon as possible.2 Immersion procedure Immediately following the determination of the dry mass. remove it from the concrete and clean off any adhering mortar. remove the specimen from the bath. suspend the specimen in the bath so that no part of the specimen is closer to a direct source of heat than 50 mm. If the specimen contains reinforcement. heat the water rapidly to 100°C and maintain it at that temperature for 5 hours keeping the specimen covered with water throughout. a further test at 28 days would be required.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Absorption tests made on 28-day-old concrete will. to the nearest gram. and then remove any remaining water from the surface with the absorbent paper or cloth. The latter reading is recorded as the dry mass (m1). At the end of this period.1 Determination of dry mass (m1) The procedure is as follows: (a) (b) Weigh the damp specimen to the nearest gram and record the mass as m0.2. Weigh the reinforcement and record its mass as (m3). DR 09051-PDR . therefore. show a change in mass of not greater than 0. Dry the specimen at 105 ±3°C in the drying oven until consecutive weight measurements of the specimen.1% of m0.2 Procedures O6.1 General The test shall be carried out when the age of the concrete in the specimen is not greater than 28 days. yield lower percentage values than tests on concrete less than 28 days old. Hence. Each consecutive weighing required may be carried out either— (i) (ii) O6. Weigh the specimen in this saturated surface-dry condition and record the mass as (m2). by gradually replacing the hot water with colder water. Once the specimen has been covered to the required depth. by first allowing the specimen to cool from oven temperature to room temperature in the desiccator and then weighing. O6. if this is not the case.2.2. no further test will be required. to the nearest gram. However.DRAFT ONLY 208 DRAFT ONLY O6 TEST PROCEDURES O6. if no further drying is required. NOTE: The ability of concrete to absorb water diminishes with increasing time after casting and with increasing duration and quality of curing. cool the specimen uniformly over 2 h to 20 ±5°C. or by weighing the hot specimen within 1 min of its removal from the oven then. when made at intervals of not less than 4 h. allow it to drain for not more than 1 min. determined at room temperature as the dry mass (m1) to the nearest gram. if an early-age value is less than the permissible limiting value. Introduce potable water into the bath at room temperature until all surfaces of the specimen are covered by at least 25 mm of water.3 Determination of saturated surface-dry mass (m2) At the end of the immersion procedure.
in grams the mass of reinforcement. The date on which the first test specimen was taken from the batch or the age of the concrete on that date.2. DR 09051-PDR . O8. A statement as to whether or not these values satisfy the criteria given in Paragraph I5. m2 and m3.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .1 Records For each batch of poles for which water absorption tests are taken. or the age of the concrete at that date.2 Reports For each batch of poles for which water absorption tests have been carried out. The calculated values of kwj for the batch. in grams O8 RECORDS AND REPORTS O8. .O1 where m1 m2 m3 = = = the dry mass. the following records shall be kept: (a) (b) (c) A means of identifying the individual test specimens and the batch from which they were taken. The date on which the test specimens were taken from the batch. a report containing the following information shall be prepared: (a) (b) (c) (d) Identification of the test specimens and the batch from which they were taken.DRAFT ONLY 209 DRAFT ONLY O7 CALCULATIONS The absorption of each test specimen shall be calculated from the following equation: k wj = ( m2 − m1 ) ×100 ( m1 − m3 ) . the calculated value of kwj. and (iii) the date on which m1 was determined. For each specimen tested from the batch— (i) (ii) the measured values of m1. . in grams the saturated surface-dry mass.
Use normal disc profiles where the creepage length is 300 mm.0 2.76 → 2 discs Minimum nominal specific creepage = distance Required creepage distance for 33 kV Number of discs = 528/300 = = The pollution performance of insulators can also be improved with the use creepage extenders or hydrophobic coatings such as Room Temperature Silicon Rubber (RTV). Voltage of line = 33 kV 16 mm/kV for light contamination 528 mm 1. These coatings have a finite life and will need to be replaced during the life of the insulator.0 to 3.DRAFT ONLY 210 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX P INSULATION GUIDELINES (Informative) P1 INSULATION COORDINATION BASICS Pollution flashovers can occur under wet or high humidity conditions. in the presence of trapped charges. TABLE P1 GUIDE FOR SELECTING INSULATORS IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS Contamination severity ESDD range (1) g/m Light Medium Heavy Very heavy (1) (2) Minimum nominal specific creepage distance (2) mm/kV 16 20 25 31 0 to1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . An overhead line should be designed to avoid a power frequency flashover. the surges can be up to 4 times normal operating voltage P2 DESIGN FOR POLLUTION Pollution design recommendations are given in AS 4436.2 to 2. Switching surges on overhead lines should also be considered and the appropriate amount of insulation installed to avoid these surges.m. Consideration should be given to increasing the creepage distances is areas where there are long periods without rainfall or very close to the marine coast (3) Example: Select a suitable disc insulator string for a 33 kV line subject to light contamination. upon reclosure of the line there is every likelihood of a subsequent flashover should the wetting conditions continue.0 Above 3. DR 09051-PDR . Even if the insulation can withstand the initial flashover without damage. Switching surges can reach up to 3 times the normal operating voltage and in the case when high speed autoreclosing is used.0 ESDD is the equivalent salt deposit density. The basic concept is to increase the surface creepage distance so that it is long enough to prevent a pollution flashover across the surface. Ratio of leakage distance measured between phase and earth over the r.2 1.s phase to phase voltage of the highest voltage of the equipment.
Switching tests have been conducted in laboratories and the flashover voltages have been inconsistent and found to be dependent on the shape of the surge. but in desert environments. When designing for switching surges.1 Standard and fog profile disc insulators A typical 254 mm × 146 mm standard profile disc generally has a creepage length of approximately 300 mm. it is common for the aerodynamically dinner plate shaped insulators to be used. contaminants can be trapped under the skirts and build up to such levels that they bridge the skirts. For areas of extremely low rainfall. The pin insulator is prone to puncture especially from steep fronted lightning strikes because of the small amount of ceramic material between the top of the insulator and the metallic bolt inserted in the bottom of the ceramic. deeper skirts to increase creepage length and greater distance between skirts to reduce arcing. Line insulation is usually selected independent of substation insulation. insulator to crossarm. Pin insulators usually have less creepage length compared to the post types but can be designed with larger skirts to handle heavy contaminated conditions. and crossarm to pole. It is necessary to check substation insulation impulse performance and install surge arresters.DRAFT ONLY 211 DRAFT ONLY Pole top fires may occur when high leakage currents from polluted insulators track across interfaces between conductive to non-conductive material e. The additional creepage length is gained by having deeper skirts and this comes at a higher cost. The insulator parameter that determines the insulator impulse performance (i. one being the lightning impulse and the other the power frequency flashover (wet and dry).8 times the lightning impulse flashover voltage. This then dramatically lowers the creepage length of the insulator. P4. P3 DESIGN FOR SWITCHING PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS SURGE DESIGN AND LIGHTNING A good coverage on the design for switching surge is given in AS 1824. shackle and posts Ceramic pin. This is a 40% improvement in leakage distance over the standard disc. silicon rubber and cycloaliphatic).15/06/2009 13:22:00 . P4 SELECTION OF INSULATORS The two main class of insulators are ceramic (glass and porcelain) and composite (EPDM. DR 09051-PDR . A typical 254 mm × 146 mm fog profile disc has a creepage length around 430 mm. the type of electrodes and the presence of earth planes. In lieu of adequate test data on switching surges a good approximation for the switching surge flashover voltage is 0. especially when the line insulation is longer than the substation insulation.2. This is acceptable for a marine or industrial environments that are exposed to regular rainfall. one of the parameters which is difficult to obtain is the switching surge impulse voltage. The profiles are variable between manufacturers who have to balance the requirements of having an aerodynamic shape to attract fewer pollutants. shackle and post insulators have been manufactured since the early years of last century.2 Ceramic pin. These insulators come in various lengths and profiles to meet the electrical and mechanical loads. There are two main types of electrical tests conducted on insulators. It is common practice to install fog profile insulators in heavy to extreme contamination areas. switching surge and lightning) is the arc distance across the insulator. Ceramic insulators have traditionally been installed on overhead networks and have provided a reliable service in light to moderately contaminated environments.g.e. P4.
Silicon Rubber. DR 09051-PDR . Post insulators generally have the highest creepage lengths and can be manufactured with wider skirts to handle increasing amounts of pollution. Silicon Rubber is slightly more expensive than EPDM. Hence.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . EPDM. both types of polymers have shown significant evidence of ageing (erosion and cracks along the axis of the polymer). One major advantage of the composite insulators over the ceramic ones is that they do not have intermediate metal parts between the end fittings. especially when de-energized.DRAFT ONLY 212 DRAFT ONLY Shackle insulators are installed in positions where there are higher conductor loads. However. In heavy to extreme environments. The advantages of the post insulator come at a higher cost. Composites are generally regarded as being superior to ceramic for low to moderately contaminated environments because of their ability to maintain hydrophobicity. some disadvantages of polymeric insulators are as follows: (iii) Limited diagnostic testing available.3 Composite long rod and line post insulators Composite insulators are made with a fibreglass core and either EPDM or silicon rubber weathersheds. Vandal proof. Lower cost. P4. does lose hydrophobicity from the effects of UV radiation and arcing on the surface whilst the other. Post insulators have an advantage over pin insulators in withstanding electrical puncture because there is a larger amount of ceramic material between the top of the insulator and the metal base. Ageing performance is commensurate with price. One of the polymers. they have a superior creepage to dry arcing distance ratio. has the ability to maintain hydrophobicity for a long period. This is due to the continuous migration of silicon oils from the bulk of the material to the surface. Not yet proven to have a life span to match ceramics. Few couplings. Less visual impact. Risk of damage from bird attack. Polymeric insulators are increasingly being accepted and advantages over ceramic insulators include the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (i) (ii) (iv) Lightweight (long rods are 10% of the weight of an equivalent ceramic string) making it easier to install and maintain. such as angle or termination structures. These insulators have a disadvantage to the pin and post types in contaminated environments because the aerial conductor attachment in the centre of the insulator reduces the creepage length of the insulator. Low torsional strength.
1 m between outer phases is used? Sag at 50°C is 6. The lower circuit aerial conductor is 19/.493 Therefore. .07 m 19/3.2Y ) 2 ≥ 1.2Y ) 2 ≥ . MID SPAN SEPARATION Example 1: Single circuit 19/3. .81 m for 19/.2 Y ≥ 0. .25 AAC and 5.205 Y≥ 0. .Q1 . .6. . . required minimum vertical separation for centre phase is 0.064 copper at 11 kV. .2Y ) 2 ≥ 0. Example 2: Upper circuit 19/3.Q5 . . .052 +(1.4 6.22 + 0. The lower circuit has a 120°phase differential to the upper circuit.Q6 1. Refer Figure 3.25 AAC at 33 kV 3-phase on pin insulators in a delta configuration with a span of 200 m.2Y ) 2 ≥1.Q4 . What is the mid span vertical separation required between phases if a crossarm with a separation of 2.052 +(1. Where— ∴X U k D li = = = = = 1.052 +(1. . .985 1.493 m.25 AAC at 33 kV 3-phase on pin insulators in a delta configuration with a span of 200 m located directly above the lower circuit. What is the mid span vertical separation required between circuits if a crossarm with a separation of 2. The following example outlines the method of calculation.4 6.07 + 0 150 X 2 +(1.DRAFT ONLY 213 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX Q MID SPAN SEPARATION CALCULATIONS (Informative) Q1 GENERAL In Section 3 an equation was developed to determine mid span phase to phase separation.05 33 0.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .Q3 .07 0 U + k D + li 150 33 + 0.07 m and sited in Region A.591 1.Q2 .064 Copper sited in Region Type A.1 m between outer phases is used? Sag at 50°C is 6. DR 09051-PDR .
2 Y ≥ 0.07 (greater of the two sags) 0 (Pin insulators) U + k D + li 150 2 2 = ∴X U k D li = = = = = X 2 +(1.2Y ) 2 ≥ 0 +(1. .2Y ) 2 ≥ .m.Q13 22. . .948 DR 09051-PDR . potential of the circuit voltages) 0. .07 + 0 150 (1. .138 1. .9 + 0.Q7 .052 Y≥ 1. .9 kV 0 22.985 1.Q12 .138 1.153 + 0. .Q8 . FIGURE Q1 AERIAL CONDUCTOR SEPARATION AT MID SPAN (TWO CIRCUITS) Because the circuits are located vertically above each other the horizontal component is taken as zero and— U = = Va2 + Vb2 − 2 VaVb Cosφ from ‘U’ above 33 11 ⎛ 33 ⎞ ⎛ 11 ⎞ × Cos120° ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ −2 × 3 3 ⎝ 3⎠ ⎝ 3⎠ 22. .4 (Region A) 6.4 6. .2Y ≥ 1. .Q10 . .Q11 .Q9 .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . .2Y ) 2 ≥ 0. .2Y ≥1.DRAFT ONLY 214 DRAFT ONLY See Figure Q1.2052 − 1.s.9 (the difference in the vector r.
DRAFT ONLY 215 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX R INSULATION SWING ANGLE CALCULATIONS (Informative) R1 INSULATOR SWING The swing angles of suspension insulator strings for wind conditions can be approximated using the following formula. Fwi ⎛ ⎛θ ⎞ ⎞ ⎜ WP * d * Sw + 2 + 2 H sin ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎜ Wi ⎜ ⎟ Wc + ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Angle of insulator swing φ = tan−1 . . .R1 where WP d Sw Fwi Wc Wi H = = = = = = = = reference wind pressure in Pascals aerial conductor diameter in metres wind span affecting the insulator string in metres wind load on insulator in Newtons = 1. . the suspension insulator swing plus the aerial conductor catenary swing should be considered.2 × projected area of insulators × wind pressure effective aerial conductor weight in Newtons (weight span × weight per unit length) weight of insulator string in Newtons horizontal component of aerial appropriate to the reference wind line deviation angle conductor tension in Newtons θ R2 AERIAL CONDUCTOR BLOWOUT For aerial conductor blowout calculation. .R2 = = = = reference wind pressure in Pascals aerial conductor diameter in metres span length in metres effective aerial conductor weight in Newtons (span length × weight per unit length) NOTE: It is important to note that the insulator swing formula above may produce different swing angles for suspension insulators at supports on either side of a line catenary where different wind to weight span ratios may exist. DR 09051-PDR . ⎛ WP * d * Sw ⎞ Angle of aerial conductor swing (blowout) φ = tan−1 ⎜ ⎟ Ws ⎝ ⎠ where WP d S Ws .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The swing angle of a aerial phase conductor catenary in a single span for wind conditions can be approximated using the following formula.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 .R3 where Sg = = = = = = = = sag for point on aerial conductor under consideration in metres angle of aerial conductor swing (blowout) in degrees angle of first insulator swing in degrees angle of second insulator in degrees length of first insulator string in metres length of second insulator string in metres first span length fraction to point on aerial conductor under consideration in metres second span length fraction to point on aerial conductor under consideration in metres φc φi1 φi2 i1 i2 x1 x2 NOTE: At blowout wind speeds the aerial conductor temperature for sag determination can be taken as ambient air temperature.DRAFT ONLY 216 DRAFT ONLY The horizontal displacement of any point on the aerial conductor in the span can be calculated from the results produced by the two equations above by considering their combined effect and is given by the following (see Figure R1): horizontal displacement y1 = S g sin φc + i1 sin φ i1 + ⎜ ⎛ x1 ⎞ ⎟ (i2 sin φi2 −i1 sin φi1 ) x1 + x2 ⎠ ⎝ . l2 12 B l owo u t rot ati o n a x i s i1 11 c Sg x1 T R A NSV ER S E V IE W x2 y1 LO NG I T U D IN A L V IE W FIGURE R1 HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT DR 09051-PDR . . .
.... a 50 year return period and an averaging time of 5 min (5 min gust) will provide a satisfactory operational performance for most applications with a probability of exceeding the calculated swing angle of about 1%..... and when directional effects are considered.... for most applications a value selected from Figure R2 produces satisfactory results...DRAFT ONLY 217 DRAFT ONLY R3 AERIAL CONDUCTOR TENSION FOR BLOWOUT CALCULATIONS For the aerial conductor tension H should be based on— (a) (b) still air or low wind . For the low wind condition. the swing angle return period is about twice that of the corresponding wind.. Part A—Detailed procedure The reference wind velocity Vr should be obtained from local weather records corresponding to a suitable return period and an averaging time.... The correction factor k should be multiplied by the derived wind pressure to determine the reference wind pressure for swing out calculations. Thus for the high wind case. a wind return period of one year averaged over 5 min (5 min gust) is recommended for similar reasons. A correction factor k takes into account the distribution of the wind along the span.. high wind .. For the heights of aerial conductors that are normally encountered. 500 Pa wind at average temperature over the coldest month +10°C. drag force coefficient and the averaging time for Vr. Table R1gives factors for converting wind velocities from one averaging time to another for each terrain category..15/06/2009 13:22:00 . However. k may be considered to be independent of height and terrain effects..... The latter method should be used when greater precision is required or where unusual and/or extreme local conditions prevail. and corrected for terrain and height effects. The selection of the wind return period should be based on the degree of reliability required.......average temperature over the coldest month.... DR 09051-PDR ...... The values for k should ideally be selected on the basis of studies and local experience. R4 DETERMINATION OF REFERENCE WIND PRESSURE FOR BLOWOUT CALCULATIONS The estimation of swing angles may be made using a simplified deterministic approach or a detailed procedure using meteorological data.
