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number : 2008telb0075

Thesis

presented at the

Military University of Technology in Warsaw

with the authorisation of the University of Rennes 1

to obtain the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy in association with Telecom

Bretagne and the Military University of Technology

Domain : Signal Processing and Telecommunications

Mention : Traitement du Signal et Télécommunication

by

Tomasz Górski

Universities : Telecom Bretagne and the Military University of Technology in Warsaw

Space-Time Adaptive Signal Processing for Sea

Surveillance Radars

Defence December 9, 2008 before the examination board :

Reporters : Marc Acheroy, Professor at Royal Military Academy in Brussels

Richard Klemm, Doctor at FGAN

Examiners : Jean Marc Le-Caillec, Professor at Telecom Bretagne

Adam Kawalec, Professor at the Military University of Technology in Warsaw

Laurent Ferro-Famil, Doctor with accreditation to supervise reasearch

at the University of Rennes 1

Ali Khenchaf, Professor at ENSIETA

Contents

1 Introduction. 1

2 Radar Basics, Space-Time Adaptive Processing and Target Detection. 3

2.1 Radar principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.2 Overview of STAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2.1 Problem Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2.2 Radar System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.2.3 Airborne Clutter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.2.4 Adaptive MTI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.2.5 STAP Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.2.6 Assumptions and Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.3 Detection Principles: Neyman-Pearson Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2.3.1 Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.3.2 Neyman-Pearson Lemma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.3.3 Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.3.4 Alternative Hypothesis of the Form θ > θ

H0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.3.5 Alternative Hypothesis of the Form θ = θ

H0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.4.1 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals in Narrowband Noise. . . . . 22

2.4.2 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals with Random Phase Angles. 23

2.5 Spherically Invariant Random Process (SIRP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

2.6 Likelihood Ratio Test and Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test applied to the

Spherically Invariant Random Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.6.1 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals - Likelihood Ratio Test. . . . 25

2.6.2 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals with Random Phase Angles

and Random Amplitude - GLRT Detector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.7 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3 Sea Clutter. 31

CONTENTS ii

3.1 Sea clutter characterization in X band. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.2 Sea clutter characterization in HF band. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

3.3 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

4 Two Dirac delta detector. 50

4.1 Resolving GLRT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

4.2 Two Dirac Deltas approximation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

4.2.1 First approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

4.2.2 Reﬁned approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.3 Simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

4.3.1 Simulation parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

4.3.2 Target Simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

4.3.3 Additive Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

4.4 Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

4.4.1 Classical STAP detection performance evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . 65

4.4.2 Numerical simpliﬁcations for TDD STAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

4.4.3 Comparison of classical STAP and TDD STAP for ﬁxed ∆ parameter. 70

4.4.4 Results for TDD STAP detector with automatic ∆ ﬁnding. . . . . . . 73

4.5 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

5 HF radar signals experiments and STAP technique modiﬁcations. 76

5.1 WERA radar system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

5.2 Implementation of Adaptive MTI and STAP - covariance matrix estimation

problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

5.2.1 Adaptive MTI implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

5.2.2 STAP implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

5.3 Comparisons between the results of AMTI and STAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

5.3.1 Data ﬁle and target description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

5.3.2 Detection of the tug ship from Garchine radar site. . . . . . . . . . . . 89

5.3.3 Detection of the tug ship from Brezzelec radar site. . . . . . . . . . . . 91

5.3.4 Detection of the ﬁshery ship from Garchine radar site. . . . . . . . . . 92

5.3.5 Detection of the ﬁshery ship from Brezzelec radar site. . . . . . . . . . 97

5.4 Thresholding and detections presentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

5.5 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

6 Conclusions and perspectives 104

A Gaussian complex process. 106

CONTENTS iii

B Data generation. 108

C Space Time Adaptive Processing based on Frequency Modulated Contin-

uous Wave system. 110

C.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

C.2 Preliminaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

C.3 Antenna array with FMCW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

C.4 STAP system using FMCW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

C.5 FMCW HF system - practical example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

C.6 FMCW X-band system - practical example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

C.7 FMCW L-band system - practical example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

D List of symbols and abbreviations. 125

Bibliography 127

CHAPTER

1

Introduction.

Present radar systems for sea surveillance have several limitations. One group of limitations

is related to strong clutter from sea waves (especially during heavy seas periods). Another

group is related to range limitations of present microwave systems. These are big obstacles

hindering to provide reliable surveillance data that cover Exclusive Economic Zone (200

nautical miles)

1

24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Therefore a big challenge is to ﬁnd new

techniques for this application. This work covers signal processing for this purpose. Space-

Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) technique has a relatively long history. The theory of

STAP was ﬁrst published by Lawrence E. Brennan and Irving S. Reed in 1970’s [6], whereas

complete monographies on this subject were published by Richard Klemm in 2002 and 2004

[37, 38]. It is also worth to mention here contribution of the paper written by E. J. Kelly [36].

Nevertheless applications are mainly related to target detection in the presence of clutter

that has Gaussian statistical properties. In this work it is proposed to apply this technique

to target detection under non-Gaussian conditions.

The thesis of this work can be formulated as follows: STAP can be an eﬀective tech-

nique for the Sea Surveillance Radars. Surveillance can be understood as clutter (and

interferences) suppression, target matching and threshold decision. To this end there are three

problems that can be identiﬁed with regards to the sea clutter problem. These problems are:

1. Clutter non-stationarity in space and time.

2. Clutter non-Gaussianity.

3. Clutter with spread Doppler spectrum.

The purpose of this work is to evaluate diﬀerent algorithms, to ﬁnd possible problems with

implementing them and to try to ﬁnd solutions to these problems. As a result this work serves

as a complete guide how to deal with sea clutter by modifying STAP technique.

In the ﬁrst chapter, reader can ﬁnd elementary radar concepts as well as an introduction

to Space-Time Adaptive Processing. First section is devoted to basic radar concepts. Next

section is an introduction to Adaptive MTI (AMTI) and STAP. It will be shown how STAP

was introduced for airborne radar, and what was rationale standing behind this. Generally

we can say, that the origin of STAP was the observation, that clutter spectrum depends on

the look angle of radar system. Assumptions and limitations of STAP will be shown in the

same chapter. In the next sections reader can ﬁnd some elements of detection theory and

Neyman-Pearson Lemma and Test. This will build a base to derive more general detectors

than STAP in chapter 4. In the same chapter theory of Spherically Invariant Random Process

1

EEZ zone was deﬁned in 1982 by United Nations Convention in Montego Bay.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION. 2

(SIRP) is introduced. This theory is very useful when dealing with non-Gaussian clutter. It

will be shown in the next chapter, that sea clutter very often has non-Gaussian properties

and in this case we can employ theory of SIRP. Last section will be devoted to derivation of

Neymann-Pearson tests in the case of SIRP. It will be shown, that classical STAP algorithm

can be derived from this more general form.

The second chapter is devoted entirely to sea clutter characterization. Two radar bands

will be considered: X-band and HF-band. In the ﬁrst section, X-band clutter Doppler-

spectrum and its properties will be presented. It will be shown, that clutter Doppler shift

and statistics are related to geometry of the scene as well as many ocean parameters [9]. This

property is exploited in STAP algorithm, therefore it is worth considering STAP technique

to deal with this kind of clutter. Unfortunately X-band sea clutter (especially for low graz-

ing angles) has non-Gaussian properties [8], whereas STAP was derived under assumption

of Gaussianity. Therefore it is possible to improve classical STAP algorithm to deal with

sea clutter. This problem will be treated in chapter 4. For HF-band, sea clutter properties

are diﬀerent. The main contribution to the clutter is Bragg scattering. Its Doppler spec-

trum remains the same across diﬀerent look angles. Moreover, for HF-band it is very likely

to have strong radio interferences. Author’s own calculations illustrating Bragg clutter and

interferences will be presented. Results were obtained using real data from WERA radar sys-

tem. Again we can see, that clutter and interferences have two-dimensional, space and time

structure, and therefore it is reasonably to use STAP algorithm.

Chapter 4 addresses the problem of the derivation of detectors under non-Gaussianity

that was raised in chapter 3. This is done in the framework of Spherically Invariant Ran-

dom Process. A new detector will be presented. It can deal with non-Gaussian clutter and

noise. To evaluate performances of classical and new STAP detector in non-Gaussian clutter,

I performed some simulations. Receiver Operation Curves (ROC) are presented based on

simulations made by the author. A discussion of the performances of usual STAP and the

proposed detector under diﬀerent kind of clutter (Gaussian, non-Gaussian) is included. I will

show, that the new developed detector can give some improvement in comparison to classical

STAP algorithm in the presence of non-Gaussian clutter.

In chapter 5 experiments from High Frequency (HF) radar system will be presented. HF

radar systems, which operate in frequency range between 3 and 30 MHz, have a potential to

detect targets which are located beyond optical horizon on the sea surface (Over The Horizon

visibility - OTH). In this context new problems have to be faced. An exhaustive review of

these problems can be found in [3]. In this chapter two techniques will be considered. First one

is AMTI, and the second is STAP. Because of practical problems, classical algorithms must

be adapted, which will be also shown in this chapter. Results were obtained using real data,

from the oceanographic system WERA. This chapter is concentrated on signal processing

part and to much less extent on detection problems.

Additional problems are addressed in Appendices. Among them, the most important is

the problem of application of STAP algorithm to Continuous Wave (CW) systems. This

problem is treated in Appendix C.3.

This work can be viewed as an attempt to ﬁnd how to apply STAP technique to the

problem of detecting targets on the sea surface.

This PhD thesis is a result of cooperation between Military University of Technology in

Warsaw (Poland) and Telecom-Bretagne in Brest (France).

CHAPTER

2

Radar Basics,

Space-Time Adaptive

Processing and Target

Detection.

Present radar systems operate in very diﬃcult environment, where target echo must compete

against ground or sea clutter, noise, interferences and jamming. Therefore, apart from solv-

ing strictly technical problems such as increasing peak power, improving range resolution,

there is a need of eﬀective signal processing techniques to detect targets while maintaining

reasonably low level of false alarms. In the era of non-coherent radars, the solution was to

reduce resolution cell to limit the clutter power. After deployment of pulse-coherent radars

it became possible to apply more advanced techniques based on Doppler eﬀect. This is how

Moving Target Indication (MTI) and pulsed-Doppler radars were invented. We can gener-

ally say that these techniques are based on Fourier analysis and sometimes adaptive ﬁltering

(Adaptive MTI) and proved to be very eﬀective in suppressing clutter. Very exhaustive de-

scription of such systems can be found in [53]. However, these techniques are based only on

time-domain. The other group of signal processing techniques is based on adaptive antennas.

This group is operating in space domain and employ array antennas to suppress directional

interference and other directional distortions. More information on this topic can be found

in [44]. The problem however persisted, how to combine these two techniques - one operating

in time domain and the other in space domain. The solution was introduction of Space-Time

Adaptive Processing (STAP), that will be described in this chapter. STAP is a technique that

performs adaptation in two domains at the same time (whereas Adaptive MTI works only in

time domain). This raises possibilities of suppressing distortions that have two-dimensional

structure.

In section 2.1 elementary radar concepts will be presented. In section 2.2 Adaptive MTI

(AMTI) and classical STAP algorithm will be introduced. It will be shown how STAP was

introduced for airborne radar, and what was rationale standing behind this. Assumptions

and limitations will be shown in the same section. Section 2.3 will be devoted to detection

theory and to the Neyman-Pearson Lemma and Test. This will build a base to derive more

general detectors than STAP. Some examples of Neyman-Pearson tests will be presented in

section 2.4. Section 2.5 will present theory of Spherically Invariant Random Process (SIRP).

This theory is very useful when dealing with non-Gaussian clutter. It will be shown later,

that sea clutter very often has non-Gaussian properties and in this case we can employ

theory of SIRP. Section 2.6 will be devoted to derivation of Neymann-Pearson tests in the

case of SIRP. It will be shown, that classical STAP algorithm can be derived from this

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 4

Figure 2.1 — Radar principle - electromagnetic wave reﬂection from a target.

more general form.

2.1 Radar principles.

Radar is a sensor that uses electromagnetic waves to obtain information about the range,

direction or speed of moving or ﬁxed objects. The simplest radar system transmits modulated

pulses of electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic wave is then partially reﬂected by an object

and returns toward radar receiver as a target echo (see Fig. 2.1). Radar can measure the

time between transmition of the pulse and reception of the echo, and calculate distance to

the target using formula:

R =

ct

2

(2.1)

where R is a measured distance to the target, c is a speed of light and t is elapsed time

between transmission and reception of the echo. Fig. 2.2 presents basic time relations that

are important in radar systems. Pulse Repetition Interval (PRI) is related to the fact that

usually radars transmit signals that are periodical. PRI is a time between two successive

pulses transmitted by the radar. τ denotes pulse duration. t is the time that is passed between

transmission of the pulse and reception of the target echo. Usually, information about distance

to the target is presented in the discreet form, therefore instead of the range it is better to use

the term range gate or range cell - Fig. 2.3. This means nothing more but the discretization of

the range value. This principle allows to obtain information about the distance and direction

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 5

Figure 2.2 — Basic time relations.

Figure 2.3 — Range gates.

to the target. To be able to extract velocity information about the target it is necessary

to introduce pulse-coherent radar. This means the use of quadrature receiver which extracts

amplitude together with phase information on pulse to pulse basis. Structure of such a receiver

is presented in Fig. 2.4. After this process, for each range gate we have a series of complex

samples. Samples are obtained from successive pulses of the radar. If the target is not moving,

relative to the radar, phase of this series of samples is constant (precisely angles of complex

samples). If the target is moving between pulses, then the angles of complex samples are

changing from pulse to pulse. This is the way to extract Doppler, and therefore velocity

information. In practice, to extract Doppler information, a ﬁnite sequence of pulses is used.

Therefore it is worth to remind some basic relations:

f

D

=

2V

r

λ

(2.2)

Figure 2.4 — Quadrature Receiver [41]. f

c

denotes radar carrier frequency, f

s

denotes sam-

pling frequency.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 6

Figure 2.5 — Environmental diagram [53].

where f

D

denotes Doppler frequency of the target, λ is a radar pulse wavelength and V

r

is a

target radial velocity relative to the radar. Doppler resolution is related to the dwelling time,

which in practice means the time of coherent processing:

D

r

=

1

T

DWELL

(2.3)

where D

r

denotes Doppler resolution expressed in Hz. This can be expressed in terms of

number of pulses - n. Let PRF=1/PRI (Pulse Repetition Frequency). Then:

D

r

=

PRF

n

(2.4)

It can be seen, that to improve Doppler resolution it is necessary to increase dwelling time

which in practice means to use more pulses in processing. The PRI multiplied by the number

of processed pulses is often called Coherent Processing Interval (CPI) and is exactly the same

as dwelling time. The other important relation is an unambiguous velocity condition:

PRF > 2f

D

(2.5)

This condition is a radar equivalent of Nyquist-Shannon-Kotelnikov theorem. It means, that

to be able to unambiguously determine the target velocity it is necessary to have PRF greater

than twice the Doppler shift of this target. In practice, however, very often this condition isn’t

fulﬁlled and we have situation, when velocity is ambigiuous. Operator of the radar, in such

a case, must be aware that velocity of the target can be diﬀerent than the one indicated by

the system. Unfortunately in real scenarios, radar receives echoes not only from targets, but

also other signals. This can include interferences from other sources (eg. jamming), as well

as reﬂection from objects that are not interesting from the point of view of radar operator.

All of this signals are called clutter. Sometimes the term clutter is used in a narrower sense

when it means only passive distortions (excluding interferences). In Fig. 2.5 it is shown an

environmental diagram that radar engineer can face. It can be seen, that apart from targets,

many other sources of signal are present. These distortions can be suppressed by signal

processing techniques such as MTI, Adaptive Beamforming (AB) or STAP.

MTI technique is based on Doppler principle. For example, if only ground clutter is present

for not moving radar system, then clutter has approximately zero Doppler shift. Therefore

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 7

Figure 2.6 — Principle of MTI technique [53].

Figure 2.7 — Concept of steering antenna null toward interference [33].

to reject clutter it is necessary to implement Doppler ﬁlter having stopband around zero

Doppler frequency (see Fig. 2.6).

Situation is more complicated when the clutter is moving in relation to the radar. Then

adaptive techniques can be useful in this case. Adaptivity means, that ﬁlters adapt themselves

to the clutter properties in Doppler domain.

Another group of techniques are phased or adaptive arrays. The concept of adaptive

array is based on the idea of changing antenna pattern in order to steer antenna null toward

interference source as presented in Fig. 2.7.

This can be realized using two-antennas and introducing signal phase shift between an-

tennas (Fig. 2.8).

Modiﬁcation of this technique is an application of quadrature receivers (the same as for

MTI technique). In this case each antenna has its own quadrature receiver. Then null steering

is performed by applying appropriate complex weight to each of the antennas (see Fig. 2.9).

Finally when dealing with multiple interference sources, it is necessary to apply multiple

nulls. This can be done using more antennas in array antenna (Fig. 2.10).

Example of a complete system is presented in Fig. 2.11.

For simplicity reasons quadrature receivers are not presented in the picture.

Next step in radar technology evolution was to introduce combination of a MTI and

adaptive arrays in a single technique. This concept is named Space-Time Adaptive Processing

and is presented in the next section.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 8

Figure 2.8 — Null steering using phase shifters [33]. d denotes distance between antennas.

Figure 2.9 — Two element adaptive antenna [33].

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 9

Figure 2.10 — Four antennas array [33].

Figure 2.11 — Complete adaptive array system [44].

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 10

Figure 2.12 — Airborne clutter [53].

2.2 Overview of STAP.

STAP is a modern signal processing technique, that can improve target detectability in the

presence of a strong clutter. In this section only short review on this topic is presented, more

exhaustive analysis of STAP can be found in a book written by Richard Klemm [37].

2.2.1 Problem Statement.

If we consider Moving Target Indication for airborne radar, then we face the problem that

echo coming from non-moving ground objects (ground clutter) possess non-zero Doppler

bandwidth [53] (Fig. 2.12). This is a result of relative velocity between antenna platform

(aircraft) and ground area illuminated by the radar system. As a consequence, target echo

can fall within the clutter bandwidth and may be hidden under the clutter (Fig. 2.12 shows

simpler case, where target echo is outside the clutter band). In this case, clutter rejection will

also reject target echo. STAP objective is to ﬁlter-out ground clutter, while preserving echo

coming from moving target.

2.2.2 Radar System.

In order to achieve its objective, STAP employs antenna array, which allows angle of arrival

ﬁltering. In Fig. 2.13 we can see the geometry of airborne antenna arrays. Axis V

p

denotes

ﬂight direction. There are possible two basic conﬁgurations: side-looking and forward-looking.

For side-looking conﬁguration, receiving elements are placed along the ﬂight axis. For forward-

looking conﬁguration, receiving elements are placed along an axis perpendicular to the ﬂight

axis, but parallel to the ground plane. Side-looking conﬁguration is simpler to analyze, there-

fore we assume this conﬁguration only. Also for simplicity reasons, we assume that receiving

elements are equally-spaced, with element spacing equal to λ/2 (λ denotes wavelength). An-

tenna array allows cone-angle (α in Fig. 2.13) ﬁltering. Echo arriving from point P (Fig.

2.13) on the ground is sampled in space by array elements. Wave-front coming from point P

is arriving at antenna receiving elements at diﬀerent moments in time. In other words: there

is a phase diﬀerence among array channels. This phase diﬀerence is related to cone angle

α. For other conﬁgurations (with slant angle), analysis is more complicated, but qualitative

results are similar.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 11

Figure 2.13 — Geometry of airborne antenna arrays [37].

Figure 2.14 — Moving radar system [58].

2.2.3 Airborne Clutter.

If we consider moving radar system (Fig. 2.14), it can be shown that Doppler shift of echo

coming from non-moving environment depends on cone angle [37]. Each point in space, seen

by the radar under angle α is approaching radar at the same speed. More precisely, this speed

is proportional to the radar platform velocity and to the cosinus of the angle α. Therefore,

all such points have the same Doppler shift (proportional to cos α). The cone is, therefore,

surface of constant Doppler shift. But usually, airborne radar experiences reﬂections not from

the whole space but from the ground plane only (excluding potential target). Therefore, to

obtain the set of points with the same Doppler shift we should intersect cone surface with

the ground plane as in Fig. 2.14. Result of intersection of a cone with a plane is a hyperbola.

Hyperbola is therefore a set of all points with the same Doppler shift. Lines on the ground of

constant Doppler shift are named isodops. In our case a single hyperbola is exactly an isodop.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 12

Figure 2.15 — Isodops [37].

Figure 2.16 — Range sphere [58].

Each Doppler shift is related to a single isodop (hyperbola). Bunch of isodops is shown in

Fig. 2.15. In the same ﬁgure it can be seen that zero-Doppler isodop (f

r

= 0) is a straight

line perpendicular to the ﬂight path. On the right side of zero-Doppler isodop, are placed

positive-Doppler isodops. The last of them is a maximum-Doppler isodop (f

r

= 1) which is in

fact a half of a straight line. On the left side are placed negative-Doppler isodops.

We are usually interested in target detection, together with the information about the

range to the target. Isorange line is a line of constant range to the radar. It is a circle on

the ground, which is an intersection of a ground plane and a sphere with the radius which

corresponds to our range of interest(Fig. 2.16 and 2.17).

Taking into account both isodops and isorange lines, we see that for the speciﬁc range

and for the speciﬁc Doppler shift, we receive echo from speciﬁc areas on the ground. This can

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 13

Figure 2.17 — Isorange circles and isodops [53].

Figure 2.18 — Space-time structure of clutter [37].

be paraphrased: clutter from the speciﬁc range and of the speciﬁc Doppler shift is arriving

from speciﬁc angles only. This relation is exploited in STAP.

In Fig. 2.18 we can see space-time clutter structure in Doppler frequency-cosinus of cone

angle (α) coordinate system. Clutter occupies only part of the coordinate plane. Moreover

for the simple case of a side-looking antenna conﬁguration, clutter lays on a straight line (in

Fig. 2.18) as a result of the fact, that Doppler shift is proportional to the cos α, as was shown

before. For other antenna conﬁgurations, clutter has a diﬀerent pattern, but always occupies

only small part of that plane.

In the picture (Fig. 2.18) two possible targets are depicted. One so-called slow target and

the other so-called fast target. Slow target (dashed line) is a target whose radial speed V

r

to

the radar is small in comparison with the speed of the radar platform relative to the ground

V

p

. Movement of the radar platform generates clutter whose Doppler spectrum extends from

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 14

Figure 2.19 — Data cube [43].

−2V

p

/λ to +2V

p

/λ, where λ is a radar working wavelength (see Fig. 2.12). As a result, clutter

Doppler spectrum generated by the movement of the platform can be broader than Doppler

shift of the target. Therefore echo from this target is likely to be suppressed by the temporal

MTI ﬁlter (see Fig. 2.6). On the other hand, fast target is a target whose radial speed to the

radar platform is high in comparison to the radar platform speed. In this case there is only

low risk, that echo from this target will be suppressed. Since we are interested in detecting

both slow and fast targets, it can be seen, that separate Doppler (inverse temporal clutter

ﬁlter in Fig. 2.18) or separate angle ﬁltering (inverse spatial clutter ﬁlter in Fig. 2.18) may

ﬁlter-out target signal together with the clutter. Some of the targets will not be detected.

Two-dimensional ﬁltering (space-time clutter ﬁlter in Fig. 2.18) allows to ﬁlter out clutter

echo and preserve target echo.

2.2.4 Adaptive MTI.

Before introducing STAP algorithm it is worth to recall Adaptive MTI (AMTI). This algo-

rithm was used for example in [25].

AMTI (purely temporal adaptive ﬁltering) utilizes echoes from coherent pulse trains re-

ceived by an antenna array. Pulse trains allows temporal (Doppler) ﬁltering, whereas diﬀerent

channels of antenna array allow spatial (angle) ﬁltering.

AMTI is operating on so-called data cube (Fig. 2.19). Data cube consists of complex

samples taken from N pulses by M antenna elements for range cells from 1 to L. We are

assuming, that pulse train consists of N coherent pulses. Echoes are coherently sampled by

a quadrature receiver as described in section 2.1.

The ﬁrst step of processing is beamforming (Fig. 2.20).

After this step data are available as a cube with beams instead of antennas (Fig. 2.20

and 2.21). The rest of the processing is performed independently for each beam. For each

range-beam cell, adaptive ﬁlter is calculated using auxiliary range cells of the same beam.

Formula for the test statistic is given by [53]:

η =

[v

H

ˆ

R

−1

k

x

k

[

2

v

Hˆ

R

−1

k

v

(2.6)

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 15

Figure 2.20 — Beamforming.

Figure 2.21 — Data snapshot.

where v is a steering vector for tested velocity, x

k

is a data vector (N pulses) from the range

cell and the beam of interest, and

ˆ

R

−1

k

is an inverse of the sample covariance matrix. This test

statistics has a property of Constant False Alarm Ratio (CFAR), as long as clutter follows

Gaussian distribution [53]. Sample covariance matrix is calculated using auxiliary snapshots

of the same beam. Usually auxiliary snapshots are taken from the same beam but from

diﬀerent range cells. It is worth to mention here, that above test statistics is of the same form

as for STAP (which will be shown in the next section). The diﬀerence is the interpretation

of vectors and matrices present in the equation (2.6). For AMTI, vectors and matrices are

related to a single beam and multiple pulses, whereas for STAP it will be vectors related to

two-dimensional, space and time structure. Underlying assumption of both AMTI and STAP

is that clutter follows Gaussian process.

After such a processing, results available in the form of the test statistics cube (range

velocity angle).

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 16

2.2.5 STAP Processing.

To make proﬁt of angle dependency of Doppler shift, STAP is operating on the raw data

cube (Fig. 2.19). STAP is processing one slice of the data cube, for the range cell of interest:

X

k

=

[x

k

]

1,1

[x

k

]

1,2

. . . [x

k

]

1,N

[x

k

]

2,1

[x

k

]

2,2

. . . [x

k

]

2,N

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

[x

k

]

M,1

[x

k

]

M,2

. . . [x

k

]

M,N

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(2.7)

where k denotes range cell, M is the number of antennas, N is the number of pulses processed,

and in expression [x

k

]

a,b

, a denotes antenna and b denotes pulse. Then X

k

is the backscatter

signal from one range cell (k) but for all pulses and antennas. For further processing we

need to vectorize slice (2.7) by stacking each succeeding column one beneath the other. This

operation yields the space-time snapshot for the k-th range:

x

T

k

=

[x

k

]

1,1

, [x

k

]

2,1

. . . [x

k

]

M,1

, [x

k

]

1,2

, [x

k

]

2,2

. . . [x

k

]

M,2

, [x

k

]

1,3

, [x

k

]

2,3

. . . . . . [x

k

]

M,N

(2.8)

T denotes transposition.

Let us consider a single reﬂecting point. Assuming that ﬁrst antenna element is a reference

point, received space-time snapshot should be of the form [37]:

x

k

= a s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

) (2.9)

where a denotes a random complex amplitude and s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

) is the following steering vector:

s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

) =

1 1

exp(j2π f

sp

) 1

exp(j2π 2f

sp

) 1

exp(j2π 3f

sp

) 1

.

.

.

exp(j2π (M −1)f

sp

) 1

1 exp(j2π f

d

)

exp(j2π f

sp

) exp(j2π f

d

)

.

.

.

exp(j2π (M −1)f

sp

) exp(j2π f

d

)

1 exp(j2π 2f

d

)

exp(j2π f

sp

) exp(2π 2f

d

)

.

.

.

.

.

.

exp(j2π (M −1)f

sp

) exp(j2π (N −1)f

d

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(2.10)

where f

sp

=

d

λ

cos(α), f

d

=

2·ν

r

λ

T, α denotes the cone angle (Fig. 2.13), v

r

- radial velocity

between reﬂecting point and antenna, λ - wavelength and T is a PRI. The steering vector

can be written as s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

) = s

sp

(f

sp

) ⊗s

t

(f

d

), where s

sp

(f

sp

) is a vector performing space

processing and s

t

(f

d

) is the Doppler processing vector. When multiplying a vector by the

above steering vector, we perform in fact a 2-D Fourier Transform in the space and the time

domain.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 17

Registered space-time snapshot is a result of coherent summation of waves from many

sources:

x

k

= s

k

+c

k

+j

k

+n

k

(2.11)

s

k

denotes a target reﬂection, c

k

stands for clutter return, j

k

is jammer signal and n

k

repre-

sents uncorrelated noise. Of course target and jammer signals are not always present.

Classical STAP processor is a linear ﬁlter [36] [51] of the form [37]:

y

k

= w

H

k

x

k

(2.12)

where y

k

is a resulting scalar, w

k

- weight vector, and superscript H denotes conjugate

transpose. Formula for the optimum weight vector

1

is [37]:

w

k

= β R

−1

k

s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

) (2.13)

β denotes scalar, R

−1

k

is an inverse of covariance matrix of x

k

: R

k

= E¦x

k

x

H

k

¦ assuming no

target signal present in the data. s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

) is a steering vector (2.10) for the possible target

we want to detect. Above formula can be derived from Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test,

which will be shown in the section 2.6. In practice both R

−1

k

and s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

) are unknown.

Instead of R

−1

k

, an inverse of the sample covariance matrix

ˆ

R

−1

k

is often used.

s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

) is steering vector for, only one, possible target. To construct this vector it

is necessary to possess perfect knowledge about the target velocity and angle α relative to

the antenna (see Fig. 2.13). In practice neither velocity nor angle is known. Instead, we can

test for targets at a series of discrete points covering angle-velocity space (test grid). Test

grid must be dense enough, to suﬃciently precisely approximate velocity and angle of any

possible target. Then each point from velocity-angle grid is transformed into a surrogate

steering vector v

s−t

, that will be used in (2.13) as a replacement of s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

). Mismatch

between real s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

) and surrogate v

s−t

leads to some performance loss of detector.

