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BIOLOGY: LIBRARY
WORK
Submitted by:

John Joshua De Guia

Marvin Malificiar

Jun Sun Magcanam

Romela Manate

Chennie Pastran

Bashracel Marie Salmorin

Grade 12 Aphrodite
Submitted to:

Ms. Angel Rose Cordova


General Biology

1/4/2018
TERMS
Respiration
For survival of human beings it is necessary that fresh oxygen is to be supplied to the
internal parts of human anatomy. The amount of oxygen required for the efficient functioning of
the human anatomy is to be supplied from outside, while simultaneously the carbon dioxide is to
be transported out from the human body. The process of supplying fresh oxygen to the internal
anatomy tissues and transporting the carbon dioxide from these tissues is known as respiration.
The process of respiration is combination of two processes namely inhale and exhale. The
inhaling is the process of supplying fresh oxygen to tissues and the exhaling is process of
exhausting carbon dioxide from internal anatomy. The total process of respiration is executed by
respiratory system, which is biological technique of human anatomy that inhales oxygen and
exhales carbon dioxide from human body.

In biology, respiration has two meanings: in the cellular level, it refers to the chemical
reactions that take place in the mitochondria, which require utilization of oxygen in the
metabolism of organic molecules, and are the principle source of energy for eukaryotic cells, On
the other hand, in the level of the whole organism, it refers to the exchanges of oxygen and
carbon dioxide between an organism and the external environment. Or simply, the process of
taking in oxygen from the environment and giving carbon dioxide back to it. Thus, respiration is
a vital function of all living organism.

Breathing
Breathing is the process of getting oxygen (which humans and a lot of other species need
for survival) into the lungs and carbon dioxide out of the lungs. It allows for gas exchange to
take place so that oxygen can be absorbed from the lungs into the blood and carbon dioxide is
removed from the blood and breathed out from the lungs.

Mammalian lungs are located in the thoracic cavity where they are surrounded and
protected by the rib cage, intercostal muscles, and bound by the chest wall. The bottom of the
lungs is contained by the diaphragm, a skeletal muscle that facilitates breathing. Breathing
requires the coordination of the lungs, the chest wall, and most importantly, the diaphragm.

Hence, Breathing is important because our cells constantly need a new supply of oxygen so
they can produce energy – without this vital oxygen, cellular function is impaired, and damage
or cell death is possible. After all, you can live for weeks without food, days without water and
how long without oxygen? Maybe 6 minutes? Breathing is the very essence of life.
Inhalation
Inhalation or also called inspiration of air, as part of the cycle of breathing, is a vital
process for all human life. As such, it happens automatically (though there are exceptions in
some disease states) and does not need conscious control or effort. However, breathing can be
consciously controlled or interrupted (within limits).

Inhalation is the movement of air from the external environment through the airways into
the alveoli during breathing. In addition, it is when the lungs expand and air is pulled into them
and every inhalation, air fills the lungs.

Exhalation
Exhalation refers to the process of transferring air from alveoli to outside through
airways. Further explanation, exhalation (or expiration) is the flow of the breath out of an
organism. In humans it is the movement of air from the lungs out of the airways, to the external
environment during breathing. This happens due to elastic properties of the lungs, as well as
the internal intercostal muscles which lower the rib cage and decrease thoracic volume. As
the thoracic diaphragm relaxes during exhalation it causes the tissue it has depressed to rise
superiorly and put pressure on the lungs to expel the air.

During forced exhalation, as when blowing out a candle, expiratory muscles including the
abdominal muscles and internal intercostal muscles generate abdominal and thoracic pressure,
which forces air out of the lungs. Exhaled air is rich in carbon dioxide, a waste product
of cellular respiration during the production of energy, which is stored as ATP. Exhalation has a
complementary relationship to inhalation which together make up the respiratory cycle of a
breath.

Internal Respiration
Internal respiration (tissue respiration) occurs in the body tissues to provide O2 to tissue
cells and remove CO2 from the cells. O is critical in the release of energy molecules (i.e. ATP) is
critical in the release of energy molecules (i.e. ATP), a process called cellular respiration, while
CO2 is a byproduct of metabolism which can become harmful to tissue cells in large quantities.