..807 0..........15/06/2009 13:22:00 ......0 DR 09051-PDR ......808 0.784 Part B—Simplified procedure For condition (a)—Still air or low wind Wind pressure ..................000 0.......95 0................000 0....60 to 100 Pa depending on local weather conditions (replace the term 0..DRAFT ONLY 218 DRAFT ONLY 1..........05 1...............80 20 0 300 40 0 W I N D S PA N S w (m) 50 0 600 FIGURE R2 CORRECTION FACTOR K TABLE R1 FACTORS FOR CONVERTING A 3 S GUST WIND SPEED Gust period 3s 1 min 2 min 5 min 10 min Terrain Category 1 1......000 0...........9 0 0.........6 Vr2) .... 500 Pa Value for k .......735 0..000 0.........614 0......................797 0......................749 0..........85 0.... 1...............553 Terrain Category 2 1...............................................646 Terrain Category 3 1...........680 0..727 Terrain Category 4 1...............658 0.........6 Vr2 in Equation B1 by the selected wind pressure) Value for k ....844 0............. 1.0 0 FAC TO R k 0...............847 0........764 0...............878 0........................0 For condition (b)—High wind or maximum swing Wind pressure (0..........
y 2) T2 H I h T1 H V1 ( x 1 . compared and described in some detail. In addition to whether the non linear or linear methods are used two methods are employed for each method to determine the aerial conductor tensions and are either the equivalent span theory  or the complex finite element analysis. For non linear stress strain design.  The equivalent span theory explained in Paragraph S4 may be used for the majority of overhead line designs. aerial conductor loading conditions.DRAFT ONLY 219 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX S AERIAL CONDUCTOR SAG AND TENSION (Informative) The method employed to determine aerial conductor tension due to a change of state of temperature. two methods are commonly used and are the ‘graphical’ and ‘strain summation’. In addition resultant aerial conductor structure loads are also presented. Both methods have been analysis. aerial conductor sag. V2 Y ( x 2. y 1) (0. tension changes and presents a number of catenary and parabolic equations.  To employ the non linear stress strain detailed knowledge of the particular aerial conductor stress strain loading and unloading characteristic as detailed in Appendix W is required. wind loading and or ice loading depends on whether the design operating tension is within the linear stress strain regime or whether design tension excursions are in the non linear stress strain regime. tension constraints. The linear stress strain model may be employed using the modulus of elasticity determined in accordance with Appendix W. The geometry of an inclined span is given in Figure S1. y 3) X L FIGURE S1 INCLINED SPAN GEOMETRY DR 09051-PDR .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . ruling span. This informative discusses inclined span.0) S1 D S2 ( x 3 .
The maximum vertical departure of the catenary from a chord joining the support points (approximately mid span).m-3) (MPa) (mm2) (mm2) cross-sectional area of the steel component of an aerial (mm2) conductor resultant catenary constant horizontal component of the catenary constant using Wh vertical component of the catenary constant using Wv overall aerial conductor diameter exposed to transverse wind aerial conductor sag modulus of elasticity of the load bearing material DR 09051-PDR . The ruling span where two tension constraints produce identical unstressed aerial conductor lengths. A span where the aerial conductor supports are at the same level A hypothetical level deadend span used to model the tension behaviour of a section. The tension constraint may vary with the ruling span. That portion of an overhead line between strain structures consisting solely of intermediate suspension structures for which the ruling span concept is valid.DRAFT ONLY 220 DRAFT ONLY S1 TERMINOLOGY Deadend span Inclined span Level span Ruling span Sag Section A span where both aerial conductors are terminated A span where the aerial conductor supports are at different levels. Aerial conductor tension for ruling spans above and below the transition span will be controlled by different tension constraints Suspension span Tension constraint Transition Span S2 VARIABLES ∝ Δ ε π ρ σ A Aa As C Ch Cv d D E = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = coefficient of linear expansion aerial conductor slack plastic strain from strand settling and metallurgical 3. A span where either or both aerial conductor supports are free to swing longitudinally along the line The maximum allowable horizontal component of aerial conductor tension for a given loading condition.14159 ice density stress total aerial conductor cross-sectional area cross-sectional area of the aluminium component of an aerial conductor (°C−1) (m) (mm/km or με) (kg.15/06/2009 13:22:00 (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (MPa) .
DR 09051-PDR . the difference in sag between the catenary and the parabola is less than 1%.m-1) S3 INTRODUCTION A flexible. elasticity.S2 For span lengths less than 0. or sags less than 9% of the span length. . is defined as that level dead-end span whose tension behaves identically to the tension in every span of a series of suspension spans under the same loading conditions. S4 RULING SPAN The ruling span.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . .7 C. inelastic aerial conductor with constant load (W per unit of arc length) suspended between supports assumes the shape of a catenary— y = ⎛ H ⎛x⎞ ⎞ C ⎜ cosh ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎟ where the catenary constant C = W ⎝C ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ .DRAFT ONLY 221 DRAFT ONLY h H I L Lh Lr Lv m P r S S0 t T Ta V W Wh Wv = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = height difference between aerial conductor supports ( = y2 – y1) horizontal component of aerial conductor tension T chord length between aerial conductor supports ( = span length (x2 − x1) wind span for a structure ruling span of a section weight span for a structure aerial conductor unit mass including covering or insulation transverse component of wind pressure radial ice thickness stressed aerial conductor length unstressed aerial conductor length at 0°C average aerial conductor temperature tangential or axial tension average axial tension vertical component of tension T resultant distributed aerial conductor inclined load transverse component of distributed aerial conductor load vertical component of distributed aerial conductor load L2 + h 2 ) (m) (N) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (kg. also known as the equivalent span or the mean effective span (MES). wind pressure. ice weight and age (creep).m-1) (Pa) (m) (m) (m) (°C) (N) (N) (N) (N. To determine the tension at different loading conditions the equations should be modified for temperature. The ruling span concept can only model a uniformly loaded section. . .m-1) (N. that is where identical wind and or ice on one span exists on all spans in the section.S1 An approximation of the catenary is the parabola which uses a constant load (W per horizontal unit length)— y = x2 2C . These mathematical models are adequate for describing inelastic aerial conductors at any given tension.m-1) (N.
The actual ruling span can only be calculated after the structure locations are determined Therefore an assumed value for the ruling span is made before spotting the structures. the situation sometimes arises for large ruling spans when the controlling constraint is associated with a heavy loading condition and the tension decreases with increasing ruling spans at the maximum operating temperature.S4 ∑ Ii where Ii Li hi n = = = = i =1 L2 + hi2 = the chord length between the supports of span i i the horizontal span length of span i the support height difference of span i the number of spans between strain structures DR 09051-PDR . or the spans are approximately equal. . then there is little difference in tension across the fixed attachment point under identical loading conditions in each span. Under these circumstances the actual ruling span should be less than or equal to the assumed ruling span. the actual ruling span should be greater than or equal to the assumed ruling span to ensure that design clearances are met. The ruling span is calculated using— ∑ L3 i Lr n = i =1 ∑ Li n L4 i i =1 n for level spans . However. In general.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . However. . the exact solution will be between the aerial conductor tension results produced by— (a) (b) using the ruling span method where insulators are assumed to move longitudinally to equalise tensions. spans shorter than the ruling span tend to sag more than predicted whilst spans longer than the ruling span sag less than predicted at temperatures above the stringing temperature (assuming that the tensions were equal at the time of stringing aerial conductor). and assuming every structure in the section as a strain structure with a fixed attachment point. For cases where the ruling span method does not accurately predict sags and tensions.DRAFT ONLY 222 DRAFT ONLY It is assumed that the insulator is free to swing along the line and the insulators are long enough to equalize the tension in adjacent spans without transferring any longitudinal load onto the structure. The ruling span concept may not apply to fixed pin and post insulators because the structures may not be flexible enough to equalize tensions. if the stringing tension is low.S3 ∑ Ii Lr = Lr = i =1 n for inclined spans . . . or the spans are short. In most cases.
DRAFT ONLY 223 DRAFT ONLY For a single level. and to give a margin of safety for personnel performing maintenance and stringing operations which may be carried out under light wind conditions. dead-end span the ruling span is Lr = L. S6 TENSION CONSTRAINTS Tension constraints are used to limit the horizontal tensions for one or more of the following reasons— (a) to restrict fatigue damage caused by Aeolian vibration. to limit the tension for short ruling spans under cold conditions. extent of vibration protection. its tension can be influenced by the following factors considered by this Appendix: (a) (b) (c) (d) Aerial conductor temperature (t). Longitudinal and yawed wind loading and point loads such as cable chairs. for a single inclined dead-end span. droppers.S6 Wind and ice loading affect the horizontal and vertical component of load per unit length. S5 LOADING CONDITIONS Once the aerial conductor is strung. The resultant distributed load is the vector sum of Wh and Wv W = Wh2 + Wv2 . terrain. Age of aerial conductor as measured by the creep strain (ε). The tension limit is influenced by the climate. For an informative on everyday tension refer to Appendix Z. Cv is used to calculate vertical clearances and C is used for calculating tension changes. . Radial ice on the aerial conductor (r). where ρ ranges from about 300 kg/m3 for rime to 916 kg/m3 for ice. DR 09051-PDR . . Wh and Wv respectively. . Ch and Cv are functions of W. . however the ideal model is one that includes the structural elements. Ch is used for aerial conductor swing-out calculations.S5 . An age of 10 years is usually applied since strand settling and metallurgical creep are virtually completed in that period. aerial conductor material. aerial conductor self-damping characteristics and type of aerial conductor support. The tension reduces as the aerial conductor creeps. Wind pressure transverse to the aerial conductor (P). . For short spans there are large variations of tension with temperature changes.S7 The catenary constants C. (b) (c) (d) The age of the aerial conductor at which a particular tension constraint applies should be stipulated if the creep is significant. Wh Wv = = P(d + 2r) g. However. strain insulator strings and aircraft warning spheres require analytical tools not covered by this Standard. This constraint is frequently referred to as the everyday tension (EDT) constraint. to give a margin of structural safety under extreme weather conditions of wind and ice.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Lr = L2/I To overcome the limitations of the ruling span method.(m + ρπr(d + r)) . a finite element model of the aerial conductor and structure system is required. Usually the structures are modelled using stiffness matrices. .
S8 Aerial conductor stress (σ) For an ACSR aerial conductor with a steel to aluminium modulus ratio of three and with the aluminium and steel in tension the aluminium stress can be converted to tension using— H ≈ σ(Aa + 3As) For a homogeneous aerial conductor H = σA (iii) Tangential tension (T) at a support (based on the parabola and a level span) H (iv) = (WLr ) 2 T ⎛T ⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ − 2 8 ⎝2⎠ 2 . For a given ruling span the tension constraint producing the shortest unstressed aerial conductor length as given by equation S14 is the controlling constraint. . . . The aerial conductor length at 0°C. .S14 where the stressed aerial conductor length is S = . A tension constraint can alternatively be expressed as a catenary constant.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . . and Light duty strain structures may be used for short spans with only a small penalty in terms of increased structure height. under no tension and at an age when the creep strain is zero is S0 = S 1+ Ta + αt + ε EA ⎛L ⎞ 2Csinh ⎜ r ⎟ ⎝ 2C ⎠ DR 09051-PDR . aluminium stress. . . Each of these alternatives can be converted to a horizontal tension as follows: (i) (ii) Catenary constant (C) H = WC . .DRAFT ONLY 224 DRAFT ONLY The controlling constraint is the most restrictive tension constraint.S11 Sag (D) (based on the parabola) H = Wv L2 r 8D . producing the largest sags and the least tensions for any given loading condition.S12 (v) Slack Δ H = W L3 r 24Δ . This is important for short spans. two tension constraints produce identical values of unstressed lengths. . The tension reduces with the ruling span length and this makes aesthetic short span geometry. .S9 . . . At the transition ruling span. . support tension. that is there are two controlling constraints.S13 The advantages of constraining the tension based on slack are— (A) (B) (C) the specified amount of slack is available when required to uncouple the hardware fittings when changing strain insulator strings.S10 . For a given ruling span usually only one tension constraint controls (or limits) the tensions for all other loading conditions. . .S15 . sag or an amount of slack. .
however.S18 . For the other loading condition the tension Hf is desired and is determined by the tension change equation. .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Ta is evaluated more accurately in Paragraph S10 for the catenary and Paragraph S11 for the parabola. Linear model u n d e r e s ti m a te s te n s i o n s STRESS Initial modulus curve Fi n a l m o d u l u s s l o p e L i n e a r m o d e l a c c u r a te l y e s ti m ate s te n s i o n s L i n e a r m o d e l u n d e r e s ti m ate s te n s i o n s S T R A I N (% e l o n g a t i o n) FIGURE S2 LINEAR ELASTIC NON HOMOGENOUS AERIAL CONDUCTOR MODEL For one loading condition such as the controlling tension constraint Hi is defined. S7 TENSION CHANGES The tension change or change of state equation equates the unstressed aerial conductor length for two different loading conditions. the tension change equation becomes.S17 The value of S 0 is known because by definition the controlling constraint is the tension constraint producing the smallest value of S0. . When the parabola is used and the average tension and the average tension is assumed to be the horizontal component of tension. Any thermal strain or plastic strain (creep and strand settling) is modelled by a strain translation of the linear stress/strain curve. . . Note that Sf is a function of Hf and can be evaluated using either the catenary Equation S15 or the parabolic Equation S16.DRAFT ONLY 225 DRAFT ONLY and for the parabola is S = Lr + L3 r 24C 2 . . The relationship between the stressed and unstressed length is based on Hooke’s law for linear elastic materials. . The tension change equation is: S = Si 1+ Hi + αt i + ε i EA = 1+ Sf Hf + αt f + ε f EA . Therefore the tension change equation only applies for aerial conductors behaving elastically as shown in Figure S2.S16 It is common practice to assume that Ta ≈ H. H 3 + aH 2 − b = 0 f f DR 09051-PDR .
The disadvantage of this method is that the magnitude of the buffer depends upon the span lengths. Therefore the strand settling associated with this level of stress would apply to final sags and tensions but rarely to initial stringing sags and tensions. When the plastic strains are ignored. It is common practice to convert the difference in creep strain (εf – εi) to an equivalent thermal strain (αtc) and overtension the aerial conductor by using a temperature lower than that which actually applies at the time of sagging. This method may provide excess ground clearance when a non-linear ACSR model is used. Its disadvantage is that it reduces the structural safety margin during the stringing operation. (b) (c) DR 09051-PDR . design and construction. The plastic strain is the sum of metallurgical creep and strand settling. This method is not recommended for long spans unless additional clearance is provided. α The following methods may be used to compensate for plastic strain: (a) A clearance buffer is added to the statutory ground clearance and new aerial conductor is sagged to the final (10 year) values. A plastic strain allowance may be made for the aerial conductor to reach its maximum stress level during its lifetime. S8 SAGGING TENSIONS For the purpose of determining sagging tensions. the variables with subscript ‘f’ shall refer to the controlling constraint whilst variables with subscript ‘i’ shall refer to loading conditions at the time of sagging. The creep strain εi occurs prior to sagging. Guidance on metallurgical creep strain can be obtained from references provided in Appendix V. equation S18 is called the time independent tension change equation. This method results in the final actual tension being below the final design tension. then the final sags and tensions are calculated using equation S17 with εf = εi = 0 and the initial sags and tensions are determined by applying a negative temperature correction of t c = 1 (ε f − ε i ) to the final sags and tensions.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . thus producing a suboptimum solution for long spans. The high prestress tension is used to quickly remove future metallurgical creep and strand settling. The strand settling strain can be approximated from the stress strain curve by subtracting the elastic strain from the initial composite strain. Therefore if the controlling constraint applies at say 10 years. Therefore εf is the creep strain that has occurred up until the age of the aerial conductor when the controlling constraint applies which is usually 10 years.DRAFT ONLY 226 DRAFT ONLY where ⎛ W 2 L2 ⎞ a = EA⎜ i r + α (t f − ti ) + (ε f − ε i )⎟ − H i ⎜ 24 H 2 ⎟ i ⎝ ⎠ b= EAW f2 L2 r 24 In practice. Prestress the aerial conductor prior to sagging with the final (10 year) values. Add a temperature buffer to the maximum operating temperature and provide final (10 year) sags for stringing new aerial conductor. That is because the design temperature is not the maximum operating temperature and high temperature sags are larger when aluminium goes into compression. there is negligible difference between the results from tension change equations derived from the catenary and that derived from parabola. Normally a buffer is also used for errors that arise from surveying. The total creep strain is the sum of metallurgical creep and strand settling.
S22 . . . .S23 .S28 .S21 . .S25 x1 = weight span contribution to structure 1 C x2 = weight span contribution to structure 2 C wind span contribution to structure 1 and structure 2 Δ=S−I V1 = − H sinh V2 = − H sinh x1 = Wv S1 C x2 = Wv S 2 C . the physical characteristics of each span in the section may be determined using either inelastic catenary or inelastic parabolic equations.DRAFT ONLY 227 DRAFT ONLY (d) Over tension the aerial conductor by providing initial (1 hour) sag values or by using a negative temperature compensation value along with the final sags (as described above). It also exposes the aerial conductor to a higher risk of aeolian vibration damage during the early life of the line. .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . . .S29 x ⎛ ⎞ y1 = C ⎜ cosh 1 −1⎟ C ⎝ ⎠ x ⎛ ⎞ y2 = C ⎜ cosh 2 − 1⎟ C ⎝ ⎠ DR 09051-PDR .S27 . . Once the aerial conductor tension has been determined for a particular load case and aerial conductor age using the ruling span for the section. . .S19 x2 = ⎛ ⎜ h⎞ L h ⎛ C tanh−1 ⎜ ⎟ + = C sinh −1 ⎜ ⎝S⎠ 2 ⎜ 2C sinh L 2C ⎝ S1 + S2 = −Csinh −Csinh L ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎜ 2C sinh ⎟ +h 2C ⎠ ⎝ 2 . . . . . . A combination of methods (c) and (d) provides an acceptable solution however the method requires information regarding the tension and temperature experienced by the aerial conductor during the pre-sag period.S24 .S20 S S1 S2 S 2 = = = = . S10 CATENARY EQUATIONS x1 = ⎛ ⎜ h⎞ L h −1 C tanh ⎜ ⎟ − = C sinh ⎜ ⎝S⎠ 2 ⎜ 2C sinh L 2C ⎝ −1 ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ L ⎟− ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ L ⎟+ ⎟ 2 ⎠ . .S26 . . S9 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES The ruling span concept assumes that the tension in each span of the ruling span section is the same. . . The disadvantage of this method is that it is difficult to sag the entire section quickly enough to avoid difficulties resulting from the high initial rate of creep. . . .