For MTI purpose, decision function has to discriminate between two hypotheses:

H

0

: x

k

= c

k

+j

k

+n

k

H

1

: x

k

= s

k

+c

k

+j

k

+n

k

where H

0

denotes null hypothesis that there is no target within the range cell of interest, H

1

denotes an alternative hypothesis that target is present.

Using optimum weight vector and taking [43]:

β =

1

v

H

s−t

ˆ

R

−1

k

v

s−t

,

gives test statistics [43]:

η =

[v

H

s−t

ˆ

R

−1

k

x

k

[

2

v

H

s−t

ˆ

R

−1

k

v

s−t

(2.14)

1

This is true under diﬀerent optimization criteria - Maximum Likelihood estimation(ML), Signal to

Noise(plus Interference) Ratio maximization(SNR), Minimum Noise Variance(MV) estimation and Least Mean

Square Error(LMSE) estimation, but only under assumption of proper complex Gaussian process (multivari-

ate complex Gaussian process with vanishing pseudo-covariance [46]) of the clutter. This assumption will be

examined more deeply in subsequent parts of this work.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 18

This test statistics has a Constant False Alarm Ratio (CFAR) property [51] (from [43]). As

a result, a two-dimensional real test statistics map is obtained as an output of the STAP

ﬁlter (for any range cell of interest). One dimension of this map is an angle, and the other

is a velocity of a potential target. This map represents a grid of surrogates v

s−t

for a true

steering s

s−t

, which is unknown.

Decision function is constructed by comparing η to a ﬁxed threshold γ. If η < γ then the

verdict is: target is absent. If η > γ the verdict is: target is present.

2.2.6 Assumptions and Limitations.

Gaussian Assumption.

STAP is a special case of optimum processing in the presence of Gaussian distortions. Formu-

lation for optimum processing can be found, among others, in [53] and [44]. STAP underlying

assumption is: clutter can be modeled by a proper complex Gaussian (band-pass) process

[37] which is explained underneath. For the simple one-dimensional case, proper Gaussian

process can be represented as [44] [53]:

c

t

= x

t

cos(ω

c

t) −y

t

sin(ω

c

t) (2.15)

where x

t

, and y

t

, are independently, identically distributed from normal distribution of a zero

mean value and the same variance. Then:

c

t

= v

t

cos(ω

c

t +θ

t

), (2.16)

θ

t

is uniformly distributed, and voltage envelope v

t

is Rayleigh distributed. We can now treat

x

t

and y

t

as real and imaginary parts of complex process.

For multidimensional case (e.g. multiple M sensors and coherent N pulses), x

t

and y

t

become vectors x

t

and y

t

. x

t

is an In-phase vector:

x

T

t

=

[x

t

]

1

, [x

t

]

2

, [x

t

]

3

. . . [x

t

]

M·N

and y

t

is an Quadrature vector:

y

T

t

=

[y

t

]

1

, [y

t

]

2

, [y

t

]

3

. . . [y

t

]

M·N

**Similarly to one-dimensional case, we assume that:
**

E¦x

t

¦ = 0, E¦y

t

¦ = 0

This implies that the process is entirely characterized by its covariance matrix:

E

x

y

[x

T

y

T

]

¸

= M

For narrowband processes, covariance matrix can be presented in the speciﬁc form (see

Appendix A) [48] [56] [44] [53]:

E

x

y

[x

T

y

T

]

¸

=

1

2

¸

V −W

W V

**CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND
**

TARGET DETECTION. 19

Therefore it is possible to represent this process in complex notation. If we assume complex

vector:

z

t

=

[x

t

]

1

+j[y

t

]

1

[x

t

]

2

+j[y

t

]

2

.

.

.

[x

t

]

M·N

+j[y

t

]

M·N

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

then the covariance matrix is:

E¦zz

H

¦ = V+jW

Using this notation, we describe multidimensional narrowband Gaussian process using MN x

MN complex covariance matrix. This result is then used in STAP formula in (2.13) as R

k

. The

rest of (2.13) - s

s−t

(f

sp

, f

d

) - can be viewed as a matched ﬁltering. For other distributions of

the clutter, covariance matrix does not describe distribution entirely, so test statistics must be

reformulated. In this case, optimum detector will not necessary be a linear ﬁlter as discussed

in section 2.3.

Estimate of R

−1

k

.

As it is stated on page 17, in practice we do not know real covariance matrix. Therefore we

must use an estimator. Usually Sample Covariance Matrix (SM) is used [37]:

ˆ

R

k

=

1

P

P

¸

m=1

x

m

x

H

m

(2.17)

where vectors x

m

are usually taken from neighboring cells of space-time snapshot of data cube

(see Fig. 2.19). This estimator is Minimum Likelihood Estimator if x

m

are IID (Independent

and Identically Distributerd). Moreover they should come from the same distribution as

the clutter at the range cell of interest (this restriction is called homogeneity condition).

Additionally we must exclude target signal from samples taken for calculating SM. Therefore

we must exclude sample from range cell of interest and samples in vicinity (guard cells).

Moreover, for SM to be invertible P must be greater than dimension of covariance matrix

[12], which is MN - see Fig.2.19 and (2.8). However, for good performance, P should be

greater than 2MN [50].

For practical applications, for example M = 22, N = 128 and P > 5632, it may be

diﬃcult to provide adequate homogeneous sample support.

2.3 Detection Principles: Neyman-Pearson Test.

In this section Neyman-Pearson Test will be introduced. It is worth to mention, that there

is a possibility to adopt other approach like Bayesian reasoning or non-parametric tests. In

this work, however, author concentrated on classical Neyman-Pearson theory. First, it will

be shown LRT for simple hypothesis testing. After it will be shown GLRT that it is often

used for composite hypothesis testing. Finally, it will be presented Locally Optimum (LO)

test, that can be used under certain constraints for composite alternative hypothesis. Two

examples of LO test will be shown.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 20

2.3.1 Notation.

Let us assume random vector X = (X

1

, X

2

, X

3

, . . . , X

n

) of observations with joint probability

density function (PDF) f

X

(x[θ), where θ is a parameter of the density function. Let x =

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, . . . , x

n

) be a vector of observations (speciﬁc realization of X ) in R

n

. Let us further

assume that θ ∈ Θ = Θ

H0

∪Θ

H

1

, Θ

H

0

and Θ

H

1

are disjoint. Hypothesis testing can be viewed

now as deciding between:

H

0

: X has PDFf

X

(x[θ) withθ ∈ Θ

H

0

H

1

: X has PDFf

X

(x[θ) withθ ∈ Θ

H

1

(2.18)

Decision should be based on observations x. Let us use δ(x) symbol for the decision

function. δ(x) = 0 means adoption of hypothesis H

0

, δ(x) = 1 means adoption of hypothesis

H

1

. If set Θ

H

0

consists of a single element θ

H

0

only, we say that hypothesis zero is simple,

otherwise we say that hypothesis zero is composite. Similar relates to alternative hypothesis

H

1

.

The power function p(θ[δ) of a test based on a test function δ is deﬁned for θ ∈ Θ

H

0

∪Θ

H

1

as:

p(θ[δ) = E ¦δ(x)[θ¦ (2.19)

In target detection problems, power function can be viewed as a function that gives probability

of detection as a function of unknown parameter θ. Usually we want this function to be high

for θ ∈ Θ

H

1

.

The size of a test is the quantity:

α = sup

θ∈Θ

H

0

p(θ[δ) (2.20)

Size of a test in radar target detection problem is translated to the probability of a false

alarm. The aim is to have power function (probability of detection) high, meanwhile having

size of a test (probability of false alarm) reasonably low.

2.3.2 Neyman-Pearson Lemma.

Let us consider simple hypothesis H

0

(θ = θ

H

0

) and simple hypothesis H

1

(θ = θ

H

1

). General

structure of a most powerful test

2

may be described as one comparing the likelihood ratio to

a constant threshold [35],

f

X

(x[θ

H

1

)

f

X

(x[θ

H

0

)

> t (2.21)

If the likelihood ratio on the left-hand side of (2.21) is greater than threshold t, than we

decide to accept hypothesis H

1

. Constant t may be evaluated to obtain desired test size α.

2.3.3 Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test.

Let us consider again general test of the form (2.18) - composite hypothesis testing. To use

Neyman-Pearson Lemma and likelihood ratio test (2.21) we can adopt maximum likelihood

estimates

ˆ

θ

H

0

and

ˆ

θ

H

1

of the parameter θ, obtained under the constraints θ ∈ Θ

H

0

and

θ ∈ Θ

H

1

respectively [35]. These estimates can be used in place of θ

H

0

and θ

H

1

in (2.21). Test

2

Most powerful test is a hypothesis test which has the greatest power among all possible tests of a given

size.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 21

derived in this procedure is named General Likelihood Ratio Test. It is possible to consider

a special case of this test, when null hypothesis is composite and alternative hypothesis is

simple. This is often the case in radar signal processing, when we want to detect a target

echo.

H

0

: Xhas PDFf

X

(x[θ) withθ = θ

H

0

against

H

1

: Xhas PDFf

X

(x[θ) withθ = θ

H

0

(2.22)

Then

ˆ

θ

H

0

can be replaced by exactly known θ

H

0

, and GLRT looks as follows:

f

X

(x[

ˆ

θ

H

1

)

f

X

(x[θ

H

0

)

> t (2.23)

denumerator is of the same as in LRT, and numerator comes from GLRT. This is form, that

will be later used in derivation of target detectors.

2.3.4 Alternative Hypothesis of the Form θ > θ

H0

.

Sometimes it is possible to derive other detectors based on LRT. This time we assume a

special form of the test:

H

0

: Xhas PDFf

X

(x[θ) withθ = θ

H

0

against

H

1

: Xhas PDFf

X

(x[θ) withθ > θ

H

0

(2.24)

We now say that H

0

is a simple hypothesis, but H

1

is composite. In this case we can derive

Locally Optimum (LO) test. This means that, for assumed test size α, decision function will

be most powerful in vicinity of θ

H

0

in deciding against θ > θ

H

1

. Test structure is as follows

[35]:

d

dθ

f

X

(x[θ)

θ=θ

H

0

f

X

(x[θ

H

0

)

> t (2.25)

where t is again threshold appropriately chosen to achieve desired test size. It can be seen that

denominator of test statistics is the same as in (2.23). Numerator is however of an arbitrary

form adjusted to be optimal in vicinity of θ

H

0

. This detector will behave properly for θs close

to θ

H

0

. This test can be also viewed as [35]:

d

dθ

ln

f

X

(x[θ)

θ=θ

H

0

> t (2.26)

The problem with its practical use is the necessity of knowing derivative of likelihood function.

2.3.5 Alternative Hypothesis of the Form θ = θ

H0

.

There are also many situations when we need to test two sided alternative hypothesis - the

same as GLRT in (2.23):

H

0

: Xhas PDFf

X

(x[θ) withθ = θ

H

0

against

H

1

: Xhas PDFf

X

(x[θ) withθ = θ

H

0

(2.27)

H

0

is again simple hypothesis, H

1

is composite. In this case we can also derive LO test. In

order to achieve this, we need to impose some restrictions to the test function. Test function

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 22

must be unbiased. Which means that test satisﬁes [35]:

p(θ[δ) ≤ α, for all θ ∈ Θ

H

0

p(θ[δ) ≥ α, for all θ ∈ Θ

H

1

(2.28)

For the two-sided alternative hypothesis, Locally Optimum(LO) looks as follows

[35]:

d

2

dθ

2

f

X

(x[θ)[

θ=θ

H

0

f

X

(x[θ

H

0

)

> t (2.29)

where t is, again, threshold appropriately chosen to achieve desired test size. The same as

before, it can be seen that denominator of test statistics is the same as in (2.23). Numerator

is again of an arbitrary form adjusted to be optimal in vicinity of θ

H

0

. This detector will

behave properly for θ’s close to θ

H

0

. This time it is necessary to know second derivative of

a likelihood function. Therefore, though it may be interesting to apply these detectors for

non-Gaussian clutter, in the rest of the work GLRT test in the form (2.23) will be used.

GLRT test can be applied in more general case and in many situations GLRT is simpler to

derive and analyse.

2.4 Examples

In this section, two examples will be presented as an illustration of the tests presented in

section 2.3. These two examples are close to the problems faced in radar target detection.

2.4.1 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals in Narrowband Noise.

Beneath will be presented an example of deriving LO detector in the case, where we can

obtain a simple form of derivatives for uncorrelated noise. We will use model:

X(t) = θυ(t) cos[ω

0

t +φ(t)] +W(t) (2.30)

Here υ(t) and φ(t) are known amplitude and phase modulations. θ is overall signal amplitude.

Noise process W(t) will be assumed to be stationary, zero mean, band-pass white noise with

a constant power spectral density N

0

/2 over the band of interest (and zero outside). We are

interested in testing θ = 0 against θ > 0. After quadrature detection with carrier frequency

ω

0

and sampling with Nyquist frequency, we receive in-phase and quadrature samples x

Ii

and

x

Qi

, where i = 1 . . . n. Samples can include signal part and noise part:

x

Ii

= θs

Ii

+ w

Ii

x

Qi

= θs

Qi

+ w

Qi

(2.31)

Following the (2.30) we will assume that w

Ii

form a sequence of i.i.d. random variables,

governed by a common univariate density function f

L

. Similarly we assume the same for w

Qi

with the same PDF f

L

. We also assume that s

Ii

and s

Ii

are completely known.

Components w

Ii

and w

Qi

are uncorrelated for each i [56](from [35]), but independent only

for the Gaussian case. Therefore we must adopt bivariate probability density function f

IQ

,

for which marginal density functions are f

l

. To summarize, we assume two dimensional noise

samples (W

Ii

, W

Qi

) that are i.i.d. random variables with common bivariate PDF f

IQ

.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 23

Moreover we assume that f

IQ

is a circularly symmetric

3

bivariate density function, which

means that f

IQ

(u, υ) can be written as a function of

√

u

2

+υ

2

:

f

IQ

(u, υ) = h(r)

r=

√

u

2

+υ

2

(2.32)

In this situation LO statistics can be derived using (2.25), and takes on the form [35]:

λ

LO

(X

I

, X

Q

) =

n

¸

i=1

−h

(r

i

)

r

i

h(r

i

)

[s

Ii

x

Ii

+s

Qi

x

Qi

] (2.33)

where r

i

=

x

2

Ii

+x

2

Qi

. In (2.33) we can distinguish two elements. Nonlinear envelope modiﬁ-

cation

−h

(r

i

)

r

i

h(r

i

)

and linear operation on I and Q components: s

Ii

x

Ii

+s

Qi

x

Qi

(matched ﬁltering).

For the special case of Gaussian noise components,

−h

(r

i

)

r

i

h(r

i

)

becomes constant and LO ﬁlter

becomes the usual matched ﬁlter [35]:

λ

LO

(X

I

, X

Q

) =

n

¸

i=1

[s

Ii

x

Ii

+s

Qi

x

Qi

] (2.34)

2.4.2 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals with Random Phase An-

gles.

Next example illustrates also LO detector. Model in this situation is diﬀerent from (2.30) in

the sense that we introduce additional random starting phase ψ of our signal of interest:

X(t) = θυ(t) cos[ω

0

t +φ(t) +ψ] +W(t) (2.35)

We assume that ψ is uniformly distributed over [0, 2π]. After similar operations as for (2.30),

we get samples:

x

Ii

= θ[s

Ii

cos ψ +s

Qi

sin ψ] + w

Ii

x

Qi

= θ[s

Ii

sin ψ +s

Qi

cos ψ] + w

Qi

(2.36)

To simplify formulation let us introduce additional notation:

X

i

= (x

Ii

, x

Qi

)

Y

i

= (−x

Qi

, x

Ii

)

s

i

= (s

Ii

, s

Qi

)

υ

2

i

= s

2

Ii

+s

2

Qi

r

i

=

x

2

Ii

+x

2

Qi

(2.37)

LO detector test statistics can be derived using (2.29), and becomes [35]:

λ

LO

(X

I

, X

Q

) =

1

2

n

¸

i=1

υ

2

i

h

(r

i

)

h(r

i

)

−

h

(r

i

)

h(r

i

)

2

+

h

(r

i

)

r

i

h(r

i

)

¸

+

1

2

¸

n

¸

i=1

−h

(r

i

)

r

i

h(r

i

)

s

i

X

T

i

¸

2

+

1

2

¸

n

¸

i=1

−h

(r

i

)

r

i

h(r

i

)

s

i

Y

T

i

¸

2

(2.38)

3

More general multivariate case of spherically invariant random processes will be discussed later

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 24

This form is very complicated and includes matched ﬁltering together with nonlinear

envelope modiﬁcation similarly to the previous example. Even in Gaussian case, this detector

remains non-linear.

Generally it is quite diﬃcult to derive LO detectors. For calculations to be feasible it

is desirable to have uncorrelated noise. On the other hand, GLRT test is based directly on

Neyman-Pearson test and in many cases is easier to calculate. Therefore in the rest of this

work only GLRT will be considered.

2.5 Spherically Invariant Random Process (SIRP).

In this section theory of SIRP will be introduced. In fact, as we detail in chapter 3, the SIRP

can model a large number of distortions that have been used for sea clutter. This is a very

usefull tool, that will be used in other sections of this work.

Spherically Invariant Random Process can be represented as [2]:

Z = σI

where Z denotes n-dimensional Spherically Invariant Random Vector (SIRV), I is a n-

dimensional multivariate Gaussian random vector and σ is a positive random scalar with

assumed probability density function (PDF). SIRP allows to relax assumption of Gaussian-

ity, while keeping many of its useful characteristics [2]. PDF of a SIRV vector can be presented

in the following form [49]:

f(Z) =

1

(2π)

n/2

[M[

1/2

∞

0

1

σ

n

e

−

Z

T

M

−1

Z

2σ

2

dG

σ

(σ) (2.39)

G

σ

(σ) denotes cumulative distribution function of σ If E(σ

2

) = 1 then M = E[ZZ

T

]. For

further analysis we introduce complex notation using transformation:

X =

z

1

+jz

n/2+1

.

.

.

z

n/2

+jz

n

¸

¸

¸

(2.40)

let us denote dimension of X by m = n/2. PDF of a vector X can be presented in the

following form [10]:

f(X) =

1

π

m

[Φ[

∞

0

1

σ

2m

e

−

X

H

Φ

−1

X

σ

2

dG

σ

(σ) (2.41)

Similarily if E(σ

2

) = 1 then Φ = E[XX

H

]. If we assume continuous case for σ distribution

then we have:

f(X) =

1

π

m

[Φ[

∞

0

1

σ

2m

e

−

X

H

Φ

−1

X

σ

2

g(σ)dσ (2.42)

and g(σ) is called characteristic PDF of a SIRP. It will be useful to introduce one more

representation of a SIRP. Let τ = σ

2

, then σ =

√

τ, dτ = 2σdσ and dσ =

dτ

2

√

τ

. Therefore

f(X) =

1

π

m

[Φ[

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

X

H

Φ

−1

X

τ

g(

√

τ)

2

√

τ

dτ (2.43)

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 25

where

g(

√

τ)

2

√

τ

is a PDF of a τ. Let us denote this PDF as f(τ) so:

f(X) =

1

π

m

[Φ[

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

X

H

Φ

−1

X

τ

f(τ)dτ (2.44)

or in more general form

f(X) =

1

π

m

[Φ[

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

X

H

Φ

−1

X

τ

dF

τ

(τ) (2.45)

where F

τ

(τ) denotes cumulative distribution function for τ. We can assume restriction for τ:

E(τ) = 1. Under this restriction we have Φ = E¦X

H

X¦, and this is a covariance matrix of

X [49]. This form will be used in the next sections.

Gaussian distribution as a special case of SIRP.

Let δ(x) denotes Dirac-delta function. If we assume dF

τ

(τ) = δ(τ

0

) in (2.45), then

f(X) =

1

π

m

[Φ[

1

τ

m

0

e

−

X

H

Φ

−1

X

τ

0

(2.46)

In above expression we recognize multivariate complex Gaussian random process. We can

therefore say, that SIRP is a generalization of a Gaussian process.

2.6 Likelihood Ratio Test and Generalized Likelihood Ratio

Test applied to the Spherically Invariant Random Process.

In this section it will be shown how to derive LRT and GLRT for SIRP. In the case of exactly

known signal we can use LRT, whereas in the case of not known amplitude and phase we

need to employ GLRT. It will be shown, that STAP is a special case of GLRT.

2.6.1 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals - Likelihood Ratio Test.

If we know exactly the signal we want to detect, we can employ LRT. After deriving the test,

it will be shown, that for a threshold equal 1, test statistics becomes matched ﬁlter.

Let now X be an m-dimensional SIRV, S is the known m-dimensional complex signal

vector, Y is the m-dimensional complex vector of observations. Let us consider following

hypothesis test:

H

0

: Y = X

H

1

: Y = X +S

Using (2.45), it is possible to ﬁnd expressions for PDF of Y under both hypotheses [52]:

H

0

: f(Y ) =

1

π

m

[Φ[

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

H

1

: f(Y ) =

1

π

m

[Φ[

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S)

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 26

From general result of (2.21), Likelihood Ratio statistics is given by

[52]:

η =

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S)

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

(2.47)

If distribution function of τ is continuous then we have:

η =

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S)

τ

f(τ)dτ

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

f(τ)dτ

(2.48)

Simpliﬁed Result. Let us investigate result (2.47) more deeply (similar derivation to [59]).

If we compare test statistics to the threshold:

η =

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S)

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

H

1

≷

H

0

t, (2.49)

we see that it can be rearranged:

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S)

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

H

1

≷

H

0

t

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

⇔

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S)

τ

dF

τ

(τ) −t

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

H

1

≷

H

0

0

⇔

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S)

τ

−t

1

τ

m

e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

H

1

≷

H

0

0

⇔

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S)

τ

−te

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

H

1

≷

H

0

0 (2.50)

Now if we take threshold to be equal 1:

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S)

τ

−e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

H

1

≷

H

0

0 (2.51)

Keeping in mind, that τ is positive and the fact that function e

x

is monotonous, it can be

concluded that the sign of the expression:

e

−

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S)

τ

−e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

depends only on the diﬀerence between (Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S) and Y

H

Φ

−1

Y . This is true for

every τ. Recalling again that τ is positive it can be concluded, that the sign of the function

under integral in (2.51) depends only on the diﬀerence (Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S) −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y , and

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 27

therefore the sign of the result also depends on this diﬀerence. So ﬁnally, our detector from

(2.51) turns out to be a linear ﬁlter:

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

H

1

≷

H

0

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

(Y −S) (2.52)

further simpliﬁcations:

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

H

1

≷

H

0

(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

Y −(Y −S)

H

Φ

−1

S

⇔Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

H

1

≷

H

0

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y −S

H

Φ

−1

Y −Y

H

Φ

−1

S +S

H

Φ

−1

S

⇔S

H

Φ

−1

Y +Y

H

Φ

−1

S

H

1

≷

H

0

S

H

Φ

−1

S

⇔S

H

Φ

−1

Y

H

1

≷

H

0

S

H

Φ

−1

S/2

result is:

S

H

Φ

−1

Y

S

H

Φ

−1

S

H

1

≷

H

0

1

2

(2.53)

the expression on the left side is possibly complex. Therefore it is necessary to take module

value of the numerator:

[S

H

Φ

−1

Y [

S

H

Φ

−1

S

H

1

≷

H

0

1

2

(2.54)

This result shows, that in case of SIRP as a model for the clutter, optimum detector is

a matched ﬁlter, but only under condition that threshold in (2.49) is equal 1. This is not

true for other thresholds, because integral (2.51) cannot be simpliﬁed. Therefore it can be

concluded, that this is not an interesting simpliﬁcation, since it gives no possibility to adjust

probability of false alarm or probability of detection (both of which depend on the threshold).

It is necessary to have a detector independent on the threshold.

2.6.2 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals with Random Phase Angles

and Random Amplitude - GLRT Detector.

This is more realistic scenario in radar applications. Our target signal is known precisely but

its initial amplitude and phase are not known. In such a case we cannot employ LRT. Instead

we need to use GLRT. It will be shown how to derive such a test in the case of Spherically

Invariant Random Process. After, it will be shown the same simpliﬁcation as for LRT. In this

case however, this simpliﬁcation is useless. At the end of this section it will be shown, that

in fact, classical STAP is a special case of GLRT for SIRP.

Let now S = aS

0

, where S

0

is the completely known m-dimensional signal vector with

magnitude 1 (S

H

0

S

0

= 1) and a is the unknown complex amplitude. It is now possible to

derive GLRT (see section 2.3.3 on page 20).

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 28

Taking into account (2.45), GLRT statistics becomes [52]:

η =

∞

0

1

τ

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

τ

)dF

τ

(τ)

∞

0

1

τ

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

)dF

τ

(τ)

(2.55)

where [[ denotes magnitude, and

[ρ[

2

=

[S

H

0

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(Y

H

Φ

−1

Y )(S

H

0

Φ

−1

S

0

)

(2.56)

In the case when distribution of τ is continuous:

η =

∞

0

1

τ

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

τ

)f(τ)dτ

∞

0

1

τ

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

)f(τ)dτ

(2.57)

where f(τ) is called characteristic PDF of SIRV.

Simpliﬁed Result. We want to perform similar reasoning to that in section 2.6.1. Similar

result to (2.50) is given by:

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

τ

−te

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

H

1

≷

H

0

0 (2.58)

Let t be equal 1:

∞

0

1

τ

m

e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

τ

−e

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

dF

τ

(τ)

H

1

≷

H

0

0 (2.59)

this is equivalent to (assuming τ > 0):

−Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

1 −

[S

H

0

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(Y

H

Φ

−1

Y )(S

H

0

Φ

−1

S

0

)

H

1

≷

H

0

−Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (2.60)

further:

−Y

H

Φ

−1

Y +

(Y

H

Φ

−1

Y )[S

H

0

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(Y

H

Φ

−1

Y )(S

H

0

Φ

−1

S

0

)

H

1

≷

H

0

−Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (2.61)

after simpliﬁcation:

[S

H

0

Φ

−1

Y [

2

S

H

0

Φ

−1

S

0

H

1

≷

H

0

0 (2.62)

so ﬁnally our detector turns out to be:

[S

H

0

Φ

−1

Y [

2

H

1

≷

H

0

0 (2.63)

Of course left side will be greater than zero always, so in this case detector will always report

target. Although simpliﬁcation is possible, however it does not give reasonable results and it

will not be considered in the rest of this work.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 29

GLRT for Gaussian Clutter - a STAP Formula. In section 2.2.5 a classical STAP

ﬁlter was shown. Optimum test statistics is given in (2.14) and can be derived using (2.55),

which will be shown in this section. First, for the Gaussian process, τ is constant (let us

assume equal to σ). This means that Stieltjes integrals vanish, and we have formula for test

statistics:

η =

1

σ

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

σ

)

1

σ

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

σ

)

(2.64)

after simpliﬁcation:

η =

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

σ

)

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

σ

)

(2.65)

and taking natural logarithm:

η

= [−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)

σ

] −[−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

σ

] (2.66)

constant σ can be included in the threshold:

η

= [−Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)] −[−Y

H

Φ

−1

Y ] (2.67)

after rearrangement:

η

= Y

H

Φ

−1

Y −[Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)] (2.68)

further:

η

= Y

H

Φ

−1

Y [ρ[

2

(2.69)

and substituting expression for [ρ[

2

from (2.56):

η

= Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

[S

H

0

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(Y

H

Φ

−1

Y )(S

H

0

Φ

−1

S

0

)

(2.70)

which ﬁnally gives formula equivalent to (2.14):

η

=

[S

H

0

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(S

H

0

Φ

−1

S

0

)

. (2.71)

Variance Estimation. In (2.71) we assume, that covariance matrix (and its inverse) is

known. This is not true in general. In (2.14) inverse of the sample covariance matrix

ˆ

Φ

−1

is used as an inverse covariance matrix estimator in place of true inverse covariance matrix

Φ

−1

. But this detector (2.14) is not GLRT detector anymore. It can be found in [51] that

GLRT under assumption that covariance is unknown is given by:

[S

H

0

ˆ

Φ

−1

Y [

2

S

H

0

ˆ

Φ

−1

S

0

1 +

1

P

Y

Hˆ

Φ

−1

Y

H

1

≷

H

0

t (2.72)

where t is a threshold and

ˆ

Φ is given by:

ˆ

Φ =

1

P

P

¸

m=1

x

m

x

H

m

(2.73)

as in (2.17).

It can be seen that for large P (2.72) becomes (2.14).

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND

TARGET DETECTION. 30

2.7 Conclusions

This chapter introduced basic radar systems concepts. After general introduction to radar

principles in section 1, a STAP technique was described in section 2. Rationale standing be-

hind introduction of STAP was presented. STAP processing algorithm together with assump-

tions and limitations was shown. Next section presented more general view to the problem

of detection. This is necessary in the context of non-Gaussian signals. In the same section

Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test was presented. For completeness Locally Optimum detec-

tor was also shown. To resolve the problem of non-Gaussianity, at certain stage there is a

need to introduce the model of distortions. This was done in the next section, where Spheri-

cally Invariant Random Process (SIRP) was introduced. Using this concept and GLRT it was

possible to present general form of a test adjusted to the SIRP for the signal with unknown

phase. As it will be shown in the next chapter, problem of non-Gaussianity is a real problem

in radar detection in the case of sea clutter, where reﬂections come from the sea surface which

has a very complicated, non-linear physics. In this context GLRT for SIRP will be a basic

tool for improving detection performance. Having validated the need of target detection in

non-Gaussian clutter, practical implementation of a GLRT for SIRP will be presented in the

chapter 4.

CHAPTER

3

Sea Clutter.

In this chapter sea clutter properties will be described. After short introduction, sea clutter

properties will be presented for X-band and HF-band radar systems. HF-band results will be

based on author’s experiments with real data.