Internal respiration refers to (a) the exchange of gases between alveolar air and the blood
in the lungs; (b) the movement of air into the lungs; (c) the exchange of gases between the blood
and tissue fluid; (d) cellular respiration, resulting in the production of ATP.
External Respiration
External respiration, which is the processes by which external air is drawn into the body
in order to supply the lungs with oxygen, and (used) air is expelled from the lungs in order to
remove carbon dioxide from to body. This process occurs in the lungs oxygenate the blood and
remove CO2 from the deoxygenated blood. O2 diffuses from the alveoli into capillaries, while
CO2 diffuses from the capillaries into alveoli. Generally, it is the exchange of gases (oxygen and
carbon dioxide) between air and blood.

Cellular Respiration
A series of metabolic pathways, collectively called cellular respiration, extracts the energy
from the bonds in glucose and converts it into a form that all living things can use—both
producers, such as plants, and consumers, such as animals. Cellular respiration is the way that
cells obtain their energy – usually using oxygen to break down glucose in the cell (aerobic
respiration). In the mitochondria of Eukaryotic cells, aerobic respiration needs O2 to break down
glucose. Thus releasing CO2 and water as well as the production of large amount of ATP.
Cellular respiration uses the oxygen and produces the carbon dioxide that makes gas exchange
with the environment necessary.

Mechanisms of Breathing IN invertebrates


All animals either aquatic or terrestrial demand a steady supply of oxygen into the cells to
get the energy for their metabolic activities and a ready removal of the carbon dioxide released
during metabolism. In small animals and at the cellular level, physical forces of diffusion alone
affect these exchanges

Single-celled organisms exchange gases directly across their cell membrane. Sponges and
jellyfish lack specialized organs for gas exchange and take in gases directly from the surrounding
water. Flatworms and annelids use their outer surfaces as gas exchange surfaces. Arthropods,
annelids, and fish use gills; terrestrial vertebrates utilize internal lungs. Body Surface (cutaneous
respiration) Flatworms and annelids use their outer surfaces as gas exchange surfaces.
Earthworms have a series of thin-walled blood vessels known as capillaries. Gas exchange
occurs at capillaries located throughout the body as well as those in the respiratory surface.

The processes involved in securing and utilizing oxygen are grouped under the general
category of respiration which has two distinct aspects. Firstly, there is an exchange of oxygen
and carbon dioxide between the organism and the external environment known as external
respiration. Secondly, there is the complex reaction that takes place within the cell and that
results in the release of energy by the oxidation of the energy rich molecules derived from the
food; this is internal respiration.

Linking these two is the transport mechanism that conveys the oxygen and carbon
dioxide between the external respiratory surfaces and the metabolizing tissues. Organs associated
with these functions constitute the respiratory system.

Mechanisms of Breathing IN vertebrates


In vertebrates the skin may be respiratory (e.g., anurans), while in some fishes and
aquatic turtles, the vascular rectum or cloaca is respiratory. But there are two main types of
respiratory organs- gills for aquatic respiration and lungs for aerial respiration. Both gills and
lungs may occur in the same animal.

Accessory respiratory organs are also present in some vertebrates. In both kinds of
respiration two conditions are essential; firstly the respiratory organs must have a rich blood
supply with very thin moist epithelium covering the blood vessels so that these blood vessels are
through into close contact with the environment (water or air).

Secondly in the organs of respiration the blood vessels should be reduced to thin
capillaries which expose a large surface area to the environment, so that blood is brought into
close contact with the water or air in the respiratory organs.

Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs at two places, i.e., in the respiratory
organs and in tissues. During internal respiration or tissue respiration exchange of O2 and
CO2 occurs between blood and tissues (cells) of the body. During external respiration, gaseous
exchange takes place between blood and external environment (e.g., in aerial respiration within
lungs and in aquatic respiration within water and gills surface).