. . . . therefore a Maclaurin’s series approximation of the catenary equation is used. .S46 S−L= −Wvx1 = V1 = DR 09051-PDR . . .S33 tan θ1 = − sinh tan θ 2 = − sinh . . .S39 .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . .S41 .S31 .S37 L ⎛ ⎞ D = C ⎜ cosh − 1⎟ (for a level span) 2C ⎠ ⎝ . .S30 . . . . . .S36 x3 = Csinh−1 D≈ S L 2C sinh 2C . .S45 .DRAFT ONLY 228 DRAFT ONLY T1 = H cosh T2 = H cosh x1 = H + Wy1 C x2 = H + Wy2 C . . . S Δ = = l+ L4 24C 2 I L4 8D 2 = 24C 2 I 3I Wv L Hh − L 2 . . . .S42 . . . .S44 .S32 T2 − T1 = W × h T2 − T1 = WS tanh L 2C x1 S1 = C C x2 S 2 = C C h (mid span) L L L ⎛ ⎞ IC ⎛ ⎞ − 1⎟ − 1⎟ = C ⎜ cosh ⎜ cosh 2C ⎠ L ⎝ 2C ⎠ ⎝ .S40 Ta = Ta = CH ⎛ S 2 + h 2 L L ⎞ ⎜ 2 2 sinh + ⎟ 2S ⎝ S − h C C ⎠ 1⎛ HL ⎞ ⎜T + ⎟ (for a level span where T1 = T2 = T) 2⎝ S ⎠ S11 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS x1 x2 L 2 = = Ch L = weight span contribution to structure 1 − L 2 Ch L = negative weight span contribution to structure 2 + L 2 . . . . . . . .S38 . . .S43 = wind span contribution to structure 1 and structure 2 The equation for calculating the arc length of a parabola is more complex than that of the catenary.S34 .S35 .
.S55 .S57 DR 09051-PDR . .S51 . . . . . . . . .S52 .S50 .S54 . . .S53 .S49 .S47 . . .15/06/2009 13:22:00 .S48 . . . . . . . .S56 h2 h − 16 D 2 h2 h + 16 D 2 x12 + C 2 2 x2 + C 2 tan θ1 = tan θ2 = x3 D Ta = = = x1 h − 4 D = C L x2 h + 4 D = C L Ch (mid span) L L2 (independent of h) 8C H ⎛ I2 L3 ⎞ ⎜ + ⎟ S ⎝ L 12C 2 ⎠ HL2 HL3 (for h=0) + S 12SC 2 L⎞ ⎛ H⎜2− ⎟ S⎠ ⎝ Ta = = . .DRAFT ONLY 229 DRAFT ONLY V2 = y1 y2 T1 T2 = = = = −Wvx2 = D+ D+ H C H C Wv L Hh + L 2 .
.S59 FL = 0 FT = N 1 + N 2 Fv = V1 + V2 DR 09051-PDR . the orthogonal components of aerial conductor load (relative to the structure geometry) are— FL = (H 1 cos θ1 − N1 sin θ1 ) − (H 2 cosθ 2− N 2 sin θ 2 ) Fv = V1 + V2 FT = (H 1 sin θ1 + N1 cos θ1 ) + (H 2 sinθ 2+ N 2 cos θ 2 ) ou t FIGURE S3 AERIAL CONDUCTOR LOADS co At a structure with square crossarms.1 Structure loads nd uc to r B lo w n At a strain structure where the loads from both sections are combined at a single point e. . This assumption is valid if the transverse wind pressure is the same in both adjacent spans.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . pointed crossarms.g. At the aerial conductor attachment point of a suspension insulator H1 = H 2 = H (assuming tension equalisation in the ruling span section). θ1 = θ2 = θ. If the aerial conductor deviation angle is 2θ and the structure is constructed with its transverse axis on the bisect of the deviation angle then. . .S60 . which is typical for most suspension structures. . Thus for a flying angle or suspension angle— If the deviation angle is 0°.DRAFT ONLY 230 DRAFT ONLY S12 MULTIPLE SPAN CALCULATIONS S12. .S58 FL = (N 2 − N 1 )sin θ Fv = V1 + V2 FT = 2 H sin θ + ( N 1 + N 2 ) cos θ . then— ers nsv tra ind of ion t of w n ect Dir pone com e C o n d u c to r s u p p o r t To n p sup ex t or t H1 N2 N1 H2 PL A N V IE W . the load contribution from each span shall be assessed independently so that torsional loading on the crossarm can be considered.
. Lv2 Wh1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Wv2 = = = = = = = = longitudinal.2 Weight span to wind span ratio (based on parabolic simplification) For spotting suspension structures. . the allowable weight span to wind span ratio for the suspension structure and aerial conductor combination is— Lv Wh ≥ Lh Wv tan β DR 09051-PDR .S61 S12. transverse and vertical (to the structure) component of aerial conductor load at the aerial conductor support left and right longitudinal (to the span) component of aerial conductor tension left and right transverse (to the span) component of aerial conductor tension left and right vertical component of aerial conductor tension left and right partial wind spans such that Lh = Lh1 + Lh2 left and right partial weight spans such that Lv = Lv1 + Lv2 left and right transverse (to the span) component of distributed aerial conductor load left and right vertical component of distributed aerial conductor load . FIGURE S4 WIND AND WEIGHT SPANS Neglecting insulator weight and wind on insulator. FT. a lower limit of weight span to wind span ratio is derived from the maximum allowable transverse insulator swing angle β measured from vertical. which satisfies the electrical clearance requirements under the maximum wind condition. Wh2 Wv1.S62 . . FV H1. N2 V1 . . Lh2 Lv1. V2 Lh1.DRAFT ONLY 231 DRAFT ONLY The transverse and vertical components of tension are calculated using— N 1 = Lh1Wh1 N 2 = Lh 2Wh 2 V1 = Lv1Wv1 V2 = Lv 2Wv 2 where FL. H2 N1.
3 Variation of weight span with aerial conductor tension (based on parabolic simplification) If the weight span Lv1 is known for a given tension H1 then the weight span Lv2 at any other tension H2 is— Lv2 = Lh + C2 ( Lv1 − Lh ) C1 . June 2007..G. 1975.DRAFT ONLY 232 DRAFT ONLY The spotted weight span to wind span ratio based on the parabola is— L + L2 Lv 2bC v where the wind span Lh = 1 = Lh L1 L2 2 . J Precise Sags and Tensions in Multiple Span Transmission Lines. S12. S13 REFERENCES 1 2 CIGRE SCB2. BARRIEN. NIGOL. refer to Sag-Tension.S. No. A detailed procedure of calculating insulator swing is provided in Appendix R. Characteristics of ACSR Conductors at High Temperatures and Stresses. . Issue 2.O.S65 where C1 = H1 H and C2 = 2 Wv1 Wv2 . wind or creep. OVERHEAD CONDUCTOR DESIGN BICC WIRE MILL DIVISION PRESCOT. .12. 1981.324. 1967. . Feb. O. pp 219 – 231.1. Vol 91.g. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. C. Eng. . England. Therefore by combining Equations S62 and S63. a value for ‘ei’ that includes the allowable insulator swing and spotted weight span to wind span ratio is obtained as b≥ ⎞ L1L2 ⎛ Wh ⎜ ⎜ W tan β − 1⎟ ⎟ 2Cv ⎝ v ⎠ . Lancashire. BARRETT. CIGRE Technical Brochure No. it is prudent to review the design to detect any input data errors or omissions. The Problem of Conductor Sagging on Overhead Transmission Lines. Journal of the Inst. pp 21-28. the maximum operating temperature or sometimes the maximum working wind or ice load). ice.S66 Longitudinal profile drawings can be used to measure the weight spans for the plotted catenaries (e. 3 4 5 DR 09051-PDR . BOYSE. & SIMPSON. pages 485 – 493. of Elec.S63 Note that b is negative when the support is below the chord joining adjacent supports which is indicated by the dashed line of Figure S4. Although computer programs perform these checks automatically. . J. .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Vol II. Electrical Engineering Transactions IEAust. The above formula can be used to calculate the aerial conductor weight spans at other conditions of temperature. Dec 1944. .S64 Thus it is possible to visually inspect a plan and profile drawing to determine whether there will be any insulator swing violations by checking the b’ values. Pt II. pp 6-11. N. Volume PAS-100. For details regarding the non-linear modelling of conductors. This check can be done without ever calculating the weight span or weight to wind span ratio at the wind pressure used to determine the insulator swing that violates some electrical clearance criterion. .3 Sag Tension Calculation Methods for Overhead Lines.
DOUGLASS. SEPPA.. Limitations of the ruling span method for overhead line conductors at high operating temperatures.L. J.A. H. J. DAVIDSON. Issue 2... BARRETT. Volume 14. D.R. HALL. Y. Apr 1999.A.O. T. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.DRAFT ONLY 233 DRAFT ONLY 6 MOTLIS.B.A.. F. THRASH JR.. REDING. WHITE..S. P. G.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .. pages: 549 – 560 DR 09051-PDR ..
T2 AERIAL CONDUCTOR SAG MEASUREMENT Aerial conductor sag may be measured by direct methods. such as sight boards mounted on the structures or by theodolite measurement. D where D A B = = = aerial conductor sag distance below the first aerial conductor support distance below the second aerial conductor support = ⎛ A+ ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ B⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . A sufficient period should be allowed for the temperature to stabilize before it is read immediately prior to sagging of the aerial conductor. T3 SIGHT BOARD METHOD To produce a required sag a sight board is fitted at the required distance below the point of attachment at each end of the span and the aerial conductor is tensioned until the tangent of the catenary is in line with the two boards. DR 09051-PDR . The actual aerial conductor temperature can be determined reasonably accurately by using a stainless steel dial type thermometer with the stem inserted into the core of the aerial conductor of similar material. The actual temperature of the aerial conductor should be measured during sagging of the aerial conductor to avoid aerial conductor over-tensioning or loss of ground clearance. To measure an unknown sag the tangent of the catenary is sighted from a known distance (A) below the first point of attachment to a point below the second aerial conductor attachment (distance B). NOTE: Temperature correction may be required to allow for aerial conductor inelastic stretch. or by measuring the aerial conductor tension by dynamometer.T1 (See Figure T1). The thermometer should be hung in an exposed location parallel to the aerial conductor and at a height similar to the aerial conductor.DRAFT ONLY 234 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX T AERIAL CONDUCTOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND SAG MEASUREMENT (Informative) T1 AERIAL CONDUCTOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT Various measuring techniques have been used to establish the temperature for stringing new aerial conductors. For smaller bare aerial conductor the stainless steel dial type thermometer alone is usually sufficient. . .
P where P = point of tangency expressed as a percentage of the span length (%) = 50 A D .T3 DR 09051-PDR . A theodolite is set up below the aerial conductor attachment and the angle of tangency to the catenary is measured.DRAFT ONLY 235 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE T1 QUANTITIES ASSOCIATED WITH SIGHT BOUND METHOD T4 THEODOLITE METHOD This method is more accurate and is recommended for long spans where the sag is greater than the height of either aerial conductor attachment points above the ground.T2 (See Figure T2). . . The sag can be calculated by solving the following equation: tan θ = where θ D A H L = = = = = angle of tangency to the catenary aerial conductor sag vertical distance from the centre of the theodolite to the aerial conductor support difference in height of the aerial conductor supports (positive when the support furthest from the theodolite is the higher) span length 4 AD + H − 4 D L . FIGURE T2 QUANTITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THEODOLITE METHOD This method should not be used where the point of tangency is greater than 80% of the span length because of the magnification of sighting errors.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . . .
DRAFT ONLY 236 DRAFT ONLY T5 WAVE SAG METHOD One indirect method. is based on a pendulum. . relies on the relationship between aerial conductor tension and the speed at which a mechanical pulse travels along the aerial conductor. up to 500 m) and for relatively level spans.T4 This relationship is based on the parabolic simplification of the catenary equation and should only be used for the relatively shorter distribution spans (e.8067 (m/s2) 9.81 ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 32 ⎝ N ⎠ 2 . a stopwatch is started. D = where D = t = aerial conductor sag (m) time for aerial conductor to swing N times from one side to the opposite side and back (seconds) number of swings timed t ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 1. The time for the aerial conductor to swing from one side to the opposite and back is recorded. To reduce errors in measurement the time for three cycles is usually recorded. T6 SWING SAG METHOD Another indirect method.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The aerial conductor is pulled to one side and released.7961N ⎠ ⎝ 2 . The pulse will be reflected at the other end of the span back to the striker. .g. known as swing sagging. . . D = where D = t= N = g = aerial conductor sag (m) time (seconds) for N return waves number of return waves (usually three) gravitational acceleration—normally taken as 9.T5 N = DR 09051-PDR . known as wave sagging. The aerial conductor is struck at one end of a span with a suitable striker and at the same time.
and situations for which a fault which causes the hazard will not cause the generation of additional faults.U1 * In certain situations. The calculation of the probability of fatality may be simplified significantly if the following conditions are met: (a) (b) (c) (d) The occurrence of a hazard is random. The hazard occurs at a constant rate per unit of time. The calculation of the probability of fatality is limited by the accuracy of the available data and the conditions under which the hazard may occur. DR 09051-PDR . The occurrence of a hazard is independent of the presence of an individual.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Probabilistic risk analyses are therefore an applied extension of statistics and are affected by the same limitations and assumptions from which the methods are derived. . If the probability of a fault occurring satisfies the above conditions the occurrence of faults may be classified as a ‘Poisson Process’ and the probability of an individual being in a hazard zone during a fault can be described by Pc: Pc where λH = λE = LH = LE = hazard rate factor (average number of faults per year) exposure rate factor (average number of exposures per year) average hazard duration (in seconds) average exposure duration (in seconds) = λH × λE × (LE + LH) 1 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 .DRAFT ONLY 237 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX U RISK BASED APPROACH TO EARTHING (Normative) U1 RISK ANALYSIS A probabilistic risk analysis is a calculation of the probability and consequences of various known and postulated accidents. hazards separated by short intervals derived from a single cause may be approximated as a single fault. one at a time*. The occurrence of a hazard will be independent of the occurrence of past hazards. In this guide. . The development of a probabilistic risk approach on the basis of these assumptions restricts the application of the calculation to individuals who will not contribute to or cause the hazard to occur. the probabilistic risk analyses are used to determine the probability of causing fatality to one or multiple individuals.
it is difficult to estimate directly the probability of a fatality. . . μlow-int = μint-high = 31. These limits provide a simple method that may be used by on-site personnel to estimate whether the exposure is likely to exceed the tolerable limits set. then the average number of faults per unit time on overhead lines in Table U1 can be used to estimate the rate at which hazardous voltages will occur on a tower λH. Hence. it is a conservative estimate of the probability of death and it is extremely difficult to know whether it is a good approximation or highly conservative. In summary. Plow (=10−6) and back calculate the limits for the total time spent inside the hazard zone each year. line impedance causes lower fault current that takes longer to be seen by the protection. Phigh (=10−4). to the high and low limits.U4 LE = average exposure duration (in seconds) = cumulative exposure per year (in seconds) In complex cases for which the rate at which hazards occur has large seasonal variations. for faults further out along the feeder. as well as other environmental factors and the exact position of the individual.000 × 1 × 10−4 × × LE LE 31.536. Consequently. .U3 λH The method of defining the exposure limits according to the fault rate. earth fault current is high and the protection operates quickly.6 = × λH LE + LH LE + LH . if the line length of interest is known. Following a coincidence. where data that is more accurate is not available. However.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Pc is an effective metric for the probability of fatality and can be used to rank hazard situations. LH.5 = × λH LE + LH LE + LH LE LE 3153. although Pc is a useful measure of the probability of coincidence.U2 . and comparing the calculated risk according to limits of 10−4 and 10−6 are mathematically equivalent. This lack of precision is due to the multitude of unknown factors that control whether a coincidence becomes a fatality. it can be thought of as the probability that the exposure of an individual and the presence of a fault coincide. some typical data on overhead line fault rates and protection fault clearing times can be found in Table U1 and Table U2. can be estimated from values given in Table U2. . However. The fault rates for underground cables are much lower than for overhead lines.DRAFT ONLY 238 DRAFT ONLY Pc is the probability that an individual is in a hazard zone during the fault. DR 09051-PDR . The average fault duration. .000 × 1 × 10−6 λH 31. Pc. To convert this probability to a probability of a fatality there are many variables to consider. clothing. the risk should be determined by using the coincidence probability. Hence. For considering faults on overhead lines. age and health of the person in the hazard zone. respectively. . Note that for close in faults. In some cases it may be more useful to set the coincidence probability. The cumulative exposure of an individual may be expressed as: μ where λE μ = = λELE exposure rate factor (average number of exposures per year) . The coincidence probability is therefore be considered equivalent to the probability of fatality. a fatality depends on factors such as the footwear. different fault locations need to be considered to determine the worst case EPR and clearing time combination.536. Typical underground cable fault rates are 2 to 3 per 100 km for 11 to 33 kV and less than 1 for higher voltages. U2 FAULTS ON TOWERS AND CABLES To assist with calculations.
The lower outage rates occur in southern Australia and New Zealand where there is less frequent high wind and lower lightning activity. the rate at which faults occur over time is constant (i. Overhead line fault rate (faults/100 km year) 20–150 5–10 shielded.e. The higher outage rates occur in northern Australia where there is more frequent high wind and lightning storms. 10–40 unshielded 2–5 1–4 <1. and there is only one source of hazards within the hazard region.5 2 3 TABLE U2 TYPICAL PRIMARY PROTECTION CLEARING TIMES System voltage (phase to phase) LV 11 kV–33 kV 66 kV 100 kV–250 kV 251 kV–275 kV 330 kV 400 kV 500 kV Primary protection clearing time 2s 1s 0.5 s 220 ms 120 ms 120 ms 120 ms 100 ms NOTE: The primary protection clearing times for >100kV are based on National Electricity Code fault clearing time requirements for remote end. U3 SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION OF PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMITS The above calculation may be simplified if certain additional conditions are met— (a) (b) (c) the length of time for which a person is within a hazard region is significantly greater (more than 100 times greater) than the average length of a fault.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . DR 09051-PDR . The rate at which hazards occur can therefore be significantly larger than the tower fault rate.DRAFT ONLY 239 DRAFT ONLY TABLE U1 TYPICAL OVERHEAD LINE FAULT RATES System voltage (phase to phase) LV 11 kV–33kV 66 kV 100 kV–132 kV 220 kV–275 kV 330 kV 400 kV 500 kV NOTES: 1 The rate at which faults occur on a tower is different to the rate at which hazards occur.0 <0. The hazard zones around towers connected by OHEWs are reduced by the flow of current transferred through adjacent towers. faults are equally likely to occur at any time of the day or season).5 <0. however this transferred current can also create hazards at those towers.5 <0.