Sea clutter signal properties are related to sea roughness. It is common assumption to

decompose sea roughness to capillary waves and to gravity waves (swell) [28] [31]. The electro-

magnetic wave that is backscattered by capillary waves modulated by three marine features

(wind, gravity waves, current) has wavelength of order of centimeters or less [28]. Their restor-

ing force is the surface tension. Gravity waves have wavelengths ranging from few hundred

meters to less than a meter [31]. Swells are produced by stable winds. Their restoring force

is the force of gravity. If we consider time relations, ﬁrst results of a wind are capillary waves

[28]. As capillary waves build up, their energy is transfered in a nonlinear process to waves

with larger amplitudes and wavelengths. Sudden cessation of wind causes short waves to de-

cay rapidly, whereas the longer waves can last several days. In reality sea state is a complex

mixture of shorter and longer waves coming from diﬀerent directions.

Waves can be characterized by their height, length and period. Wavelength and period

are in a relation, whereas waveheight ﬂuctuates considerably [31].

Because of diﬀerent length scales of diﬀerent sea-wave types, sea clutter for diﬀerent radar

bands will have diﬀerent properties. Note that for example for HF radar band (3-30 MHz)

capillary waves will have no eﬀect on clutter properties, whereas for X-band systems, they

will have an important inﬂuence. However some general comments can be made. Doppler

spectrum of sea clutter results from two main processes: the spread about the mean Doppler

frequency is a manifestation of the random motion of the unresolved scatters, while the

displacement of the mean Doppler frequency is caused by the evolution of resolved waves

[31], in particular by the eﬀects of currents.

Clutter properties are strongly related to grazing angle. Grazing angle is the angle at

which radar beam illuminates the surface with respect to the local horizontal. For HF radar

systems, grazing angles are almost always small, since these radars are usually installed at the

sea coast or onboard of ships. For X-band and S-band radar systems, grazing angles can vary

from 0 to 90 degrees. For high grazing angles, statistical properties are usually considered

Gaussian, whereas for low grazing angles for X-band and S-band radars, statistical properties

of the clutter can not be anymore considered Gaussian. For this reason we have considered

the inﬂuence of this departure in the next chapter (chapter 4) , which deals with the detection

step of the STAP.

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 32

Figure 3.1 — Typical X-band, sea-clutter spectra in the upswell and near cross-swell di-

rections for vertical (upper ﬁgure) and horizontal (lower ﬁgure) polarizations [9].

3.1 Sea clutter characterization in X band.

X-band radar systems operate at frequencies between 8 GHz and 12 GHz. Wavelength is

therefore between 2.5 cm to 3.75 cm. This is very important, since structures of this size will

inﬂuence statistical properties of the clutter in this case.

At the beginning let us consider spectral properties of the clutter. In Figure 3.1 it is

shown clutter power as a function of Doppler frequency for diﬀerent look angles of radar and

for diﬀerent polarizations. It is clear, that sea clutter has broad Doppler spectrum and its

maximum is related to look angle. Obviously, this spectrum Doppler hides the target Doppler

and strongly disturbs usual methods such as MTI. This relation cannot be explained in the

terms of wind direction in a simple way [9]. Some of other factors that play an important

role are sea currents and variability of wind direction. Generally, for horizontal polarization,

clutter has narrower Doppler spectrum. For both polarizations clutter power is substantially

higher in directions of positive Doppler shift. Generally, power decreases as the look direction

moves away from the upswell direction.

In Fig. 3.2 general trend of mean Doppler frequency against azimuth angle is presented.

It is seen that relation takes on the form of sinusoid. More detailed discussion on Doppler

peak spectral shift can be found in [57], where models for Doppler shift are presented.

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 33

Figure 3.2 — Plot showing the trend of mean Doppler frequency against azimuth angle

[8].

Observation that clutter power and Doppler shift depend on look angle may lead to

conclusion, that in this case the application of STAP technique is worth to be considered, as

discussed in section 2.2. Relative dependence between the look angle and the Doppler shift of

the clutter was a rationale standing behind STAP application for airborne radar as described

in section 2.2. In Fig. 3.3 it is shown how radar cross section is changing with grazing angle.

We can see general trend, that with higher grazing angle, radar cross section increases. As it

will be shown later, statistical properties of the clutter will be changing with grazing angle

as well.

Next important property of the clutter is its amplitude distribution. In the table 3.1 we see

diﬀerent distributions used to describe clutter properties. Depending on situation, diﬀerent

models can describe clutter. Basic model is Rayleigh model. It is useful in many situations,

for example for low resolution radars with a high grazing angle. If we are dealing with higher

resolution radar (especially for low grazing angles) it turns out that statistical properties are

diﬀerent. The reason behind this is the law of large numbers. In the case of low resolution

radar, many independent scattering centers contribute to overall radar cross section of a

single resolution cell. In this case the law of large numbers states, that complex samples

should be Gaussian distributed, and therefore envelope should be Rayleigh distributed [53].

On the other hand, for higher resolutions, there are only few scattering centers in a single

resolution cell, and therefore their statistical properties have direct inﬂuence on radar clutter

properties. This is additionally augmented by the eﬀect of low grazing angle. This is due to

the fact that for low grazing angles main contribution to clutter RCS are strong reﬂections

from wave crests which are few in a single range cell.

It is worth noticing, that goodness of ﬁt is much more important in the low probability

of false alarm regions (ie. tails of the distribution that are well described by the third order

moment of PDF). Therefore chi-square goodness of ﬁt test is of limited use [9], since this

kind of test mainly compares general shapes (theoretical and estimated) and is not focused

on the tail of the distribution.

In Fig. 3.4 and 3.5 it is shown Probability of False Alarms (P

fa

) as a function of threshold.

In these ﬁgures we can see probability of false alarm for a given threshold. A choice of the

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 34

Table 3.1 — Diﬀerent clutter distributions [9].

Rayleigh

CDF : P(X) = 1 −exp ¦−

x

2

α

¦ 0 ≤ x ≤ ∞

PDF : p(X) =

2x

α

exp ¦−

x

2

α

¦ 0 ≤ x ≤ ∞

ﬁrst moment: 'x` =

(πα)

1/2

2

third moment: µ

3

= 3(α/2)

3/2

π/2

Weibull

CDF : P(X) = 1 −exp ¦−

x

n

α

¦ 0 ≤ x ≤ ∞

PDF : p(X) = n

x

n−1

α

exp ¦−

x

2

α

¦ 0 ≤ x ≤ ∞

ﬁrst moment: 'x` = α

1/n

Γ(1 +

1

n

)

third moment: µ

3

= α

3/n

Γ(1 + 3/n)

Lognormal

CDF : P(X) = 1 −

1

2

erfc(

ln x−m

α

1/2

) 0 ≤ x ≤ ∞

where erfc is the complementary error function.

PDF : p(X) =

1

x(πα)

1/2

exp¦−

(ln x−m)

2

α

¦ 0 ≤ x ≤ ∞

ﬁrst moment: 'x` = exp(m+

α

4

)

third moment: µ

3

= exp(3m+

9

4

α)

K-distribution

CDF : P(X) = 1 −

2

Γ(ν)

bx

2

ν

K

ν

(bx) 0 ≤ x ≤ ∞

PDF : p(X) =

2b

Γ(ν)

bx

2

ν

K

ν−1

(bx) 0 ≤ x ≤ ∞

where K

ν−1

(z) is the modiﬁed Bessel function of the third kind of order ν

ﬁrst moment: 'x` =

√

π

bΓ(ν)

Γ(ν +

1

2

)

third moment: µ

3

=

Γ(ν+3/2)Γ(1+3/2)

b

3

Γ(ν)

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 35

Figure 3.3 — Sea clutter cross-section against grazing angle proﬁles of X-band in the

upswell and near cross-swell directions [9].

threshold plays an important role in detection scheme (that is not considered in this work).

If we increase threshold we are reducing the number of false alarms, but at the same time we

are reducing probability of detection. From ﬁgures 3.4 and 3.5 it can be seen that the data ﬁt

the K-distribution best in the amplitude region for which the P

fa

is ≤ 0.1 [9]. This is true for

resolutions of order of 15 to 150 m. The same conclusion is conﬁrmed in [8]. This observation

implies, that detectors developed for Rayleigh clutter will not be appropriate in the case of

low grazing angle radars.

For higher resolutions, we can even resolve single wave crest, as it is visible in Fig. 3.6.

Images show power range-time diagrams for X-band 50 cm resolution radar. Wave crests

are traveling toward radar. In such a case, to detect targets it may be reasonable to apply

image processing algorithms rather than classical radar detection methods. Moreover several

furtive ”superevents” are observed by an X band radar. These superevents are due to wave

breaking and generate strong scatterer with high velocity, so they are ”fast scatterers” (see

for example Fig. 3.6). These superevents generate a lot of false alarms (which may lead to

errors in tracking algorithms) and should be processed adaptively.

To deal with non-Gaussianity, it is essential to ﬁnd a mathematical model for this type of

clutter. It can be found (see for example [52]) that theory of Spherically Invariant Random

Process (SIRP) in many situations is an appropriate model for sea clutter. Theory of SIRP

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 36

Figure 3.4 — Comparison of P

fa

characteristics of an X-band, V-polarized sea clutter data

set with those predicted by Rayleigh, Weibull, lognormal and K-models [9]. Range resolution

- 15 m.

can be used as a model for diﬀerent types of clutter (Gaussian, lognormal, K etc..) and have

been exposed in section 2.5. Therefore a new detector presented in chapter 4 is based on

SIRP model.

3.2 Sea clutter characterization in HF band.

In HF radar band, main clutter component is related to Bragg scattering phenomenon. First

description of this type of the clutter can be found in [11]. In the mentioned article, it is

shown that for frequency 13.56 MHz ﬁrst-order Bragg lines have Doppler shifts −0.38 Hz and

0.38 Hz. General formula for Doppler shift is:

∆f =

g

π

1

λ

(3.1)

where g = 9.81m/s

2

and λ is a radio wavelength. This formula means that main clutter

components are more or less constant over look angles of the radar and over diﬀerent ranges.

This comes from the fact, that resonance occurs when λ = 2L (where L denotes sea wave

length) and the speed of the sea wave is related to its length by the formula

v =

g

2π

L (3.2)

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 37

Figure 3.5 — Comparison of P

fa

characteristics of an X-band, V-polarized sea clutter data

set with those predicted by Rayleigh, Weibull, lognormal and K-models [9]. Range resolution

- 150 m.

Figure 3.6 — Power range-time diagrams for VV polarization (a) and HH polarization (b).

Range resolution 50 cm [42].

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 38

This mechanizm is called ﬁrst order Bragg scattering and is responsible for constant Doppler

shift of Bragg lines. However for higher Doppler resolutions other factors play role, and in fact

Bragg lines are changing slightly accross angles and ranges. This is caused by complicated sea

wave dynamics. These eﬀects make target detection more diﬃcult and are the reason to use

STAP. Bragg scattering mechanism is commonly used for sea parameters extraction such as

wave height, currents velocity and direction [5]. More detailed description of such possibilities

can be found in [30] and [29]. Registered signals from WERA system working in Brittany

in France were used to present clutter properties. System description is presented in section

5.1. Results are obtained by beamforming followed by Doppler processing. At the day of data

collection radar was working at frequency around 12 MHz.

In Fig. 3.7 are presented range-Doppler maps for an exemplary beam. Maps are obtained

for diﬀerent integration times and therefore for diﬀerent Doppler resolutions. First map was

obtained for 48 chirps. Single chirp duration is 0.2275 s, therefore integration time in this

case is 10.9 s. Other maps were obtained using 96 chirps (22 s), 256 chirps (59 s) and 512

(117 s) chirps respectively.

We can see, that indeed there are advance and recede Bragg lines at frequencies -0.35 Hz

ans +0.35 Hz as predicted by theory (for 12 MHz carrier frequency). It is visible, that Bragg

lines are present in all range cells until approximately 90 km, where noise level becomes higher

than sea clutter. This is a result of a very low power transmitted by radar, which is at most

30 W. Bragg lines frequencies are constant across all range cells. In the short distance from

radar we can see also land clutter. Comparing images in Fig. 3.7 we can see, that for higher

integration time Bragg lines become very thin. This observation has two consequences. First

one is that ﬁrst-order ocean wave scattering is coherent even for 2 minutes (512 chirps). The

second is that since Bragg lines are very thin in Doppler, having long integration time, may

give us better opportunities to reveal targets whose Doppler frequency is very close to Bragg

line.

In Fig. 3.8 we can see Doppler spectra for range cell number 50, this is 20 km. These

images illustrate how integration time increases inﬂuence Bragg lines thickness.

In the next ﬁgure (3.9) we can see spectra for diﬀerent ranges (20, 40 and 60 km - range cell

number 50, 100 and 150 respectively). Bragg lines are clearly visible for all ranges but there is

a signiﬁcant noise level increase relatively to Bragg lines maximum. It is also clearly visible,

that Bragg lines present constant Doppler across all ranges. Images in Fig. 3.10 illustrate that

structure of the ﬁrst order ocean waves clutter does not change signiﬁcantly across diﬀerent

beams.

Fig. 3.11 illustrates again how clutter is changing across beams. It is clear that though

general clutter structure is not changing, Bragg lines Doppler and power is changing across

diﬀerent azimuths. We can see that Doppler band is changing considerably accross angles.

We also have a slight change in Doppler shift. These are so called second order Bragg eﬀects.

Because of them it is worth to consider using STAP.

Next two ﬁgures (3.12 and 3.13) illustrate that clutter can vary only little in time. We can

see spectra for time shifts 0 s, 11 s, 113 s, 226 s (for 0, 50, 500 and 1000 chirps respectively).

In HF radar band there is also high probability of radio interferences. Interferences can

have diﬀerent sources and properties. For example in Fig. 3.14 we can see an interference

that is relatively weak. It can be seen as a pattern of almost horizontal lines, better visible

in black and white in Fig. 3.15.

Since interference has usually a point source, it is present only in some of beams whereas

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 39

Figure 3.7 — Bragg clutter for diﬀerent integration time (number of chirps processed -

from 48 to 512).

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 40

Figure 3.8 — Bragg clutter for diﬀerent integration time (number of chirps processed -

from 48 to 512), for the selected, 50-th range cell.

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 41

Figure 3.9 — Clutter spectra for diﬀerent ranges (512 chirps integration).

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 42

Figure 3.10 — Range-Doppler maps for diﬀerent beams (512 chirps integration).

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 43

Figure 3.11 — Beam-Doppler images for diﬀerent ranges (512 chirps integration).

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 44

Figure 3.12 — Clutter spectra for diﬀerent starting time of the processing (512 chirps

integration).

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 45

Figure 3.13 — Clutter spectra for diﬀerent starting time of the processing for Range cell

number 50 (512 chirps integration).

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 46

Figure 3.14 — Bragg clutter plus interference (256 chirps integration). Interference is vis-

ible as horizontal lines.

Figure 3.15 — Black and white image of Bragg clutter plus interference (256 chirps inte-

gration). Interference is visible as horizontal lines.

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 47

Figure 3.16 — Range-angle map of directional interference.

in other beams it is not visible.

In ﬁgure 3.16 we can see very strong directional interference. Image presents range-azimuth

map of mean received power. Interference is present for angles between -20 deg to -40 deg.

In Fig. 3.17 we can see range-Doppler map in the beam with interference. See clutter is

completely obscured by interference.

Next ﬁgure (3.18) shows time-range structure of the interference. We can see that this

interference has impulsive nature, which means that its power is changing considerably as a

function of chirp number. This property can be used to suppress the interference.

On the other hand, in HF radar systems usually there is no problem with non-Gaussianity,

because range resolution is very low (a few hundred meters to a few kilometers).

3.3 Conclusions

In this chapter the characteristic properties of the sea sea clutter for two radar bands (X

and HF radar bands) were presented. It was shown, that for both bands, sea clutter can

have two dimensional structure in space-time domain. In X-band this was caused by Doppler

shift of clutter related to wind, currents and waves direction as well as possible interference

present in the data. In HF-band it was caused by joint presence of the ﬁrst and second

order sea clutter (Bragg lines) and interference which is inevitable in this frequency area.

Two dimensional structure of the clutter and interferences is a reason to consider using

STAP technique to improve detection possibilities. This will be veriﬁed later by performing

experiments on real, recorded data. For X-band it turns out additionally, that clutter does not

follow classical Rayleigh distribution, and therefore classical adaptive techniques may lead to

increased number of false alarms. This will also be investigated in the next two chapters. To

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 48

Figure 3.17 — Range-Doppler map oriented toward interference source.

Figure 3.18 — Time-range structure of the interference.

CHAPTER 3. SEA CLUTTER. 49

summarize, we can see that because of:

• Correlated and strong clutter with spread Doppler,

• Clutter that may be nonstationary,

• Impossibility to estimate interference-free clutter and clutter-free interference,

• Lots of parameters to be taken into account,

it is reasonably to consider adaptive (in space and time) methods, such as STAP, although

there are also some other possibilities too. These other methods were not considered in this

work. Among them there is, for example, a method of using passive mode of radar to estimate

interferences [30].

CHAPTER

4

Two Dirac delta

detector.

In this chapter the problem of the detector construction under Non-Gaussianity is addressed.

In section 3.1 it was shown, that sea clutter has statistical properties that deviates from

Gaussian (Rayleigh) case. On the other hand in chapter 2 was presented the GLRT test in

the case of Spherically Invariant Random Process. This detector is capable of dealing with

wide spectrum of non-Gaussian distortions (clutter plus noise) including Weibull, log-normal,

K-distribution and others [52]. There is, however, a problem with its practical use that is

discussed below. In this chapter, I will develop a practical implementation of this detector

named Two Delta Dirac STAP (TDD STAP) detector. First two sections will be devoted to

development of TDD STAP detector. In particular, I discuss the estimation of parameters

used in this nonlinear detector in section 4.2. To evaluate performances of classical STAP

detectors in non-Gaussian clutter, I performed some simulations. Description of simulation

technique is presented in section 4.3. Finally, section 4.4 is devoted to performance evaluation

of diﬀerent STAP algorithms. Receiver Operation Curves (ROC) are presented. In particular,

we discuss the performances of usual STAP and TDD STAP detector under diﬀerent kinds

of noise (Gaussian, non-Gaussian). I will show, that new developed TDD STAP detector

can give some improvements in comparison to classical STAP algorithm in the presence of

non-Gaussian clutter.

It is also worth to pay attention to the work done by Fr´ed´eric Pascal on the same subject

[47].

4.1 Resolving GLRT.

In section 2.6 it was shown, that GLRT detector for SIRP is of the form of test statistics

(2.55):

η =

∞

0

1

τ

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

τ

)dF

τ

(τ)

∞

0

1

τ

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

τ

)dF

τ

(τ)

(4.1)

where

[ρ[

2

=

[S

H

0

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(Y

H

Φ

−1

Y )(S

H

0

Φ

−1

S

0

)

(4.2)

S

0

is the completely known m-dimensional signal vector with magnitude 1, Y is a data vector,

m is a data vector dimension, Φ is a covariance matrix of the distortions, τ is a modulating

scalar and H denotes conjugate transpose.

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 51

Figure 4.1 — Original distribution of τ.

The problem now arises how to estimate all necessary parameters and how to calculate

the integrals in the formula (4.1). To do this we should know the distribution of τ (Fig. 4.1).

This is unrealistic, but we have still some options:

1. Assuming Gaussian clutter simpliﬁcation we put constant τ to achieve solution as in

section 2.6.2 (see Fig. 4.2). For simplicity we prefer to assume τ = 1 that results in

E(τ) = 1 and Φ = E¦X

H

X¦ i.e. classical STAP detector for Gaussian clutter [49].

2. We can employ some kind of approximation as in Fig. 4.3. Approximating distribution

may be some arbitrary distribution (for example Gamma). We may also employ some ex-

pansion approximations, for example Edgeworth. The problem with Edgeworth approx-

imation is that it is based on Gaussian distribution, which spreads from minus inﬁnity

to plus inﬁnity, whereas τ is a positive scalar (pure Gaussian and original distribution

are shown in Fig. 4.4).

In this framework, I postulate to apply some other approximation, that will be simple

enough to implement, and at the same time, it will ﬁt well enough real clutter, to give

performance improvement. This approximation is discussed in the next section.

4.2 Two Dirac Deltas approximation.

Solution, that I proposed in [22], is picturized in Fig. 4.5 and is named Two Dirac Delta

(TDD STAP). In the subsection 4.2.1 I will present a ﬁrst approach in order to introduce the

idea behind the new detector. In the subsection 4.2.2 some improvements are introduced in

order to be more realistic in the noise pdf approximation.

4.2.1 First approach.

I approximate CPDF (Characteristic Probability Distribution Function) by two Dirac deltas.

In the simplest case, both Dirac deltas have equal strength. This solution gives one more

degree of freedom comparing to simple Gaussian clutter case (compare Fig. 4.2 and Fig. 4.5).

We can see, that now instead of a single Dirac delta, there are two Dirac deltas (each one of

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 52

Figure 4.2 — Original distribution of τ and Dirac delta simpliﬁcation.

Figure 4.3 — Original distribution of τ and approximation.

Figure 4.4 — Original distribution of τ and pure Gaussian approximation.

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 53

Figure 4.5 — Original distribution of τ and two Dirac delta simpliﬁcation.

them multiplied by 1/2). One of them is placed in the point a of the τ axis, the other in the

point b (4.5). Selection of a and b is discussed below.

By rewriting (4.1) according to two Dirac delta simpliﬁcation, we obtain:

η =

1/2

1

a

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

a

) +

1

b

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

b

)

1/2

1

a

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

a

) +

1

b

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

b

)

⇔η =

1

a

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

a

) +

1

b

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

b

)

1

a

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

a

) +

1

b

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

b

)

(4.3)

From section 2.5 we have:

E(τ) = 1 (4.4)

having in mind that τ ≥ 0, we can rewrite:

E(τ) =

∞

0

τf(τ)dτ

=

∞

0

τ

1

2

δ(τ −a) +

1

2

δ(τ −b)

dτ

=

1

2

∞

0

τδ(τ −a)dτ +

1

2

∞

0

τδ(τ −b)dτ

=

1

2

a +

1

2

b (4.5)

Therefore using (4.4), we can write:

1

2

a +

1

2

b = 1 ⇔a +b = 2 ⇔a = 2 −b

Now if we have true value of variance V AR(τ) or at least its estimate, then:

V AR(τ) = E(τ

2

) −E

2

(τ) =

1

2

a

2

+

1

2

b

2

−1 (4.6)

⇔

1

2

(2 −b)

2

+

1

2

b

2

−1 −V AR(τ) = 0

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 54

Figure 4.6 — a, b as a function of V AR(τ).

Figure 4.7 — ∆ parameter.

⇔b

2

−2b + 1 −V AR(τ) = 0

this equation has two solutions if V AR(τ) is greater than zero (which is always true):

b

1,2

= 1 ±

V AR(τ)

Keeping in mind, that both a and b must be greater than zero we have restriction for the

variance V AR(τ):

1 −

V AR(τ) > 0

V AR(τ) < 1 (4.7)

In Fig. 4.6 we see how a and b depend on V AR(τ).

To simplify analysis and accordingly (4.5), I introduced additional parameter in place of

a,b. This parameter will be called ∆, and now a = 1 −∆ and b = 1 + ∆ as in Fig. 4.7.

Since now we have one additional degree of freedom by introducing ∆ parameter, we need

a procedure to estimate this additional parameter. I proposed a closed loop procedure shown

in Fig. 4.8 [24].

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 55

Figure 4.8 — ∆ estimation procedure.

Figure 4.9 — Unequal strength Dirac Deltas approximation.

This procedure tries to minimize mean square error between theoretical histogram and

histogram derived from secondary-training data. In the ﬁrst step, from secondary data, covari-

ance matrix is estimated. Having covariance matrix, it is possible to introduce f(τ) (texture),

by the integral in the central part of Fig. 4.8. This integral allows us to obtain theoretical

histogram of samples in our model. This histogram is then compared to the true histogram,

obtained from secondary (training) data. Mean square error between theoretical and true

histogram is used to update ∆ parameter. ∆ is then updated to generate texture in integral,

and theoretical histogram is recalculated. Procedure is repeated until diﬀerence between the-

oretical and true histogram changes insigniﬁcantly. To avoid the problem of local minima,

exhaustive search is used.

4.2.2 Reﬁned approach.

Next step in this reasoning is to introduce not equal strength of Dirac deltas as in Fig. 4.9

[23]. In particular, this approach allows us to break the symmetry of the CPDF and to devote

one Dirac delta to describe the tail of the CPDF which is of great importance as discussed

in section 2.5 and 3.1.

Appropriate automatic procedure to ﬁnd q,a and b is presented in Fig. 4.10.

This time a,b and q are related to each other. Therefore it is necessary to ﬁnd only two

of them. This problem can be transformed to the problem of two dimensional optimization

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 56

Figure 4.10 — q, a and b estimation procedure.

problem. I proposed Downhill Simplex Method to cope with this problem. This is the main

diﬀerence between Fig. 4.8 and Fig. 4.10 .

In order to evaluate behavior of both classical STAP and TDD STAP detectors I per-

formed simulations. Their results are presented in the sections 4.4.3 and 4.4.4.

4.3 Simulations.

To validate algorithms and to evaluate its performances, I generated simulated data. In this

section, simulation technique is described. First subsection describes parameters chosen for

simulations. In subsection 4.3.2 reader can ﬁnd a description of target simulation. Subsection

4.3.3 is devoted to noise simulation.

4.3.1 Simulation parameters.

In order to perform simulations, it is necessary to choose some parameter set. This parameters

set should be appropriate to the state of the art in radar technology and have been introduced

in section 2.1. I have chosen to simulate airborne system, for which non-Gaussianity may occur

when detecting targets on the sea surface. Airborne radar systems are supposed to be the

primary application of STAP technique [38].

This subsection describes process of choosing the parameter set. Some of the parameters

where taken from a well known DLR system E-SAR :

Carrier center frequency f

c

= 9.6 GHz

Transmit power P = 2500 W

Pulse bandwidth B = 100 MHz

Azimuth beamwidth Φ = 17

o

Elevation beamwidth Θ = 30

o

Platform Velocity V

p

= 90

m

s

Geometry of the system is presented in Fig. 4.11 and Fig. 4.12. Having carrier frequency

it is possible to calculate wavelength:

λ =

c

f

c

= 3 cm

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 57

Figure 4.11 — Vertical situation.

Figure 4.12 — Earth plane geometry.

Minimum range can be calculated from the formula (approximately, assuming azimuth an-

gle=0):

R

min

= H tan

ξ −

Θ

2

R

max

= H tan

ξ +

Θ

2

Range resolution R

resolution

is determined by the pulse bandwidth B:

R

resolution

=

c

2B

= 1.5 m

where c is the electromagnetic wave speed. Azimuth beamwidth is related to the antenna size

L

a

by equation:

λ

L

a

= Φ =

17

o

180

o

π ≈ 0.3

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 58

Figure 4.13 — Antenna array.

Figure 4.14 — Azimuth angle ambiguity.

so:

L

a

≈ 10 cm

For STAP a linear antenna array parallel to the ﬂight axis as in Fig. 4.13 is often assumed.

In classical conﬁguration for STAP, array elements spacing d is equal

λ

2

[37], in this case

1.5 cm. This is technically diﬃcult to achieve, because single antenna is approximately 10 cm

long. Therefore here, spacing d = 10 cm is assumed. In order to avoid angle ambiguity, it is

necessary to calculate ambiguous angle β. This can be done using geometry presented in Fig.

4.14. Ambiguous angle β is deﬁned by the situation where a is equal λ. Therefore:

cos α =

λ

L

a

=

3

10

= 0.3

so:

α ≈ 73

o

and:

β = 90

o

−α ≈ 17

o

Next parameter to be set is PRF. Let PRF be 4 kHz (for E-SAR it was 1.2 kHz). Now it

is necessary to check range and velocity ambiguity. For range ambiguity, let the maximum

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 59

Figure 4.15 — Triangle of velocities.

range R

max

= 30 km. PRF has to be set in accordance with the condition:

PRF <

c

2R

max

= 5 kHz

Second condition concerns velocity ambiguity. First it is necessary to calculate maximum

radial velocity from the ground. This will occur at the maximum range at the edge of the

beam (see Fig. 4.15). Resolving triangle of velocities:

V

r

max

= V

p

cos(90

o

−

Φ

2

) = 90 0.147 = 13.3

m

s

Additionally some moving targets can be expected. Let the additional radial movement of

the target be limited to 10

m

s

. Overall radial velocity is therefore V

r

max sum

= 24

m

s

. It is now

possible to calculate Doppler shift:

f

D

=

2V

r

max sum

λ

=

2 24

0.03

= 1.6kHz

PRF should be twice the Doppler shift, therefore PRF

min

= 3.2 kHz. Last parameter to be

set is dwelling time. Dwelling time determines Doppler resolution which determines veloc-

ity resolution. Let us assume velocity resolution equal 0.1

m

s

. Therefore Doppler resolution

f

Dresolution

should be:

f

Dresolution

=

2 0.1

λ

=

0.2

0.03

≈ 6Hz

Dwelling time is given by the formula:

T

DWELL

=

1

f

Dresolution

= 1/6 s

Finally, range migration problem should be faced. T

DWELL

= 1/6 s gives (assuming 24

m

s

radial velocity) 4 m of range migration which is more than range resolution cell (1.5m). To

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 60

Figure 4.16 — Radar and target geometry.

resolve this problem, dwelling time reduction can be applied. Considering only 0.5

m

s

velocity

resolution gives:

f

Dresolution

=

2 0.5

λ

=

1

0.03

≈ 33Hz

therefore:

T

DWELL

=

1

f

Dresolution

= 0.03 s

Now range migration becomes:

R

migration

= 24 0.03 ≈ 0.75m

which is less than range resolution cell.