In lower aquatic vertebrates the respiratory organs are not connected to the olfactory
organs, but in air-breathing vertebrates there is a close association between the two. In
Choanichthyes there is a direct connection between the olfactory and respiratory organs in which
the internal nares or choanae open from the nasal cavities into the buccal cavity, but it is only in
tetrapoda that air enters through the nasal cavities into the buccal cavity and then into the lungs.
Exchange of gases in the following respiratory organs

Lungs

The chief organ in mammalian respiration is the lungs. The lungs are actively ventilated
via a suction-pump mechanism of inhalation and exhalation. Breathing is dependent upon the rib
muscles and the diaphragm, a structure shaped like a dome-shaped floor just beneath the lungs.

Inhalation happens when the rib cage opens up and the diaphragm flattens and moves
downward. The lungs expand into the larger space, causing the air pressure inside to decrease.
The drop in air pressure inside the lung makes the outside air rush in.

Exhalation is the opposite process. The diaphragm and the rib muscles relax to their
neutral state, causing the lungs to contract. The squashing of the lungs increases their air pressure
and forces the air to flow out.

Most mammals are nose breathers. Inhaling through the nose warms and moistens the air.
The air is filtered by cilia and mucus membranes, which trap dust and pathogens. Air then
reaches the epiglottis, the tiny leaf-shaped flap at the back of the throat. The epiglottis regulates
air going into the windpipe and closes upon swallowing to prevent food from being inhaled. It’s
the gatekeeper to the lungs.

The trachea is a long structure of soft tissue surrounded by c-shaped rings of cartilage. In
humans, the trachea splits into two bronchi branches that lead to each lung.
Each bronchi divides into increasingly smaller branches, until they form a massive tree of tubes.
The smallest branches are called the bronchioles, and each bronchiole ends with a tiny air sac
(no larger than a grain of sand) called an alveolus.

The tiny alveoli (plural of alveolus) are crucial because they increase the surface area
used for gas exchange. If the lungs were just empty sacs, then only area available for gas
exchange would be the walls of the lungs. In humans, that comes out to an area of approximately
0.01 m2. The alveoli, though, provide a whopping 75m2 of surface area where oxygen absorption
can take place.

As discussed above, gas exchange takes place in the capillaries, so the alveoli have a
close working relationship with the network of capillaries. This brings the blood-carrying waste
products close enough to the fresh air for diffusion to take place. The waste is removed and the
oxygen is taken up by the blood. The hemoglobin in blood attaches oxygen molecules, kind of
like a bus carrying passengers. Each hemoglobin protein can carry four passengers of oxygen at
one time. Oxygen is delivered to the cells and carbon dioxide is removed. Water vapor and
carbon dioxide are exhaled, and the process begins again with inhalation.
Just as the heart beats on its own, breathing is done without conscious effort.
There are sections of the brain, called the medulla and pons that regulate respiration. They
control the rate of respiration by monitoring carbon dioxide levels in the blood. In times of
excitement or during exercise, the cells require more oxygen than normal and respiration speeds
up.

Skin

Other animals, such as earthworms and amphibians, use their skin (integument) as a
respiratory organ. A dense network of capillaries lies just below the skin, facilitating gas
exchange between the external environment and the circulatory system. The respiratory surface
must be kept moist in order for the gases to dissolve and diffuse across cell membranes.

In order to draw air into its mouth the frog lowers the floor of its mouth, which causes the
throat to expand. Then the nostrils open allowing air to enter the enlarged mouth. The nostrils
then close and the air in the mouth is forced into the lungs by contraction of the floor of the
mouth. To elimate the carbon dioxide in the lungs the floor of the mouth moves down, drawing
the air out of the lungs and into the mouth. Finally the nostrils are opened and the floor of the
mouth moved up pushing the air out of the nostrils.

Frogs also have a respiratory surface on the lining of their mouth on which gas exchange takes
place readily. While at rest, this process is their predominate form of breathing, only fills the
lungs occasionally. This is because the lungs, which only adults have, are poorly developed.