. Hazards occur at the pole once every 150 years and create a hazard on and around the pole. Solution 1 The average length of time that the jogger is exposed in the hazard region LE is 120 s.U6 Example 1 Problem A jogger goes for a run every day of the week. and (c) are met.5 λH . . . .U8 This risk level is above the tolerable level of 10 −6 and falls in the Intermediate risk category defined in section Consequently.67 ×10−3 × 365 120 = 9. Solution 2× The hazard rate λH is equal to— λH = 1 hazard = 6.67 × 10−3 hazards per year 150 years . and the average number of exposures per year. Faults occur once every 150 years on average. μlow = 31. the limits for cumulative exposure per year can be calculated as— μ high = 3153.6 = 472.67 ×10−3 .67 × 10−3 hazards per year 150 years .01 × μlhigh = 4728 s per year = 91 s per week The jogger’s exposure is above the lower limit of 91 s per week and falls in the ‘Intermediate’ risk category defined in Section 10.DRAFT ONLY 240 DRAFT ONLY The above conditions are usually too strict for most situations as slight variations in fault rate and exposure length can occur. . risk treatment measures should be investigated to reduce the risk to as low as reasonably practical.3×10−6 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 .U7 The equivalent probability is therefore— Pc ≈ λH × λE × LE 1 6. . . . is 365. DR 09051-PDR .U11 μlow = 0. The fault rate factor is therefore— λH = 1 hazard = 6. As expected.U10 . At the end of each run. .803 s per year = 9092 s per week 6.6 λH = 3153.6 λH . . . .U5 The coincidence probability may be calculated using the simplified equation— Pc = λH × λE × LE 1 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 . the jogger leans against a 11 kV concrete pole to do stretching exercises for two minutes. the methods used in Solution 1 and Solution 2 produce the same result. .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Further analysis is required for such situations however the analysis does not usually alter the calculated probability significantly. . The length of an exposure is significantly longer than the fault clearing time. If conditions (a). λE.U9 The limits for the cumulative exposure per year are— μ high = 3153. (b).
.U12 The coincidence probability per year is therefore— Pc = λH λE ( LH + LE ) 1 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 1 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 = (8. For situations in which the length of exposure is comparable to the length of the fault however. Consequently. . U5 CALCULATION OF THE PROBABILITY OF FATALITY FOR COMPARABLE EXPOSURE AND FAULT LENGTHS The simplified calculation approximates the coincidence probability as the probability that a fault will occur while an individual is within the hazard region. a significant proportion of the coincidence probability is derived from the arrival of an individual into a faulted hazard area.33 × 10 −3 hazards per year 120 years . Faults occur at the pole once every 120 years and create a touch voltage hazard on the gate for 1 s.93 × 10−7 The difference between the risk for cases in which the fault length is similar to the exposure length is therefore significant and in this case doubles the calculated risk. a more rigorous analysis may be required to calculate the probability of fatality.U13 = 8. . This is taken into account by the original calculation for the coincidence probability that takes into the case that a hazard is occurring when an individual enters a hazard region and the case that a hazard will occur while an individual is in the hazard region.33× 10−3 × 365 × 6. At the halfway point of each run the jogger touches a metal gate next to a 275 kV tower for 1 s.34 × 10−8 = 1. Solution 2: The fault rate factor is therefore— λH = 1 hazard = 8.U14 DR 09051-PDR . . no risk treatment action is necessary. The appropriate method of calculating the coincidence probability will be outlined for situations that do not meet the specified conditions in the following paragraphs. Solution 1: The risk associated with this scenario may be calculated directly using equation B1 as shown. . and the number of exposures per year that occur λE is 365.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . the average length of a fault LF is 1 s. The average length of an exposure LE is approximately 1 s. The rate at which hazards occur is— λH = 1 hazard = 8. Example 2: Problem: A jogger goes for a run every day of the week.33 × 10 −3 hazards per year 120 years . This risk level is below the tolerable level of 10−6 defined in Paragraph U6.DRAFT ONLY 241 DRAFT ONLY U4 ADVANCED CALCULATION OF THE PROBABILITY OF FATALITY If a situation does not meet one or all of conditions (a)–(c). .33× 10−3 ) (365) (1 + 1) .
. ≤10 −4 Low U7 RISK TREATMENT MEASURES U7.6 ⎛ 1s ⎞ ⎜ ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ = 189. Individual Limits The unacceptable and acceptable individual fatality probability limits in the context of this document are shown in Table U3. 291 s per year λH ⎝ LH + LE ⎠ 8.01 × μlhigh = 1893 s per year = 36 s per week The exposure of an individual in the hazard zone can be calculated by using— μ = λE LE = (120) (365) = 43.1 General When designing earthing systems. . DR 09051-PDR . Tolerable limits vary according to the classification of the risk. TABLE U3 RISK MANAGEMENT MATRIX—FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE VERSUS SEVERITY OF CONSEQUENCE Probability of single fatality (per year) ≥10 −4 10 −4 –10 −6 Risk classification for public death Resulting implication for risk treatment High Intermediate Intolerable Must prevent occurrence regardless of costs.6 ⎛ LE ⎞ 3153. however the inherent danger of electricity and disproportionate cost of protecting every individual from every conceivable hazard require that some level of risk be tolerated. . Reduction of earth fault current using neutral earthing impedances or resonant earthing. . Reduction of the fault clearing times. the following risk treatment methods should be considered to manage the risk associated with step.U16 .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . As low as reasonably practical for intermediate risk Must minimize occurrence unless risk reduction is impractical and costs are grossly disproportionate to safety gained. . Installation of gradient control conductors. Surface insulating layer.33×10−3 ⎝ 1s +1s ⎠ .U17 U6 TOLERABLE RISK LIMITS Any injuries or fatalities to workers or members of the public are unacceptable. touch and transferred voltage hazards: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Reduction of the impedance of the earthing system.800 s per year = 840 s per week .U15 = 3640s per week μlow = 0.DRAFT ONLY 242 DRAFT ONLY The limits for the cumulative exposure per year are— μhigh = 3153. . As low as reasonably practical for low risk Minimize occurrence if reasonably practical and cost of reduction is reasonable given project costs.
Typically. While the primary purpose of the shield wires is to provide lightning shielding for the substation. then even though the EPR on the earthing system will reduce. reduces the EPR levels at both the substation and at the conductive pole or tower. For a bus earth fault at a substation. since the fault current usually increases as the earth grid impedance decreases. As a result. This risk treatment measure can be very effective in significant urban areas where an extensive earthing system can be obtained by bonding together protective earth and neutral (PEN) conductors from adjacent LV networks. Shield wires are also sometimes used on distribution lines (11 kV and above) for the first kilometre out from the substation but this is not common. U7. the reduced impedance needs to be low compared to the other impedances in the faulted circuit. However. Examples of this include bonding pylons to substations via overhead earth wires. Inductive coupling between the shield wire(s) and the faulted aerial phase conductor can significantly reduce the earth return current during fault conditions at conductive poles or towers bonded to the shield wire(s). The above methods are detailed below. the incidence of (transferred) EPR events at the conductive poles or towers will become more frequent since each station EPR will be transferred to the nearby towers/poles. the earth grid impedance must approach the power system source impedance before the EPR starts decreasing significantly. the effectiveness of the reduction depends on the impedance of the earth grid relative to the total earth fault circuit impedance. Often a combination of risk treatments will be required to control EPR hazards. in turn. bonding of the shield wires to the substation earth grid can significantly reduce earth fault currents through the earth grid for faults at the station or at conductive poles or towers bonded to the shield wires. However. The following methods may be considered when attempting to reduce the impedance of earth electrodes. and bonding the earthing system to extensive LV network systems. the resultant EPR contours may be pushed out further. U7. the shield wires can divert significant current away from the substation earth grid. In some circumstances. For the reduction to be effective. If the earthing system earth impedance is reduced by enlarging the earthing system.3 Overhead shield wires Shield wires are typically used on transmission lines at or above 66 kV usually at least over a short section of line out from the substation. If the earthing system earth impedance is reduced by bonding remote earths to it. DR 09051-PDR . The net effect of the shield wires is to reduce the impedance of the overall earthing system (earth grid and tower/pole footing electrodes in parallel) thereby reducing the EPR.DRAFT ONLY 243 DRAFT ONLY (f) (g) Separation of HV and LV earth electrodes. the size of any transferred EPR hazard zones will increase. This. Whether this is a desirable end result will depend on the specifics of a particular situation.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . then the resultant reduced EPR is also spread to the remote earths.2 Reducing earth grid impedance Reduction in the impedance of an earthing system can be effective in reducing the EPR hazards. This also introduces new transferred EPRs onto the earthing system when there are earth faults at any of these remote earths. Isolation. the increase in the size of the EPR contours may be significant for a small reduction in the EPR of the system.
The bonding of single core cables at both ends may affect the rating of the cables. it is necessary to reapply the treatment at regular intervals.4 Cable screen Bonded cable screens provide galvanic and inductive return paths for fault current for both cable faults and destination substation faults. Bonding of cable screens to the earthing systems at both ends is advantageous in most situations. touch and transferred voltages.6 Reduction of earth fault current Earth fault currents flowing through earthing systems may be reduced by the installations of neutral earthing impedances such as neutral earthing resistors (NER). However. depending on the cable configuration (due to induced currents in the screens and sheaths). particularly for the first few spans from the substation. Earth Fault Neutraliser Earthing. U7.DRAFT ONLY 244 DRAFT ONLY Consideration shall be given to the shield wire size (fault rating).15/06/2009 13:22:00 . However. U7. Alternatively. These methods may be considered in certain circumstances as a possible solution to the problem of high electrode resistance to earth. A Petersen coil is an inductance that is connected between the neutral point of the system and earth. Since there is a tendency for the applied salts to be washed away by rain. Such methods include the encasement of the electrode in conducting compounds. the capacitive current in the unfaulted phases is compensated by the inductive current passed by the Petersen coil. resonant earthing such as Petersen Coils. NERs are typically employed in distribution networks to limit the current that would flow through the neutral star point of a transformer or generator in the event of an earth fault. The inductance of the coil is adjusted so that on the occurrence of a single phase to earth fault. NERs can be very effective in reducing induction into parallel services such as telecommunication circuits or pipelines.5 Earth electrode enhancement If the soil resistivity is high and the available area for the grounding system is restricted. Chemical treatment of the soil surrounding an electrode should only be considered in exceptional circumstances where no other practical solution exists. DR 09051-PDR . The use of NERs for the control of EPR hazards should be investigated on a case-by-case basis. Arc Suppression Coils. NERs may be an effective way of reducing the EPR at faulted sites and thereby controlling step. Resonant earthing (Petersen coils) are very effective is controlling step. the reduction in EPR may not always be significant if the impedance of the earthing system is relatively high. U7. wires or cables. They may also be applied in areas where considerable variation of electrode resistance is experienced due to seasonal climatic changes. chemical treatment of the soil surrounding the electrode and the use of buried metal strips. The rating of the cable screen should be adequate for the expected fault current and for the current induced in the screen during normal operation. Care should be taken to ensure the rating of the cable is adequate for the application. may be very effective. touch and transferred voltages especially in urban areas where distribution system earth electrodes are bonded to a significant MEN system. the transfer of EPR hazards through the cable screens to remote sites should be considered as part of the design. as the treatment requires regular maintenance. methods of enhancing the earth electrode may be required.
such as crushed rock and asphalt. the withstand voltage should be determined based on the type of asphalt that is being considered. Vehicle access over crushed rock may sometime be problematic especially if the basecourse is not prepared correctly. in zone substations and transmission substations for the following reasons: (a) (b) To increase tolerable levels of touch and step voltages during a power system earth fault. U7. Asphalt has the advantage of providing easy vehicle access. and may prove impracticable. DR 09051-PDR . Transient faults do not result in supply interruptions and in some jurisdictions permanent earth faults can be left on the system without the supply being interrupted while the fault is located and repaired. Therefore.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . To provide a weed-free. U7. This thin layer of surface material helps in limiting the body current by adding resistance to touch and step voltage circuits. Asphalt may also be used in zone substations and transmission substations but is likely to be more expensive than crushed rock.000 Ω-m and a minimum thickness of 50 mm should be used for asphalt. This may be easy to implement in certain situations and may be very effective. Modern systems provide automatic tuning of the inductance to accommodate changes in network topology.8 Surface insulating layer To limit the current flowing through a person contacting a temporary livened earthed structure. the system capacitance discharges into the fault and the faulted phase voltage collapses to a very low value leaving a very small residual current flowing in the fault. Asphalt and crushed rock can also be used to control touch and step voltages around towers and poles.DRAFT ONLY 245 DRAFT ONLY Upon the occurrence of an earth fault. is often used on top of the ground surface. a thin layer of high resistivity material. some systems also provide electronic compensation to reduce the remaining residual current and voltage on the faulted phase to zero. This current is so small that any arc between the faulted phase and earth will not be maintained and the fault will extinguish. touch voltage should typically not exceed 4 kV and step voltage should not exceed 8 kV. self-draining surface. Crushed rock is used mainly. Limited data is available on the flashover withstand of asphalt which may be as low as 4 kV for a 50 mm thick sample.000 Ω-m and a minimum thickness of 100 mm should be used for crushed rock. For applications where these limits are exceeded. Resonant earthing can reduce MEN EPR to a safe level even in systems with high MEN resistance. The need for adequate protection grading may also limit the effectiveness of this measure. Reduction of the fault clearing time may require significant protection review and upgrade. but not exclusively. For design purposes the following criteria applies: (i) (ii) A resistivity of 3. where asphalt is used for mitigation.7 Reduction of fault clearing times EPR hazards can be mitigated by the reduction of the fault clearing time. To increase safety and to eliminate restriking faults on underground cables. resistivity of 10.
Gradient control conductors can also be used to control touch voltages on distribution substations and equipment. In some instances.DRAFT ONLY 246 DRAFT ONLY The insulating property of crushed rock can be easily compromised by pollution (e.9 Gradient control conductors Touch voltages on a structure can be mitigated to some extent by using gradient control conductors buried at various distances from the structure. U7. U7. provision should be made to allow such a strip to be installed. gradient control conductors are typically used for the control of touch voltages outside the station security fence. the maximum EPR on the HV earthing system. Close attention is required to the preparation of the ground prior to the application of crushed rock or asphalt. or on a conjoint HV/LV line section. A minimum separation distance of 4 m is suggested between the HV and LV earthing systems. Therefore. Additional gradient control conductors are also buried further out from structures as required. These conductors are very effective when used in conjunction with a metre wide strip of crushed rock or asphalt installed around the outside of the fence. The integrity of the separated HV and LV earthing systems may be difficult to maintain into the future since other earthed structures may be installed at later stages within the physical separation distance. Separated HV and LV earthing systems may not be effective in controlling hazardous step and touch voltages in the event of a HV line to LV line contact at the distribution transformer. The following options may be considered for protecting against HV to LV contacts: DR 09051-PDR . Step voltages cannot be controlled with the use of gradient control conductors. When designing zone and transmission substations. By separating the HV and LV electrodes.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .e. In zone and transmission substations. the EPR on the HV earth electrode is transferred to the LV system via the PEN conductor. Chip seal should not be used since the resistivity of the chip seal surface is not typically very high and its breakdown voltage is usually low. the transfer of EPR from the HV system to the LV system can be controlled. Typically. Suitable basecourse shall be prepared before laying the crushed rock or asphalt. regular inspection and maintenance of a crushed rock layer is required to ensure that the layer stays clean and maintains its minimum required thickness. and the distances to the earths bonded to the LV system. if required. with soil). The minimum separation distance required between the HV and LV earthing systems is dependent on— (a) (b) (c) the size of the HV earthing system.g. Concrete should not be used to control touch and step potentials due to its low resistivity unless the reinforcing in the concrete is used to provide an equipotential zone.10 Separation of HV and LV earth electrodes When an earth fault takes place at the HV side of a distribution centre. the required separation may be much larger (i. The integrity of the asphalt layer used for surface treatment shall be maintained. The insulating property of asphalt can be compromised by cracks and excessive water penetration. low/high resistivity layering with a LV network of limited extent). gradient control conductors are buried at a distance of one metre from the structure.
The earth fault frequency for the line is 5 per year. Step 1—Basic data: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) The prospective earth fault current at the source substation is 7 kA. The resistivity of the top soil layer was measured as 50 Ω-m. U7. Third party fences should be isolated from the substation security fence using nonconductive section of fences. The installation of isolation barriers usually requires ongoing maintenance but can be very effective in reducing the risk. plastic or rubber. water pipes connected to a HV or LV network earthing system can be effectively achieved by the installation of plastic pipes. Step 2—Functional requirement The pole already meets the functional requirements. The earth fault clearing time is 0. For example. the total earth impedance of the LV earthing system plus associated MEN earths. The transformer shall be rated to withstand the maximum EPR on the HV earthing system. Replace the LV lines over conjoint HV/LV spans with— (A) (B) (C) LV buried cable. shall be sufficiently low to ensure the HV feeder protection will operate in the event of a HV winding to LV winding fault. DR 09051-PDR .g.g.11 Isolation Access to structures where hazardous touch voltages may be present can be restricted by the installation of safety barriers or fences.5 s. When the LV earthing system is segregated from the HV earthing system at a distribution substation. without breaking down to the LV side of the transformer (e. A safety factor should be considered when calculating this maximum earth impedance value. Mitigation of step and touch voltages of metallic pipelines e. via HV/LV winding breakdown. or transformer tank to LV winding breakdown).DRAFT ONLY 247 DRAFT ONLY (i) (ii) Ensuring the configuration of LV lines at the distribution transformer poles is such that a HV line to LV line contact is unlikely. or LV aerial bundled conductor cable that is insulated to withstand the full HV conductor voltage. The line consists of 200 poles. a tower could be surrounded by a wooden fence to restrict access to the tower base. Non-conductive sections may also be required at additional locations along third party fences. LV lines on a separate poles.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . a simple case study is detailed below. People travelling to work typically use the bus stop and it can therefore be assumed that footwear is worn around the pole. Example 3: To illustrate the principles of risk based earthing design following the simplified method presented in this guide. The case study follows the steps detailed in Section 10 The case study involves an existing 33 kV concrete pole located close to a bus stop. The resistance to earth of the 3 kV pole was measured as 20 Ω. or a sheet of rubber could be wrapped around the base of a steel or concrete pole. This pole was identified as potentially carrying an EPR risk for people using the bus stop. These barriers or fences would typically be nonconductive such as wood.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 . someone leans against the pole) for five days of the week (i.DRAFT ONLY 248 DRAFT ONLY Step 3—Connection to other earthing systems In this case. Step 4—Pole EPR Using parameters associated with the earth fault current path for an earth fault at the pole. Applying equation U6 Pc = λH × λE × LE 1 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 The frequency of earth faults for the line with 200 poles is 5 faults per year. Therefore. The risk can be assessed by calculating the coincidence probability.5 s and for a soil resistivity of 50 Ω-m (footwear excluded). bonding the 33 kV pole to nearby earthing systems is not practical. Step 5—Prospective tolerable step and touch voltage limits The touch voltage limit was determined from Figure 10.1 for a fault clearing time of 0.2 for a fault clearing time of 0.e. N2 = 1 and the equivalent probability is— Pe = N2Pc = Pc = 6 × 10−5 The risk is therefore ‘Intermediate’ and should be minimised unless the risk reduction is impractical and the costs are grossly disproportionate to safety gained. for 260 days per year). Step 9—Risk analysis The only hazardous components at the pole are the touch voltages onto the concrete pole. DR 09051-PDR . VT (limit) = 600 VS (limit) = 5000 Step 6—Is EPR ≤VT (limit) and VS (limit)? The EPR on the pole is greater than the touch and step voltage limits. λE = 260.5 s and for a soil resistivity of 50 Ω-m (footwear included).025 200 If for the purpose of this case study. Therefore— λH = 5 = 0. A cost benefit analysis should be carried out to determine whether the costs of risk treatment options are disproportionate to safety gained. The step voltage limit was determined from Figure 10. LE = 5 min × 60 s = 300 s 1 (0.025)(260)(300) = = 6 ×10 −5 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 (365 × 24 × 60 × 60) Pc = λH × λE × LE Since only one person is typically affected. we assume that the pole is being touched once a day for 5 min (i. Step 7—Calculate actual step and touch voltages The actual touch voltage on the pole was calculated as approximately 3000 V The actual maximum step voltage was calculated as approximately 2000 V Step 8—Are actual touch and step voltages ≤VT (limit) and VS (limit)? Actual touch voltage exceeds the touch voltage limit but the actual step voltage is less than the step voltage limit.e. the EPR on the pole was calculated as 6 kV. only touch voltage hazards exist.