4.3.2 Target Simulations.

To evaluate probability of detection versus probability of false alarm, I injected target echo

into clutter data. This section describes methodology that was used to do this.

Simulations were based on the backscattered energy given in [45]. Geometry of the radar

platform and the target is shown in Fig. 4.16.

The result of simulations should be a complex data cube:

Data(n, l, k)

where n is a pulse index l is an antenna index and k is range cell index (see section 2.2.5).

For a single target, formula for data cube is given by:

Data(n, l, k) = KP(n) σ

n

e

jφ

f(k −

X

n

Rresolution

) AZ(n) Ant(l, n) (4.8)

where

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 61

• KP(n) is radar equation,

• σ

n

is a RCS,

• e

jφ

is a random unknown phase,

• f(k −

X

n

Rresolution

) is a range gate factor,

• AZ(n) is a modulation function,

• Ant(l, n) is factor related to an antenna array element.

In order to calculate all elements of the data cube equation it is necessary to perform pre-

liminary geometrical calculations. After this step, vectors describing positions and relative

angles of the target as well as the radar platform in subsequent moments deﬁned by the PRF,

will be available. In order to achieve this, some radar and target movement models must be

adopted. Let radar platform be ﬂying along Y axis at the speed V

p

. Let us assume that, in

the moment t=0 (reception of the ﬁrst pulse), radar platform position be Y=0. Let us assume

following model for the target movement:

X(t) = X

0

+V

t

t (4.9)

Y (t) = Y

0

(4.10)

Z(t) = Z

0

= 0 (4.11)

Having this information it is possible to calculate slant range to the target (see Fig. 4.16):

R(t) =

X(t)

2

+ (Y (t) −V

p

t)

2

+H

2

We can also simply calculate angles using formulas

tan(ϕ(t)) =

Y (t) −V

p

t

X(t)

tan(α(t)) =

X(t)

H

θ(t) =

π

2

−χ(t)

where (see Fig. 4.17):

tan χ(t) =

Y (t) −V

p

t

H

2

+X(t)

2

We should evaluate above formulas in moments deﬁned by the reception of subsequent

backscattered pulses from the target. Assuming that t

0

= 0, these moments can be calculated

from PRF:

t

n

=

n

PRF

where n is a pulse number starting from 0.

Having all this information, we can now calculate data cube evaluating each term in the

equation (4.8).

• KP(n) - In the simplest case is constant from pulse to pulse (which means, that R

changes only slightly in radar equation during dwelling time). KP(n) also reﬂects an-

tenna elevation and azimuth pattern. In simulations, we adopted KP(n) = G(ϕ

n

, α

n

),

where pattern G(ϕ, α) in azimuth and elevation is shown in Fig. 4.18.

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 62

Figure 4.17 — θ and χ.

Figure 4.18 — Single antenna azimuth G(ϕ) (left) and elevation G(α) (right) pattern.

• σ

n

- We can assume Swerling II model for example [39], assuming some mean RCS σ.

Then for each pulse (n) we should choose a random RCS using PDF:

p(σ

n

) =

1

σ

e

−

σ

n

σ

The phase is however coherent within CPI.

• e

jφ

- This is an unknown initial phase of the target signal. We can assume e

jφ

= 1

without loss of generality.

• f(k −

R

n

Rresolution

) is function giving range cell response for the target at a distance R

n

.

In the simplest case we can assume rectangular function as shown in Fig. 4.19

• AZ(n) - is a modulating function of the form

AZ(n) = e

−j

4πR

n

λ

• Ant(l, n) is additional phase advance as a result of the antenna elements displacement.

Ant(l, n) = e

−j2πl

d

λ

cos(θ

n

)

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 63

Figure 4.19 — f function of range cell response.

4.3.3 Additive Noise.

In order to simulate the data close to the real one, we add noise and clutter to our target data.

This is done using procedure from [49]. More detailed explanations are presented in Appendix

B. This allows us to add Gaussian or non-Gaussian, white or colored noise according to our

needs. In this work three types of noise were used. First type is a classical Gaussian noise.

This noise occurs for low resolution radars, where many scatterers contribute to overall RCS.

This is typical situation for airborne radars at high grazing angles. This noise can be viewed

as a noise with Dirac Delta as a characteristic PDF (see section 2.5) of SIRP (as in Fig.

4.2). The second type is TDD noise. This is a noise generated using two Dirac deltas as a

characteristic PDF (two Dirac deltas in Fig. 4.7). This is an academic example, that will

show how TDD STAP will perform with the same kind of (TDD) of noise. Finally the most

interesting is the case (among these tested in this work) where characteristic PDF is chosen

to obtain K-distributed noise. This kind of noise can occur for high resolution radars on

the sea surface or for radars with low grazing angle. In order to achieve this kind of noise,

characteristic PDF must be of the form [49]:

f(τ) =

2b

Γ(ν)2

ν

(bτ)

2ν−1

exp

−

b

2

τ

2

2

u(τ) (4.12)

where Γ(ν) is a gamma function, b and ν are parameters of K-distribution, and u(τ) is a

unit step function. Covariance marix can also be randomized. Problem of Covariance matrix

structure is separable from the problem of non-Gaussianity as a result of employing SIRP.

After this step we have data, that can be used as an input for a STAP processor. Examples

of results after performing STAP processing are shown in Fig. 4.20-4.22. In ﬁgures 4.20-4.22

white covariance matrix is adopted for the purpose of technique demonstration. Last two

ﬁgures present results for the same SNR

1

.

Results were generated under the following assumptions:

1

SNR is a Signal to Noise Ratio deﬁned as SNR = log

10

(

P

signal

P

noise

), where P

signal

is a signal power, and P

noise

is noise power. In practice, after quadrature receiver, if s denotes signal column vector, and x denotes noise

column vector, we use formula SNR =

s

H

s

x

H

x

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 64

Figure 4.20 — STAP result on target signal without noise (test statistics intensity image).

Figure 4.21 — STAP result on target signal with Gaussian noise (test statistics intensity

image).

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 65

Figure 4.22 — STAP result on target signal with non-Gaussian, K-distributed (test statis-

tics intensity image).

X0 = 7000 m

Y 0 = 500 m

V

t

= 4 m/s

PRF = 4000 Hz

V

p

= 90 m/s

L = 16

N = 120

STAP test was performed for discrete velocities [−15 m/s,15 m/s,0.5 m/s ] and azimuth angles

[ −8.5

o

,8.5

o

,0.5

o

].

4.4 Results.

On the basis of simulation experiments I was able to compare diﬀerent processing algorithms.

In the ﬁrst subsection I will show, that classical STAP performance becomes worse under non-

Gaussian conditions. As a result of computer precision limitations, TDD STAP detector has

to be slightly modiﬁed, which will be presented in section 4.4.2. In section 4.4.3 I will present

comparison between classical STAP and TDD STAP for a priori chosen ∆, and in section

4.4.4, similar comparison for automatic ∆ ﬁnding procedure.

4.4.1 Classical STAP detection performance evaluation.

In order to evaluate inﬂuence of non-Gaussianity, I performed some tests. Single target signal

was generated using procedure described in section 4.3. This signal was used in all tests. For

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 66

diﬀerent SNRs, Gaussian and non-Gaussian Noise was generated independently 300 times.

300 was chosen to achieve reasonably high (eg.10) number of false alarms. However sometimes

number of repetitions was considerably higher. For each noise trial, classical STAP test was

performed using diﬀerent thresholds. Classical STAP test (2.14) was performed independently

on Gaussian noise, signal plus Gaussian noise, non-Gaussian noise, signal plus non-Gaussian

noise. Non-Gaussianity was introduced by K-distribution (ν = 2, b = 2 in 4.12) for real

and imaginary samples with unit covariance matrix. False alarms were counted for each trial

based on number of target reports in pure noise (without target signal). Therefore we can

calculate average number of false alarms per STAP image for diﬀerent SNR’s and thresholds,

independently for Gaussian noise and for non-Gaussian noise. If number of targets reported

in signal plus noise was greater than number of target reported in noise only, we assumed

successful detection. This procedure allows us to obtain probability of detection for diﬀerent

SNR’s and thresholds for Gaussian and non-Gaussian cases. Other parameters of simulations

are presented below:

X0 = 7000 m

Y 0 = 500 m

V

t

= 4 m/s

PRF = 4000 Hz

V

p

= 90 m/s

L = 8

N = 30

Classical STAP test was performed for discrete velocities [−15 m/s,15 m/s,1 m/s ] and

azimuth angles [ −8.5

o

,8.5

o

,1

o

]. Too low resolution in tests (test grid too sparse) may lead

to some performance deterioration as a result of a mismatch between the true steering vector

and its surrogate from the grid (see section 2.2.5).

In Fig. 4.23 we can see Receiver Operating Curves. Vertical axis denotes Probability of

Detection (PD) and horizontal axis denotes mean number of False Alarms (FA) per single

range cell. For the same PD the aim is to have the lowest possible mean number of FA. We

can see that mean number of FA is higher for non-Gaussian case (having the same PD) in

which the characteristics are shifted to the right (higher mean number of FA). This is true for

any SNR. In Fig. 4.24 we can see, that SNR does not inﬂuence number of false alarms (CFAR

property), although number of false alarms increases for non-Gaussian case (characteristics

shifted up, toward higher mean number of FA). Pattern is similar for diﬀerent thresholds as

a result of using the same target and noise signals.

4.4.2 Numerical simpliﬁcations for TDD STAP.

As a result of a ﬁnite computer calculation precision, Two Dirac Deltas (TDD STAP) de-

tector presented in section 4.2 needs to be reformulated for practical implementation. In this

subsection, I will show modiﬁcations that will be used to implement TDD STAP detector in

Matlab environment.

In section 4.2 Two Dirac Deltas (TDD STAP) detector (4.3) was presented in the form :

η =

1

a

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

a

) +

1

b

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

b

)

1

a

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

a

) +

1

b

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

b

)

(4.13)

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 67

Figure 4.23 — Probability of detection (PD) as a function of mean number of false alarms

per STAP picture (FA number) for diﬀerent SNR’s for Gaussian and non-Gaussian case.

where

[ρ[

2

=

[S

H

0

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(Y

H

Φ

−1

Y )(S

H

0

Φ

−1

S

0

)

(4.14)

I will use the following transformation:

1

a

m

exp(−

X

a

) +

1

b

m

exp(−

X

b

)

=

1

a

m

exp(−

X

a

)

1 +

a

m

b

m

exp(−

X

b

)

exp(−

X

a

)

=

1

a

m

exp(−

X

a

)

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp(−

X

b

+

X

a

)

=

1

a

m

exp(−

X

a

)

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −X(

1

b

−

1

a

))

**Let me rewrite test statistics according to the above transformation:
**

η =

1

a

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

a

)

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

))

1

a

m

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

a

)

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (

1

b

−

1

a

))

(4.15)

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 68

Figure 4.24 — Number of false alarms (FA number) as a function of SNR for diﬀerent

thresholds (Thr).

canceling

1

a

m

:

η =

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1−|ρ|

2

)

a

)

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

))

exp(−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

a

)

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (

1

b

−

1

a

))

(4.16)

The logarithm of expression (4.16) is given by:

ln(η) =

¸

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)

a

¸

(4.17)

+ln

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

))

−

¸

−

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y

a

¸

−ln

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (

1

b

−

1

a

))

=

¸

Y

H

Φ

−1

Y −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y +Y

H

Φ

−1

Y [ρ[

2

a

¸

+ln

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

))

**CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 69
**

−ln

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (

1

b

−

1

a

))

=

[S

H

Φ

−1

Y [

2

a(S

H

Φ

−1

S)

+ln

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

))

−ln

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (

1

b

−

1

a

))

If −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

) in the nominator of (4.16) is much higher than some value,

depending on the numerical precision (for example 400 in Matlab), we should use approxi-

mation neglecting 1 in:

ln

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

))

(4.18)

≈ ln

(

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

))

= ln (

a

b

)

m

−Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

)

Similarly with the denominator.

ln

1 + (

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (

1

b

−

1

a

))

(4.19)

≈ ln

(

a

b

)

m

exp ( −Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (

1

b

−

1

a

))

= ln (

a

b

)

m

−Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (

1

b

−

1

a

)

Remark

Below I will show, that if we apply two approximations at the same time (for nomi-

nator and denominator), we obtain classical STAP ﬁlter.

ln(η) =

[S

H

Φ

−1

Y [

2

a(S

H

Φ

−1

S)

+ln (

a

b

)

m

−Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

)

−ln (

a

b

)

m

+Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (

1

b

−

1

a

)

ln(η) =

[S

H

Φ

−1

Y [

2

a(S

H

Φ

−1

S)

−Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (1 −[ρ[

2

)(

1

b

−

1

a

)

+Y

H

Φ

−1

Y (

1

b

−

1

a

)

=

[S

H

Φ

−1

Y [

2

a(S

H

Φ

−1

S)

+Y

H

Φ

−1

Y [ρ[

2

(

1

b

−

1

a

)

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 70

=

1

a

[S

H

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(S

H

Φ

−1

S)

+

1

b

[S

H

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(S

H

Φ

−1

S)

−

1

a

[S

H

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(S

H

Φ

−1

S)

=

1

b

[S

H

Φ

−1

Y [

2

(S

H

Φ

−1

S)

In this case, there is no advantage using TDD STAP detector in comparison with classical

STAP (TDD STAP is equal to classical STAP). Therefore I postulate to use approximations

according to the needs (appropriate procedure should chose simpliﬁcation only when neces-

sary). This procedure was used in practical implementation of TDD STAP detector. I used

approximation when exponential of nominator or denominator in 4.16 was higher than 400.

4.4.3 Comparison of classical STAP and TDD STAP for ﬁxed ∆ parameter.

I performed comparisons using method described in section 4.4.1. In the ﬁrst result, the value

of ∆ was not estimated but chosen a priori in order to estimate the discrepancies when ∆ is

poorly estimated. These results were already presented in [22].

In ﬁrst experiments, Non-Gaussianity was introduced by TDD noise. This means that

CPDF (for SRIP) adopted in noise generation algorithm follows TDD distribution. More

precisely (see section 4.3.3):

f(τ) =

1

2

δ(t −a) +

1

2

δ(t −b)

In Fig. 4.25 we can see Probability of Detection (PD) as a function of mean Number of

False Alarms (NFA) for diﬀerent choice of spread parameter ∆.

• If ∆ approaches 0 or 1, then TDD STAP detector behaves exactly as classical STAP

detector. This is not surprising since for ∆ = 0 or ∆ = 1 expressions for TDD STAP

reduce to classical STAP formula.

• For some values of ∆ parameters (eg. 0.4 or 0.5), newly developed TDD STAP detector

has a better performance than classical STAP.

• Unfortunately for badly chosen ∆ (eg. 0.7) TDD STAP performance is even worse than

classical STAP.

Similar experiments were performed for K-distributed (ν = 2 and b = 2) noise. This time

in noise generation scheme (see section 4.3.3) the function f(τ) takes on the form:

f(τ) =

2b

Γ(ν)2

ν

(bτ)

2ν−1

exp

−

b

2

τ

2

2

u(τ)

where Γ(ν) is a gamma function, b and ν are parameters of K-distribution, and u(τ) is a unit

step function.

Results are presented in Fig. 4.26. Again we can see, that there is some performance

improvement in comparison to classical STAP.

• If ∆ approaches 0 or 1, then TDD STAP detector behaves exactly like classical STAP

detector.

• When ∆ is appropriately chosen (eg. 0.3 or 0.4), TDD STAP detector has better perfor-

mance than classical STAP.

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 71

Figure 4.25 — Probability of Detection (PD) as a function of mean Number of False

Alarms (NFA) for TDD STAP detector in the presence of Gaussian and TDD noise for

diﬀerent values of ∆.

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 72

Figure 4.26 — Probability of Detection (PD) as a function of mean Number of False

Alarms (NFA) for TDD STAP detector in the presence of Gaussian and K-distributed noise

for diﬀerent values of ∆.

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 73

• If ∆ is badly chosen (∆ = 0.7) than TDD STAP performance is worse than classical

STAP.

To conclude it can be seen, that improvement is possible, but automatic procedures are

necessary to ﬁnd ∆ parameter, as discussed in section 4.2. It the parameter is poorly estimated

results are much worse.

4.4.4 Results for TDD STAP detector with automatic ∆ ﬁnding.

As it was shown previously, it is necessary to appropriately choose ∆ parameter. In order to

do this I postulate to employ method presented in Fig. 4.8 and 4.10. Results of this approach

were already published in [23] and [24].

In Fig. 4.27 we can see results of automatic ∆ ﬁnding under assumption, that deltas

strength is equal (see Fig. 4.7) and noise is generated using TDD as a characteristic PDF

(see section 2.5 and 4.3.3). Automatic procedure properly choses the ∆ parameter, and there

is an improvement in detector performance. In this case detector is appropriately chosen for

the noise in the framework of SIRP theory. Real CPDF is exactly the same as CPDF assumed

in TDD STAP detector. We cannot have better detector in this model.

Situation is diﬀerent if we use other type of noise. In such a case, TDD STAP detector is

only an approximation of a real GLRT detector. In Fig. 4.28 similar results are presented for

the K-distributed noise. We can see again some slight improvement of TDD STAP detector

in comparison to classical STAP. This time however we can expect, that there exists better

detector than TDD STAP. This is due to the fact, that in this case real CPDF is continuous,

and in TDD STAP, I assume discrete CPDF. Nevertheless, TDD STAP detector proves, to

be better than classical STAP, and there is a possibility for further improvement. This can

be achieved by better approximating CPDF.

The last ﬁgure (4.29) presents results of automatic a, b and q ﬁnding for K-distributed

noise and unequal Dirac deltas as described in section 4.2 and depicted in Fig. 4.10. We can

see that in comparison to Fig. 4.28 there is a slight improvement. This is due to the better

approximation of real CPDF of SIRP by unequal-strength deltas than by equal deltas, as a

result of additional degree of freedom. Having two Dirac deltas with unequal strength we can

better approximate distributions with skewness. In such a case, Dirac delta placed in point

a (see Fig. 4.9) should be stronger than the other (in point b). This way it is possible to

better approximate skewed distributions. In fact, because τ is greater than 0 and potentially

continuous and unlimited, all considered distributions (CPDFs) will be skewed.

Following this path we can expect further improvement when using for example more

Dirac-deltas. Advantage of having additional degree of freedom can be outweighted by the

necessity of estimating more parameters. This can be diﬃcult to perform, and poorly esti-

mated parameters can lead to detection losses.

For high probabilities of detection we can see, that behavior of TDD STAP is slightly

worse than classical STAP. Nevertheless this is in the area of high probabilities of false

alarms (mean number of false alarms per image more than 1). Usually radars are working in

areas with lower levels of false alarms. As a conclusion we can say that automatic procedure,

presented in section 4.2, works well.

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 74

Figure 4.27 — Automatic ∆ ﬁnding for TDD noise.

Figure 4.28 — Automatic ∆ ﬁnding for K-distributed noise.

CHAPTER 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 75

Figure 4.29 — Automatic q, a and b ﬁnding for K-distributed noise.

4.5 Conclusions.

In this chapter I have presented a concept of TDD STAP detector. This detector can better

ﬁt sea clutter than traditional STAP algorithm. In chapter 3 we have seen, that sea clutter

has diﬀerent statistical properties than those assumed in classical STAP detection schema.

Therefore GLRT from section 2.6 was employed. I resolved the problem with its practical

use in section 4.2 (this chapter). In next sections, simulation method was presented, that was

later used in evaluating TDD STAP detector performance. In section 4.4.1 it was shown, that

there is a performance decrease when classical STAP algorithm is working in non-Gaussian

environment. The use of TDD STAP detector can bring some improvements, which was shown

in section 4.4.3. However this improvement can be outweighted by badly chosen ∆ parameter.

Therefore in section 4.4.4, I postulated an automatic procedure. It is clear that automated

procedures can deal with the problem, and there is a performance improvement clearly visible

in characteristics presented in ﬁgures.

The future improvement in this area seems possible. We can imagine more Dirac-deltas

as a better approximation of characteristic PDF (under the limitations discussed in section

4.4.4). This can lead to better detectors, able to deal with a larger class of non-Gaussianity.

CHAPTER

5

HF radar signals

experiments and STAP

technique modiﬁcations.

High Frequency (HF) radar systems, which operate in frequency range between 3 and 30

MHz, have a potential to detect targets which are located beyond optical horizon on the

sea surface (Over The Horizon visibility - OTH). Therefore, in recent years, more and more

attention has been paid to such a systems in the context of the ship traﬃc surveillance in the

Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), that was established by United Nations Convention on the

Law of the Sea in 1982. Such a trials were already undertaken and described for example in

[1] [13] [18] [19] [15] [16] [17] [14] [26]. In this chapter experiments, concerning real data from

HF radar system WERA, will be described. In particular two techniques will be presented.

First one is AMTI (purely temporal adaptive ﬁltering), and the second is STAP that has

been theoretically described in section 2.2. The aim of the chapter is to present the problem

and the solution to non-stationarity. Comparison between AMTI and STAP is of secondary

importance. In the case of HF radar, there is no problem with non-Gaussianity. On the other

hand there is a problem with strong clutter and interference as was emphasized in section

3.2. It will be shown what new problems are to be faced in real-data implementation. Because

of the diﬃculties with covariance matrix estimation (see sec 2.2.6), sometimes it is possible

to obtain better results using Adaptive MTI. Because of these practical problems, classical

algorithms must be adapted, which will be also shown in this chapter. In the section 5.1 I will

introduce WERA radar system that was used in experiments. WERA system was designed

to operate as an oceanographics system, therefore this application will also be described in

the same section. Sections 5.2 will show how AMTI and STAP algorithm must be adapted to

WERA radar system design. Finally, in section 5.3 results of traﬃc survey will be presented.

5.1 WERA radar system.

Data were collected from the WERA [30] [29] HF radar system. Installation that was used

in experiments is a property of the French Service Hydrographique et Oc´eanographique de la

Marine (SHOM) and is operated by the company SAS ActiMar. System’s primary task is to

provide real-time, continuous data collection about currents and waves in the area of Brest

Gulf (Atlantic, west coast of France). In order to have unambiguous vectorial information of

the currents, full system consists of two radars displaced approximately 50 km apart (see Fig.

5.1).

Each radar consists of 16 line-aligned receiving antennas separated by approximately

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 77

Figure 5.1 — Radars displacement (Google Earth).

Figure 5.2 — Receiving antenna array.

9.3 m (Fig. 5.2). Transmitting array consists of 4, square arranged, antennas (Fig. 5.3).

Signals from receiving antennas are independently sampled for digital beamforming and

storage for oﬀ-line processing. Transmitted waveform is FMCW, therefore it is necessary

to perform preprocessing in range to obtain data equivalent to pulsed systems described in

section 2.2.5. This is necessary to apply algorithm like AMTI or STAP (see section 2.2). To

achieve this goal, signal must be demodulated. The next step is to apply appropriate low pass

ﬁlter. Signal must be then sampled with Nyquist frequency. Such raw data have to be range

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 78

Figure 5.3 — Transmitting antenna array.

processed. In the case of frequency modulated signals this means simply to perform Fast

Fourier Transform (FFT). After this operation the data can be presented as a complex data

cube (Fig. 2.19 in section 2.2.5) appropriate for AMTI or STAP processing. More detailed

explanation can be found in Appendix C. WERA chirp duration can vary from 0.2275 s to

0.26 s. Carrier frequency of the system is around 12 MHz. Bandwidth is set independently to

achieve desired range resolution (from 0.4 km to 1.5 km). Data ﬁle consists of complex samples

taken from 2048 coherent chirps (532.48 s) for 120 to 256 range cells by 16 separate channels

of array antenna. The number of range cells depends on the range resolution. For example for

0.4 km of range resolution, data ﬁle consists of 240 range cells which gives maximum range 96

km. For 1.2 km of range resolution, data are taken for 120 range cells, which gives maximum

range 144 km.

This conﬁguration allows to cover area presented in Fig. 5.4 (for the 96 km maximum

range mode).

Data used in experiments for target detection were collected in July 2007. Additionally,

it was possible to obtain Automatic Identiﬁcation System (AIS) data, concerning ship traﬃc

around Brest Gulf. From AIS data it was possible to obtain information about trajectories

of certain ships together with additional information e.g. MMSI number, IMO number, ship

length, draft etc (see Fig. 5.5). AIS data allowed to compare HF detections against the true

data.

HF radar systems have a long history as an ocean monitoring systems. They proved to be

capable of extracting currents speed and direction as well as sea state and wind information.

Bragg scattering from ocean waves (ﬁrst described in [11]) plays a crucial role in this process.

Possibility of employing HF radar system to ocean monitoring is presented in more detail for

example in [5] [40] [30] [29].

WERA radar system was designed for the same purpose. In the ﬁrst stage of its processing

it uses classical beamforming and Doppler processing (by Fast Fourier Transform - FFT).

Beamforming uses 16 signals from diﬀerent antennas. The next step is Doppler processing.

Doppler processing is performed in a little bit complicated manner. At the beginning 13

spectra are calculated, each using overlapping sets of 512 samples (chirps). Chirps used to

calculate each spectrum are accordingly: number 1-512, 129-640, 257-768, ... , 1537-2048.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 79

Figure 5.4 — Coverage area of radars.

Figure 5.5 — AIS trajectories.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 80

Figure 5.6 — Single subband after beam-Doppler processing.

After this operation all 13 spectra are incoherently added (ie. summation of the magnitude)

in order to obtain 512 Doppler bands. A typical X-Y image of an area surveilled by the radar

for a single Doppler band is presented in Fig. 5.6.

After appropriate analysis, it is possible to obtain oceanographical information. In Fig.

5.7 we can see current map obtain from WERA system. Fig. 5.8 presents waves map and Fig.

5.9 wind information.

5.2 Implementation of Adaptive MTI and STAP - covariance

matrix estimation problem.

In this section, the application of Adaptive MTI and STAP processing to WERA radar data

will be described. The main problem of both techniques is to estimate covariance matrix.

Usually covariance matrix is calculated using auxiliary range cells. Unfortunately for WERA

radar system overall number of range cells is at most 256. The ﬁrst step for both techniques

is data trim. From the 2048 chirps in data ﬁle, only J chirps of interest are chosen for further

processing (see Fig. 5.10). Number of chirps J is chosen in order to operate on data more

eﬀectively and is not important from theoretical point of view. From this point data for AMTI

and STAP are processed diﬀerently.

5.2.1 Adaptive MTI implementation

The theoretical description of AMTI can be found in section 2.2.4). The ﬁrst step of AMTI

is beamforming (Fig. 2.20 in section 2.2.4).

Beamforming is performed using 16 antennas for discrete angles [−60

o

,+60

o

,2

o

] (Fig.

5.11).

After this step data are available as a cube with 61 beams instead of 16 antennas (Fig.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 81

Figure 5.7 — Current map (ActiMar).

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 82

Figure 5.8 — Waves map (ActiMar).

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 83

Figure 5.9 — Wind map (ActiMar).

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 84

Figure 5.10 — Data trim.

Figure 5.11 — Angle Coverage.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 85

Figure 5.12 — Data snapshot.

Figure 5.13 — Test snapshot and training area.

2.20 and 2.21). For each range-beam cell, adaptive ﬁlter is calculated as described in section

2.2.4. Sample covariance matrix was calculated using auxiliary snapshots of the same beam.

Since in WERA there are at most 256 range cells I decided to use time spread of the data

to estimate covariance matrix. In Fig. 5.13 we can see test snapshot and area that auxiliary

snapshots were taken from. Auxiliary snapshots were taken by sliding snapshot window over

chirps and ranges in the test area. Training areas were separated in range from test snapshot

by guard cells. This prevents target self-nulling. Steering was performed for discrete velocities

[−10 m/s,+10 m/s,0.2 m/s].

After such a processing, results are available in the form of the test statistics cube (range

velocity angle). It is not possible to present it directly. It is necessary to cut this cube across

one dimension. In Fig. 5.14 we can see example of a target visible after AMTI processing.

Test statistic is presented as an image for the speciﬁc range. 6 images present target that is

moving away from the radar, this is why echo is present in diﬀerent range cells. Processing

was performed using 48 chirps (N=48).

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 86

Figure 5.14 — Example of a target visible after AMTI processing.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 87

Figure 5.15 — Test snapshot and training area for STAP processing.

5.2.2 STAP implementation.

Fully adaptive STAP is operating on data before beamforming (suboptimum techniques were

not considered in this work), but after data trim (Fig. 5.10). STAP algorithm is applied to

each range cell separately to obtain test statistics as in section 2.2.5 - see equation (2.14).

Covariance matrix must be calculated from secondary (training) data. Clutter covariance

matrix was estimated using similar schema as for AMTI. In comparison to AMTI, STAP has

a potential to suppress clutter and interference at the same time. When interference cannot be

estimated independently from the clutter (because of coupling azimuth-Doppler), adaptive

single-domain methods may perform poorly and joint domain (space and time) adaptive

processing may be advantageous [18]. However this eﬀect can be outweighted by the problem

of covariance matrix estimation. Classical schema for estimating covariance matrix fails to

work because in WERA system there are at most 256 range cells whereas in the case of STAP

processing it is necessary to estimate covariance matrix of a very high dimension (eg. 1600

1600 in the case of STAP for 16 antennas and 100 chirps). Therefore it is necessary to ﬁnd

more auxiliary snapshots. I decided (similarly as for AMTI) to use time spread of the data

to obtain more snapshots. I use overlapping sliding snapshots.

In Fig. 5.15 we can see test snapshot, training snapshot and training areas in the data

cube (compare with Fig. 5.13). After STAP processing, the test statistics is available in the

same form as for AMTI (test statistics cube: range velocity angle).

For both techniques there is possibility to chose certain parameters of covariance matrix

estimation. First one is the number of guard cells. Guard cells are necessary to avoid target

self-nulling. Usually 2 or 3 guard cells on both sides of test cell is suﬃcient to avoid this eﬀect.