Gills
Fish and many other aquatic organisms have evolved gills to take up the dissolved
oxygen from water. Gills are thin tissue filaments that are highly branched and folded. When
water passes over the gills, the dissolved oxygen in the water rapidly diffuses across the gills into
the bloodstream. The circulatory system can then carry the oxygenated blood to the other parts
of the body. In animals that contain coelomic fluid instead of blood, oxygen diffuses across the
gill surfaces into the coelomic fluid. Gills are found in mollusks, annelids, and crustaceans.

The folded surfaces of the gills provide a large surface area to ensure that fish obtain
sufficient oxygen. Diffusion is a process in which material travels from regions of high
concentration to low concentration until equilibrium is reached. In this case, blood with a low
concentration of oxygen molecules circulates through the gills. The concentration of oxygen
molecules in water is higher than the concentration of oxygen molecules in gills. As a result,
oxygen molecules diffuse from water (high concentration) to blood (low concentration).
Similarly, carbon dioxide molecules diffuse from the blood (high concentration) to water (low
concentration).

Tracheal system/breathing

The respiratory system in insects consists of a network of tubes, called tracheae, which
directly ventilate the tissues. Actively moving air to the site of gas exchange is
called ventilation. The tubes divide and branch out into smaller and smaller tubes extending into
all parts of the insect, similar to the way arteries branch out into tiny capillaries in a closed
circulatory system.

Large, active insects like grasshoppers, forcibly ventilate their tracheae. Contraction of
muscles in the abdomen compresses the internal organs and forces air out of the tracheae. As the
muscles relax, the abdomen springs back to its normal volume and air is drawn in. Large air sacs
attached to portions of the main tracheal tubes increase the effectiveness of this bellowslike
action. The one-way flow of air increases the efficiency of gas exchange as CO2-enriched air can
be expelled without mingling with the incoming flow of fresh air

Insects have openings scattered throughout its body called spiracles. Spiracles are
openings to the tracheae. In small insects, gas exchange occurs by diffusion only. Larger insects
will actively breathe to pump air into the tubes.

Aquatic insects must seal their spiracles when they are under water to prevent flooding
their tubes. Amazingly, some aquatic insects even have specialized spiracles that can puncture
underwater plants and access those plants' oxygen storage centers. Think of it like an underwater
vampire bug that sucks oxygen.

Gas Exchange in Human Respiratory System


 The respiratory system, also called the gas exchange system, is the body getting rid
of carbon dioxide and taking in oxygen. Carbon dioxide, a waste product, goes out of the
body. Oxygen, which the body needs, comes in. The first step in this process is breathing
in air, or inhaling. Inhalation means bringing air rich in oxygen into the body. Exhalation
means giving out of air rich in carbon dioxide from the body. The second step is gas
exchange in the lungs where oxygen is diffused into the blood and the carbon dioxide
diffuses out of the blood. The third process is cellular respiration, which produces
the chemical energy that the cells in the body need, and carbon dioxide. Finally, the
carbon dioxide from cellular respiration is breathed out of body from the lungs.

 The main function of the respiratory system is gaseous exchange. This refers to the
process of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide moving between the lungs and blood. Diffusion
occurs when molecules move from an area of high concentration (of that molecule) to an
area of low concentration. This occurs during gaseous exchange as the blood in
the capillariessurrounding the alveoli has a lower oxygen concentration of Oxygen than
the air in the alveoli which has just been inhaled. Both alveoli and capillaries have walls
which are only one cell thick and allow gases to diffuse across them.

The same happens with Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The blood in the surrounding capillaries
has a higher concentration of CO2 than the inspired air due to it being a waste product of
energy production. Therefore CO2 diffuses the other way, from the capillaries, into the
alveoli where it can then be exhaled.

To demonstrate the use of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in respiration you can look at the
amounts of both gases which we inhale and then exhale. The air we breathe contains
approximately 21% Oxygen and 0.04% Carbon Dioxide. When we exhale there is
approximately 17% Oxygen and 3% Carbon Dioxide. This shows a decrease in Oxygen
levels (as it is used in producing energy) and an increase in Carbon Dioxide due to it
being a waste product of energy production.