There may be some additional ongoing costs associated with maintenance of the asphalt. .000. The cheapest risk treatment option may not be the best option.000 (assuming an asset lifespan of 50 years and a discount rate of 4%) Step 10—Risk treatment options A number of risk treatment options can be considered. (iv) Additional risk treatment options may be considered as required Clearly. Installing a gradient control conductor and an asphalt layer around the pole. Such an insulating barrier could take the form of a wooden enclosure or a fibreglass jacket. Other considerations may dictate which risk treatment option is selected. DR 09051-PDR . This touch voltage exceeds the touch voltage limit. The cost of this risk treatment option is $10k and is below the present value of the liability.000 × 6 × 10−5 = $600 PV = $13. However. The resulting touch voltage on the pole would then reduce to 300 V which is below the tolerable touch voltage limit. Installing an insulating barrier around the pole to prevent people from touching the pole.15/06/2009 13:22:00 A few of the above risk treatment options are detailed below to illustrate the principles. the touch voltage limit increases to 2000 V with the result that the touch voltage is lower than the limit. Moving the pole. The cost of this risk treatment option has been determined to be approximately $200k. For other cases. the touch voltage reduces to 900 V.DRAFT ONLY 249 DRAFT ONLY Calculate the present value (PV) of the liability— Value of a statistical life (VOSL) = $10. The cost of this risk treatment option is $5k and is significantly below the present value of the liability. Examples of risk treatment options are— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (i) Installing an underslung earth wire on the line. economically viable risk treatment options exist for this case and one of the options should be implemented. Installing an underslung earth wire on the line A study has shown that an underslung earth wire would reduce the EPR on the pole to 600 V. (iii) Installing an insulating barrier around the pole to prevent people from touching the pole An insulating barrier could be installed around the pole to prevent people from being able to touch the pole. an underslung earth wire may be the best option if a number of other EPR issues exist along the line. if asphalt is also installed around the pole. (ii) Installing a gradient control conductor and an asphalt layer around the pole With a gradient control conductor installed at a distance of one metre around the pole. For example. Moving the bus stop. the costs and practicality of the selected mitigation option may be such that there is some residual risk in the intermediate category after mitigation is applied. There may be some additional ongoing costs associated with maintenance of the insulating barrier.000 Liability per year = 10.000. Comparing the cost of risk treatment to the prevent value of the liability indicates that the cost of this risk treatment option is grossly disproportionate to the safety gained.
The calculations below show that the exposure would have to be in excess of 41 minutes per week for the risk to be come high. it appears that the exposure is likely to exceed 24 s per week.144 s per year = 2426 s per week For the risk to fall within the low risk category. DR 09051-PDR . In this case. the exposure for a person would need to be less than 24 s per week as shown below. it is unlikely that someone would be exposed for so long every week.DRAFT ONLY 250 DRAFT ONLY The remaining steps detailed in Section 10 should then be considered as required.5 λh = 1260 s per year = 24 s per week The above sensitivity check confirms that an intermediate risk level should be adopted for this case.6 λh = 126. The exposure corresponding to the transition from low to intermediate and from intermediate to high may also be calculated as a sensitivity/sanity check. μlow = 31. μ high = 3153. In this case.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .
LO G ( ELO NG AT I O IN ) T85C = 20 % C B L T20C = 40 % C B L T20C = 3 0 % C B L T20C = 20 % C B L I n i ti a l c re e p LO G ( T IM E ) FIGURE V1 TYPICAL AERIAL CONDUCTOR CREEP TEST RESULTS The cumulative aerial conductor permanent elongation is dependent on the aggregation of permanent elongation intervals characterized by differing aerial conductor stresses and temperatures. Typical creep test results are illustrated in Figure V1 and yield the creep constants k. c2 and c3 are constants In many cases. c1. . . an aerial conductor may be subjected to a number of differing stress levels and temperatures each with a given time interval as illustrated in Figure V2. Graphically. . the aerial conductor exposure period at elevated temperatures is very small relative to an everyday exposure temperature assessed to be 20°C hence the above equation may be reduced to— t = ktc1σc2 . c2 and c3. In this example.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . c1. t1 to t2 which will result in creep accumulation of ε2 − ε1 as the aerial conductor behaviour moves from a to b.V2 Aerial conductor constants are determined by aerial conductor creep tests as described in AS 3822. aerial conductor stress and aerial conductor constants is given as— ε where ε t σ θ = = = = = ktc1σc2ec3(θ−20) unit strain in mm/km time in years aerial conductor average stress in MPa aerial conductor average temperature in °C .V1 k. . temperature. the initial exposure is at 20% CBL and 20°C with a duration. DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 251 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX V AERIAL CONDUCTOR PERMANENT ELONGATION (Informative) V1 GENERAL Aerial conductor permanent elongation expressed as a function of time.
over-tension aerial conductors. temperature and stress. from point b to point c and also from point d to point e).DRAFT ONLY 252 DRAFT ONLY LO G ( ELO NG AT I O N ) T85C = 20 % C B L 3 2 1 d c a t3 t1 t4 b e T20C = 20 % C B L t2 LO G ( T IM E ) t5 FIGURE V2 TYPICAL AERIAL CONDUCTOR PERMANENT ELONGATION ACCUMULATION At c.e. the aerial conductor may return to the original condition and hence the original creep curve and transition to point e. At d. aerial conductor permanent elongation may be determined for the predicted operating duty of the transmission line. exposure duration and aerial conductor temperature allows a mathematical determination of the creep accumulation. To compensate for aerial conductor inelastic stretch it is necessary to carry out one or a combination of the following: (i) (ii) (iv) add a margin on the statutory ground clearance requirements. and the creep from one creep curve may be translated to another creep curve (i. Thus. . Also illustrated in this example is that— (a) (b) the creep at a low temperature is much less than that at an elevated temperature. The design allowance for aerial conductor elongation is necessary to account for the changes in aerial conductor sag and hence ground clearance over time. the application of the elongation equation knowing the aerial conductor stress history.V3 One of the most important aspects of understanding aerial conductor permanent elongation is determining design allowances for the long-term aerial conductor behaviour. Aerial conductor creep is cumulative for a given set of operating conditions of time. and or . . the aerial conductor experiences an elevated temperature at say 16% CBL and 85°C with duration. t3 to t4. Teq(i) = where Teq(i) = σ(i-1) = σ(i) = t(i-1) = ⎡ σ (i−1) ⎤ c 2t ( i −1) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ σ1 ⎦ the equivalent time in years for unit strain at stress level σ(i) the stress level in MPa associated with time interval t(i−1) the stress level in MPa associated with time interval teq(i) time interval in years associated with stress level σ(i−1) c1 . subtract an allowance on the maximum design temperature. which will result in creep accumulation of ε3 − ε2 as the aerial conductor behaviour moves from c to d. DR 09051-PDR . Whilst this has been illustrated as a graphical representation of the creep accumulation.15/06/2009 13:22:00 (iii) prestress aerial conductors prior to final sagging.
05 ‘Permanent Elongation of Conductors Predictor Equations and Evaluation Methods.DRAFT ONLY 253 DRAFT ONLY Reference: CIGRE WG 22. DR 09051-PDR .’ CIGRE Electra No 75 1981.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .
. H o m o g e n o u s c o n d u c to r ST R ES S Le a d i n g Unloading Pe r m a n e nt e l o n g ati o n ST R A IN (% ELO NG AT IO N ) FIGURE W1 STRESS STRAIN CURVE FOR A HOMOGENOUS AERIAL CONDUCTOR Figure W2 illustrates a stress strain curve for a non-homogenous aerial conductor such as an ACSR construction.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . some permanent elongation will result as shown in Figure W1. . Essentially the figure shows the loading and unloading as a function of stress and strain where strain is expressed as a percentage of elongation. . . As the applied load exceeds the elastic limit of the aerial conductor. C o m p o s i te c o n d u c to r ST R ES S Outer wires (al) core (gz) Tra ns i ti o n p o i nt ST R A IN ( % ELO NG AT I O N ) FIGURE W2 STRESS STRAIN CURVE FOR NON HOMOGENOUS AERIAL CONDUCTOR DR 09051-PDR .W1 .DRAFT ONLY 254 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX W AERIAL CONDUCTOR MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (Normative) W1 GENERAL Typical homogeneous aerial conductor modulus of elasticity is given as: Eal = Est = 64 GPa (aluminium) 193 GPa (SC/GZ) .W2 Figure W1 illustrates a stress strain curve for a homogenous aerial conductor.
. By examining the wire geometry of a helically stranded wire.W3 A1 E1 + A2 E2 A1 + A2 . The slope of the line is termed the final modulus of elasticity. however in some cases higher orders may be more appropriate. .W4 = = = = cross sectional area aerial conductor modulus of elasticity subscript denoting material 1 subscript denoting material 2 Below the transition point the modulus will be that of the core material and in the case of an ACSR/GZ. For a non homogenous aerial conductor.W5 Nij = c .j ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ j =1 ⎣ i =1 ⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .j Ai. the modulus will be that of the GZ wires. From this work. Similar polynomials are derived for the initial curves of the steel core and the aluminium outer layer.DRAFT ONLY 255 DRAFT ONLY The initial characteristics of the aerial conductor stress strain may be described by a polynomial equation as follows: με = where με = aerial conductor strain An = coefficients derived from aerial conductor test S = aerial conductor stress ‘A0’ is general very small and can be ignored. the composite modulus above the transition point may be theoretically determined knowing the weighted ratios of the aluminium and steel components to the composite aerial conductor and the material modulus of aluminium and steel and is given as— Ecomp = where A E 1 2 A0 + A1S + A2S2 + A3S 3 + AnSn . . . Equation W4 does not account for the wire geometry of a helical stranded aerial conductor and this equation will always over-estimate the modulus by about 1%. A 1% error in modulus will generally result in aerial conductor sag error of about 2%. a more accurate modulus may be determined and for a non-homogenous aerial conductor with multiple layers the composite modulus is given by— Ec = where A E Ni = = = = cross sectional area conductor final modulus of elasticity number of wires in the aerial conductor number of wires in i layer of material j subscript denoting composite DR 09051-PDR . Nigol and Barrett (see reference at end of this Appendix) discovered that the stress and strains in helically stranded aluminium wires of an aerial conductor were not the same as those of the individual straight wires.j Ei. In more recent times. Linear regression may be applied to the unloading curves and is used to determine the line of best fit. and to the change of layer radius R. consisting of dissimilar materials. Nigol and Barrett derived an equation for the aerial conductor strain related to the wire strain. Usually a 3rd order polynomial describes the data adequately. .15/06/2009 13:22:00 1 Ac Ni ⎡ ⎡ n ⎤⎤ Ecore Acore + ∑ ⎢ ∑ ni. .
DR 09051-PDR . Development of an Accurate Model of ACSR Conductors for Calculating Sags at High Temperatures—Part III. March 1980.DRAFT ONLY 256 DRAFT ONLY 1 2 = = subscript denoting material 1 subscript denoting material 2 The modulus for AAC. The final stress strain curve of a non-homogeneous construction includes a transition tension/stress load point defined as the point on the final modulus composite aerial conductor curve where the slope of the curve changes from the composite modulus to that of core modulus. O. TABLE W1 AERIAL CONDUCTOR TENSION DETERMINATION MODELS Model Non-linear stress strain Linear stress strain Modulus of Elasticity Aerial conductor stress strain described by a polynomial equation and determine aerial conductor permanent elongation for tension excursions Use final modulus for either homogeneous of non homogeneous aerial conductors Reference NIGOL. AAAC and ACSR/GZ aerial conductors are published in relevant Australian Standards. J. Report prepared for the Canadian Electrical Association. Aerial conductor tension changes shall be determined in accordance with Table W1.. A phenomenon reported by Nigol Barrett known as the birdcaging temperature. The aerial conductor modulus below the transition point is that of the steel core material. With increasing tensions the birdcaging temperature will increase because additional thermal expansion is required in the aluminium before the load is transferred wholly to the steel core. Of particular interest is the change in transition tension/stress with a change in temperature.S.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . when above this temperature the aerial conductor expands at the rate of the steel core. and BARRETT. This is an unloading point where the aluminium because of permanent elongation does not support any stress and the total aerial conductor stress is supported by the core.
5 × 10−6 (sc/gz) Non-homogenous aerial conductor.X1 = = = = = cross sectional area coefficient of thermal expansion aerial conductor modulus of elasticity subscript denoting material 1 subscript denoting material 2 Below the transition point. the composite CTE above the transition point is given as— α comp = where A α E 1 2 A1 E1α1 + A2 E2α 2 A1 E1 + A2 E2 . . AAAC and ACSR/GZ aerial conductors are published in the relevant Australian Standards. for a non homogenous aerial conductor with multiple layers the composite CTE is given by— αc = where A α E Ni c 1 2 1 Ec Ac Ni ⎡ ⎡ n ⎤⎤ Ecore Acoreα core + ∑ ⎢ ∑ ni. A 5% error in CTE will generally result in aerial conductor sag error of about 2%. A more accurate CTE may be determined by examining the wire geometry and an increase in temperature that will cause an increase in wire length resulting in an increase in lay length. consisting of dissimilar materials. the CTE will be that of the core material and in the case of an ACSR/GZ.X2 = = = = = = = cross sectional area coefficient of thermal expansion aerial conductor final modulus of elasticity number of wires in the aerial conductor number of wires in i layer of material subscript denoting composite subscript denoting material 1 subscript denoting material 2 j Nij = CTE for AAC.DRAFT ONLY 257 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX X AERIAL CONDUCTOR COEFFICENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION (Informative) X1 GENERAL Homogeneous aerial conductor coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is given as— αal = αst = 23 × 10−6 (aluminium) 11. . the CTE will be that of the GZ wires. .jα i.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .j Ai. Hence. Equation X1 does not account for the wire geometry of a helical stranded aerial conductor and this equation will always over-estimate the CTE by up to 5%.j ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ j = 1 ⎣ i =1 ⎢ ⎦⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . . DR 09051-PDR .
3 Homogenous Al and Al alloy aerial conductors The corrosion mechanism is generally limited to pit corrosion and is influence by atmospheric chloride and sulphate levels. This may be associated with aerial conductor suspension fittings coupled with environments of particularly high rainfall.2 Crevice corrosion When an electrolyte such as water is present in the interstitial spaces between wires.1 Pit corrosion Pitting is the loss of parent material at a localised site on a surface exposed to the environment.5 which results in passive behaviour. sulphur dioxide and other pollutants will accelerate corrosion. Nevertheless all aluminium aerial conductors show some pit corrosion and the level of pit corrosion is dependent on the level of impurities held in the substrate. the formation of a resistive coating of aluminium oxide and secondly that the PH levels of aluminium ranges from 4 to 8. localised etching or crevice corrosion may occur. Y1. With time. Atmospheric corrosion takes place in aqueous environments and the exposure duration of wetness is a principal factor. Chemical investigations generally reveal levels of aluminium oxide.DRAFT ONLY 258 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX Y AERIAL CONDUCTOR DEGRADATION and SELECTION FOR DIFFERING ENVIRONMENTS (Informative) Y1 GENERAL To one degree or another. Y1. the construction and the protective mechanisms employed in the design. most materials experience some form of interaction with a range of diverse environments. Surface pitting is generally associated with an exposure to industrial and coastal environments.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . One example is aluminium alloy 6201 that employs compound Mg2Si. Aerial conductor corrosion susceptibility depends on the material. The performance is generally excellent due to firstly. The severity of the corrosive environment and the presence of chlorides. DR 09051-PDR . pit corrosion will continue to be initiated and existing shallow pits may widen. frequented by fogs and or perhaps in close proximity to chloride and or sulphate atmospheric depositions. Pitting may be caused by corona corrosion in UHV lines or more commonly by localised electrolytic reaction in which water and oxygen must be present. 5% and 1% respectively. effective cross sectional area and hence conductivity. is anodic in aluminium and reactive to acidic solutions and tends to dissolve away leaving an inactive pit. Pit growth rate is generally very small. sulphates and chlorides of about 60%. Catastrophic localised corrosion is not likely to occur and the overall effect would be the gradual loss of cross sectional area. strength and in the case of aerial conductors. Corrosion may take place and voluminous grey to white slightly moist deposits between the penultimate and ultimate aluminium layers will be found. Often these interactions result in degradation of material ductility. Y1.