The next parameter to chose is range spread. Covariance matrix converges with increasing

number of auxiliary range cells. Unfortunately there is also a risk of clutter non-homogeneity.

Moreover having wide range-spread means high probability of other targets falling into clutter

covariance estimation area. The last parameter is time spread. Extending time spread allows

us to estimate covariance matrix in the situation, when there is not enough range cells to

do this. Unfortunately covariance matrix estimate converges slowly with extending time-

spread. Moreover there is a risk of clutter non-stationarity that will degrade covariance matrix

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 88

Figure 5.16 — Targets localization.

estimation.

We can see that playing with these three parameters may be a crucial problem in appli-

cation both AMTI and STAP. Results of such experiments will be shown in next sections of

this chapter.

5.3 Comparisons between the results of AMTI and STAP

In this section I will compare AMTI and STAP techniques. It will be shown how both algo-

rithms can cope with the interference and clutter in order to reveal targets.

5.3.1 Data ﬁle and target description.

In experiments two data ﬁles from 19 July 2007 were used. One ﬁle contains recording from

Brezzelec site and the other from Garchine. Recording started at 05:20 UTC and its duration

was almost 8 min (2048 chirps, single chirp duration 0.2275 s). Bandwidth was set 375 MHz,

which gave range resolution 0.4 km. Transmitted power was 30 W. Files contain samples for

240 range cells, which gave maximum range 96 km. Signiﬁcant wave height at the moment

of data collection was approximately 1.3 m.

From AIS data I chose two interesting potential targets shown in Fig. 5.16. EERLAND 26

is a small tug ship 25 m long (Fig. 5.17), L’AR VOALEDEN is a ﬁshery boat 23 m long (Fig.

5.18). We will compare AMTI and STAP techniques for both targets and both localizations

(Garchine and Brezzelec).

In Fig. 5.19 we can see Garchine data ﬁle after classical beamforming. We can see a strong

radio interference from the same direction as ﬁshery boat. This will deﬁnitely have a negative

inﬂuence on detection possibilities.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 89

Figure 5.17 — Tug ship.

Figure 5.18 — Fishery boat.

5.3.2 Detection of the tug ship from Garchine radar site.

In this subsection I will present results of the processing in order to reveal the tug ship using

data from Garchine localization. From AIS data it is possible to deduce, that target should

be present in the range cell number 158 (distance 63 km) and in the beam number 25 (-10

degrees left to the normal to the antenna). Indeed, in Fig. 5.20 target is well visible. This

ﬁgure presents test statistics (in decibels) for range cell number 158 and beam 25.

Fig. 5.20 presents behavior of AMTI and STAP algorithms for diﬀerent integration times

and for diﬀerent training samples support. Upper-left graph presents comparison between

lower (100 chirps) and higher (200 chirps) integration time AMTI with low training samples

support. In this case, 100 time slides and 15 range cells on both sides of test cell (see Fig.

5.13) were used for training. This gives total number of 3000 training snapshots. 0 dB in the

ﬁgure denotes the reference level of detected target. We can see, that the highest non-target

peak for 200 chirps AMTI is 6 dB lower than for 100 chirps AMTI. We can say, that in this

case 200 chirps AMTI outperforms 100 chirps AMTI by 6 dB. The lower-left graph presents

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 90

Figure 5.19 — Interference.

similar results for high training samples support. In this case 200 slides and 60 range cells on

both sides of test cell are used. This gives 24000 samples used to estimate covariance matrix.

We can see that improvement is even better and 200 chirps AMTI outperforms 100 chirps

AMTI by 8 dB. Right graphs show similar results for STAP. For low training samples support

(upper-right) we can see that only 100 chirps STAP can reveal the target. 200 chirps STAP

fails to detect the target. Situation is diﬀerent for high training samples support (lower-right

in Fig. 5.20). This time we can see, that 200 chirps STAP outperforms 100 chirps STAP by

5 dB.

In Fig. 5.21 we can see comparison between AMTI and STAP. Upper-left graph presents

comparison between AMTI ans STAP for shorter integration time (100 chirps) and low num-

ber of training samples. We can see, that in this case AMTI outperforms STAP by 8 dB.

Situation changes dramatically with high number of training samples. In this case, STAP out-

performs AMTI by 5 dB. For longer integration time (200 chirps) and low number of training

samples we can see, that STAP fails, whereas AMTI can reveal the target (see upper-right

graph of Fig. 5.21). For high number of training samples, STAP outperforms AMTI by 3 dB.

In ﬁgures from 5.22 to 5.25 we can see the inﬂuence of diﬀerent training schemes on

detection possibilities. General pattern is clear that more training samples gives better chances

of target detection. This is valid for extending training area in time (100 vs 200 slides) as

well as in range (from 15 to 60 range cells on both sides of test cell). Generally, it is possible

to conclude that:

• AMTI works well even for relatively low number of training samples (100 slides, 15 range

cells on both sides of test cell).

• STAP needs more training samples (200 slides and 60 range cells on both sides of test

cell).

• Using both techniques it is possible to detect tug ship.

• Because of interferences present in the data ﬁle, STAP techniques gives slightly better

results.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 91

Figure 5.20 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site - inﬂuence of integration time. Upper-

left: AMTI for low training samples support, lower-left: AMTI for high training samples

support, upper-right: STAP for low training samples support, lower-right: STAP for high

training samples support.

5.3.3 Detection of the tug ship from Brezzelec radar site.

The same target is visible from the second radar site (Brezzelec). From AIS data we can

expect target in the range cell number 160 (distance 64 km) and in the beam number 34

(6 degrees right to the normal to the antenna). Indeed, in Fig. 5.26 target is visible. In the

case of Bezzelec ﬁle, there are almost no interferences present. This should mean, that main

advantage of STAP will not play a role here.

First, let us compare the inﬂuence of integration time as before. We can see, that pattern

is similar as for Garchine ﬁle (Fig. 5.26). For longer integration time, target is better visible.

If we compare AMTI and STAP (5.27), we can see that:

• There is no advantage of STAP.

• For longer integration time (200 chirps), STAP gives the same result.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 92

Figure 5.21 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site - comparison between AMTI and

STAP.

• For shorter integration time (100 chirps) AMTI better reveals the target (I could not

explain this anomaly).

5.3.4 Detection of the ﬁshery ship from Garchine radar site.

The second target to detect was the ﬁshery ship L’Ar Voaleden. Unfortunately strong inter-

ference was present in the same beam as the target. In ﬁgure 5.28 we can see a PPI image

after beamforming. It is well visible, that interference covers the area where target is present.

Interference was so strong that, using similar techniques as for tug ship, it was impossible to

detect this target. Exemplary image is presented in ﬁgure 5.29. This is PPI image (range-

azimuth). PPI image is produced by taking maximum value of test statistics from all test

velocities for range-azimuth cell of interest.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 93

Figure 5.22 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site - diﬀerent range support for AMTI

with 100 chirps.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 94

Figure 5.23 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site - diﬀerent range support for AMTI

with 200 chirps.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 95

Figure 5.24 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site - diﬀerent range support for STAP

with 100 chirps.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 96

Figure 5.25 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site - diﬀerent range support for STAP

with 200 chirps.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 97

Figure 5.26 — Tug ship detection from Brezzelec site - inﬂuence of integration time. Upper-

left: AMTI for low training samples support, lower-left: AMTI for high training samples

support, upper-right: STAP for low training samples support, lower-right: STAP for high

training samples support.

5.3.5 Detection of the ﬁshery ship from Brezzelec radar site.

The same ﬁshery ship should be visible from the second radar site (Brezzelec). Similar experi-

ments were performed to detect this target. From AIS data it was possible to extract position

and velocity information of the target. Fishery boat was going almost directly toward the

Brezzelec radar site at the speed of about 10 knots (this is 5 m/s). To understand possibilities

of this detection it is necessary to calculate Bragg line Doppler speed. From chapter 3.2 we

know, that Bragg Doppler frequency (f) is around 0,38 Hz for 12 MHz radar. Let us recall,

that f = 2V/λ, where V is a speed and λ is radar wavelength (around 28 m for 12 MHz

carrier frequency). From mentioned expression we can derive, that Bragg lines (ocean waves)

speed is around 4.9 to 5.1 m/s. We can see, that this is exactly the radial speed of our target.

This will make detection very diﬃcult. Generally we should try to have very long integration

times in order to achieve Doppler resolution allowing to separate target from Bragg lines.

On the other hand it is diﬃcult to estimate covariance matrix for long integration times. For

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 98

Figure 5.27 — Tug ship detection from Brezzelec site - comparison between AMTI and

STAP.

example it is hard to achieve STAP for longer than 200 chirps and AMTI for longer than 500

chirps. Moreover, having very long integration time we can face the situation, that target is

no longer time-coherent. For example, target can change range speed, orientation etc. In Fig.

5.30 and 5.31 we can see a PPI image (range-azimuth) that is produced by taking maximum

value of test statistics from all test velocities for range-azimuth cell of interest. It seems that

ﬁshery boat is not revealed by STAP, but is revealed by AMTI. This is not true. In fact

neither AMTI nor STAP can reveal this target. In the case of AMTI this is false alarm, that

disappears with time. Moreover this seeming detection for AMTI indicates radial velocity

which is negative, whereas ﬁshery boat is in fact approaching radar.

We can conclude, that for the target with the radial velocity equal to Bragg line Doppler

velocity, detection possibilities are very poor.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 99

Figure 5.28 — Strong interference present in the target beam.

Figure 5.29 — PPI image after AMTI processing for 200 chirps.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 100

Figure 5.30 — PPI image after AMTI processing for 200 chirps.

Figure 5.31 — PPI image after STAP processing for 100 chirps.

5.4 Thresholding and detections presentation.

In sections before, it was shown how AMTI and STAP techniques can reveal the target in

the terms of test statistics. In a complete system, the last step it to apply thresholding for

the detections (see section 2.2.5, 2.3 and chapter 4). Choosing appropriate threshold is a

very important issue, that is not treated in this work. Instead, I will present some detection

results for a priori chosen threshold. In ﬁgures 5.32 and 5.33 we can see PPI images after

thresholding. I used AMTI algorithm for 200 chirps and low number of training samples.

This was due to the computational reasons. After AMTI processing, test statistics cube was

reduced to test statistics image by taking (for each range-beam cell) maximum across all

velocities. The last step was to apply threshold. We can see that some targets were detected,

but there are still some undetected targets. We can also see some false alarms, that are mostly

related to the presence of islands and rocks as well as to the sidelobes of strong echo from

target. Processing after thresholding is also very important, that is not treated in this work.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 101

Figure 5.32 — PPI images 05:20-05:22.

Tracking can reduce number of false alarms considerably (see for example [1] and [13]).

To reduce sidelobe false detections it is worth considering to use dominant scatter removal.

Knowledge aided techniques could be used to remove false detections from islands and rocks.

Finally, simultaneous processing from two radars, after thresholding, can also reduce the

number of false alarms as well as give additional vectorial information about target velocity.

Thresholding for other techniques (AMTI with longer integration time and STAP) was

not performed from computational reasons, but it should give better results (lower number

of false alarms).

5.5 Conclusions.

In this chapter a practical implementation of AMTI and STAP techniques was shown. We

could see that:

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 102

Figure 5.33 — PPI images 05:24-05:26.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE

MODIFICATIONS. 103

• AMTI and STAP techniques can reveal quite small ships even 60 km away from the

shore.

• Longer-distance detections are diﬃcult because of the very low transmitting power of

WERA radar system (only 30 W).

• In the case of the presence of a strong interference, STAP technique seems to be more

eﬀective than AMTI.

• On the other hand, AMTI performance is good enough when very little interference is

present. Moreover AMTI is less computational and training data demanding. This may

be an important factor.

There are however some other possibilities to improve STAP calculations, that were not

considered in this work, for example:

• Parametric adaptive methods.

• Diagonal loading.

• Reduced-rank STAP.

Nevertheless, both techniques failed to detect target that is buried completely in interference

or having the same speed as the Bragg waves. In this chapter, only two targets were considered

as an example of detections. In fact, during experiments many other targets were detected

successfully. Generally we can conclude, that bigger ships (eg. 100 m) are well visible using

both AMTI and STAP even at longer distances (100 km).

Tu summarize we can say that for HF radar the rationale standing behind using STAP

is second order Bragg eﬀects (azimuth-Doppler coupling of the clutter) plus interferences

(jamming). In the case of a simple ﬁrst order Bragg clutter plus interferences, adaptive arrays

followed by adaptive temporal ﬁltering may be suﬃcient. Second order Bragg scattering makes

STAP prevail over AMTI. Either way, STAP prevails over AMTI when interference is present

together with clutter.

It is worth to reconsider radar waveforms used in HF radars. WERA radar was designed

to provide information about waves and currents. For target detection it may be proﬁtable,

to change some radar parameters such as transmitted power, or chirp repetition frequency.

For example for low chirp repetition frequency, all fast targets fall into false Doppler cell of

a slow target. Therefore an airplane or a very fast speed boats can be detected with false

velocity.

It seems that HF radar systems have a potential to improve target detections at long

distances that is not yet suﬃciently explored. In order to achieve this, it is also necessary to

perform analysis on the inﬂuence of meteorological conditions. For example sea state can be

a crucial factor when detecting targets.

CHAPTER

6

Conclusions and

perspectives

In this work it was shown how classical STAP concept can be adapted to the sea surveillance.

Two main problems were addressed. First one is non-Gaussianity of the clutter and the second

is covariance matrix estimation.

In the ﬁrst chapter basic concepts were introduced. Classical STAP algorithm was shown

as well as Adaptive MTI processing. Detection theory was also presented in order to have

a good base to develop other detectors. In order to show potential detection diﬃculties, sea

clutter properties were presented in chapter 3. We could sea, that for see clutter we can expect

non-Gaussianity, Doppler clutter related do Bragg scattering and clutter non-stationarity.

These problems were addressed in chapters 4 and 5.

Two Dirac Delta (TDD STAP) detector was presented in chapter 4 as a solution to

the problem of non-Gaussianity. It was shown, that indeed, this detector can give some

improvement in the case of non-Gaussian clutter. There is a possibility to develop this concept

and introduce for example more Dirac deltas to further improve detections. There is, however,

a limit of improvement that is related to non-Gaussian distribution itself. This can be viewed

as an Cram´er-Rao bound for the problem of detection.

In ﬁgure 6.1 I presented graphically three cases in the typical detection problems.

They are:

• Gaussianity

• Non-Gaussianity

• Determinism

Figure 6.1 — Triangle of detection problems.

CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES 105

Very often we are placed in between all of these cases. Typical detectors were developed

under assumption of Gaussian clutter and noise. This case is well studied. Its characteristic

feature is that in fact this is most random case. It means that this is a result of the law

of large numbers, where we have large number of independent contributors to overall eﬀect.

From this point of view this is the worst case, because there is only strictly random pattern

and as such cannot be predicted precisely. On the other hand, in the case of determinism,

there is a perfect information about the process standing behind the clutter, and clutter can

be predicted (anticipated) and suppressed. This case can occur for very high resolution radars.

The third case is statistical non-Gaussian distribution. This is very diﬃcult situation. In fact

this may occur in the situations that are in the middle between Gaussian and deterministic

case (middle resolution radars). We cannot apply imaging algorithms and classical (Gaussian)

algorithms fail in the sense, that they produce more false alarms. This is the case, when new

algorithms must be developed, that can cope with non-Gaussianity. Even then, because of

distribution imminent properties, usually, performance will be worse than classical algorithms

working under Gaussian noise and clutter.

In this work it was proved, that under non-Gaussian K-distributed clutter there is a

possibility to improve detection in comparison to classical STAP algorithms using a new

concept of Two Dirac Delta detector. To validate results, simulated data were used in chapter

4.3.

To test adaptive methods on real data, WERA radar system was used in chapter 5. The

main problem in practical application was the way the covariance matrix should be estimated.

I presented sliding window method. Because of low number of range cells in WERA radar

system as well as clutter nonstationarity it was necessary to precisely chose certain algorithm

parameters. STAP algorithm was tested together with Adaptive MTI. It was proved, that

indeed, both STAP and AMTI are eﬀective algorithms in canceling clutter and interferences.

It was shown, that having clutter covariance matrix well calculated STAP outperforms AMTI

when clutter plus interference is present in the data. Nevertheless, in the case of underesti-

mated covariance matrix, this advantage can vanish.

To conclude we can say, that STAP technique can be an eﬀective algorithm to detect

targets on the sea surface, and this work give certain solutions to some problems with its

practical application.

The future work should concentrate on:

• Testing algorithm under diﬀerent sea state and weather conditions.

• Developing concept of TDD STAP detector by introducing more Dirac deltas.

• Applying techniques like reduced-rank STAP, knowledge aided algorithms, dominating

scatterer removal and diagonal loading.

• Applying tracking algorithms after signal processing.

These improvements should reduce number of false alarms and false tracks considerably.

APPENDIX

A

Gaussian complex

process.

In this appendix, it will be presented transformation that is commonly used in narrowband

systems, that allows to employ compact complex notation instead of classical real-numbers

notation. This notation is used in the rest of this PhD thesis, and therefore it is necessary to

present it in an appendix.

Let us assume Gaussian N-dimensional process. Let us split random, N dimensional vector

(N is even) into vectors x and y (both having dimension N/2 and zero mean value).

Now we have formula for a Gaussian process [44]:

p

¸

x

y

=

1

(2Π)

N/2

[M[

exp(−

[x

T

y

T

]M

−1

¸

x

y

2

) (A.1)

where M is a covariance matrix:

M = E

x

y

[x

T

y

T

]

¸

where [[ denotes determinant. For a narrowband Gaussian process, covariance matrix is of a

special form [44]:

M =

1

2

¸

V −W

W V

where W

T

= −W, and T denotes transposition.

Therefore we can easily apply transformation into complex domain [44]: Let

z = x +jy (A.2)

z is a N/2 dimensional complex vector. Let also

C = V+jW (A.3)

There are some interesting properties of this transformation:

[x

T

y

T

]

¸

V −W

W V

¸

x

y

= z

H

Cz (A.4)

APPENDIX A. GAUSSIAN COMPLEX PROCESS. 107

[x

T

y

T

]

¸

V −W

W V

−1

¸

x

y

= z

H

C

−1

z (A.5)

So

[x

T

y

T

]M

−1

¸

x

y

2

= z

H

C

−1

z (A.6)

Moreover

p(z) =

1

Π

N/2

[C[

exp(−z

H

C

−1

z) (A.7)

where H denotes transpose conjugate.

Additional properties: If z is a random complex Gaussian vector, A is a transformation

matrix and b is a vector such that:

s = Ax +b (A.8)

then

E(s) = AE(x) +b (A.9)

and

COV (s) = ACA

H

(A.10)

APPENDIX

B

Data generation.

In order to test performance of STAP, as described in chapter 4, we need to generate Gaussian

and SIRP vectors. To do this we will use this representation of a PDF (for real SIRP) [49]:

f(X) =

1

(2π)

n/2

[M[

1/2

∞

0

1

σ

n

e

−

X

T

M

−1

X

2σ

2

dG

σ

(σ) (B.1)

where X is a Spherically Invariant Random Vector (SIRV) and T denotes transpose. If

E(σ

2

) = 1 then M = E[XX

T

]. We will be using continuous version:

f(X) =

1

(2π)

n/2

[M[

1/2

∞

0

1

σ

n

e

−

X

T

M

−1

X

2σ

2

g(σ)dσ (B.2)

SIRV has a, very useful property [49]: If X is a SIRV with characteristic PDF g(σ), then

Y = AX +b (B.3)

is also SIRV with the same characteristic PDF.It is assumed that A is a matrix such that

AA

T

= Σ and b is a known vector having the same dimension as X. If X is a zero mean

Gaussian vector with identity covariance matrix, then covariance matrix of Y = E(Y Y

T

) =

Σ. So general algorithm looks as follows [49]:

1. Generate a white zero mean Gaussian random vector Z, having identity covariance

matrix.

2. Generate a random variable v from the PDF g(v). Denote mean square value of v by a

2

.

3. Normalize v to obtain σ: σ = v/a.

4. Generate product X = Zσ. At this step, we have a white SIRV having zero mean and

identity covariance matrix.

5. Perform linear transformation to obtain SIRV having desired mean value and

covariance matrix.

In radar detection problems we need to have complex samples. Therefore algorithm must be

modiﬁed. In Fig. B.1 exemplary histograms are shown.

APPENDIX B. DATA GENERATION. 109

Figure B.1 — Generated SIRVs histograms.

APPENDIX

C

Space Time Adaptive

Processing based on

Frequency Modulated

Continuous Wave

system.

C.1 Introduction.

The fundamental assumption that is made while space-time adaptive processing (STAP)

technique is considered is that the signal to be processed takes on the form of a sequence of

coherent pulses. Frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) systems are in widespread

use because of their numerous advantages, for example low transmitting power. It seems

extremely important to look for a possibility of using STAP procedures in FMCW systems

to make them even more attractive. The appendix presents a simple analysis of a proposed

approach to achieve this goal. A structure of the signal processor is presented and assumptions

necessary to be fulﬁlled are deﬁned. Eﬀects of the proposed approach implementation in HF,

I, and X bands are evaluated on the basis of selected parameters of the appropriate FMCW-

STAP systems. Derivations presented in this appendix were inspired by the work [4]. More

precisely, all results from section C.2 were published in [4], but without all step-by-step

transformations. Therefore, here I present a complete derivation.

C.2 Preliminaries.

Let us consider single receiving antenna system shown in Fig. C.1. In this document we

assume the following standard data set:

f

c

= 10 MHz

f

doppler

± 0.5 Hz

f

r

= PRF = 1 Hz → PRI = T

r

= 1 s

Doppler resolution = 0.02 Hz → T

DWELL

= 50 s

range resolution = 1.5 km → B = 100 kHz

(C.1)

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 111

Figure C.1 — Single receiving antenna system.

Transmitted waveform (we assume here only one period from FMCW waveform, centered at

time zero):

v

T

(t) = cos[ω

c

t +πBf

r

t

2

] = cos[φ

T

(t)] (C.2)

where −T

r

/2 < t < +T

r

/2

From above we can derive instantaneous frequency as:

f

T

(t) =

1

2π

dφ

T

(t)

dt

= f

c

+ Bf

r

t (C.3)

Let us consider a single target:

ν = 5 m/s

t = 0

R

0

= 15km

R(t) = R

0

+νt = 15 km + 5

m

s

t

t

d

= 2

R(t)

c

(C.4)

Received signal is both delayed in time (due to distance from radar to target) and shifted

in frequency (due to non-zero radial velocity). Frequency (over time) of transmitted and

received signal is shown in Fig. C.2. After mixing with transmitted signal, frequency over

time is shown in Fig. C.3. Mixing with transmitted signal is the same as subtracting the

phase. Therefore two frequencies f

1

and f

2

in Fig. C.3 are :

f

1

=

1

2π

d

dt

[φ

T

(t −t

d

) −φ

T

(t)] (C.5)

f

2

=

1

2π

d

dt

[φ

T

(t −t

d

) −φ

T

(t +T

r

)] (C.6)

If f

2

f

1

, than it is possible to ﬁlter out part of the signal having frequency f

2

as shown in

Fig. C.4. Condition f

2

f

1

is fulﬁlled if we assume that time delay t

d

of echo from target

is much less than T

r

(we keep in mind that T = T

r

−t

d

). Therefore distance to the target is

bounded. This condition also imply that T

r

> T

1

2

T

r

. Now it is possible to recenter each

pulse as shown in Fig. C.5. Following calculations assume only re-centered part of the mixed

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 112

Figure C.2 — Frequency over time of transmitted and received signal.

Figure C.3 — Received signal after mixer and low pass ﬁlter.

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 113

Figure C.4 — Signal after ﬁltering out high frequency factor.

Figure C.5 — Demodulated pulse.

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 114

signal. Backing oﬀ to primitive echo from the target:

v

R

(t) = Av

T

(t −t

d

) = Acos[ω

c

(t −t

d

) +πBf

r

(t −t

d

)

2

]

=

A

2

e

j[ω

c

(t−t

d

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

)

2

]

+e

−j[ω

c

(t−t

d

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

)

2

]

(C.7)

After mixing, received signal is:

v

b

(t) =

A

2

e

j[ω

c

(t−t

d

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

)

2

]

+e

−j[ω

c

(t−t

d

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

)

2

]

1

2

e

j[ω

c

t+πBf

r

t

2

]

+e

−j[ω

c

t+πBf

r

t

2

]

=

A

4

e

j[ω

c

(t−t

d

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

)

2

+ω

c

t+πBf

r

t

2

]

+e

−j[ω

c

(t−t

d

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

)

2

−ω

c

t−πBf

r

t

2

]

+

e

j[ω

c

(t−t

d

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

)

2

−ω

c

t−πBf

r

t

2

]

+e

−j[ω

c

(t−t

d

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

)

2

+ω

c

t+πBf

r

t

2

]

(C.8)

Then signal is passed through a low-pass ﬁlter. After this operation only underlined terms in

(C.8) remain:

v

l

(t) =

A

4

e

j[ω

c

(t−t

d

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

)

2

−ω

c

t−πBf

r

t

2

]

+e

−j[ω

c

(t−t

d

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

)

2

−ω

c

t−πBf

r

t

2

]

=

A

2

cos[ω

c

(t −t

d

) +πBf

r

(t −t

d

)

2

−ω

c

t −πBf

r

t

2

] (C.9)

Let us introduce

t

d

=

2R

c

= t

0

+

2νt

i

c

, t

0

=

2R

0

c

(C.10)

Then :

φ(t

i

) = 2πf

c

(t

i

−t

d

) +πBf

r

(t

i

−t

d

)

2

−2πf

c

t

i

−πBf

r

t

2

i

= 2πf

c

t

i

−2πf

c

t

d

+πBf

r

(t

2

i

−2t

i

t

d

+t

2

d

) −2πf

c

t

i

−πBf

r

t

2

i

= 2πf

c

t

i

−2πf

c

t

d

+πBf

r

t

2

i

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

d

+πBf

r

t

2

d

−2πf

c

t

i

−πBf

r

t

2

i

= −2πf

c

t

d

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

d

+πBf

r

t

2

d

= −2πf

c

(t

0

+

2νt

i

c

) −2πBf

r

t

i

(t

0

+

2νt

i

c

) +πBf

r

t

0

+

2νt

i

c

2

= −2πf

c

t

0

−2πf

c

2νt

i

c

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

0

−2πBf

r

2νt

2

i

c

+πBf

r

t

2

0

+ 2πBf

r

t

0

2νt

i

c

+πBf

r

(

2νt

i

c

)

2

= [ −2πf

c

t

0

+πBf

r

t

2

0

] + 2π[ −2f

c

ν

c

+2Bf

r

t

0

ν

c

−Bf

r

t

0

]t

i

−2πB

2ν

c

f

r

1 −

ν

c

t

2

i

(C.11)

For assumed set of data (eg. providing ν/c < 1), during one pulse duration the quadratic

term and second part of the linear term may be neglected. Therefore we have:

φ(t

i

) ≈ φ

0

−2π[

2ν

c

f

c

+ Bf

r

t

0

]t

i

(C.12)

hence within the ﬁrst pulse, frequency f

I

is

f

I

=

1

2π

dφ(t)

dt

=

2ν

c

f

c

+ Bf

r

t

0

(C.13)

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 115

As can be seen, this frequency oﬀset consists of two terms: the ﬁrst is due to target velocity

and the second is due to time delay (range) to the target. It is not possible to separate velocity

from range, analysing only one pulse. In our example for the target:

2ν

c

f

c

=

1

3

Hz, Bf

r

t

0

= 10 Hz (C.14)

similar analysis for the nth pulse:

t

d

=

2R

c

= t

0

+

2ν

c

(nT

r

+t

i

) , t

0

=

2R

0

c

(C.15)

t

i

−is a time variable within one pulse duration (C.16)

φ(t

i

) = 2πf

c

(t

i

−t

d

) +πBf

r

(t

i

−t

d

)

2

−2πf

c

t

i

−πBf

r

t

2

i

= 2πf

c

t

i

−2πf

c

t

d

+πBf

r

(t

2

i

−2t

i

t

d

+t

2

d

) −2πf

c

t

i

−πBf

r

t

2

i

= 2πf

c

t

i

−2πf

c

t

d

+πBf

r

t

2

i

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

d

+πBf

r

t

2

d

−2πf

c

t

i

−πBf

r

t

2

i

= −2πf

c

t

d

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

d

+πBf

r

t

2

d

= −2πf

c

[t

0

+

2ν

c

(nT

r

+t

i

)]

−2πBf

r

t

i

[t

0

+

2ν

c

(nT

r

+t

i

)]

+πBf

r

t

0

+

2ν

c

(nT

r

+t

i

)

2

= −2πf

c

t

0

−2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πf

c

2ν

c

t

i

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

0

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

t

2

0

+ 2t

0

2ν

c

(nT

r

+t

i

) +

4ν

2

c

2

(nT

r

+t

i

)

2

= −2πf

c

t

0

−2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πf

c

2ν

c

t

i

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

0

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

t

2

0

+ 2t

0

2ν

c

nT

r

+ 2t

0

2ν

c

t

i

+

4ν

2

c

2

(n

2

T

2

r

+ 2nT

r

t

i

+t

2

i

)

= −2πf

c

t

0

−2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πf

c

2ν

c

t

i

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

0

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

t

2

0

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

nT

r

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

(n

2

T

2

r

+ 2nT

r

t

i

+t

2

i

)

= −2πf

c

t

0

−2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πf

c

2ν

c

t

i

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

0

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

t

2

0

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

nT

r

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

n

2

T

2

r

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

2nT

r

t

i

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

t

2

i

= −2πf

c

t

0

−2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πf

c

2ν

c

t

i

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 116

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

0

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

t

2

0

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

nT

r

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

n

2

T

2

r

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

2nT

r

t

i

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

t

2

i

= −2πf

c

t

0

−2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πf

c

2ν

c

t

i

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

0

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

nT

r

−4πBf

r

ν

c

1 −

ν

c

t

2

i

+πBf

r

t

2

0

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

nT

r

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

n

2

T

2

r

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

2nT

r

t

i

= −2πf

c

t

0

+πBf

r

t

2

0

−2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

−2πf

c

2ν

c

t

i

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

0

−2πBf

r

t

i

2ν

c

nT

r

−4πBf

r

ν

c

1 −

ν

c

t

2

i

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

nT

r

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

n

2

T

2

r

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

2nT

r

t

i

= −2πf

c

t

0

+πBf

r

t

2

0

−2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

−2π

2ν

c

f

c

+ Bf

r

t

0

+n

2ν

c

B

t

i

−4πBf

r

ν

c

1 −

ν

c

t

2

i

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

nT

r

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

n

2

T

2

r

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

t

i

+πBf

r

4ν

2

c

2

2nT

r

t

i

= −2πf

c

t

0

+πBf

r

t

2

0

−2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

−2π

2ν

c

f

c

+ Bf

r

t

0

+n

2ν

c

B

t

i

−4πBf

r

ν

c

1 −

ν

c

t

2

i

+πB2t

0

2ν

c

n +πB

4ν

2

c

2

n

2

T

r

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

t

i

+πB

4ν

2

c

2

2nt

i

(C.17)

In order to neglect terms:

−4πBf

r

ν

c

1 −

ν

c

t

2

i

+πB2t

0

2ν

c

n +πB

4ν

2

c

2

n

2

T

r

+πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

t

i

+πB

4ν

2

c

2

2nt

i

(C.18)

certain assumptions must be made:

1.