Health related problems of human respiratory system

1. Asthma
This chronic respiratory condition is caused by consistent inflammation of the airways.
Symptoms include lung spasms with wheezing and shortness of breath. Things like allergies,
infections and pollution can ignite an asthma attack. According to the National Heart, Lung, and
Blood, around 25 million people suffer from asthma, 7 million of which are children. Asthma
often begins in childhood, so any signs of asthma-like symptoms should be treated immediately.
Symptoms that are left untreated can worsen and, in some cases, even be fatal. While there is no
cure for this chronic respiratory condition, modern medicine has made living with asthma
manageable.
2. COPD
According to the American Lung Association, this respiratory disease is the fourth leading cause
of death in the United States. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella
term that encompasses several respiratory illnesses that cause breathlessness or the inability to
exhale normally. The COPD Foundation states that symptoms are often mistaken for the gradual
aging process and body deterioration. In fact, COPD can develop over the course of several years
without any signs of shortness of breath. It is estimated that over 24 million people currently
have COPD but around half of them don’t know it. This respiratory disease is caused by
smoking, genetics and environmental factors like pollution . The doctors at UnityPoint Health
can help you manage your COPD and get back to your life.

3. Bronchitis
The respiratory disease of bronchitis is divided into chronic and acute bronchitis. Chronic
bronchitis is a form of COPD that is emphasized by a chronic cough. Acute bronchitis is an
infection caused by a virus. In both cases, the mucous membrane in the lungs becomes inflamed
in the bronchial passage. This causes swelling that shuts off the airways in the lungs. Both acute
and chronic bronchitis require consistent medical treatment according to the National Heart,
Lung, and Blood Institute. Acute bronchitis should subside after the infection is gone.

4. Emphysema
This serious respiratory disease is another form of COPD according to the American Lung
Association. The most common cause is smoking. Those who suffer from emphysema have
trouble exhaling air from their lungs . Cigarette smoke damages the air sacs in the lungs to a
point where they can no longer repair themselves. Emphysema evolves slowly over the years and
there is no cure; however, those who quit smoking are more likely to see the disease’s
progression slow.

5. Lung Cancer
This cancer is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. With the
ability to develop in any part of the lungs, it is hard to detect. Most often, the cancer develops in
the main part of the lungs near the air sacs. DNA mutations in the lungs cause irregular cells to
multiply and create an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells, or a tumor. These tumors interfere
with the regular functions of the lungs. According to LungCancer.Org, the mutation in the DNA
can be caused by smoking, the normal aging process and inhaling asbestos fibers or radon gas.
Symptoms can take years to appear, but include things like chronic coughing, changes in voice,
harsh breathing sounds, coughing up blood and many others.

6. Cystic Fibrosis
This genetic respiratory disease is caused by a defective gene that creates thick and sticky mucus.
This mucus causes repeated, and dangerous, lung infections as well as obstructions in the
pancreas that prevent important enzymes from breaking down nutrients for the body. The Cystic
Fibrosis Foundation states that this disease affects 30,000 people in the United States, 75% of
which were diagnosed by the age of two. In the 1950s, few children who had cystic fibrosis lived
long enough to attend elementary school. Thanks to modern medicine, the life expectancy of a
child with this respiratory disease has doubled. Symptoms of cystic fibrosis include salty-tasting
skin, chronic coughing, frequent lung infections and a poor growth rate in children.

7. Pneumonia
This lung disease is caused by an infection in the air sacs in the lungs. The infections can be
caused by bacteria, a virus or a fungi. According to the American Lung Association, most people
can recover in one to three weeks, but it can be life threatening. Symptoms, which include cough,
fever, shaking chills and shortness of breath, can range from mild to severe. Suggested ways to
prevent developing this respiratory condition include washing hands frequently, getting a flu shot
or, for those at high-risk of pneumonia, receiving vaccinated.

8. Allergies
This condition is one of the most common chronic problems world-wide. Allergies occur when
the immune system mistakes a common substance as an invader. The system overreacts and
releases histamines, which cause the allergic reaction. The most common culprits of allergic
reactions are pollen, dust, food, insect stings, animal dander, mold, medications and latex
according to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These reactions often
affect the nose, lungs, throat and sinuses.