The corrosion rates for zinc and steel are given in Table Y1. The performance of the grease is influenced by consideration of the drop point.4 Homogenous copper aerial conductor corrosion The corrosion mechanism is generally limited to pit corrosion and is influenced by the presence of ammonia in the atmosphere. At this stage. The most effective method of reducing corrosion is to prevent moisture. The rate of corrosion is approximately linear and is generally determined by the classification of the environment. special jointing techniques are critical to avoid severe and rapid galvanic corrosion of the aluminium from copper oxides in the presence of an electrolyte such as water. sulphur oxides and other corrosive substances from coming into contact with the zinc aluminium interface. TABLE Y1 CORROSION RATES FOR ZINC AND STEEL Corrosivity classification Mild Moderate Tropical Industrial Marine (>1 km) Severe marine (<1 km) Corrosion rate μm/yr− 1 zinc <1 <2 <2 2–4 2–4 4 >10 steel <10 10 – 20 20 – 50 20 – 50 20 – 80 80 -200 Zinc/steel corrosion ratio (approx) 1:10 1:20 1:50 1:15 1:20 1:20 Y1. bitumen. This may be achieved by applying a protective material such as grease. the associated age and the location of the line enables the deterioration of the wires to be determined.7 Protective greases Protective greases provide a layer or barrier to corrosion products and aerial conductors may be partly greased which provides better performance than ungreased aerial conductors do. which should be much greater than the maximum operating temperature of the line. Y1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .6 Non homogenous Al aerial conductors steel reinforced Initially a galvanic cell is set up with the zinc coating of the steel wires as the anode and the aluminium wires as the cathode with the zinc corroding in the presence of sulphur oxides. Fully greased aerial conductors provide superior performance in the most aggressive environments. At this stage.5 Homogenous galvanized steel wire aerial conductors The corrosion mechanism is limited to initially the gradual loss of zinc followed by localized galvanic action of the steel substrate. the aluminium will then act as an anode and the steel as a cathode resulting in the aluminium being sacrificial to the steel. Application of the known corrosion rates to zinc coated steel wires. DR 09051-PDR . paint or a plastic film over the zinc wires. After some time the zinc will expose the steel substrate. When in contact with aluminium. the aluminium corrosion rate accelerates rapidly. Hence. severe corrosion will result when copper aerial conductors are used near abattoirs and or fertiliser factories.DRAFT ONLY 259 DRAFT ONLY Y1. Y1. the most critical element in determining the life of the zinc coating is coating thickness and this provides a reliable correlation in determining the expected life of zinc coated wires. The performance is generally excellent due to the formation of a protective coating of copper oxide however.
The corrosion resistance of SC/AC is very dependent on the thickness of the coating. that bituminous compounds used in 50’s and 60’s in ACSR/GZ have a drop point of about 70°C and there are many examples where lines may now be operating at or near maximum operating temperatures and the compound may have liquefied. run to the centre of the span and fallen as droplets.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . When selecting conductor for a hostile environment the following factors should be considered: (i) (ii) Full or partial greasing of the aerial conductor significantly improves corrosion resistance. DR 09051-PDR . Table Y2 gives the aerial conductor selections for differing environmental conditions. (iv) The aluminium coating on SC/AC is very soft and should be treated carefully if it is to provide adequate corrosion protection.8 Application recommendations Carter (see reference 2 at the end of the Appendix) reviewed the types of aerial conductor constructions in common use and surveyed service experience and resistance to corrosion under varying conditions. The results were consistent with those reported by other international and national authors at the time and indicate the following general conclusions— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) for aluminium.m−2. form droplets and for lines greater than 66 kV cause radio interference. there is no difference in an aerial extent of external pitting between 1350 aluminium and 6201 aluminium alloy.DRAFT ONLY 260 DRAFT ONLY If the drop point of the grease is less than the maximum operating temperature of line. Ensure that all fittings are compatible so that electrolytic corrosion does not occur. (iii) Insulated/covered aerial conductor systems may provide protection against corrosion provided the aerial conductors are completely sealed by the insulation/covering and do not provide traps for corrosive solutions nor allow ingress of moisture. then grease will liquefy. severe attack on bare galvanized wires up to 3 years and complete removal of the zinc coating will occur in 3 years with salt deposition > 160 g. commenced in 1964 in collaboration with Illawarra County Council (predecessor of Integral Energy). there is good internal and external corrosion resistance provided by homogenous aerial conductor constructions. Also published were results of corrosion tests in severe saline environments. for ACSR/GZ protection of the aluminium wires will occur up to the point that degradation of the zinc coating has occurred. Y1. and a delay in the onset of internal corrosion results will occur from the use of protective grease. A cautionary note. slight external pitting generally less than 250 μm will occur after about 3 years. run to centre of span.
. 1991. 2.D... 3. G.F. BRENNAN. Wollongong University. DR 09051-PDR .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Conductors in Overhead Service. No.DRAFT ONLY 261 DRAFT ONLY TABLE Y2 AERIAL CONDUCTOR SELECTION FOR DIFFERING ENVIRONMENTS Aerial conductor type AAC AAAC/6201 AAAC/1120 ACSR/GZ ACSR/AZ ACSR/AC SC/GZ SC/ZC OPGW HDCu Salt spray pollution Open ocean Good Good Good Poor Average Good Poor Good Good Good Bay. pp 3 – 10. J. Guidelines for design and maintenance of overhead distribution and transmission lines. Development of A Durability Branding System for Steel Construction Products. inlets and salt lakes Good Good Good Poor Good Good Poor Good Good Good Industrial pollution Acidic Good Average Good Average Average Average Poor Good Average Average Alkaline Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Average Poor Poor Good References 1. Electricity Supply Association of Australia Publication C(b)1. R. Methodology for Assessment of Serviceability of Aged Transmission Line Conductors Postgraduate Thesis. 2. November 2001 CARTER. MM Metals Report released to the Aluminium Development Council. 1989. Vol 10. ROBINSON. 4. Corrosion Management.
Z2 STATIC STRESSES Z2.2 Static bending stress Static bending stress results from the bending of the aerial conductor at the support point and is a function of the span length. the stress in the aluminium wires decreases with time as the metallurgical creep in the aluminium is much greater than in the steel and results in a load transfer from the aluminium to the steel. . the outer layer stress can be calculated by dividing the tangential tension in the aerial conductor by the cross-sectional area. This effect becomes more predominant as the percentage of steel in the aerial conductor decreases. tension.Z1 = = = = = = stress in aluminium wires area of aluminium area of steel aerial conductor tension Efe/Eal 68 GPa (aluminium) 193 GPa (sc/gz) The ratio of the density of steel to aluminium is similar to the ratio of their moduli of elasticity and Equation Z1 may be rewritten as— σ A1 ∝ T m . the static tensile stress in the aluminium wires can be estimated by— σ A1 where σAl AAl ASt T n Eal Est = T AA1 + nASt . self-weight and flexural stiffness of the aerial conductor and the radius of curvature of the support clamp.DRAFT ONLY 262 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX Z AERIAL CONDUCTOR STRESS AND FATIGUE (Informative) Z1 GENERAL Fatigue failures of overhead line aerial conductors occur almost exclusively at points where the aerial conductor is secured to fittings.1 Static tensile stress The line aerial conductor tension produces static tensile stresses in the individual aerial conductor wires. .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The cause of such failures is dynamic stresses induced by vibration combined with high static stresses. For homogeneous aerial conductors. .Z2 In the case of ACSR aerial conductors. It is necessary therefore to limit both the static and dynamic stresses if the aerial conductor is to have acceptable fatigue endurance. DR 09051-PDR . For non-homogeneous aerial conductors. . Z2.
the line tension and the frequency of occurrence of the laminar winds. Z4 LIMITING OUTER LAYER STRESSES Z4. the aerial conductor self-damping characteristics are reduced. However as static stress levels increase. DR 09051-PDR . Fretting initiates fatigue cracks and the overall fatigue strength of the aerial conductor is significantly reduced.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Wind velocities less than 0. The fretting produces abraded particles and in the case of aluminium. It is therefore necessary when considering dynamic stresses to take into account the topographical and climatic conditions of the line route. The vibration induced by wind velocities between 0. relatively high frequencies and low amplitudes. Aerial conductor fatigue endurance is related to bending and compressive static stresses and is relatively insensitive to static tensile stresses. the product consists of black aluminium oxide. which cumulatively exhaust the fatigue strength or endurance limit of the material. Practically all fatigue failures of aerial conductors originate at wire crossover points or at support contact points where fretting occurs. While the stresses are primarily bearing or radial stresses with very small associated longitudinal stress. its direction with respect to the line. This reduction in aerial conductor self-damping.1 Limiting static stresses The outer layer stresses (OLS) used for the derivation of Table Z1 are generally based on work carried out by CIGRE and the Swedish State Power Board. Laminar flow winds are generally most prevalent in early morning in winter. This continuous shedding of vortices causes an alternating force to be applied to the aerial conductor.3 Static compressive stress Static compressive stresses arise because of tensile and bending forces in the individual wires of the aerial conductor and the aerial conductor’s self-weight on the support and from external clamping pressures. The fatigue fracture of an individual wire within an aerial conductor is the result of a large number of stress cycles.DRAFT ONLY 263 DRAFT ONLY Z2. which are terrain dependent. The temperature under which the horizontal tensions are applied should therefore be based on this condition. The severity of the vibration problem is determined by the nature of the wind flow. coupled with the dynamic stress induced by laminar winds.5 m/s do not have sufficient energy to induce vibration and velocities greater than 7 m/s are turbulent in nature and do not produce the vortex shedding necessary to induce vibration. Fretting is the form of damage that arises when two surfaces in contact are exposed to slight periodic relative motion. they are a source of aggravated fretting which can significantly reduce the fatigue endurance of the aerial conductor. thus causing vibration predominantly in the vertical plane. and length of time exposure to transverse laminar winds are considered to be the most significant factor in aerial conductor fatigue endurance. Z3 DYNAMIC STRESSES Dynamic stresses are alternating bending stresses caused by wind-induced vibration in the aerial conductor and the stresses can vary widely in magnitude. and represent the allowable static tensile stress in the outer layer of an aerial conductor under certain specified conditions. The wind induced vibration or commonly known as Aeolian vibration occurs when laminar wind flows across an aerial conductor causing vortices to be shed alternatively from top and bottom of the aerial conductor. The average temperature over the coldest month is generally used for this purpose. frequency and duration.5 m/s and 7 m/s is characterized by short wave lengths.
This is particularly important for steel and small diameter high steel content ACSR aerial conductors which have little inherent self damping. in particular with regard to small diameter ACSR aerial conductor with high steel content where experience has shown that.2 Limiting dynamic stresses Control of dynamic stresses is the most significant factor in the fatigue endurance of overhead aerial conductors. This combination of factors defines the recommended maximum outer layer stress levels. and the presence of some or all of the above factors will allow the static tensile stress (design horizontal tension) to be increased in accordance with Table Z1. The static bending and static compressive stresses resulting from the support arrangement used for the base case can be reduced by using long radius shaped clamps. Some adjustments have been made in the light of operational experience.DRAFT ONLY 264 DRAFT ONLY An aerial conductor. Factors such as mountainous terrain. A conductor which is least likely to experience damage due to vibration will be fully supported. Vibration damping requirements may be calculated. Shaped long radius clamps and armour rods. Dynamic stresses can be limited by— (a) (b) (c) (d) terrain not conducive to laminar wind flow. the use of spacer dampers with bundled aerial conductor. Selection of dampers should be based on the recommendations of the manufacturer and compliance with the relevant Australian or New Zealand or equivalent International Standards. Combinations of open or rolling terrain without dampers are in general not recommended because the level of dynamic stresses that result can cause the fatigue life of the aerial conductor to be reached at a very early stage. or pin insulators with armour rods. a higher static tensile stress may be tolerated. In Table Z1. used in conjunction with armour rods on pin insulators allow an increase of 10% to 15% on the base case. will be supported in a short bolted clamp or on a pin insulator with no armour rods or dampers in a terrain conducive to laminar wind flow. for example for Stockbridge type dampers using energy balance considerations. the use of effective vibration dampers. Because of appropriately designed supports. with effective damping. armour rods. these aerial conductors can be strung to higher allowable tensions. or preformed ties with elastomer inserts. the base case outer layer stresses have been converted to a base case horizontal tension expressed as a percentage of the calculated breaking load (CBL). These allowable increases have been converted to a percentage of CBL and included in Table Z1 under ‘clamp category’. except for very long spans or for spans in very steep terrain. The values listed in Table Z1 are expressed as horizontal tension. In this case the fatigue life may be relatively insensitive to everyday tension. tree cover and urban development will minimize conductor vibration. which is most likely to experience damage due to vibration. rather than tangential tension. Z5 VIBRATION DAMPERS Use of effective dampers is critical if use is to be made of this factor in the selection of the higher horizontal tensions from Table Z1. which may allow higher tensions to be used. while helical support/suspension units.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The performance of AAAC irrespective of alloy is considered to related to fretting fatigue and Table Z1 reflects this consideration. The following considerations are relevant: DR 09051-PDR . fully damped and erected in a terrain not conducive to laminar wind flow. This combination of factors defines the base case outer layer stress. preformed ties or helical support/suspension units. This approximation is satisfactory. Z4. allow an increase in the static tensile stress of 5% to 7%.
Consideration should be given to damper life when selecting the number of dampers in a span. but this may be at the expense of the damper life. the Manufacturer’s recommendation for a location to suit the full range of frequent wind velocities should be obtained. as vibration frequency and loop length is a function of wind velocity. avoidance of aerial conductor damage at the point of attachment consideration of working live line working. The performance of the damper should not deteriorate due to fatigue and ageing. and corona discharge and radio frequency interference limited to acceptable levels Damping characteristics (Stockbridge dampers only)— (i) Frequency response and energy dissipation Should be capable of limiting bending stress and strain anywhere along the aerial conductor to permissible levels for all frequencies of vibration encountered in Aeolian vibration. In the range 12 to 15 mm either type may provide an effective solution. and Stockbridge type dampers for aerial conductor diameters above 15 mm.1 will generally provide acceptable energy dissipation and frequency range. degradation due to exposure to ozone and ultra violet light should be taken into consideration. alternatively an optimum solution may involve a combination of the two types Damper construction Robustness of design to achieve a useful life compatible with that of other line components. and dampers which meet the performance criteria of AS 1154. There could be situations when effective energy dissipation can be achieved with fewer dampers. (e) DR 09051-PDR . dampers with different responses will be required for different aerial conductors. It is important that the dampers have adequate energy dissipation over a wide frequency range and cover the highest level of expected frequency.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Impedance The reactive and resistive mechanical impedance of the damper should match the aerial conductor as closely as possible. Damper location The ideal location is the anti-node of the vibrating loop. It should also be noted that dampers to be used in Category 1 Terrain should provide substantially more energy dissipation than those used for higher terrain categories to damp fully the aerial conductor. however. (d) Number of dampers per span For fully damped aerial conductors the number of dampers in a span should be sufficient to dissipate wind-induced energy in the aerial conductor. With hardware using elastomer inserts.DRAFT ONLY 265 DRAFT ONLY (a) Damper type Spiral dampers are generally considered more effective for aerial conductor diameters up to 12 mm. and (iv) Damper stress The dampers should not create significant stresses on the aerial conductor due to clamping or damping forces exerted by the bending stresses at the damper clamp. (b) (c) (ii) (iii) Endurance The fatigue life of the damper itself should be sufficient to endure the rigorous service life of the aerial conductor. as the frequency is dependent on aerial conductor diameter.
0 NA NA NA Short trunnion clamp. 6/7 AACSR/6201 18/1 AACSR/6201 30/7 Optical conductor * Clamp category: † Terrain Category: 25 10 18 15 13 10 17 16 18 14 16 13 14 13 14 12 14 Type A Type B Type C Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 34 31 27 24 21 27 27 25 27 23 26 22 23 22 23 21 20 DR 09051-PDR .5 0 2 4 0 1.5 4. 6/7 AACSR/1120 18/1 AACSR/1120 30/7 AACSR/1120 54/7. SC/AC AAC AAAC/1120 AAAC/6201 ACSR 3/4.5 6.5 2.5 0 2 4 0 1.5 2. 4/3 ACSR 6/1.5 0 2 4 NA NA 2.5 0 2 4 0 1.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 0 2 4 0 1.5 5.5 0 2 4 0 1.5 13. 54/19 AACSR/1120 6/1.5 16.5 6.5 2.5 0 2 4 0 1.5 0 2 4 0 1.5 6.0 0 5 10 0 1.5 6.5 0 2 4 0 1.5 2.0 0 4 8 0 1. forest or urban Recommended maximum horizontal tension (% CBL0 Aerial conductor or overhead earthwire type Base case horizontal tension (% CBL) Fully damped all terrain categories 6.5 6.5 0 2 4 0 2.5 2.5 6.5 2.5 6.5 5.5 0 2 4 0 1.15/06/2009 13:22:00 266 DRAFT ONLY .5 2. post or pin insulator with ties (without armour rods) Post or pin insulator (clamped or tied) with armour rods or shaped trunnion clamps with armour rods Helically formed armour grip with elastomer insert or helically formed ties with armour rods Flat.5 6. no obstacles (See Note 12) Rolling terrain with scattered trees (See Note 12) Mountain.DRAFT ONLY TABLE Z1 AERIAL CONDUCTOR EVERYDAY LOAD HORIZONTAL TENSION (H) Recommended incremental increase in horizontal tension (% CBL) Static stress considerations Dynamic stress considerations Damping/terrain category No dampers Clamp category* Terrain category† A B C 1 2 3 0 1.0 6.5 6. 54/19 AACSR/6201 6/1.5 0 2 4 0 2.0 COPPER SC/GZ.5 7.5 2.5 2.5 2. 6/7 ACSR 30/7 ACSR 54/7.0 7.5 0 2 4 0 1.5 2.0 4.5 0 2 4 0 1.
smaller aerial conductors are easier to damp effectively. however. etc. bundled cables. additional considerations may need to be given to— (a) The aerial conductor diameter.4. (c) The aerial conductor design.1. compactness. DR 09051-PDR . it is recommended that vibration dampers be applied. suspensions or joints should be designed so as not to cause damage to aerial conductors or to be damaged by aerial conductors when the aerial conductor is subject to vibration. An accurate measurement of aerial conductor temperature during stringing is essential to ensure the initial aerial conductor tensions are achieved. This could apply for example to a new line built adjacent to an existing line where the aerial conductor and support (the same as the type to be used) have shown adequate performance. Limits for covered aerial conductors are subject to further research. insulators and fittings can withstand vibration transmitted to them by the aerial conductor.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . number of aluminium layers. The manufacturer of the optical aerial conductor should be consulted regarding the recommended maximum tension. 13 Use of spacers on bundled aerial conductors may contribute some damping but it is good practice to also fit vibration dampers to bundled aerial conductors. steel/aluminium ratio. (d) The extent to which supports. If dampers are not applied. as this is the governing factor with respect to vibration frequency. 12 Where aerial conductors are strung in Terrain Categories 1 and 2. (b) The span length. especially when use is made of the tension increase for Type C suspension clamps. Limits for HVABC should be based on the limits for the support aerial conductor (subject to further research). The tension values given in Table Z1 are a guide only and need not apply to situations where proven line performance indicates that a higher or lower tension would be appropriate. Smaller diameter conductors will vibrate at higher frequencies and reach their fatigue life in a shorter time. The optical fibres are carried in a metallic tube located in the centre or an inner layer of the aerial conductor. Vibration dampers are designed to reduce the amplitude of vibration whereas armour rods and other protective fittings are primarily designed to protect against the damage to aerial conductors resulting from mechanical vibration. particularly with regard to steel overhead earthwire on steel tower transmission lines where tensions significantly lower than those listed in Table Z1 are normally used. including self-damping characteristics. Limits for LVABC are given in Clause 4. 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 An accurate prediction of aerial conductor creep is necessary to ensure that design final aerial conductor tensions are achieved. the temperature under which the horizontal tensions from Table Z1 are applied is based on the average temperature over the coldest month. because of the requirement to increase vibration protection with increased span length. Optical aerial conductor should always be installed with helical type armour grips and be fully damped. which in the absence of detailed data may be calculated as the average of daily mean maximum temperature and daily mean minimum temperature. 11 Tensions for optical aerial conductors are based on an aerial conductor composed of aluminium clad or galvanized steel plus aluminium or aluminium alloy wires.5. 7 Consideration should be given to the exposure created by structure height.DRAFT ONLY 267 DRAFT ONLY NOTES: to Table Z1: 1 Generally. Any terminations. When using the tension limits in Table Z1. For all aerial conductors particular care should be taken to ensure that the damper efficiency range is effective over the range of frequencies likely to occur. care should be taken to ensure that supporting structures and insulators are not subject to vibration damage.