4πBf

r

ν

c

1 −

ν

c

t

2

i

<2π → B

2ν

max

c

T

r

1

4

<1

since max value of t

i

is

1

2

T

r

2.

πB2t

0

2ν

c

n <2π → B

2R

max

c

2ν

max

c

N <1

where N is a number of pulses and R

max

is a max range from the radar to the target

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 117

3.

πB

4ν

2

c

2

n

2

T

r

<2π →

1

2

B

2ν

max

c

2

N

2

T

r

<1

4.

πBf

r

2t

0

2ν

c

t

i

<2π → B

2R

max

c

2ν

max

c

1

2

<1

again we have to remember that max value of t

i

is

1

2

T

r

and f

r

=

1

T

r

. This condition is

weaker than (2.) since

1

2

<N.

5.

πB

4ν

2

c

2

2nt

i

<2π →

1

2

B

2ν

max

c

2

NT

r

<1

again max value of t

i

is

1

2

T

r

and max value of n is N. This condition is weaker than (3.)

because N < N

2

.

So after simpliﬁcations based on conditions 1. 2. 3. we have:

φ

I

n

(t

i

) = φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

−2π[

2ν

c

f

c

+ Bf

r

t

0

+ n

2ν

c

B]t

i

(C.19)

so

f

I

n

=

1

2π

dφ(t)

dt

=

2ν

c

f

c

+ Bf

r

t

0

+ n

2ν

c

B (C.20)

Let us perform Fourier transformation on the received (n-th) pulse (C.9) using (C.19)

V

I

n

(f) =

T/2

−T/2

Acos (φ

I

n

(t))e

−j2πft

dt

=

T/2

−T/2

Acos (φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

−2πf

In

t)e

−j2πft

dt

=

T/2

−T/2

A

2

e

j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

−2πf

In

t)

+e

−j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

−2πf

In

t)

e

−j2πft

dt

=

T/2

−T/2

A

2

e

j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

−2πf

In

t−2πft)

e

−j2πft

dt +

T/2

−T/2

A

2

e

−j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

−2πf

In

t+2πft)

e

−j2πft

dt

=

T/2

−T/2

A

2

e

j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

−2πf

In

t−2πft)

dt +

T/2

−T/2

A

2

e

−j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

−2πf

In

t+2πft)

dt

=

A

2

e

j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

T/2

−T/2

e

j(−2πf

In

t−2πft)

dt +

A

2

e

−j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

T/2

−T/2

e

−j(−2πf

In

t+2πft)

dt

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 118

Figure C.6 — Spectrum of the received pulse.

=

A

2

e

j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

T/2

−T/2

e

−j(2πf

In

t+2πft)

dt +

A

2

e

−j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

T/2

−T/2

e

−j(2πft−2πf

In

t)

dt

=

A

2

e

j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

2 sin [2π(f

In

+f)T/2]

2π(f

In

+f)

+

A

2

e

−j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

2 sin [2π(f −f

In

)T/2]

2π(f −f

In

)

=

AT

2

e

j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

2 sin [2π(f

In

+f)T/2]

2π(f

In

+f)T

+

AT

2

e

−j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

2 sin [2π(f −f

In

)T/2]

2π(f −f

In

)T

=

AT

2

e

j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

2 sin [2π(f

In

+f)T/2]

2π(f

In

+f)T

+e

−j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

2 sin [2π(f −f

In

)T/2]

2π(f −f

In

)T

=

AT

2

e

j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

sin [2π(f

In

+f)T/2]

2π(f

In

+f)T/2

+e

−j(φ

0

−2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

)

sin [2π(f −f

In

)T/2]

2π(f −f

In

)T/2

=

AT

2

e

jφ

0

−j2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

sin [2π(f +f

In

)T/2]

2π(f +f

In

)T/2

+e

−jφ

0

+j2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

sin [2π(f −f

In

)T/2]

2π(f −f

In

)T/2

=

AT

2

e

jφ

0

−j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

sin [2π(f +f

In

)T/2]

2π(f +f

In

)T/2

+e

−jφ

0

+j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

sin [2π(f −f

In

)T/2]

2π(f −f

In

)T/2

(C.21)

Let us investigate (C.21). Considering only positive frequencies, maximum of (C.21) is in point

f = f

I

n

, and f

I

n

is related to the distance to the target (see (C.20) and (C.10)). Therefore

distance to the target can be read from the spectrum of the received signal as can be seen

in Fig. C.6 (this is true as long as

2ν

c

f

c

and n

2ν

c

B are much less than Bf

r

t

0

, eg. (C.14)). We

see that from pulse to pulse, two parameters can change: f

In

in

sin[2π(f±f

In

)T/2]

2π(f±f

In

)T/2

and nT

r

in

e

±jφ

0

∓j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

. For standard data set, over dwelling time (50 s) f

In

changes only slightly,

hence

sin [2π(f±f

In

)T/2]

2π(f±f

In

)T/2

can be interpreted as function of f only (let say K(f)). Taking into

account only positive frequencies we can neglect term

e

jφ

0

−j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

sin [2π(f +f

In

)T/2]

2π(f +f

In

)T/2

Therefore we have the following approximation:

V

I

n

(f) ≈ K(f)e

−jφ

0

+j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

(C.22)

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 119

Including e

−jφ

0

in K(f) leads to:

V

I

n

(f) = K(f)e

j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

(C.23)

We can see that for the speciﬁc range (which means frequency f) from pulse to pulse only

term e

j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

changes. Assumptions are summarized in the table C.1.

Table C.1 — Assumptions.

T

1

2

T

r

→

1

2

T

r

2R

max

c

→R

max

<

1

4

T

r

c range limitation

B

2ν

max

c

T

r

1

4

<1 1.

B

2R

max

c

2ν

max

c

N <1 2.

1

2

B

2ν

max

c

2

N

2

T

r

<1 3.

ν

max

NT

r

<´R ´R −range resolution,

no range migration condition

dν

dt

NT

r

<´ν ´ν −velocity resolution,

no velocity migration condition

2ν

max

c

f

c

<Bf

r

t

0

→ν

max

f

c

B

T

r

<R

min

t

0

=

2R

min

c

violation of this condition leads

to range errors which can be

mitigated after Doppler

processing (not true for STAP)

N

2ν

max

c

B <Bf

r

t

0

→ν

max

NT

r

<R

min

t

0

=

2R

min

c

this condition is weaker than condition

for the range migration

C.3 Antenna array with FMCW.

Lets perform similar calculations for multi-dimensional case (see Fig. C.7). Received signal,

coming from the target will be now expressed in similar way as in (C.7):

v

mr

(t) = Av(t −t

d

−t

a

) = Acos[ω

c

(t −t

d

−t

a

) +πBf

r

(t −t

d

−t

a

)

2

]

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 120

Figure C.7 — System with antenna array.

Figure C.8 — Geometry of the target echo and antenna array.

=

Ae

j[ω

c

(t−t

d

−t

a

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

−t

a

)

2

]

+Ae

−j[ω

c

(t−t

d

−t

a

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

−t

a

)

2

]

2

=

A

2

e

j[ω

c

(t−t

d

−t

a

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

−t

a

)

2

]

+e

−j[ω

c

(t−t

d

−t

a

)+πBf

r

(t−t

d

−t

a

)

2

]

(C.24)

where t

a

is an additional delay due to the distance between antenna elements. We assume

the ﬁrst antenna as a reference antenna (see Fig. C.8). Subscript m denotes antenna element

(m = 1 . . . M). Time delay will be equal

md

c

sin(α), where d is a distance between antenna

elements and c is a speed of wave propagation. After low pass ﬁlter we have:

v

ml

(t) =

A

2

cos[ω

c

(t −t

d

−t

a

) +πBf

r

(t −t

d

−t

a

)

2

−ω

c

t −πBf

r

t

2

]

(C.25)

Let t

both

= t

d

+t

a

:

t

both

= t

0

+

2νt

i

c

+

md

c

sin(α) = t

0

+

2νt

i

c

(C.26)

Now:

φ

m

(t

i

) = 2πf

c

(t −t

both

) +πBf

r

(t −t

both

)

2

−2πf

c

t

i

−πBf

r

t

2

i

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 121

= −2πf

c

t

both

−2πBf

r

t

i

t

both

+πBf

r

t

2

both

= [ −2πf

c

t

0

+πBf

r

t

0

2

] + 2π[ −2f

c

ν

c

+ 2Bf

r

t

0

ν

c

−Bf

r

t

0

]t

i

−2πB

2ν

c

f

r

1 −

ν

c

t

2

i

(C.27)

Similar simpliﬁcations as before lead us to formulas as follows. Phase for single pulse:

φ

m

(t

i

) ≈ φ

0

−2πf

c

md

c

sin(α) −2π[

2ν

c

f

c

+ Bf

r

t

0

]t

i

(C.28)

hence within the ﬁrst pulse, instantaneous frequency f

mI

is

f

mI

=

1

2π

dφ(t)

dt

=

2ν

c

f

c

+ Bf

r

t

0

(C.29)

And for the for the nth pulse

φ

mI

n

(t

i

) = φ

0

−2πf

c

md

c

sin(α) −2nπf

c

2ν

c

T

r

−2π[

2ν

c

f

c

+ Bf

r

t

0

+ n

2ν

c

B]t

i

so

f

mI

n

=

1

2π

dφ(t)

dt

=

2ν

c

f

c

+ Bf

r

t

0

+ n

2ν

c

B (C.30)

After Fourier transformation:

V

mI

n

(f) =

T/2

−T/2

Acos (φ

mI

n

(t))e

−j2πft

dt

=

AT

2

e

jφ

0

−j2πf

c

md

c

sin(α)−j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

sin [2π(f +f

In

)T/2]

2π(f +f

In

)T/2

+

e

−jφ

0

+j2πf

c

md

c

sin(α)+j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

sin [2π(f −f

In

)T/2]

2π(f −f

In

)T/2

(C.31)

Again for positive frequencies we have the following approximation:

V

mI

n

(f) ≈ K(f)e

−jφ

0

+j2πf

c

md

c

sin(α)+j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

(C.32)

Including e

−jφ

0

in K(f) leads to:

V

mI

n

(f) = K(f)e

j2πf

c

md

c

sin(α)+j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

= K(f)e

j2πf

c

md

c

sin(α)

e

j2πf

c

2ν

c

nT

r

(C.33)

We see that (C.33) changes (from pulse to pulse and between array elements) exactly in the

same way as it is assumed for STAP processing (see for example [37]).

C.4 STAP system using FMCW.

In this section digital processing will be explained. First we need to set cut-oﬀ frequency of the

low-pass ﬁlter. To get rid of frequency f

2

(C.6) the cut-oﬀ frequency can be set B/2. Then

we are left with the signal as in the Figure C.9 (for clarity reasons transmitted sawtooth

waveform is also shown but on a diﬀerent frequency scale). Now for N pulses we have to

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 122

Figure C.9 — Sampling after ﬁltering.

Figure C.10 — Data cube.

separately perform L point FFT. Thus the sampling rate should be L/T

r

. L should be set

that condition L/T

R

> 2f

Imax

is fulﬁlled. f

Imax

depends on the maximum range of the radar

system and on the range resolution since B is set to obtain desired range resolution. After

sampling and FFT we have L/2 samples for positive frequencies and L/2 samples for negative

frequencies (from which 2 are the same frequency-zero frequency). After this operation (for

each antenna array receiving element) we can arrange our complex samples into data cube:

M antenna elements * N pulses * L/2 range cells. This is the form accepted by digital STAP

processor (Fig. C.10) see for example [37].

C.5 FMCW HF system - practical example.

In this section we summarize practical considerations

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 123

f

c

= 10 MHz (C.34)

which gives:

λ = 30 m (C.35)

Let

B = 100 kHz → range resolution = 1.5 km (C.36)

Let max Doppler shift be:

f

doppler

±0.5 Hz (V

max

< 7.5

m

s

) (C.37)

Which gives:

f

r

= PRF = 2 ∗ 0.5 Hz = 1 Hz →PRI = T

r

= 1 s (C.38)

We want to have:

Doppler resolution = 0.02 Hz →T

DWELL

= 50 s (C.39)

Now let us consider condition

f

2

f

1

(C.40)

This implies that

T

1

2

T

r

→

1

2

T

r

2R

c

(C.41)

After calculations we have condition for the radar range

R <75 000 km (C.42)

Now we want to have a radar range 150 km. This means that f

Imax

= 100 Hz. This is because

two way distance is 300 km which gives 1 ms time delay. Sawtooth signal changes within 100

kHz band during 1 s. So after 1 ms, frequency diﬀerence is 100 Hz. Our sampling rate should

be twice this number. After calculations we have L=200. Since FFT operates on samples

number equal power of 2, we can set L=256 (we will have 256 range cells). N will be 50 since

dwelling time is 50 s.

C.6 FMCW X-band system - practical example.

In this section similar considerations for X-band system are presented.

f

c

= 10 GHz (C.43)

which gives:

λ = 0.03 m (C.44)

Let

B = 1 MHz → range resolution = 150 m (C.45)

Let max Doppler shift be:

f

doppler

±500 Hz (V

max

< 7.5

m

s

) (C.46)

Which gives:

f

r

= PRF = 2 ∗ 500 Hz = 1 kHz →PRI = T

r

= 1 ms (C.47)

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY

MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 124

We want to have:

Doppler resolution = 10 Hz →T

DWELL

= 0.1 s (C.48)

Now let us consider condition

f

2

f

1

(C.49)

This implies that

T

1

2

T

r

→

1

2

T

r

2R

c

(C.50)

After calculations we have condition for the radar range

R <75 km (C.51)

Additional calculations to verify assumptions (target at the range of 1 km and at the speed

of 5

m

s

) :

2ν

c

f

c

=

1

3

kHz, Bf

r

t

0

= 6 kHz (C.52)

If we put radar range 10 km we will have L > 120 (eg. 128), and N=100.

C.7 FMCW L-band system - practical example.

In this section are presented similar considerations for L-band system.

f

c

= 1 GHz (C.53)

which gives:

λ = 0.3 m (C.54)

Let

B = 1 MHz → range resolution = 150 m (C.55)

Let max Doppler shift be:

f

doppler

±50 Hz (V

max

< 7.5

m

s

) (C.56)

Which gives:

f

r

= PRF = 2 ∗ 50 Hz →PRI = T

r

= 10 ms (C.57)

We want to have:

Doppler resolution = 1 Hz →T

DWELL

= 1 s (C.58)

Now let us consider condition

f

2

f

1

(C.59)

This implies that

T

1

2

T

r

→

1

2

T

r

2R

c

(C.60)

After calculations we have condition for the radar range

R <750 km (C.61)

Additional calculations to verify assumptions (target at the range of 10 km and at the speed

of 5

m

s

) :

2ν

c

f

c

= 30 Hz, Bf

r

t

0

= 6000 Hz (C.62)

If we put radar range 150 km we will have L > 2000 (eg. 2048), and N=100.

APPENDIX

D

List of symbols and

abbreviations.

Abbreviations have following meaning (unless otherwise stated):

AB - Adaptive Beamforming

A/D - Analog-Digital converter

AIS - Automatic Identiﬁcation System

AMTI - purely temporal Adaptive MTI

c - Speed of light

CDF - Cumulative Distribution Function

CFAR - Constant False Alarm Ratio

CPDF - Characteristic PDF

CW - Continuous Wave

DFT - Discrete Fourier Transform

EEZ - Exclusive Economic Zone

f

D

- Doppler frequency

FA - False Alarm

FFT - Fast Fourier Transform

FMCW - Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave

GLRT - Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test

H - Conjugate transpose

HF - High Frequency

IMO - International Maritime Organization

L - Number of range cells

LMSE - Least Mean Square Error

LO - Locally Optimum (detector)

LPF - Low Pass Filter

LRT - Likelihood Ratio Test

M - Number of antennas

ML - Maximum Likelihood

MMSI - Maritime Mobile Service Identity

APPENDIX D. LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS. 126

MTI - Moving Target Indication

MV - Minimum Variance

N - Number of pulses/chirps

OTH - Over The Horizon

PD - Probability of Detection

PDF - Probability Distribution Function

PPI - Plan position indicator

PRF - Pulse Repetition Frequency

PRI - Pulse Repetition Interval

R - Distance

RCS - Radar Cross Section

ROC - Receiver Operating Curve

SIRP - Spherically Invariant Random Process

SIRV - Spherically Invariant Random Vector

SM - Sample covariance Matrix

SNR - Signal to Noise Ratio

STAP - Space Time Adaptive Processing

T - Time

t - Time

TDD - Two Dirac Deltas

UTC - Universal time

V

r

- Radial velocity relative to the radar

VAR - Variance

λ - Wavelength

⊗ - Hadamard product

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TELECOM BRETAGNE

MILITARY UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

M

´

EMOIRE DE TH

`

ESE - SYNTH

`

ESE

Traitement Adaptatif Temps-Fr´equence Pour les Radars de

Surveillance Maritime

Tomasz G´orski

30.06.2008

Directeurs :

dr hab. in˙ z Adam Kawalec, prof. WAT

dr hab. in˙ z Jean-Marc Le Caillec, prof. Telecom Bretagne

L’objet de ce travail est l’´etude de l’application de la technique du traitement spatio-

temporelle adaptative (en anglais STAP, Space-Time Adaptative Processing) pour la sur-

veillance de la surface de la mer. Ces techniques du STAP sont ´et´e d´evelopp´ees aﬁn d’utiliser

conjointement toute l’information disponible (´energie/Doppler) pour la d´etection de cibles,

et dans notre cas de cibles marines. En particulier, ce travail analyse les limitations dues au

fouillis de mer. En eﬀet, le fouillis de mer pr´esentent des caract´eristiques qui ne sont pas

compatibles avec les hypoth`eses th´eoriques d’utilisation des STAP. Le fouillis pr´esentent de

fortes non stationnarit´es aussi bien temporelles que spatiales. Il pr´esente des statistiques non

gaussiennes, ce qui inﬂue sur la forme du d´etecteur optimal. De plus, il pr´esente un spectre

Doppler tr`es ´etendu englobant l’´echo Doppler de la cible. Par cons´equent une red´eﬁnition des

algorithmes de d´etection est un probl`eme primordial pour une application en milieu marin.

Aﬁn de tenir compte de la non gaussianit´e des signaux r´etrodiﬀus´es par la surface de la mer,

nous avons mod´elis´e le fouillis de mer par un processus al´eatoire sph´eriquement invariant

(SIRP) dont l’un des cas particuliers est le processus gaussien. En eﬀet, les diﬀ´erentes sous-

classes des signaux SIRP se distinguent par une fonction auxiliaire d’une variable al´eatoire

τ (lorsque cette variable al´eatoire devient constante, nous retrouvons le cas gaussien usuel).

Aﬁn de g´en´eraliser les d´etecteur `a des cas non gaussien, une approximation de la densit´e de

probabilit´e de cette variable al´eatoire par deux Dirac a ´et´e propos´ee. Une optimisation concer-

nant la distance entre les deux Diracs ainsi que des coeﬃcients de pond´eration de ces Diracs a

´et´e eﬀectu´ee. Cette approximation sert `a simpliﬁer les calculs n´ecessaires pour la proc´edures

de d´etection et plus particuli`erement pour l’estimation de la matrice de covariance. Cette

matrice est indispensable pour l’estimation du rapport de vraisemblance sur lequel se base

les proc´edures de d´etection. Plusieurs exp´eriences d’application sur des donn´ees simul´ees du

traitement spatio-temporelle ont ´et´e faites. Des exp´eriences similaires ont ´et´e eﬀectu´es avec

des donn´ees r´eelles (obtenues `a partir du radar HF WERA.), avec un ´etat de mer connu ainsi

que deux navires dont les positions ont ´et´e fournies par un AIS (Automatic Identiﬁcation

System). Les r´esultats (de simulation et exp´erimentaux) obtenus conﬁrment la possibilit´e de

traitement STAP eﬃcace pour la surveillance maritime. Des algorithmes plus classiques, tel

” l’Adaptative Multiple Target Indicators ” AMTI, ont aussi ´et´e d´evelopp´es `a des ﬁns de

comparaisons. Malgr´e le bruit, les interf´erences ou simplement le fouillis de mer en HF, les

r´esultats de d´etection des objets ﬂottants par la technique STAP sont tr`es prometteurs. Une

poursuite des recherches semble cependant n´ecessaire pour une application temps r´eel.

Space-Time Adaptive Signal Processing for Sea Surveillance Radars

There are several limitations of radar systems for sea surveillance. One group of limitations

is related to strong clutter from sea waves (especially during heavy seas periods). Therefore

a big challenge is to ﬁnd new processing techniques for this application. In this work it is

proposed to apply Space-Time Adaptive Technique for target detection on the sea surface.

Problems addressed in this work cover : clutter non-stationarity in space and time, clutter

non-Gaussianity, clutter with spread Doppler spectrum. The purpose of this work is to resolve

these problems. As a result this work serves as a complete guide how to deal with sea clutter

by modiﬁng STAP technique. In experiments author used a simulated data as well as data

from th real Surface Wave system WERA.

This PhD thesis is a result of cooperation between Military University of Technology in

Warsaw (Poland) and Telecom-Bretagne in Brest (France).

Traitement adaptatif temps-fr´equence pour les radars de surveillance mari-

time

Il existe plusieurs limitations dans les syst`emes radar de surveillance maritime. En par-

ticulier, un probl`eme important est le fort retour ´electromagn´etique de la surface de mer

(notamment pour les mers form´ees). La d´e´eﬁnition de nouvelles techniques de traitement de

ces donn´ees radar est un domaine en pleine expansion. Dans cette th`ese, nous proposons l’uti-

lisation de traitement adapatif dans les domaines temps-fr´equence (STAP en englais) pour

la d´etection d’objets sur la surface de mer. Cependant, cette m´ethodologie est confront´ee `a

plusieurs diﬃcult´es : Non stationnarit´e (dans le temps et l’espace) du fouillis de mer, Non

gaussianit´e de ce fouillis, fouillis avec un spectre Doppler ´etendu. Le propos de ce travail a ´et´e

d’´etudier des solutions `a ces divers probl`emes. En particulier, une modiﬁcation des techniques

de STAP (traitement et d´ecision) pour la prise en compte des probl`emes mentionn´es ci-dessus

est d´etaill´ee dans cette th`ese. Ces modiﬁcations ont ´et´e test´ees sur des donn´ees simul´ees, mais

aussi sur des donn´ees r´eelles obtenues grˆace au radar `a onde de surface WERA.

Cette th`ese s’inscrit dans le cadre de la coop´eration entre l’Universit´e Militaire de Varsovie

et T´el´ecom bretagne (Brest).

Contents

1 Introduction. 2 Radar Basics, Space-Time Adaptive Processing and Target Detection. 2.1 2.2 Radar principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of STAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.5 2.6 Problem Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radar System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Airborne Clutter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adaptive MTI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STAP Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assumptions and Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neyman-Pearson Lemma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative Hypothesis of the Form θ > θH0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative Hypothesis of the Form θ = θH0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detection of Known Narrowband Signals in Narrowband Noise. . . . . Detection of Known Narrowband Signals with Random Phase Angles.

1 3 4 10 10 10 11 14 16 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 27 30 31

Detection Principles: Neyman-Pearson Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Spherically Invariant Random Process (SIRP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Likelihood Ratio Test and Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test applied to the Spherically Invariant Random Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 2.6.2 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals - Likelihood Ratio Test. . . . Detection of Known Narrowband Signals with Random Phase Angles and Random Amplitude - GLRT Detector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.7

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Sea Clutter.

CONTENTS

ii

3.1 3.2 3.3

Sea clutter characterization in X band. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea clutter characterization in HF band. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32 36 47 50 50 51 51 55 56 56 60 63 65 65 66 70 73 75 76 76 80 80 87 88 88 89 91 92 97

4 Two Dirac delta detector. 4.1 4.2 Resolving GLRT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two Dirac Deltas approximation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.5 First approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reﬁned approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simulation parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Target Simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additive Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classical STAP detection performance evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . Numerical simpliﬁcations for TDD STAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of classical STAP and TDD STAP for ﬁxed ∆ parameter. Results for TDD STAP detector with automatic ∆ ﬁnding. . . . . . .

Simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 HF radar signals experiments and STAP technique modiﬁcations. 5.1 5.2 WERA radar system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of Adaptive MTI and STAP - covariance matrix estimation problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.4 5.5 Adaptive MTI implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STAP implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data ﬁle and target description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detection of the tug ship from Garchine radar site. . . . . . . . . . . . Detection of the tug ship from Brezzelec radar site. . . . . . . . . . . . Detection of the ﬁshery ship from Garchine radar site. . . . . . . . . . Detection of the ﬁshery ship from Brezzelec radar site. . . . . . . . . .

Comparisons between the results of AMTI and STAP . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Thresholding and detections presentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 104 106

6 Conclusions and perspectives A Gaussian complex process.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 FMCW L-band system .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . Bibliography 125 127 . . . . . 123 C. . . 119 C. .2 Preliminaries.6 FMCW X-band system . . . . 108 C Space Time Adaptive Processing based on Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave system. . . . . . . .practical example. . . . . .4 STAP system using FMCW. . . 110 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 D List of symbols and abbreviations. . . . . . . . 110 C. . . .practical example. . . . . . . . . . . 122 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS iii B Data generation. .3 Antenna array with FMCW. . . . . 121 C. . . . . . .practical example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 FMCW HF system . . . . . . . . . . 110 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Therefore a big challenge is to ﬁnd new techniques for this application. Reed in 1970’s [6]. These are big obstacles hindering to provide reliable surveillance data that cover Exclusive Economic Zone (200 nautical miles)1 24 hours a day. In the same chapter theory of Spherically Invariant Random Process 1 EEZ zone was deﬁned in 1982 by United Nations Convention in Montego Bay. It is also worth to mention here contribution of the paper written by E. Kelly [36]. 38]. target matching and threshold decision. 365 days a year. To this end there are three problems that can be identiﬁed with regards to the sea clutter problem. Nevertheless applications are mainly related to target detection in the presence of clutter that has Gaussian statistical properties. that the origin of STAP was the observation. One group of limitations is related to strong clutter from sea waves (especially during heavy seas periods). Clutter with spread Doppler spectrum. J. Generally we can say. to ﬁnd possible problems with implementing them and to try to ﬁnd solutions to these problems. SpaceTime Adaptive Processing (STAP) technique has a relatively long history. Brennan and Irving S. It will be shown how STAP was introduced for airborne radar. Surveillance can be understood as clutter (and interferences) suppression. . Another group is related to range limitations of present microwave systems. First section is devoted to basic radar concepts. Assumptions and limitations of STAP will be shown in the same chapter. The purpose of this work is to evaluate diﬀerent algorithms. The theory of STAP was ﬁrst published by Lawrence E. whereas complete monographies on this subject were published by Richard Klemm in 2002 and 2004 [37. In the ﬁrst chapter. Next section is an introduction to Adaptive MTI (AMTI) and STAP. In the next sections reader can ﬁnd some elements of detection theory and Neyman-Pearson Lemma and Test.CHAPTER 1 Introduction. The thesis of this work can be formulated as follows: STAP can be an eﬀective technique for the Sea Surveillance Radars. that clutter spectrum depends on the look angle of radar system. This will build a base to derive more general detectors than STAP in chapter 4. This work covers signal processing for this purpose. In this work it is proposed to apply this technique to target detection under non-Gaussian conditions. Present radar systems for sea surveillance have several limitations. and what was rationale standing behind this. 3. These problems are: 1. As a result this work serves as a complete guide how to deal with sea clutter by modifying STAP technique. reader can ﬁnd elementary radar concepts as well as an introduction to Space-Time Adaptive Processing. Clutter non-Gaussianity. 2. Clutter non-stationarity in space and time.

