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# I.

Introduction
In fluid mechanics, the type of flow is of great importance in solving fluid dynamics
problems. When fluids move through a closed channel of any cross section, either two of the
distinct types of flow can be observed according to the conditions present. These two types of flow
can be commonly seen in a flowing open stream or river. When the velocity of the flow is slow,
the flow patterns are smooth and this type of flow is called laminar flow. However, when the
velocity is quite high, an unstable pattern is observed in which eddies or small packets of fluid
particles are preset moving in all directions and at all angles to the normal line of flow and this
type of flow is called the turbulent flow. (Geankoplis, 1993)

In laminar flow, the fluid flows at low velocities where the layers of the fluid seem to slide
one by another without eddies or swirls being present. In turbulent flow, the fluid flow at higher
velocities where eddies are present giving the fluid a fluctuating nature.
II. Objective

III. Theory
IV. Description of Apparatus

## A. Osborne Reynold’s Apparatus

The apparatus consists of a precision-bore glass pipe (test tube) held vertically in a large
shroud. The shroud is open at the front and the inside surface is light coloured. This allows the
students to see the flow clearly. Water enters a constant head tank (reservoir) above the test tube
and passes through a diffuser and stilling bed. It then passes through a specially shaped bell-mouth
into the test tube. This arrangement ensures a steady, uniform flow at entry to the test tube. A
thermometer measures the temperature in the constant head reservoir.

A fixed overflow pipe in the reservoir connects to a suitable drain. At the bottom of the test
pipe is a valve which controls the flow rate through the pipe, without disturbing the flow. Students
collect a known quantity of water in a measured time to find the flow rate. Included is a measuring
cylinder. To see the pattern of flow in the pipe, students use a dye injector (included). They use it
to inject a fine filament of dye into the top of the tube. The dye injector is a dye reservoir connected
to a fine hypodermic tube.

The base of the apparatus has adjustable feet for levelling prior to use (included is a
levelling device).

B. Stopwatch

A stopwatch is a handheld timepiece designed to measure the amount of time elapsed from a
particular time when it is activated to the time when the piece is deactivated. A large digital version
of a stopwatch designed for viewing at a distance, as in a sports stadium, is called a stop clock. In
manual timing, the clock is started and stopped by a person pressing a button.

V. Experimental Procedures

1. Turn on the water, and partially open the discharge valve at the base of the apparatus.
2. Open and adjust the dye injector valve to obtain a fine filament of dye in the flow down
the glass tube. If the dye is dispersed in the tube reduced to water flow rate by closing the
discharge valve and adjusting the supply as necessary to maintain the constant head. A
laminar flow condition should be achieved in which the filament of dye passes down the
complete length of the tube without disturbance (Figure 2).
3. Record the temperature of the water using the thermometer, find the corresponding
kinematic viscosity from a table.
4. Then measure the flow rate by timing the collection of a known quantity (volume) of water
from discharge pipe. This will help you to determine the velocity of the water in the pipe.
5. Slowly increase the flow rate by opening the discharge valve until disturbances of the dye
filament are noted. This can be regarded as the starting point of transition to turbulent flow.
Increase the discharge as required to maintain constant head conditions. Do not miss to
sketch the dye condition and measure the flow rate for each of your trials.
6. If necessary, increase the flow rate as described above until the disturbances increase such
that the dye filament becomes rapidly diffused. Small eddies will be noted just above the
point where the dye filament completely breaks down. This can be regarded as the onset of
fully turbulent flow.
7. Now you should close the dye injector valve in order to finalize your experiment.

## VI. Results and Conclusion

Sample Results:

Constants:
Temperature of water: 15℃
Diameter of pipe: 0.0045m
Density of water: 1 kg/m3
Viscosity of water: 0.00115 kg/m.s

## Time Volume of Volume Flow Velocity, V Reynold’s Description of

(s) Liquid (L) Rate, Q (m3/s) (m/s) Number, Re Flow
Laminar-
30.44 0.288 9.4612E-06 0.595 2328
Transitional
Laminar-
30.33 0.280 9.2318E-06 0.580 2271
Transitional
Laminar-
30.19 0.280 9.2746E-06 0.583 2282
Transitional
Laminar-
30.12 0.280 9.2961E-06 0.585 2287
Transitional
Laminar-
30.29 0.280 9.244E-06 0.581 2274
Transitional
Transitional-
30.52 0.369 1.209E-06 0.760 2975
Turbulent
Transitional-
30.23 0.358 1.1843E-06 0.745 2914
Turbulent
Transitional-
30.33 0.360 1.1869E-06 0.746 2920
Turbulent
Transitional-
30.25 0.368 1.2165E-06 0.765 2993
Turbulent
Transitional-
30.22 0.367 1.2144E-06 0.764 2988
Turbulent
Table 1: Sample Expected Results

VII. Conclusions

VIII. Recommendations