1 General The main factors to consider when determining the fault rating of a line are— (a) (b) (c) the annealing of the aerial conductor resulting from overheating due to the magnitude and duration of the fault current. the sagging of the aerial conductor into another aerial conductor below it. secondary faults.DRAFT ONLY 268 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX AA AERIAL CONDUCTOR SHORT TIME AND SHORT-CIRCUIT RATING (Informative) AA1 FAULT RATINGS AA1. and movement of aerial conductors due to electromagnetic forces leading to aerial conductor clashing.2 Annealing The short circuit or transient thermal state condition for a homogenous aerial conductor.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . the specific heat of the aerial conductor is constant and the heating is adiabatic. that is due to the transient nature of the current flow the heat gains and losses at the surface of the aerial conductor are ignored. and the fault duration is small such that no heat will be dissipated from the aerial conductor (d) then the following equation is a reasonable approximation of the aerial conductor temperature rise— T2 where T2 T1 Ar R D J t C C20 Ac = = = = = = = = = = final temperature in °C initial temperature in °C temperature coefficient of resistance in °C–1 resistivity in ohm mm at 20°C density in g/mm3 current density in A/mm2 duration in seconds (includes reclosure times) = 1 ⎡ 1 + ⎢T1 − 20 + 20 − Ar ⎣ Ar ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎥e ⎦ ⎡ Ar RJ 2r ⎤ ⎥ DC ⎥ ⎦ . assuming— (a) (b) (c) uniform current distribution within the aerial conductor and the wires. . . the resistance temperature characteristic of the aerial conductor is linear. arcing. AA1. aerial conductor damage. etc.AA1 ⎧ ⎡⎛ T + T ⎞ ⎤ specific heat = C20 ⎨1 + Ac ⎢⎜ 1 2 ⎟ − 20 ⎥ ⎣⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎩ specific heat at 20°C in Jg −1 °C−1 temperature coefficient of specific heat DR 09051-PDR .
Constants for specific aerial conductor types are contained in the relevant Australian Standards and as shown in Table AA1.5 1. 1969. Copper loses 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 220°C. 1971.00360 85 × 10 −6 6. ‘Rating of Bare Overhead Conductors for Intermittent and Cyclic Currents’. therefore lower maximum temperatures are applicable to aerial conductors of large cross-section.00360 HD copper 0.e.2. The mechanical properties of the steel core of ACSR are affected very little at these temperatures. 555-570. Proc IEE. Values are median values of data sourced from several references including— — — — V T Morgan.77 × 10 −6 8.0 × 10 −4 SC/AC 0. Draft IEEE Standard.00390 AAAC/ 6201A 0. the temperatures indicated in Table AA2 should not be exceeded.00381 17. . AS 1531.59 × 10 −3 0. This annealing is cumulative over the life of the aerial conductor. AS 1222.5 × 10 −4 Value taken from the appropriate Australian Standard. 1361-1376. ‘Rating of Conductors for Short-Duration Currents’. DR 09051-PDR .9 4. The rate of cooling is dependent on the thermal mass of the aerial conductor. 116(8).4 2. To provide for a loss of aerial conductor tensile strength of less than 5% due to fault conditions over its life. i.5 × 10 −4 0. It anneals rapidly at temperatures exceeding 340°C and commences melting at approximately 645°C. .5 1. Zinc melts at approximately 420°C.70 × 10 −3 2.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . V T Morgan.89 × 10 −3 0. AS 1222.70 × 10 −3 2.9 4.3 × 10 −6 32.3 × 10 −6 29.AA2 28.DRAFT ONLY 269 DRAFT ONLY Rearranging Equation AA1— ⎡ ⎛ T + T2 ⎞⎤ ⎡ DC20 ⎢1 + Ac ⎜ 1 − 20 ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ T2 − 20 + ⎝ 2 ⎠⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 1n Ar R ⎢ T − 20 + ⎢ 1 ⎣ TABLE AA1 AERIAL CONDUCTOR CONSTANTS Constants A r (at 20°C) * R (at 20°C) * D* C 20 ** A c ** * ** Units °C−1 Ωmm g/mm 3 Jg −1 °C −1 °C −1 AAC 0.70 × 10 −3 0. Aluminium loses approximately 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 210°C with a significant proportion of the annealing taking place during the cooling period following a fault. ‘Calculating the Current-Temperature relationship of Bare Overhead Conductors’.8 × 10 −3 0.9 × 10 −4 SC/GZ 0. Proc IEE.00403 AAAC/ 1120 0. AS 1746. From Equation AA2 the fault rating can be determined based on maximum allowable temperature.0 × 10 −4 J2t = 1 Ar 1 Ar ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ . 1993.5 × 10 −4 0. 118(3/4).1.9 4.00440 190 × 10 −6 7.8 × 10 −6 2.
AA1. aerial conductor configuration and economics can be achieved. Simulation and Tests of Motion Due to Fault Currents—gives equations which may be used to determine aerial conductor swing and the mechanical forces due to fault currents.DRAFT ONLY 270 DRAFT ONLY TABLE AA2 GUIDELINES FOR 5% LOSS OF TENSILE STRENGTH FOR TOTAL FAULT CLEARING TIME (INCLUDING RECLOSES) Aerial conductor type HDCu AAC.F. 1978) Section A3.. It is recommended that the appropriate nonflashover distance from AS 2067 for the system voltage be used for this clearance.3 Sag under fault Overhead lines have been known to sag into subsidiary lines or undercrossings under fault. a suitable compromise on structure design. AIEE Trans 82/3 p1061. DR 09051-PDR . If this is to be avoided it may be advisable for the line to be designed to have a positive clearance to the lower aerial conductor. The Transmission Line Reference Book—115-138 kV Compact Line Design (EPRI EL-100-V3. E. ACSR/AC AAAC/6201A SC/GZ. Dec 1963. Short time annealing characteristics of electrical conductors.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . AAAC/1120. SC/AC OPGW ***Dependent on construction. Reference: ROEHMANN. ACSR/GZ. Research Project 260. 300 to 500 100 150°C 220°C 400°C *** Approximate size (mm²) 60 100 Maximum temperature 200°C 160°C AA1.4 Movement of aerial conductors under fault The movement of aerial conductors due to the electromagnetic forces generated by large short time current is a complex matter for which a simple satisfactory solution is not available. By taking these criteria and the degree of reliability required into account. L. and HAZAN. ACSR/AZ.
The first digit specifies the principle alloying elements. TABLE BB1 DESIGNATION SYSTEM FOR WROUGHT ALUMINIUM ALLOYS 1xxx 2xxx 3xxx 4xxx 5xxx 6xxx 7xxx Commercially pure Al (>99%) Al-Cu Al-Mn Al-Si and Al-Mg-Si Al-Mg Al-Mg-Si Al-Mg-Zn Non heat treatable Heat treatable Non heat treatable Heat treatable if Mg is present Non heat treatable Heat treatable Heat treatable The degree of strengthening is given by the temper designation in Table BB2 TABLE BB2 TEMPER DESIGNATIONS FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOYS F O H1x H2x H3x W Tx As fabricated (hot rolled.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .DRAFT ONLY 271 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX BB AERIAL CONDUCTOR ANNEALING AND OPERATING TEMPERATURES (Informative) BB1 GENERAL Aluminium alloys are designated by the numbering system in Table BB1.08% Si. cast. etc) Annealed (most ductile condition) Cold worked only (x refers to the amount of cold working or strengthening) cold worked and partly annealed cold worked and stabilised at a low temperature to prevent age hardening Solution treated Age hardened (x refers to the amount of strain hardening) Resistance to room temperature creep and annealing varies with composition or fabrication variations. forged. strain hardening. Production of rod by the continuous cast process also causes higher resistances to creep and annealing than the conventional hot-rolled process.20% (by weight) Fe and 0. Heat treatable alloys are age hardened (precipitation hardened). or dispersion strengthening. DR 09051-PDR . EC alloy 1350 has about 0. Addition of Mg to a high iron alloy increased the resistances to creep and annealing. The alloys are subdivided into two subgroups—heat treatable and non heat treatable alloys. Addition of iron decreases resistances to creep and annealing. and the remaining digits refer to the specific composition of the alloy. whereas non-heat treatable alloys are hardened by solid solution strengthening (not used for aerial conductors because of the reduction in electrical conductivity).
BB2 = loss of tensile strength in the partially annealed state (% of ultimate tensile strength in the tempered state) = loss of tensile strength in the fully annealed state (% of ultimate tensile strength in the tempered state) = experimentally derived constants for the alloy = wire absolute temperature (K) = time duration at temperature T* (hours) = reduction in cross-sectional area during wire drawing (%) = diameter of prior to drawing (mm) – usually 9.DRAFT ONLY 272 DRAFT ONLY BB2 WIRE FABRICATION Aluminium strands are drawn from 9. C′ and D′ T* t R Do Dw . DR 09051-PDR . B′ C′ ⎛ ⎛ R ⎞⎞ + D ′1n ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ A′ + 1n ( t ) + T* ⎝ 80 ⎠ ⎠ − e⎝ T * ⎟ W = Wa ⎜ 1 − e ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . rolling and solution heattreating.5 mm for aluminium = diameter of the drawn wire i. Aerial conductors derive their strength from the metallurgical properties of the alloy and from strain hardening (cold working) during the wire drawing process. This allows the continuous production of coils limited in size only by the capability of the materials handling equipment. which can be produced either by the continuous cast (known as Properzi) process or by the hot-rolled process.e. hot-rolled rod is produced from cast billets that are rolled and solution heat-treated. B′. strand diameter (mm) – usually 2. . . Large coils of hotrolled rod are made by welding together smaller coils.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Continuous cast rod is the result of the tandem manufacturing steps of casting. 56% of the overall strength for 1350-H19 and 60% of the overall strength for 6201-T81. Smaller diameter wire experiences more strain hardening and achieves about 3% higher tensile strength. For example. .5 to 4. the greater the loss of strength from annealing for a given temperature and time duration. since this determines the degree of strain hardening. if applicable. . The greater the gain in tensile strength from cold working. the strengthening of the wire that occurs during the aging treatment is added to that achieved during the drawing process. In the case of heat treatable aluminium alloys such as 6201. Morgan related the loss of strength of the wires to the percentage reduction in cross sectional area during wire drawing.75 mm for aluminium Table BB3 is an excerpt from Table 2 of [reference 6 to this Appendix] using average values of –C’/A’. the process of tempering produces approximately 41% of the overall strength for HDC. if applicable. By contrast. BB3 ANNEALING FROM ELEVATED TEMPERATURE OPERATION Morgan (see reference 6 to this Appendix) proposed the formulae below for determining the loss of tensile strength of strands due to annealing.BB1 ⎛ ⎛ D ⎞2 ⎞ R = 100 ⎜1 − ⎜ w ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ Do ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where W Wa A′.5 mm rod.
grease. reduction in tensile strength (annealing). Copper loses 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 220°C. For ACSR earthwires there will be a transfer of load from the aluminium to the steel. For ACSR. The permanent reduction in electrical clearance can reduce the reliability of the line. The effect of cumulative heating of the earthwire when the line is reclosed under short circuit conditions should be considered. BB5 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE TEMPERATURES Typical aerial conductor types.2 14 B′ (K) 150 270 175 C′ (K) −4700 −9000 −6700 D′ 7. csa and maximum allowable temperature [See reference 8 to this Appendix] are given in Table BB4 for loss of strength of 10%. Aluminium loses approximately 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 210°C with a significant proportion of the annealing taking place during the cooling period following a fault. In the case of steel stands. any loss of protective zinc coating can lead to corrosion In particular. This annealing is cumulative over the life of the aerial conductor. Consideration should be given the instantaneous sag of the earthwire at elevated temperatures to ensure that the sag does not result in a consequential fault during an auto reclose operation. accelerated creep will accompany the reduction in tensile strength.DRAFT ONLY 273 DRAFT ONLY TABLE BB3 ANNEALING EQUATION CONSTANTS Alloy 1350-H19 6201A-T81 HDC (110A-H) Wa (%) 56 60 41 A′ 7. For AAC and AAAC earthwires. BB4 ANNEALING FROM FAULT CURRENTS Excessive heating of aerial conductors and in particular overhead earthwire during a short circuit can cause a reduction in tensile strength and permanent elongation. permanent elongation.5 4 3 In general. Notwithstanding this it is stressed that this is a guide only and annealing cumulative damage should be determined by summing the loss of tensile strength as a percentage of original strength for the range operating temperatures and operating durations. the mechanical properties of the steel core are affected very little at these temperatures.e.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . It anneals rapidly at temperatures exceeding 340°C and commences melting at approximately 645°C. resulting in larger sags than perhaps anticipated. and permanent attenuation losses for OPGW.8 16. Zinc melts at approximately 420°C. Permanent damage includes— (a) (b) (c) (d) loss of protective coating i. Failure of the aerial conductor and or earthwire either during the fault or subsequently during adverse weather can cause an outage as well as damage to the support structures. DR 09051-PDR . zinc. the earthwire size is determined by the assuming a maximum acceptable temperature that causes minimum permanent damage.
Copper has similar annealing properties. AAAC/1120. when one circuit has to carry more than normal current for a short time). but it has less loss of strength for the same temperature. ACSR/GZ. The annealing effect is cumulative. the loss of ultimate strength in AAC would be approximately 15%. BB2 and BB3 for AAC 1350. DR 09051-PDR . ACSR/AC AAAC/6201A SC/GZ. Isothermal annealing curves are illustrated in Figures BB1. ACSR/AZ. Research that is more recent indicates that the annealing characteristics of an aerial conductor depend not only on temperature and time of exposure but also on the diameter of the wires in the aerial conductor. The recommended maximum temperature limit for normal operation of AAC. AAAC. BB2 and BB3 will comprise a range of values for a given period with the smallest wire size suffering the greatest loss in strength and the largest size the least. For ratings for emergency conditions. and ACSR is 100°C. This permits an approximate loss of strength of 3% of the original tensile strength after 1000 hours operation at this temperature. The magnitude of this wire size dependence is considered. It is appropriate to establish the maximum design temperature at which an aerial conductor can operate while maintaining acceptable levels of degradation of tensile properties. The effect is less significant for ACSR where an increase in temperature results in a load transfer from the aluminium to the steel. the loss of strength curves shown in Figures BB1. at this stage. The steel provides most of the strength of the aerial conductor and is essentially unaffected by the temperature. Figures BB1. which are not as well documented as those for aluminium. AAAC/1120 and AAAC/6201 respectively. BB2 and BB3 show that the heating period is not a major factor until this temperature is exceeded. both the maximum temperature and the duration of the emergency load should be taken into account in determining the annealing of the aluminium wires. SC/AC OPGW csa (mm²) 60 100 300 to 500 100 Maximum temperature 200°C 160°C 150°C 220°C 400°C Dependent on construction BB6 MAXIMUM DESIGN OPERATING TEMPERATURES The design maximum operating temperature is a function of the acceptable level of permanent loss of tensile strength (annealing) of the conductor. For example.DRAFT ONLY 274 DRAFT ONLY TABLE BB4 TYPICAL AERIAL CONDUCTOR MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SHORT TERM TEMPERATURES Aerial conductor type HDCu AAC. (e. Typically. if an aerial conductor is heated to 150°C under emergency conditions for 24 hours a year for 30 years it is much the same as heating the n aerial conductor continuously at that temperature for 720 hours. The following comments are applicable for aluminium aerial conductors. The loss of tensile strength results in increased sag. For 30/7.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . ACSR the ultimate tensile strength would be reduced approximately 7%.g. For this example. These curves demonstrate the permanent loss of tensile strength when an aerial conductor operates at an elevated temperature. to be of a lower order than the effect of temperature.
For main grid transmission lines. where it is possible to control the loads in the lines to a great extent. the maximum temperature limit of 100°C should be applied. For radial transmission lines and sub-transmission lines.DRAFT ONLY 275 DRAFT ONLY If ratings for emergency conditions are to be applied then the combined effects of elevated temperature and sustained high aerial conductor tension on the sag of the line should be taken into account. FIGURE BB1 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH FOR ALLOY 1350 vs AGEING TIME DR 09051-PDR .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . the emergency condition rating concept may be applied. the tension in a line reduces with increasing temperature so the effect is less severe. Practically. For distribution lines where a lower standard of load control and monitoring usually applies it is recommended that an additional margin be applied. Maximum Design Temperatures of 75°C to 100°C are commonly used.
pp 250– 251 IEEE Std 1283-2004. et al. IEEE Guide for Determining the Effects of High-Temperature Operation on Conductors. Connectors. Overhead Power Lines – Planning and Design . KIESSLING.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Springer.DRAFT ONLY 276 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE BB2 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH FOR ALLOY 1120 vs AGEING TIME FIGURE BB3 PERCENTAGE OF ORIGINAL TENSILE STRENGTH FOR ALLOY 6201 vs AGEING TIME REFERENCES 1. 2. and Accessories DR 09051-PDR . F.
11. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Dec 1963.12. BARBER. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Loss in Strength of Overhead Electrical Conductors Caused by Elevated Temperature Operation. 1. Volume 5.W. Effect of Elevated Temperature Operation on the Tensile Strength of Overhead Conductors. Vol. 7. Number 3/March. Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Mechanical Properties of Overhead Conductors under Steady State and Short-Circuit Conditions. R. pp 667-672. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. 4. No. pp 115–118 Vincent Morgan.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Effects of composition and fabrication practice on resistance to annealing and creep of aluminium conductor alloys. CALLAGHAN. K. Short time annealing characteristics of electrical conductors. Vol. Volume 10. AIEE Trans 82/3 p1061. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. pp 242 – 246 ROEHMANN. pp 345-352 FRANC JAKL and ANDREJ JAKL.DRAFT ONLY 277 DRAFT ONLY 3. and HAZAN. Springer Boston CIGRE WG22.. K.F. Issue 1. 5. 162. No. 1. pp 403 .409 WESTERLUND. 1974. ELECTRA No. E. 6.J. 8. DR 09051-PDR . January 1996. L.. January 2000. October 1995. Date: Jan 1995. 15... Improved overhead line conductors using aluminium alloy 1120.W.
CC2 MECHANICAL DESIGN— SIMPLIFIED APPROACH Table CC1 shows the load and wind conditions for a range of insulator types.DRAFT ONLY 278 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX CC MECHANICAL DESIGN OF INSULATOR . TABLE CC1 INSULATOR LOADING CONDITIONS State Tension insulator condition Everyday tension (EDT). and failure containment load. serviceable wind load. 0 Pa wind Resultant load with serviceable wind or 500 Pa transverse + longitudinal unbalance load Resultant load with ultimate transverse wind + longitudinal unbalance load Everyday Serviceable Failure containment Aerial conductor calculated breaking load (CBL) Resultant load for ultimate aerial conductor wind transverse load DR 09051-PDR . These define the minimum requirements for an overhead line of relative reliability of 1 or less.LIMIT STATES (Normative) CC1 INSULATOR LIMIT STATES There are 3 states for the mechanical design of insulators. 0 Pa wind Serviceable wind or 500 Pa wind Suspension and vee string insulator condition Vertical weight span. these being— (a) (b) (c) everyday load. 0 Pa wind Resultant load at serviceable wind or 500 Pa transverse load Post and pin insulator condition Vertical weight span.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .
DRAFT ONLY 279 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX DD EASEMENT WIDTH (Informative) DD1 EASEMENT WIDTHS Table DD1 provides typical easement widths for a range of voltages. It is generally not required to obtain easements for overhead powerlines located on road reserves because of building set back conditions contained in local authority planning schemes. For distribution voltages. TABLE DD1 TYPICAL EASEMENT WIDTHS FOR A RANGE OF VOLTAGES (FOR TYPICAL SPANS) Easement building restriction widths generally used (measured from the centre line of the overhead line) 5 to 10 m 10 to 15 m 15 to 20 m 15 to 25 m 25 to 30 m 30 m 30 m 30 m 35 m Nominal voltage Typical width of easement Up to 33 kV 66 kV 110/132 kV 220 kV 275 kV conventional 275 kV guyed 330 kV 400 kV 500 KV 10 to 20 m 20 to 30m 30 to 40 m 30 to 50 m 50 to 60 m 70 m 60 m 65 m 70 m DR 09051-PDR . However if an easement is required Table DD1 gives the nominal widths.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . approval for an overhead line on private property is generally negotiated with the property owner and may not require a formal easement agreement.
Reference should also be made to the provisions contained in AS/NZS 1170. i. In regions within Tasmania. statistical methods and topographical effects. DR 09051-PDR . The effect of wind on an ice-covered aerial conductor is determined by three variables: (a) (b) (c) The wind speed during the period of time that the aerial conductor is ice covered. latitude and local conditions such as terrain. the diameter and the relevant drag factor. Only combined wind and ice loads on aerial conductors are considered in this standard. icing can occur at low altitudes but with reduced thickness of accretion. In particular.DRAFT ONLY 280 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX EE SNOW AND ICE LOADS (Normative) EE1 GENERAL The accumulation of snow and ice on aerial conductors and supports varies greatly with altitude. the minimum design loads should be based on a radial ice thickness of 12 mm with a density of 900 kg/m3 (SG = 0. April 2006.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . and The mass of the ice layer. line sections with large adjacent span ratios should also be investigated. In this regard. the following specific provisions should be made: EE1. In general. Hence.3 and CIGRE Technical Brochure 291. In this area the requirements provided in Table EE1 shall be included in design loadings. These loads may be taken as corresponding to a return period of 50 years though the appropriateness is uncertain. The shape of the ice layer. Wind loads on ice covered supports and insulators may be treated similarly when appropriate drag factors are used. lines located in areas higher than 800 m above sea level in Australia and in some areas of New Zealand may be subject to occasional snow/ice loadings. However.e. Guidelines for meteorological icing models. due to local topographic effects.2 Australia In areas with ice and snow loadings.9) and coincident with a wind pressure of 100 Pa at an aerial conductor temperature of –5°C. Provision should also be made for the unbalanced longitudinal loads produced by ice forming on certain spans but not others. there is insufficient consistently reoccurring data for most regions on which to base return periods for snow and ice loads. details provided are considered to provide a reasonable guide to designers.
3. the susceptibility to ice accretion is higher. On towers heavily congested by members.0085 × altitude −5ºC DR 09051-PDR . EE1. non-uniform ice build may result and the ice build up shall be taken as the full ice accretion thickness on one side of the structure and 40% of ice build up on the other side. (a) (b) Snow—0ºC Ice— (i) (ii) Coastal areas: temperature = –0. the elevation shall be 100 metres lower at which ice conditions apply. For ice cases. taking into account the structure’s overall drag coefficient.2. Snow offset cross arms should be used on all vertical configuration circuits to minimise clashing of aerial conductors.3 New Zealand Ice (or wet snow) is to be considered on wires only. but in no case be less than 1.1 times the relevant drag coefficient (Cd) for wind conditions only. The drag coefficient to be used for wind co-incident with ice conditions shall be taken as 1. which include wind. Earthwires are not to be positioned above aerial phase conductors in horizontal/flat construction configuration Ice build up is assumed to occur only on aerial conductors. Elevation (m) 0–499 0–599 500–799 600–799 800–999 >1000 Ice–9 mm Ice–12 mm −10°C −10°C 190 190 380 380 Ice–6 mm Ice condition— 900 kg/m3 Non-ice Ambient temperature (°C) Coexisting temperature −10°C Wind pressure (Pa) Spans >150 m Spans <150 m Inclement (design) weather conditions prevail 190 380 3 4 5 These effects may then be used to evaluate wire tensions and the calculation of wire loads on structures. the following design temperatures shall be used. all gaps of less than 75 mm should be considered as being filled with ice. Lattice structures with congested bracing arrangements that may trap snow accumulations shall have increased windage areas provided in designs.DRAFT ONLY 281 DRAFT ONLY TABLE EE1 TASMANIA REGION ICE LOADING CONDITIONS Wire type Earthwire Aerial conductor Eathwire Aerial conductor Both Both NOTES: 1 2 Icing should be assumed to occur in all areas of Tasmania and is dependent on altitude and locations where ice loading has been known to occur. In those areas. Where the line is subject to moist air rising from the coast (West Coast and around the South East Coasts of Tasmania). For exposed sites on ridges.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .0085 × altitude −3ºC Inland areas >5 km from coast: temperature = −0.1 Temperature effects Unless specific data is available. EE1. All large deviation (greater than 30°) and section poles shall be designed for the full ice accretion thickness on one side of the structure and no ice build up on the other side. the reduced return period wind should be applied to un-iced pole or tower. Where in-cloud icing may occur on elevated location expert guidance should be sought from local meteorology sources.
2 Aerial conductor tensions (FT) The aerial conductor tensions shall be based on a span equal to the ruling span. Allowance shall be made for some flexibility of post and pin insulators when calculating tensions. If there is significant variation in altitude along the line. the structure shall be checked for full loading on one side of the structure and 40% of loading on the other side. These are based on the 1988 Council Boundaries. Specific historical knowledge and records of other lines in the same locality may be utilized in generating ice and snow loading requirements. EE1.3 Snow and ice zones The snow and ice zones are based on AS/NZS 1170. DR 09051-PDR . Consideration shall be made for the overall effect of differences in tension of adjacent spans on the structure.3. (See Figure FF1).15/06/2009 13:22:00 . EE1. then the line shall be broken into several temperature zones.3 (snow zones). Where significant span differences arise.3.DRAFT ONLY 282 DRAFT ONLY The temperature shall be based on the highest altitude of the line.
4 Radial snow and ice build up on conductors Table EE2 below specifies radial snow/ice thicknesses corresponding to a 50-year event. ice is expected to form.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .3.DRAFT ONLY 283 DRAFT ONLY FIGURE EE1 NEW ZEALAND SNOW AND ICE ZONES EE1. Two snow/Ice cases shall be checked DR 09051-PDR . Relatively low density Wet Snow occurs at low elevations below 600 m. At higher elevations.
Most lines companies do not want to see a reduction in transverse loading on the poles hence results should be comparable. 5 ISO 12494 suggests that combined actions be considered involving maximum wind (50 year RP) and reduced icing (factor = 0. it is very conservative for overhead lines (which are very flexible).9 SG) at 0ºC combined with a 10 year return period wind be used for building structures in sub alpine regions. wet snow is usually taken in still air conditions. for higher altitudes a higher value has been adopted on the basis that wind is more likely to occur and that ice formation may remain for many days. 4 AS/NZS 1170. This may be appropriate for rigid structures only. Although the ice density has been reduced from 915 to 700 kg/m³ and the wind speed reduced.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . This is similar to IEC 60826 requirements. this appears too high].3 suggests that 30 mm radial ice (0. N5 South Island N4 Canterbury (30 (35) (40) (45) (50) NOTES: 1 The figures in brackets are the existing standard thicknesses. it is recommended that at low altitudes that a 1 year return period be used. N3. the overall effect is similar to current overhead line standards. This indicates that current standards are probably too low at particularly at lower altitudes.DRAFT ONLY 284 DRAFT ONLY TABLE EE2 ICE AND SNOW PARAMETERS FOR NEW ZEALAND Radia snow or ice thickness (Rice) on aerial conductors Zone N0 Upper North Island Altitude 450–600 600–900 900–1200 >1200 150–450 450–600 600–900 900–1200 >1200 0—150 150–300 300–450 450–600 600–750 750–900 900–1200 >1200 0—150 150–300 300–450 450–600 600–750 750–900 900–1200 Wet snow thickness at 400 kg/m 3 25 30 35 40 25 30 35 40 45 30 35 40 45 — — — — 45 50 55 60 65 — — Ice thickness at 7000 kg/m 3 — 5 8 10 — 10 15 20 25 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 15 (10) 20 (15) 25 (20) 30 35 40 45 Co-incident wind return period for ice (years) 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 5 5 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 5 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 N1 Lower North Island N2. 2 For wind associated with ice. [Based on current knowledge. Reported snow build up was 20 mm to 50 mm radial thickness at an equivalent of 400 kg/m³ snow density. The snow values are based on AS/NZS 4676 and equivalent Transpower radial thicknesses (these were converted to uniform density values). the iced diameter has been increased slightly to compensate. 7 The proposed wet snow values are based on limited data on 2006 June storm in Orion’s area (this was up to a 50 year event in some locations).7) also maximum icing (50 year RP) and reduced wind cases (50 year RP). 6 For wind associated with ice. DR 09051-PDR .4 SG) be considered at all below 600m altitudes for Canterbury (N4). 3 AS/NZS 4676 requires 30 mm radial snow (0. Ice density has been assumed as 900 kg/m³.
3. S or SE directions shall be considered coincident with ice. EE1. No coincident wind shall apply with differential icing.8 Differential ice loading In addition to the uniform extreme ice/snow loading case. EE1.6 Ice densities For all radial ice thicknesses.DRAFT ONLY 285 DRAFT ONLY EE1.3. (See Figure EE2). which is believed to be the predominant icing mechanism in New Zealand.2.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . a density of 400 kg/m³ shall be used. Wind loads shall be calculated as per AS/NZS 1170. a base density of 700 kg/m³ shall be used. FIGURE EE2 DIFFERENTIAL ICE LOADING DR 09051-PDR .3. every structure within ice/snow zones shall also be checked for torsional and longitudinal loading resulting from Differential Icing as described in the Table EE3.7 Snow densities For all radial snow thicknesses.5 Co-incident wind and ice conditions No wind shall be applied to wet snow. the radial ice thickness shall be increased by 10%. EE1.3. Only winds from the SW. This is consistent with a medium rime ice. For aerial conductors less than 11mm.
DR 09051-PDR .E.15/06/2009 13:22:00 .x. Consideration should be given to the effects of redistribution of forces between stays and rigid poles under snow loads. This ensures that multiple circuit poles have sufficient robustness. up to 200 mm of movement may occur before the soil passive anchor capacity is reached].d.D. The letters a.Y represent spans loaded with 70% of maximum ice/snow weight.X.3. EE1. and 50% of the initial stringing tension of the aerial conductors being supported on the pole under everyday conditions (still air).F.E.DRAFT ONLY 286 DRAFT ONLY TABLE EE3 DIFFERENTIAL ICE AND SNOW LOADING CONDITIONS Differential ice and snow loading conditions Longitudinal condition Support type Single circuit Double circuit Left span xyabc abc xabcdef abcdef Right span XYABC ABC XABCDEF ABCDEF Torsional condition Left span XYABC ABC XABCDEF ABCDEF Right span XYABC ABC XABCDEF ABCDEF A.D.f.9 Snow loading on pole structures Poles in areas subject to snow shall have a minimum down-line strength of at least— (a) (b) 50% of their transverse strength.F represent aerial phase conductors and x.c.b.y are earthwires. This allows some equalisation of out-of-balance loads before significant damage occurs.C.B.e.y represent spans loaded with 30% maximum ice/snow weight.C. A.B. NOTE: In soft soils.
15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The wind pressures assumed for the electrical clearance states are — (a) (b) (c) low wind of 100 Pa for maintenance approach and live line working moderate wind of 300 Pa for switching and lightning impulse flashover (lightning impulse assumed coincident with moderate wind) high wind of 500 Pa for power frequency flashover DR 09051-PDR .DRAFT ONLY 287 DRAFT ONLY APPENDIX FF DETERMINATION OF STRUCTURE GEOMETRY (Informative) Figure FF1 shows how the working distances and wind speeds are used to establish a 132 kV structure geometry for a round pole.
the hand reach clearance is 1700 mm from the pole centre line.DRAFT ONLY 288 DRAFT ONLY Earthwire shielding angle 40° 2800 1910 1100 9 fog type insulators = 1715 20º low wind swing 100Pa ne e li 0 0 Liv on 11 A /R M ap ain p r o te ac nan h 1 ce 20 0 2800 3700 Live line A/R off 900 950 Hand reach 1700 500 20º low wind swing 100Pa Power frequency withstand Live line maintenance equipment in extreme position 50 0 1300 switching and lightning impulse 35º moderate wind swing 300Pa 35º high wind swing 500Pa 700 live line working corridor 500 500 Climbing corridor Pole centre line 1000 square climbing corridor ACCESS ON TRANSVERSE FACE SUSPENSION STRUCTURE PLAN ELEVATION FIGURE FF1 STRUCTURE GEOMETRY SHOWING ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES Hand reach clearance for power frequency flashover from the centre of the climbing aid— for a typical tower where the climbing corridor is 700 mm from the face the recommended hand reach clearance is 1700 mm from the tower face. For a pole.15/06/2009 13:22:00 . The shielding angle was determined by lightning simulation studies to achieve the desired lightning performance. *** END OF DRAFT *** DR 09051-PDR . under a wind pressure of 100 Pa.
PREPARATION OF JOINT AUSTRALIAN/NEW ZEALAND STANDARDS Joint Australian/New Zealand Standards are prepared by a consensus process involving representatives nominated by organizations in both countries drawn from all major interests associated with the subject. Standards New Zealand or joint technical committee. During the development process. The following interests are represented on the committee responsible for this draft Australian/ New Zealand Standard: CIGRE Electrical Engineers Association of NZ Inc Electrical Regulatory Authorities Council Electricity Engineers Association (New Zealand) Energy networks Association Engineers Australia National Electrical and Communications Association Transpower New Zealand Limited Vector Ltd Additional interests participating in preparation of Standard: DR 09051-PDR .15/06/2009 13:22:00 . Australian/New Zealand Standards are made available in draft form at all sales offices and through affiliated overseas bodies in order that all interests concerned with the application of a proposed Standard are given the opportunity to submit views on the requirements to be included. Australian/New Zealand Standards may be derived from existing industry Standards. from established international Standards and practices or may be developed within a Standards Australia.
co. Standards New Zealand The first national Standards organization was created in New Zealand in 1932. Australian/New Zealand Standards are kept under continuous review after publication and are updated regularly to take account of changing technology. which prepares and publishes most of the voluntary technical and commercial standards used in Australia.standards.org. governments. consumers and other sectors. Standards Australia is recognized as Australia’s peak national standards body. in which all interested parties are invited to participate. Standards New Zealand is the trading arm of the Standards Council established under the Standards Act 1988.standards.standards. The Standards Council of New Zealand is the national authority responsible for the production of Standards. These standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus.com.au www. limited by guarantee. International Involvement Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand are responsible for ensuring that the Australian and New Zealand viewpoints are considered in the formulation of international Standards and that the latest international experience is incorporated in national and Joint Standards. They reflect the latest scientific and industry experience.Standards Australia Standards Australia is an independent company. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources. Both organizations are the national members of ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission). Australian/New Zealand Standards are prepared by committees of experts from industry. Australian/New Zealand Standards Under a Memorandum of Understanding between Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth government.au www.nz . Visit our web sites www. This role is vital in assisting local industry to compete in international markets.
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