Its Doppler spectrum remains the same across diﬀerent look angles. It can deal with non-Gaussian clutter and noise. In chapter 5 experiments from High Frequency (HF) radar system will be presented. INTRODUCTION. In the ﬁrst section. For HF-band. Chapter 4 addresses the problem of the derivation of detectors under non-Gaussianity that was raised in chapter 3. This problem is treated in Appendix C. This chapter is concentrated on signal processing part and to much less extent on detection problems. from the oceanographic system WERA. therefore it is worth considering STAP technique to deal with this kind of clutter. HF radar systems. This theory is very useful when dealing with non-Gaussian clutter. Two radar bands will be considered: X-band and HF-band. Results were obtained using real data. This work can be viewed as an attempt to ﬁnd how to apply STAP technique to the problem of detecting targets on the sea surface. classical algorithms must be adapted. I performed some simulations. A discussion of the performances of usual STAP and the proposed detector under diﬀerent kind of clutter (Gaussian. . In this context new problems have to be faced. In this chapter two techniques will be considered. and the second is STAP. which will be also shown in this chapter. An exhaustive review of these problems can be found in [3]. Moreover. which operate in frequency range between 3 and 30 MHz. whereas STAP was derived under assumption of Gaussianity. and therefore it is reasonably to use STAP algorithm. Because of practical problems. Additional problems are addressed in Appendices. Therefore it is possible to improve classical STAP algorithm to deal with sea clutter. I will show. that classical STAP algorithm can be derived from this more general form. This is done in the framework of Spherically Invariant Random Process. that clutter and interferences have two-dimensional. Results were obtained using real data from WERA radar system. A new detector will be presented. X-band clutter Dopplerspectrum and its properties will be presented. Again we can see. for HF-band it is very likely to have strong radio interferences. It will be shown. The main contribution to the clutter is Bragg scattering. Author’s own calculations illustrating Bragg clutter and interferences will be presented.CHAPTER 1. This PhD thesis is a result of cooperation between Military University of Technology in Warsaw (Poland) and Telecom-Bretagne in Brest (France). the most important is the problem of application of STAP algorithm to Continuous Wave (CW) systems. that the new developed detector can give some improvement in comparison to classical STAP algorithm in the presence of non-Gaussian clutter. Unfortunately X-band sea clutter (especially for low grazing angles) has non-Gaussian properties [8]. It will be shown in the next chapter. Among them. non-Gaussian) is included. This problem will be treated in chapter 4. It will be shown. have a potential to detect targets which are located beyond optical horizon on the sea surface (Over The Horizon visibility . 2 (SIRP) is introduced. sea clutter properties are diﬀerent.OTH). that clutter Doppler shift and statistics are related to geometry of the scene as well as many ocean parameters [9]. Receiver Operation Curves (ROC) are presented based on simulations made by the author. First one is AMTI. that sea clutter very often has non-Gaussian properties and in this case we can employ theory of SIRP.3. The second chapter is devoted entirely to sea clutter characterization. To evaluate performances of classical and new STAP detector in non-Gaussian clutter. This property is exploited in STAP algorithm. Last section will be devoted to derivation of Neymann-Pearson tests in the case of SIRP. space and time structure.

Section 2. Therefore. This is how Moving Target Indication (MTI) and pulsed-Doppler radars were invented. This theory is very useful when dealing with non-Gaussian clutter. how to combine these two techniques . STAP is a technique that performs adaptation in two domains at the same time (whereas Adaptive MTI works only in time domain). We can generally say that these techniques are based on Fourier analysis and sometimes adaptive ﬁltering (Adaptive MTI) and proved to be very eﬀective in suppressing clutter. It will be shown how STAP was introduced for airborne radar. these techniques are based only on time-domain. Assumptions and limitations will be shown in the same section. In section 2. This will build a base to derive more general detectors than STAP.5 will present theory of Spherically Invariant Random Process (SIRP). noise. Section 2. Present radar systems operate in very diﬃcult environment. Some examples of Neyman-Pearson tests will be presented in section 2. The other group of signal processing techniques is based on adaptive antennas. The solution was introduction of Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP). interferences and jamming. the solution was to reduce resolution cell to limit the clutter power. apart from solving strictly technical problems such as increasing peak power. improving range resolution. In section 2. and what was rationale standing behind this.2 Adaptive MTI (AMTI) and classical STAP algorithm will be introduced. that classical STAP algorithm can be derived from this .3 will be devoted to detection theory and to the Neyman-Pearson Lemma and Test. that sea clutter very often has non-Gaussian properties and in this case we can employ theory of SIRP.4. It will be shown. where target echo must compete against ground or sea clutter. After deployment of pulse-coherent radars it became possible to apply more advanced techniques based on Doppler eﬀect. Section 2. that will be described in this chapter.one operating in time domain and the other in space domain.6 will be devoted to derivation of Neymann-Pearson tests in the case of SIRP. More information on this topic can be found in [44]. Very exhaustive description of such systems can be found in [53]. This group is operating in space domain and employ array antennas to suppress directional interference and other directional distortions. In the era of non-coherent radars.CHAPTER 2 Radar Basics. there is a need of eﬀective signal processing techniques to detect targets while maintaining reasonably low level of false alarms. Space-Time Adaptive Processing and Target Detection. It will be shown later. The problem however persisted. However.1 elementary radar concepts will be presented. This raises possibilities of suppressing distortions that have two-dimensional structure.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.

4

Figure 2.1 — Radar principle - electromagnetic wave reﬂection from a target.

more general form.

2.1

Radar principles.

Radar is a sensor that uses electromagnetic waves to obtain information about the range, direction or speed of moving or ﬁxed objects. The simplest radar system transmits modulated pulses of electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic wave is then partially reﬂected by an object and returns toward radar receiver as a target echo (see Fig. 2.1). Radar can measure the time between transmition of the pulse and reception of the echo, and calculate distance to the target using formula: ct R= (2.1) 2 where R is a measured distance to the target, c is a speed of light and t is elapsed time between transmission and reception of the echo. Fig. 2.2 presents basic time relations that are important in radar systems. Pulse Repetition Interval (PRI) is related to the fact that usually radars transmit signals that are periodical. PRI is a time between two successive pulses transmitted by the radar. τ denotes pulse duration. t is the time that is passed between transmission of the pulse and reception of the target echo. Usually, information about distance to the target is presented in the discreet form, therefore instead of the range it is better to use the term range gate or range cell - Fig. 2.3. This means nothing more but the discretization of the range value. This principle allows to obtain information about the distance and direction

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.

5

Figure 2.2 — Basic time relations.

Figure 2.3 — Range gates.

to the target. To be able to extract velocity information about the target it is necessary to introduce pulse-coherent radar. This means the use of quadrature receiver which extracts amplitude together with phase information on pulse to pulse basis. Structure of such a receiver is presented in Fig. 2.4. After this process, for each range gate we have a series of complex samples. Samples are obtained from successive pulses of the radar. If the target is not moving, relative to the radar, phase of this series of samples is constant (precisely angles of complex samples). If the target is moving between pulses, then the angles of complex samples are changing from pulse to pulse. This is the way to extract Doppler, and therefore velocity information. In practice, to extract Doppler information, a ﬁnite sequence of pulses is used. Therefore it is worth to remind some basic relations: fD = 2Vr λ (2.2)

Figure 2.4 — Quadrature Receiver [41]. fc denotes radar carrier frequency, fs denotes sampling frequency.

CHAPTER 2. RADAR BASICS, SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.

6

Figure 2.5 — Environmental diagram [53].

where fD denotes Doppler frequency of the target, λ is a radar pulse wavelength and Vr is a target radial velocity relative to the radar. Doppler resolution is related to the dwelling time, which in practice means the time of coherent processing: Dr = 1 TDWELL (2.3)

where Dr denotes Doppler resolution expressed in Hz. This can be expressed in terms of number of pulses - n. Let PRF=1/PRI (Pulse Repetition Frequency). Then: Dr = PRF n (2.4)

It can be seen, that to improve Doppler resolution it is necessary to increase dwelling time which in practice means to use more pulses in processing. The PRI multiplied by the number of processed pulses is often called Coherent Processing Interval (CPI) and is exactly the same as dwelling time. The other important relation is an unambiguous velocity condition: PRF > 2fD (2.5)

This condition is a radar equivalent of Nyquist-Shannon-Kotelnikov theorem. It means, that to be able to unambiguously determine the target velocity it is necessary to have PRF greater than twice the Doppler shift of this target. In practice, however, very often this condition isn’t fulﬁlled and we have situation, when velocity is ambigiuous. Operator of the radar, in such a case, must be aware that velocity of the target can be diﬀerent than the one indicated by the system. Unfortunately in real scenarios, radar receives echoes not only from targets, but also other signals. This can include interferences from other sources (eg. jamming), as well as reﬂection from objects that are not interesting from the point of view of radar operator. All of this signals are called clutter. Sometimes the term clutter is used in a narrower sense when it means only passive distortions (excluding interferences). In Fig. 2.5 it is shown an environmental diagram that radar engineer can face. It can be seen, that apart from targets, many other sources of signal are present. These distortions can be suppressed by signal processing techniques such as MTI, Adaptive Beamforming (AB) or STAP. MTI technique is based on Doppler principle. For example, if only ground clutter is present for not moving radar system, then clutter has approximately zero Doppler shift. Therefore

This concept is named Space-Time Adaptive Processing and is presented in the next section.CHAPTER 2.9). Another group of techniques are phased or adaptive arrays. Figure 2.7. 2. Next step in radar technology evolution was to introduce combination of a MTI and adaptive arrays in a single technique. Adaptivity means. In this case each antenna has its own quadrature receiver. 2. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. Finally when dealing with multiple interference sources. For simplicity reasons quadrature receivers are not presented in the picture. 2.6 — Principle of MTI technique [53]. Then adaptive techniques can be useful in this case.8).6). Situation is more complicated when the clutter is moving in relation to the radar.11. 2. The concept of adaptive array is based on the idea of changing antenna pattern in order to steer antenna null toward interference source as presented in Fig. to reject clutter it is necessary to implement Doppler ﬁlter having stopband around zero Doppler frequency (see Fig. Then null steering is performed by applying appropriate complex weight to each of the antennas (see Fig. it is necessary to apply multiple nulls. This can be done using more antennas in array antenna (Fig. This can be realized using two-antennas and introducing signal phase shift between antennas (Fig. 7 Figure 2. 2. that ﬁlters adapt themselves to the clutter properties in Doppler domain.10). Modiﬁcation of this technique is an application of quadrature receivers (the same as for MTI technique). RADAR BASICS. Example of a complete system is presented in Fig. . 2.7 — Concept of steering antenna null toward interference [33].

8 — Null steering using phase shifters [33]. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.CHAPTER 2. Figure 2. . d denotes distance between antennas.9 — Two element adaptive antenna [33]. 8 Figure 2. RADAR BASICS.

11 — Complete adaptive array system [44]. . Figure 2. 9 Figure 2. RADAR BASICS.10 — Four antennas array [33].CHAPTER 2. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.

STAP is a modern signal processing technique.13) ﬁltering.2 Overview of STAP. therefore we assume this conﬁguration only. 2. receiving elements are placed along an axis perpendicular to the ﬂight axis.13) on the ground is sampled in space by array elements. There are possible two basic conﬁgurations: side-looking and forward-looking. clutter rejection will also reject target echo.12). where target echo is outside the clutter band). For side-looking conﬁguration. This phase diﬀerence is related to cone angle α. that can improve target detectability in the presence of a strong clutter. we assume that receiving elements are equally-spaced. Axis Vp denotes ﬂight direction.1 Problem Statement.12 shows simpler case. which allows angle of arrival ﬁltering. 2. 2. . For other conﬁgurations (with slant angle). In Fig. more exhaustive analysis of STAP can be found in a book written by Richard Klemm [37]. In this case. STAP employs antenna array. 10 Figure 2. This is a result of relative velocity between antenna platform (aircraft) and ground area illuminated by the radar system. 2. analysis is more complicated.13 we can see the geometry of airborne antenna arrays. but qualitative results are similar. target echo can fall within the clutter bandwidth and may be hidden under the clutter (Fig. If we consider Moving Target Indication for airborne radar. with element spacing equal to λ/2 (λ denotes wavelength). Wave-front coming from point P is arriving at antenna receiving elements at diﬀerent moments in time. For forwardlooking conﬁguration. Also for simplicity reasons. In order to achieve its objective. In other words: there is a phase diﬀerence among array channels. while preserving echo coming from moving target. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. receiving elements are placed along the ﬂight axis.2 Radar System. 2. 2. 2. Echo arriving from point P (Fig. but parallel to the ground plane. As a consequence. Antenna array allows cone-angle (α in Fig. RADAR BASICS. Side-looking conﬁguration is simpler to analyze. 2.12 — Airborne clutter [53]. STAP objective is to ﬁlter-out ground clutter.CHAPTER 2.2. then we face the problem that echo coming from non-moving ground objects (ground clutter) possess non-zero Doppler bandwidth [53] (Fig. In this section only short review on this topic is presented.2.

Lines on the ground of constant Doppler shift are named isodops.CHAPTER 2. all such points have the same Doppler shift (proportional to cos α). 2. it can be shown that Doppler shift of echo coming from non-moving environment depends on cone angle [37]. airborne radar experiences reﬂections not from the whole space but from the ground plane only (excluding potential target). 2.3 Airborne Clutter. If we consider moving radar system (Fig. More precisely. But usually. 2.13 — Geometry of airborne antenna arrays [37].14. Therefore. Result of intersection of a cone with a plane is a hyperbola. to obtain the set of points with the same Doppler shift we should intersect cone surface with the ground plane as in Fig. In our case a single hyperbola is exactly an isodop. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. therefore.2. Each point in space. surface of constant Doppler shift. The cone is.14). Therefore. seen by the radar under angle α is approaching radar at the same speed. Figure 2. this speed is proportional to the radar platform velocity and to the cosinus of the angle α. 11 Figure 2. RADAR BASICS. .14 — Moving radar system [58]. Hyperbola is therefore a set of all points with the same Doppler shift.

Figure 2.16 and 2. Taking into account both isodops and isorange lines. It is a circle on the ground.17). are placed positive-Doppler isodops. Each Doppler shift is related to a single isodop (hyperbola). we see that for the speciﬁc range and for the speciﬁc Doppler shift. 2. 2. On the right side of zero-Doppler isodop. together with the information about the range to the target. 12 Figure 2. Bunch of isodops is shown in Fig.15 — Isodops [37].CHAPTER 2.16 — Range sphere [58]. This can . On the left side are placed negative-Doppler isodops. we receive echo from speciﬁc areas on the ground. which is an intersection of a ground plane and a sphere with the radius which corresponds to our range of interest(Fig. We are usually interested in target detection. Isorange line is a line of constant range to the radar. RADAR BASICS.15. In the same ﬁgure it can be seen that zero-Doppler isodop (fr = 0) is a straight line perpendicular to the ﬂight path. The last of them is a maximum-Doppler isodop (fr = 1) which is in fact a half of a straight line. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.

18) as a result of the fact.17 — Isorange circles and isodops [53]. Moreover for the simple case of a side-looking antenna conﬁguration. Slow target (dashed line) is a target whose radial speed Vr to the radar is small in comparison with the speed of the radar platform relative to the ground Vp .18) two possible targets are depicted. 2.CHAPTER 2. For other antenna conﬁgurations. clutter lays on a straight line (in Fig. Movement of the radar platform generates clutter whose Doppler spectrum extends from . clutter has a diﬀerent pattern. Figure 2. One so-called slow target and the other so-called fast target. but always occupies only small part of that plane. be paraphrased: clutter from the speciﬁc range and of the speciﬁc Doppler shift is arriving from speciﬁc angles only. that Doppler shift is proportional to the cos α. This relation is exploited in STAP.18 we can see space-time clutter structure in Doppler frequency-cosinus of cone angle (α) coordinate system.18 — Space-time structure of clutter [37]. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. RADAR BASICS. as was shown before. 2. 2. Clutter occupies only part of the coordinate plane. In Fig. In the picture (Fig. 13 Figure 2.

1. The rest of the processing is performed independently for each beam.19). On the other hand.6). In this case there is only low risk. Before introducing STAP algorithm it is worth to recall Adaptive MTI (AMTI).4 Adaptive MTI.19 — Data cube [43]. 2. fast target is a target whose radial speed to the radar platform is high in comparison to the radar platform speed. 2. that echo from this target will be suppressed. Therefore echo from this target is likely to be suppressed by the temporal MTI ﬁlter (see Fig. The ﬁrst step of processing is beamforming (Fig.18) allows to ﬁlter out clutter echo and preserve target echo. 2. Data cube consists of complex samples taken from N pulses by M antenna elements for range cells from 1 to L.18) or separate angle ﬁltering (inverse spatial clutter ﬁlter in Fig. For each range-beam cell. Two-dimensional ﬁltering (space-time clutter ﬁlter in Fig. 2. that pulse train consists of N coherent pulses. As a result. clutter Doppler spectrum generated by the movement of the platform can be broader than Doppler shift of the target. adaptive ﬁlter is calculated using auxiliary range cells of the same beam.18) may ﬁlter-out target signal together with the clutter. This algorithm was used for example in [25]. After this step data are available as a cube with beams instead of antennas (Fig. AMTI (purely temporal adaptive ﬁltering) utilizes echoes from coherent pulse trains received by an antenna array. Echoes are coherently sampled by a quadrature receiver as described in section 2.2. where λ is a radar working wavelength (see Fig. it can be seen. 14 Figure 2. AMTI is operating on so-called data cube (Fig.6) .CHAPTER 2. 2. Pulse trains allows temporal (Doppler) ﬁltering. whereas diﬀerent channels of antenna array allow spatial (angle) ﬁltering.12). Since we are interested in detecting both slow and fast targets. RADAR BASICS. 2. We are assuming. −2Vp /λ to +2Vp /λ. Some of the targets will not be detected. 2. Formula for the test statistic is given by [53]: η= ˆ |vH R−1 xk |2 k H R−1 v ˆ v k (2. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. 2.20). 2.21). that separate Doppler (inverse temporal clutter ﬁlter in Fig.20 and 2.

RADAR BASICS.21 — Data snapshot. Sample covariance matrix is calculated using auxiliary snapshots of the same beam. Underlying assumption of both AMTI and STAP is that clutter follows Gaussian process. results available in the form of the test statistics cube (range × velocity × angle).6). that above test statistics is of the same form as for STAP (which will be shown in the next section). 15 Figure 2. vectors and matrices are related to a single beam and multiple pulses. space and time structure.CHAPTER 2. This test k statistics has a property of Constant False Alarm Ratio (CFAR). SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. where v is a steering vector for tested velocity. Usually auxiliary snapshots are taken from the same beam but from diﬀerent range cells. The diﬀerence is the interpretation of vectors and matrices present in the equation (2. Figure 2. and R−1 is an inverse of the sample covariance matrix. . For AMTI. as long as clutter follows Gaussian distribution [53]. xk is a data vector (N pulses) from the range ˆ cell and the beam of interest.20 — Beamforming. It is worth to mention here. After such a processing. whereas for STAP it will be vectors related to two-dimensional.

. For further processing we need to vectorize slice (2. . 2. STAP is processing one slice of the data cube. α denotes the cone angle (Fig.N where k denotes range cell. (2. RADAR BASICS. . . M is the number of antennas.2. STAP is operating on the raw data cube (Fig.N [xk ] [xk ]2. .2 .2 . Then Xk is the backscatter signal from one range cell (k) but for all pulses and antennas. [xk ]M.radial velocity λ between reﬂecting point and antenna.2 . .8) where a denotes a random complex amplitude and ss−t (fsp . exp(j2π · (M − 1)fsp ) · exp(j2π · (N − 1)fd ) d where fsp = λ cos(α).10) . we perform in fact a 2-D Fourier Transform in the space and the time domain. received space-time snapshot should be of the form [37]: xk = a · ss−t (fsp . . [xk ]M.wavelength and T is a PRI. To make proﬁt of angle dependency of Doppler shift. Assuming that ﬁrst antenna element is a reference point. fd ) = (2.1 . . . [xk ]2. .13). . SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.2 . .1 Xk = . .CHAPTER 2.2 .N 2.3 . .2 . a denotes antenna and b denotes pulse. [xk ]2. where ssp (fsp ) is a vector performing space processing and st (fd ) is the Doppler processing vector. N is the number of pulses processed. [xk ]2.7) . fd ) = ssp (fsp ) ⊗ st (fd ). .5 STAP Processing. [xk ]2.b . fd ) is the following steering vector: 1 · 1 exp(j2π · fsp ) · 1 exp(j2π · 2fsp ) · 1 exp(j2π · 3fsp ) · 1 . . . . 2. [xk ]M. [xk ]1.1 .3 .19).. . . When multiplying a vector by the above steering vector. 16 2. .1 . [xk ]1.7) by stacking each succeeding column one beneath the other. exp(j2π · (M − 1)fsp ) · 1 1 · exp(j2π · fd ) exp(j2π · fsp ) · exp(j2π · fd ) ss−t (fsp . λ . .9) (2. . [xk ]1. . [xk ]M. . . This operation yields the space-time snapshot for the k -th range: xT = [xk ]1. fd = 2·νr T .N k T denotes transposition. vr . Let us consider a single reﬂecting point. . . and in expression [xk ]a. for the range cell of interest: [xk ]1. exp(j2π · (M − 1)fsp ) · exp(j2π · fd ) 1 · exp(j2π · 2fd ) exp(j2π · fsp ) · exp(2π · 2fd ) . .1 [xk ]M. . .1 [xk ]1. fd ) (2. . . . The steering vector can be written as ss−t (fsp . [xk ]M.

wk . Test grid must be dense enough. Signal to Noise(plus Interference) Ratio maximization(SNR). which will be shown in the section 2. In practice both R−1 and ss−t (fsp . In practice neither velocity nor angle is known.13) β denotes scalar. k ˆ Instead of R−1 .14) This is true under diﬀerent optimization criteria . Above formula can be derived from Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test. fd ) k (2. To construct this vector it is necessary to possess perfect knowledge about the target velocity and angle α relative to the antenna (see Fig. For MTI purpose. H1 denotes an alternative hypothesis that target is present. fd ) and surrogate vs−t leads to some performance loss of detector. Using optimum weight vector and taking [43]: β= 1 H ˆ vs−t R−1 vs−t k .6. fd ) is steering vector for.Maximum Likelihood estimation(ML). ck stands for clutter return. . fd ).12) where yk is a resulting scalar. Then each point from velocity-angle grid is transformed into a surrogate steering vector vs−t . 17 Registered space-time snapshot is a result of coherent summation of waves from many sources: xk = sk + ck + jk + nk (2. 2. ss−t (fsp . Minimum Noise Variance(MV) estimation and Least Mean Square Error(LMSE) estimation. and superscript H denotes conjugate transpose. Of course target and jammer signals are not always present.11) sk denotes a target reﬂection. possible target. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. RADAR BASICS. but only under assumption of proper complex Gaussian process (multivariate complex Gaussian process with vanishing pseudo-covariance [46]) of the clutter.13). fd ) are unknown. R−1 is an inverse of covariance matrix of xk : Rk = E{xk xH } assuming no k k target signal present in the data. Formula for the optimum weight vector1 is [37]: wk = β · R−1 · ss−t (fsp .10) for the possible target we want to detect. we can test for targets at a series of discrete points covering angle-velocity space (test grid). jk is jammer signal and nk represents uncorrelated noise. fd ) is a steering vector (2.CHAPTER 2. Classical STAP processor is a linear ﬁlter [36] [51] of the form [37]: H yk = wk · xk (2. to suﬃciently precisely approximate velocity and angle of any possible target. Instead. decision function has to discriminate between two hypotheses: H0 : xk = ck + jk + nk H1 : xk = sk + ck + jk + nk where H0 denotes null hypothesis that there is no target within the range cell of interest. that will be used in (2. only one. gives test statistics [43]: η= 1 H ˆ |vs−t R−1 xk |2 k ˆ vH R−1 vs−t s−t k (2. Mismatch between real ss−t (fsp . This assumption will be examined more deeply in subsequent parts of this work.weight vector. an inverse of the sample covariance matrix R−1 is often used.13) as a replacement of ss−t (fsp . k k ss−t (fsp .

(2.g. and the other is a velocity of a potential target. xt is an In-phase vector: xT = [xt ]1 . For the simple one-dimensional case. [yt ]M ·N Similarly to one-dimensional case. One dimension of this map is an angle.2. STAP underlying assumption is: clutter can be modeled by a proper complex Gaussian (band-pass) process [37] which is explained underneath. Then: ct = vt cos(ωc t + θt ). This map represents a grid of surrogates vs−t for a true steering ss−t . a two-dimensional real test statistics map is obtained as an output of the STAP ﬁlter (for any range cell of interest). identically distributed from normal distribution of a zero mean value and the same variance. If η > γ the verdict is: target is present. and yt . in [53] and [44]. If η < γ then the verdict is: target is absent. among others. We can now treat xt and yt as real and imaginary parts of complex process. . RADAR BASICS. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. 2. . [xt ]M ·N t and yt is an Quadrature vector: T yt = [yt ]1 . [xt ]3 . [yt ]3 . are independently. . and voltage envelope vt is Rayleigh distributed. we assume that: E{xt } = 0. Formulation for optimum processing can be found.15) where xt . As a result. E{yt } = 0 This implies that the process is entirely characterized by its covariance matrix: E x [xT yT ] = M y For narrowband processes. STAP is a special case of optimum processing in the presence of Gaussian distortions. 18 This test statistics has a Constant False Alarm Ratio (CFAR) property [51] (from [43]). [yt ]2 . [xt ]2 . . covariance matrix can be presented in the speciﬁc form (see Appendix A) [48] [56] [44] [53]: E 1 x [xT yT ] = y 2 V −W W V . For multidimensional case (e. Gaussian Assumption.16) θt is uniformly distributed. which is unknown.6 Assumptions and Limitations. multiple M sensors and coherent N pulses).CHAPTER 2. xt and yt become vectors xt and yt . proper Gaussian process can be represented as [44] [53]: ct = xt cos(ωc t) − yt sin(ωc t) (2. Decision function is constructed by comparing η to a ﬁxed threshold γ.

so test statistics must be reformulated. In this section Neyman-Pearson Test will be introduced. For other distributions of the clutter. In this case. covariance matrix does not describe distribution entirely. Two examples of LO test will be shown.see Fig. For practical applications.19). However. . Moreover. N = 128 and P > 5632. which is M N . [xt ]M ·N + j[yt ]M ·N then the covariance matrix is: E{zzH } = V + jW Using this notation. it will be presented Locally Optimum (LO) test. .13) . that there is a possibility to adopt other approach like Bayesian reasoning or non-parametric tests. k As it is stated on page 17. First.3 Detection Principles: Neyman-Pearson Test. In this work. It is worth to mention. Finally.3.13) as Rk .17) where vectors xm are usually taken from neighboring cells of space-time snapshot of data cube (see Fig. P should be greater than 2M N [50]. optimum detector will not necessary be a linear ﬁlter as discussed in section 2. for good performance.8). Therefore we must exclude sample from range cell of interest and samples in vicinity (guard cells). it will be shown LRT for simple hypothesis testing. in practice we do not know real covariance matrix. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. we describe multidimensional narrowband Gaussian process using M N x M N complex covariance matrix. Usually Sample Covariance Matrix (SM) is used [37]: 1 ˆ Rk = P P xm xH m m=1 (2. 2. author concentrated on classical Neyman-Pearson theory.ss−t (fsp . After it will be shown GLRT that it is often used for composite hypothesis testing. for SM to be invertible P must be greater than dimension of covariance matrix [12]. however. This estimator is Minimum Likelihood Estimator if xm are IID (Independent and Identically Distributerd). Therefore we must use an estimator. This result is then used in STAP formula in (2. fd ) . 19 Therefore it is possible to represent this process in complex notation. RADAR BASICS. for example M = 22. The rest of (2. If we assume complex vector: [xt ]1 + j[yt ]1 [xt ] + j[yt ] 2 2 zt = . .19 and (2. that can be used under certain constraints for composite alternative hypothesis.2. Moreover they should come from the same distribution as the clutter at the range cell of interest (this restriction is called homogeneity condition). 2. Estimate of R−1 .CHAPTER 2. it may be diﬃcult to provide adequate homogeneous sample support.can be viewed as a matched ﬁltering. Additionally we must exclude target signal from samples taken for calculating SM.

meanwhile having size of a test (probability of false alarm) reasonably low. power function can be viewed as a function that gives probability of detection as a function of unknown parameter θ. If set ΘH0 consists of a single element θH0 only. x2 .3 Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test. . ΘH0 and ΘH1 are disjoint.3. Let us further assume that θ ∈ Θ = ΘH0 ∪ ΘH1 . The size of a test is the quantity: α = supθ∈ΘH 0 p(θ|δ) (2.18) . SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. . The aim is to have power function (probability of detection) high. Usually we want this function to be high for θ ∈ ΘH1 . Let us consider simple hypothesis H0 (θ = θH0 ) and simple hypothesis H1 (θ = θH1 ).20) Size of a test in radar target detection problem is translated to the probability of a false alarm. δ(x) = 0 means adoption of hypothesis H0 . . Constant t may be evaluated to obtain desired test size α. The power function p(θ|δ) of a test based on a test function δ is deﬁned for θ ∈ ΘH0 ∪ ΘH1 as: p(θ|δ) = E {δ(x)|θ} (2. fX (x|θH1 ) >t (2. RADAR BASICS. x3 . Similar relates to alternative hypothesis H1 . Let us use δ(x) symbol for the decision function.2 Neyman-Pearson Lemma. Let x = (x1 .21) we can adopt maximum likelihood ˆ ˆ estimates θH0 and θH1 of the parameter θ.3. xn ) be a vector of observations (speciﬁc realization of X ) in Rn .3. General structure of a most powerful test2 may be described as one comparing the likelihood ratio to a constant threshold [35]. δ(x) = 1 means adoption of hypothesis H1 . .1 Notation.19) In target detection problems. These estimates can be used in place of θH0 and θH1 in (2. . X2 . .CHAPTER 2. . .21). Test 2 Most powerful test is a hypothesis test which has the greatest power among all possible tests of a given size. 20 2. Xn ) of observations with joint probability density function (PDF) fX (x|θ). obtained under the constraints θ ∈ ΘH0 and θ ∈ ΘH1 respectively [35].21) is greater than threshold t. Let us assume random vector X = (X1 .21) fX (x|θH0 ) If the likelihood ratio on the left-hand side of (2. Let us consider again general test of the form (2. . 2. than we decide to accept hypothesis H1 .composite hypothesis testing. X3 . we say that hypothesis zero is simple. otherwise we say that hypothesis zero is composite. where θ is a parameter of the density function.18) Decision should be based on observations x. Hypothesis testing can be viewed now as deciding between: H0 : X has PDF fX (x|θ) with θ ∈ ΘH0 H1 : X has PDF fX (x|θ) with θ ∈ ΘH1 (2. 2. To use Neyman-Pearson Lemma and likelihood ratio test (2.

RADAR BASICS. This is often the case in radar signal processing.the same as GLRT in (2. and GLRT looks as follows: ˆ fX (x|θH1 ) >t fX (x|θH0 ) (2.22) H1 : X has PDF fX (x|θ) with θ = θH0 ˆ Then θH0 can be replaced by exactly known θH0 .3. Test function . that will be later used in derivation of target detectors. 2.23): H0 : X has PDF fX (x|θ) with θ = θH0 H1 : X has PDF fX (x|θ) with θ = θH0 against (2. There are also many situations when we need to test two sided alternative hypothesis . It can be seen that denominator of test statistics is the same as in (2. This is form.23) denumerator is of the same as in LRT. but H1 is composite. and numerator comes from GLRT. Numerator is however of an arbitrary form adjusted to be optimal in vicinity of θH0 . In this case we can also derive LO test. for assumed test size α.CHAPTER 2. H0 : X has PDF fX (x|θ) with θ = θH0 against (2. In this case we can derive Locally Optimum (LO) test. This detector will behave properly for θs close to θH0 .23).4 Alternative Hypothesis of the Form θ > θH0 . This test can be also viewed as [35]: d ln fX (x|θ) dθ >t θ=θH0 (2. This time we assume a special form of the test: H0 : X has PDF fX (x|θ) with θ = θH0 H1 : X has PDF fX (x|θ) with θ > θH0 against (2. when we want to detect a target echo. H1 is composite. Test structure is as follows [35]: d dθ fX (x|θ) θ=θH0 fX (x|θH0 ) >t (2. decision function will be most powerful in vicinity of θH0 in deciding against θ > θH1 . Sometimes it is possible to derive other detectors based on LRT. In order to achieve this. we need to impose some restrictions to the test function. when null hypothesis is composite and alternative hypothesis is simple. This means that.3.26) The problem with its practical use is the necessity of knowing derivative of likelihood function.27) H0 is again simple hypothesis. 2. 21 derived in this procedure is named General Likelihood Ratio Test.25) where t is again threshold appropriately chosen to achieve desired test size. It is possible to consider a special case of this test.24) We now say that H0 is a simple hypothesis. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.5 Alternative Hypothesis of the Form θ = θH0 .

n. Which means that test satisﬁes [35]: p(θ|δ) ≤ α. This detector will behave properly for θ’s close to θH0 . we receive in-phase and quadrature samples xIi and xQi .1 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals in Narrowband Noise. governed by a common univariate density function fL .4. 22 must be unbiased.CHAPTER 2.d. After quadrature detection with carrier frequency ω0 and sampling with Nyquist frequency. . for all θ ∈ ΘH1 For the two-sided alternative hypothesis.23) will be used. band-pass white noise with a constant power spectral density N0 /2 over the band of interest (and zero outside). RADAR BASICS. Numerator is again of an arbitrary form adjusted to be optimal in vicinity of θH0 .i. . in the rest of the work GLRT test in the form (2. We are interested in testing θ = 0 against θ > 0. two examples will be presented as an illustration of the tests presented in section 2.i. The same as before.28) (2. again. but independent only for the Gaussian case. Locally Optimum(LO) looks as follows [35]: d2 f (x|θ)|θ=θH dθ2 X 0 >t fX (x|θH0 ) (2.29) where t is. random variables. WQi ) that are i. where i = 1 . This time it is necessary to know second derivative of a likelihood function. zero mean. Similarly we assume the same for wQi with the same PDF fL . Therefore we must adopt bivariate probability density function fIQ . random variables with common bivariate PDF fIQ . Therefore. for all θ ∈ ΘH0 p(θ|δ) ≥ α. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.30) Here υ(t) and φ(t) are known amplitude and phase modulations.30) we will assume that wIi form a sequence of i. Samples can include signal part and noise part: xIi = θsIi + wIi xQi = θsQi + wQi (2. we assume two dimensional noise samples (WIi . .31) Following the (2. Beneath will be presented an example of deriving LO detector in the case. it can be seen that denominator of test statistics is the same as in (2. though it may be interesting to apply these detectors for non-Gaussian clutter. Noise process W (t) will be assumed to be stationary.3. Components wIi and wQi are uncorrelated for each i [56](from [35]). We also assume that sIi and sIi are completely known. These two examples are close to the problems faced in radar target detection. GLRT test can be applied in more general case and in many situations GLRT is simpler to derive and analyse. We will use model: X(t) = θυ(t) cos[ω0 t + φ(t)] + W (t) (2.d.23). 2. θ is overall signal amplitude.4 Examples In this section. where we can obtain a simple form of derivatives for uncorrelated noise. threshold appropriately chosen to achieve desired test size. 2. for which marginal density functions are fl . To summarize.

33) where ri = cation −h (ri ) ri h(ri ) x2 + x2 .30) in the sense that we introduce additional random starting phase ψ of our signal of interest: X(t) = θυ(t) cos[ω0 t + φ(t) + ψ] + W (t) (2. and takes on the form [35]: n λLO (XI . becomes the usual matched ﬁlter [35]: n becomes constant and LO ﬁlter λLO (XI .32) In this situation LO statistics can be derived using (2.29). −h (ri ) ri h(ri ) For the special case of Gaussian noise components. Next example illustrates also LO detector.34) 2.25).38) i=1 More general multivariate case of spherically invariant random processes will be discussed later . υ) can be written as a function of u2 + υ 2 : fIQ (u.37) LO detector test statistics can be derived using (2. 23 Moreover we assume that fIQ is a circularly symmetric 3 bivariate density function. XQ ) = + 3 1 2 1 2 n 2 υi i=1 n i=1 h (ri ) h (ri ) − h(ri ) h(ri ) 2 2 + n h (ri ) ri h(ri ) −h (ri ) si YiT ri h(ri ) 2 −h (ri ) si XiT ri h(ri ) 1 + 2 (2.30). Nonlinear envelope modiﬁIi Qi and linear operation on I and Q components: sIi xIi +sQi xQi (matched ﬁltering).33) we can distinguish two elements. After similar operations as for (2. XQ ) = i=1 −h (ri ) [sIi xIi + sQi xQi ] ri h(ri ) (2.4. RADAR BASICS. xIi ) (sIi . we get samples: xIi = θ[sIi cos ψ + sQi sin ψ] + wIi (2. Model in this situation is diﬀerent from (2.35) We assume that ψ is uniformly distributed over [0. 2π]. sQi ) s2 + s2 Ii Qi x2 + x2 Ii Qi (2. υ) = h(r) √ r= u2 +υ 2 (2. In (2.36) xQi = θ[sIi sin ψ + sQi cos ψ] + wQi To simplify formulation let us introduce additional notation: Xi Yi si 2 υi ri = = = = = (xIi . and becomes [35]: λLO (XI . which √ means that fIQ (u. xQi ) (−xQi . XQ ) = i=1 [sIi xIi + sQi xQi ] (2.2 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals with Random Phase Angles. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.CHAPTER 2.

while keeping many of its useful characteristics [2]. that will be used in other sections of this work.39) Gσ (σ) denotes cumulative distribution function of σ If E(σ 2 ) = 1 then M = E[ZZ T ]. If we assume continuous case for σ distribution then we have: ∞ −1 1 1 − X H Φ2 X σ f (X) = m g(σ)dσ e (2. this detector remains non-linear. 24 This form is very complicated and includes matched ﬁltering together with nonlinear envelope modiﬁcation similarly to the previous example. dτ = 2σdσ and dσ = 2dττ .43) . Spherically Invariant Random Process can be represented as [2]: Z = σI where Z denotes n-dimensional Spherically Invariant Random Vector (SIRV). For calculations to be feasible it is desirable to have uncorrelated noise. Let τ = σ 2 . It will be useful to introduce one more √ √ representation of a SIRP.5 Spherically Invariant Random Process (SIRP). the SIRP can model a large number of distortions that have been used for sea clutter. I is a ndimensional multivariate Gaussian random vector and σ is a positive random scalar with assumed probability density function (PDF). PDF of a SIRV vector can be presented in the following form [49]: f (Z) = 1 n/2 |M |1/2 (2π) ∞ 0 1 − Z T M −1 Z 2σ 2 dGσ (σ) e σn (2. GLRT test is based directly on Neyman-Pearson test and in many cases is easier to calculate.40) let us denote dimension of X by m = n/2. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. On the other hand. .CHAPTER 2. 2. as we detail in chapter 3. Therefore in the rest of this work only GLRT will be considered. X= . Therefore 1 f (X) = m π |Φ| ∞ 0 √ 1 − X H Φ−1 X g( τ ) τ √ dτ e τm 2 τ (2. Even in Gaussian case. RADAR BASICS. then σ = τ . In this section theory of SIRP will be introduced. For further analysis we introduce complex notation using transformation: z1 + jzn/2+1 . PDF of a vector X can be presented in the following form [10]: f (X) = 1 m |Φ| π ∞ 0 σ e− 2m 1 X H Φ−1 X σ2 dGσ (σ) (2. zn/2 + jzn (2. In fact.42) π |Φ| 0 σ 2m and g(σ) is called characteristic PDF of a SIRP. This is a very usefull tool. SIRP allows to relax assumption of Gaussianity. Generally it is quite diﬃcult to derive LO detectors.41) Similarily if E(σ 2 ) = 1 then Φ = E[XX H ].

Y is the m-dimensional complex vector of observations. and this is a covariance matrix of X [49]. whereas in the case of not known amplitude and phase we need to employ GLRT.1 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals . We can therefore say. If we know exactly the signal we want to detect.45). Let δ(x) denotes Dirac-delta function. that SIRP is a generalization of a Gaussian process. Let now X be an m-dimensional SIRV. test statistics becomes matched ﬁlter. it is possible to ﬁnd expressions for PDF of Y under both hypotheses [52]: H0 : f (Y ) = H1 : f (Y ) = 1 m |Φ| π 1 m |Φ| π ∞ 0 ∞ 0 1 − Y H Φ−1 Y τ e dFτ (τ ) τm 1 − (Y −S)H Φ−1 (Y −S) τ e dFτ (τ ) τm . After deriving the test. Under this restriction we have Φ = E{X H X}. Let us denote this PDF as f (τ ) so: f (X) = 1 π m |Φ| ∞ 0 1 − X H Φ−1 X τ e f (τ )dτ τm (2. 2. In the case of exactly known signal we can use LRT. We can assume restriction for τ : E(τ ) = 1. RADAR BASICS.45).6. If we assume dFτ (τ ) = δ(τ0 ) in (2. that STAP is a special case of GLRT. Let us consider following hypothesis test: H0 : Y = X H1 : Y = X + S Using (2.44) or in more general form f (X) = 1 m |Φ| π ∞ 0 1 − X H Φ−1 X τ e dFτ (τ ) τm (2. 2.6 Likelihood Ratio Test and Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test applied to the Spherically Invariant Random Process.45) where Fτ (τ ) denotes cumulative distribution function for τ . Gaussian distribution as a special case of SIRP. It will be shown. √ g( τ ) √ 2 τ 25 where is a PDF of a τ . S is the known m-dimensional complex signal vector. In this section it will be shown how to derive LRT and GLRT for SIRP.CHAPTER 2. we can employ LRT. This form will be used in the next sections. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.Likelihood Ratio Test. it will be shown. then f (X) = 1 − X H Φ−1 X 1 τ0 me π m |Φ| τ0 (2.46) In above expression we recognize multivariate complex Gaussian random process. that for a threshold equal 1.

51) Keeping in mind.47) more deeply (similar derivation to [59]).48) Simpliﬁed Result. and . H0 (2. that the sign of the function under integral in (2. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. it can be concluded that the sign of the expression: e− (Y −S)H Φ−1 (Y −S) τ − e− Y H Φ−1 Y τ depends only on the diﬀerence between (Y − S)H Φ−1 (Y − S) and Y H Φ−1 Y .47) If distribution function of τ is continuous then we have: η= ∞ 1 − (Y −S) Φ (Y −S) τ f (τ )dτ 0 τm e Y H Φ−1 Y ∞ 1 − τ f (τ )dτ 0 τm e H −1 (2.50) ∞ ⇔ 0 1 − (Y −S)H Φ−1 (Y −S) τ dFτ (τ ) − t e τm ∞ ∞ 0 1 − Y H Φ−1 Y τ dFτ (τ ) e τm H1 ⇔ 0 Y H Φ−1 Y 1 − (Y −S)H Φ−1 (Y −S) 1 τ e − t m e− τ dFτ (τ ) m τ τ ∞ ⇔ 0 Y H Φ−1 Y 1 − (Y −S)H Φ−1 (Y −S) τ e − te− τ dFτ (τ ) τm H1 Now if we take threshold to be equal 1: ∞ 0 Y H Φ−1 Y 1 − (Y −S)H Φ−1 (Y −S) τ e − e− τ dFτ (τ ) m τ H1 0 H0 (2. Likelihood Ratio statistics is given by [52]: η= ∞ 1 − (Y −S) Φ (Y −S) τ dFτ (τ ) 0 τm e Y H Φ−1 Y ∞ 1 − τ dFτ (τ ) 0 τm e H −1 (2.CHAPTER 2. that τ is positive and the fact that function ex is monotonous. RADAR BASICS. Let us investigate result (2.51) depends only on the diﬀerence (Y − S)H Φ−1 (Y − S) − Y H Φ−1 Y .21). 26 From general result of (2. If we compare test statistics to the threshold: η= ∞ 1 − (Y −S) Φ (Y −S) τ dFτ (τ ) 0 τm e Y H Φ−1 Y ∞ 1 − τ dFτ (τ ) 0 τm e H −1 H1 t. Recalling again that τ is positive it can be concluded.49) we see that it can be rearranged: ∞ 0 1 − (Y −S)H Φ−1 (Y −S) τ dFτ (τ ) e τm H1 t H0 0 ∞ 1 − Y H Φ−1 Y τ dFτ (τ ) e τm H1 0 H0 0 H0 0 H0 (2. This is true for every τ .

It is now possible to derive GLRT (see section 2. that in case of SIRP as a model for the clutter. where S0 is the completely known m-dimensional signal vector with H magnitude 1 (S0 S0 = 1) and a is the unknown complex amplitude.6.3 on page 20). So ﬁnally. it will be shown the same simpliﬁcation as for LRT. because integral (2.GLRT Detector. In such a case we cannot employ LRT.CHAPTER 2.53) the expression on the left side is possibly complex. At the end of this section it will be shown. . This is more realistic scenario in radar applications. Our target signal is known precisely but its initial amplitude and phase are not known. This is not true for other thresholds. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.2 Detection of Known Narrowband Signals with Random Phase Angles and Random Amplitude .49) is equal 1. Let now S = aS0 . since it gives no possibility to adjust probability of false alarm or probability of detection (both of which depend on the threshold). RADAR BASICS. optimum detector is a matched ﬁlter. In this case however. Therefore it can be concluded. 2. It will be shown how to derive such a test in the case of Spherically Invariant Random Process.3. that this is not an interesting simpliﬁcation. Instead we need to use GLRT.51) turns out to be a linear ﬁlter: Y H Φ−1 Y further simpliﬁcations: Y Φ H −1 H1 H0 (Y − S)H Φ−1 (Y − S) (2. It is necessary to have a detector independent on the threshold. this simpliﬁcation is useless. classical STAP is a special case of GLRT for SIRP.54) S H Φ−1 S 2 H0 This result shows. 27 therefore the sign of the result also depends on this diﬀerence.52) H1 Y H0 H1 H0 (Y − S)H Φ−1 Y − (Y − S)H Φ−1 S ⇔ Y H Φ−1 Y Y H Φ−1 Y − S H Φ−1 Y − Y H Φ−1 S + S H Φ−1 S ⇔ S H Φ−1 Y + Y H Φ−1 S H1 H0 S H Φ−1 S ⇔ S H Φ−1 Y result is: H1 H0 S H Φ−1 S/2 S H Φ−1 Y S H Φ−1 S H1 H0 1 2 (2. Therefore it is necessary to take module value of the numerator: H |S H Φ−1 Y | 1 1 (2.51) cannot be simpliﬁed. but only under condition that threshold in (2. After. that in fact. our detector from (2.

28 Taking into account (2. GLRT statistics becomes [52]: η= ∞ 1 Y H Φ−1 Y (1−|ρ|2 ) )dFτ (τ ) τ 0 τ m exp(− ∞ 1 Y H Φ−1 Y )dFτ (τ ) τ 0 τ m exp(− (2. We want to perform similar reasoning to that in section 2.45).63) (2. .50) is given by: ∞ 0 Y H Φ−1 Y 1 − Y H Φ−1 Y (1−|ρ|2 ) τ e − te− τ dFτ (τ ) m τ H1 0 H0 (2. Simpliﬁed Result. Similar result to (2.58) Let t be equal 1: ∞ 0 Y H Φ−1 Y 1 − Y H Φ−1 Y (1−|ρ|2 ) τ e − e− τ dFτ (τ ) τm H1 0 H0 (2.62) so ﬁnally our detector turns out to be: H |S0 Φ−1 Y |2 Of course left side will be greater than zero always. Although simpliﬁcation is possible. however it does not give reasonable results and it will not be considered in the rest of this work.CHAPTER 2.6.1.61) H1 0 H0 H1 0 H0 (2.59) this is equivalent to (assuming τ > 0): −Y Φ further: −Y H Φ−1 Y + after simpliﬁcation: H |S0 Φ−1 Y |2 H S0 Φ−1 S0 H (Y H Φ−1 Y )|S0 Φ−1 Y |2 H (Y H Φ−1 Y )(S0 Φ−1 S0 ) H −1 Y H |S0 Φ−1 Y |2 1− H (Y H Φ−1 Y )(S0 Φ−1 S0 ) H1 H0 H1 H0 − Y H Φ−1 Y (2.55) where || denotes magnitude. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. so in this case detector will always report target.57) where f (τ ) is called characteristic PDF of SIRV.56) In the case when distribution of τ is continuous: η= ∞ 1 Y H Φ−1 Y (1−|ρ|2 ) )f (τ )dτ τ 0 τ m exp(− ∞ 1 Y H Φ−1 Y )f (τ )dτ τ 0 τ m exp(− (2.60) − Y H Φ−1 Y (2. and |ρ|2 = H |S0 Φ−1 Y |2 H (Y H Φ−1 Y )(S0 Φ−1 S0 ) (2. RADAR BASICS.

72) becomes (2.67) (2. It can be found in [51] that GLRT under assumption that covariance is unknown is given by: Hˆ |S0 Φ−1 Y |2 Hˆ S0 Φ−1 S0 1 + 1 H ˆ −1 PY Φ Y H1 t H0 (2.17). In (2. 29 GLRT for Gaussian Clutter .55). First.73) . This is not true in general.CHAPTER 2. This means that Stieltjes integrals vanish.14) is not GLRT detector anymore.70) which ﬁnally gives formula equivalent to (2. τ is constant (let us assume equal to σ).14).2. It can be seen that for large P (2. In (2.71) Variance Estimation.68) (2.56): η = Y H Φ−1 Y H |S0 Φ−1 Y |2 H (Y H Φ−1 Y )(S0 Φ−1 S0 ) (2.69) (2. for the Gaussian process. RADAR BASICS.71) we assume.66) exp(− Y (1−|ρ|2 ) ) σ Y H Φ−1 Y exp(− σ ) H Φ−1 Y (2. Optimum test statistics is given in (2.14) inverse of the sample covariance matrix Φ−1 is used as an inverse covariance matrix estimator in place of true inverse covariance matrix Φ−1 .64) H Φ−1 Y 1 Y ) m exp(− σ σ after simpliﬁcation: η= and taking natural logarithm: η = [− Y H Φ−1 Y Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 ) ] − [− ] σ σ (2. and we have formula for test statistics: Y H Φ−1 Y (1−|ρ|2 ) 1 ) σ m exp(− σ η= (2. which will be shown in this section. H (S0 Φ−1 S0 ) (2.5 a classical STAP ﬁlter was shown.a STAP Formula.72) ˆ where t is a threshold and Φ is given by: 1 ˆ Φ= P as in (2. P xm xH m m=1 (2. that covariance matrix (and its inverse) is ˆ known. In section 2.14) and can be derived using (2. But this detector (2.14): η = H |S0 Φ−1 Y |2 . SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION.65) constant σ can be included in the threshold: η = [−Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )] − [−Y H Φ−1 Y ] after rearrangement: η = Y H Φ−1 Y − [Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )] further: η = Y H Φ−1 Y |ρ|2 and substituting expression for |ρ|2 from (2.

This was done in the next section. 30 2. Having validated the need of target detection in non-Gaussian clutter. After general introduction to radar principles in section 1. This is necessary in the context of non-Gaussian signals. . practical implementation of a GLRT for SIRP will be presented in the chapter 4. problem of non-Gaussianity is a real problem in radar detection in the case of sea clutter. RADAR BASICS. Using this concept and GLRT it was possible to present general form of a test adjusted to the SIRP for the signal with unknown phase. SPACE-TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING AND TARGET DETECTION. For completeness Locally Optimum detector was also shown. To resolve the problem of non-Gaussianity. In this context GLRT for SIRP will be a basic tool for improving detection performance. As it will be shown in the next chapter. STAP processing algorithm together with assumptions and limitations was shown.7 Conclusions This chapter introduced basic radar systems concepts. at certain stage there is a need to introduce the model of distortions. non-linear physics.CHAPTER 2. where reﬂections come from the sea surface which has a very complicated. Next section presented more general view to the problem of detection. where Spherically Invariant Random Process (SIRP) was introduced. Rationale standing behind introduction of STAP was presented. a STAP technique was described in section 2. In the same section Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test was presented.

CHAPTER 3 Sea Clutter. HF-band results will be based on author’s experiments with real data. It is common assumption to decompose sea roughness to capillary waves and to gravity waves (swell) [28] [31]. whereas for low grazing angles for X-band and S-band radars. Sea clutter signal properties are related to sea roughness. whereas the longer waves can last several days. However some general comments can be made. Clutter properties are strongly related to grazing angle. Note that for example for HF radar band (3-30 MHz) capillary waves will have no eﬀect on clutter properties. Because of diﬀerent length scales of diﬀerent sea-wave types. since these radars are usually installed at the sea coast or onboard of ships. while the displacement of the mean Doppler frequency is caused by the evolution of resolved waves [31]. statistical properties of the clutter can not be anymore considered Gaussian. sea clutter for diﬀerent radar bands will have diﬀerent properties. Swells are produced by stable winds. in particular by the eﬀects of currents. After short introduction. sea clutter properties will be presented for X-band and HF-band radar systems. If we consider time relations. length and period. ﬁrst results of a wind are capillary waves [28]. As capillary waves build up. Doppler spectrum of sea clutter results from two main processes: the spread about the mean Doppler frequency is a manifestation of the random motion of the unresolved scatters. Their restoring force is the surface tension. Grazing angle is the angle at which radar beam illuminates the surface with respect to the local horizontal. grazing angles are almost always small. whereas for X-band systems. Gravity waves have wavelengths ranging from few hundred meters to less than a meter [31]. gravity waves. whereas waveheight ﬂuctuates considerably [31]. The electromagnetic wave that is backscattered by capillary waves modulated by three marine features (wind. For HF radar systems. In this chapter sea clutter properties will be described. Sudden cessation of wind causes short waves to decay rapidly. For high grazing angles. Waves can be characterized by their height. In reality sea state is a complex mixture of shorter and longer waves coming from diﬀerent directions. which deals with the detection step of the STAP. For X-band and S-band radar systems. they will have an important inﬂuence. . statistical properties are usually considered Gaussian. Wavelength and period are in a relation. For this reason we have considered the inﬂuence of this departure in the next chapter (chapter 4) . their energy is transfered in a nonlinear process to waves with larger amplitudes and wavelengths. Their restoring force is the force of gravity. current) has wavelength of order of centimeters or less [28]. grazing angles can vary from 0 to 90 degrees.

It is seen that relation takes on the form of sinusoid. At the beginning let us consider spectral properties of the clutter. where models for Doppler shift are presented. Generally. . This is very important. Obviously.2 general trend of mean Doppler frequency against azimuth angle is presented. In Figure 3. that sea clutter has broad Doppler spectrum and its maximum is related to look angle. clutter has narrower Doppler spectrum. Wavelength is therefore between 2. since structures of this size will inﬂuence statistical properties of the clutter in this case. 3. Some of other factors that play an important role are sea currents and variability of wind direction. X-band radar systems operate at frequencies between 8 GHz and 12 GHz. More detailed discussion on Doppler peak spectral shift can be found in [57]. For both polarizations clutter power is substantially higher in directions of positive Doppler shift.CHAPTER 3. for horizontal polarization.1 Sea clutter characterization in X band. In Fig. SEA CLUTTER. 32 Figure 3.75 cm. This relation cannot be explained in the terms of wind direction in a simple way [9].5 cm to 3. power decreases as the look direction moves away from the upswell direction. 3.1 it is shown clutter power as a function of Doppler frequency for diﬀerent look angles of radar and for diﬀerent polarizations. this spectrum Doppler hides the target Doppler and strongly disturbs usual methods such as MTI.1 — Typical X-band. It is clear. sea-clutter spectra in the upswell and near cross-swell directions for vertical (upper ﬁgure) and horizontal (lower ﬁgure) polarizations [9]. Generally.

statistical properties of the clutter will be changing with grazing angle as well. Observation that clutter power and Doppler shift depend on look angle may lead to conclusion. Next important property of the clutter is its amplitude distribution. for example for low resolution radars with a high grazing angle. The reason behind this is the law of large numbers. It is useful in many situations. for higher resolutions. This is additionally augmented by the eﬀect of low grazing angle.1 we see diﬀerent distributions used to describe clutter properties.2 — Plot showing the trend of mean Doppler frequency against azimuth angle [8]. Relative dependence between the look angle and the Doppler shift of the clutter was a rationale standing behind STAP application for airborne radar as described in section 2. It is worth noticing. We can see general trend. In these ﬁgures we can see probability of false alarm for a given threshold. diﬀerent models can describe clutter. and therefore their statistical properties have direct inﬂuence on radar clutter properties. In the table 3. In Fig. and therefore envelope should be Rayleigh distributed [53].4 and 3. that complex samples should be Gaussian distributed. SEA CLUTTER. radar cross section increases.3 it is shown how radar cross section is changing with grazing angle. that in this case the application of STAP technique is worth to be considered. In Fig. many independent scattering centers contribute to overall radar cross section of a single resolution cell.2.2. there are only few scattering centers in a single resolution cell. A choice of the . This is due to the fact that for low grazing angles main contribution to clutter RCS are strong reﬂections from wave crests which are few in a single range cell. that goodness of ﬁt is much more important in the low probability of false alarm regions (ie. Basic model is Rayleigh model. Therefore chi-square goodness of ﬁt test is of limited use [9].CHAPTER 3. As it will be shown later. In this case the law of large numbers states. 3. 33 Figure 3. that with higher grazing angle. tails of the distribution that are well described by the third order moment of PDF). since this kind of test mainly compares general shapes (theoretical and estimated) and is not focused on the tail of the distribution. 3. Depending on situation. On the other hand.5 it is shown Probability of False Alarms (Pf a ) as a function of threshold. as discussed in section 2. If we are dealing with higher resolution radar (especially for low grazing angles) it turns out that statistical properties are diﬀerent. In the case of low resolution radar.

Rayleigh CDF : P (X) = 1 − exp {− x } α PDF : p(X) = 2x α 2 0≤x≤∞ 0≤x≤∞ exp {− x } α (πα)1/2 2 2 ﬁrst moment: x = third moment: µ3 = 3(α/2)3/2 π/2 Weibull CDF : P (X) = 1 − exp {− x } α PDF : p(X) = n x α exp {− x } α 1 ﬁrst moment: x = α1/n Γ(1 + n ) n−1 2 n 0≤x≤∞ 0≤x≤∞ third moment: µ3 = α3/n Γ(1 + 3/n) Lognormal 0≤x≤∞ CDF : P (X) = 1 − 1 erfc( lnαx−m ) 1/2 2 where erfc is the complementary error function. SEA CLUTTER.1 — Diﬀerent clutter distributions [9].CHAPTER 3. 34 Table 3. PDF : p(X) = 1 x(πα)1/2 exp{− (ln x−m) } α 2 0≤x≤∞ ﬁrst moment: x = exp(m + α ) 4 third moment: µ3 = exp(3m + 9 α) 4 K-distribution CDF : P (X) = 1 − PDF : p(X) = 2b Γ(ν) 2 Γ(ν) bx 2 ν bx 2 ν Kν (bx) 0≤x≤∞ 0≤x≤∞ Kν−1 (bx) where Kν−1 (z) is the modiﬁed Bessel function of the third kind of order ν ﬁrst moment: x = third moment: µ3 = √ π bΓ(ν) Γ(ν 1 + 2) Γ(ν+3/2)Γ(1+3/2) b3 Γ(ν) .

it is essential to ﬁnd a mathematical model for this type of clutter.CHAPTER 3. In such a case. Wave crests are traveling toward radar.1 [9]. This is true for resolutions of order of 15 to 150 m. SEA CLUTTER. It can be found (see for example [52]) that theory of Spherically Invariant Random Process (SIRP) in many situations is an appropriate model for sea clutter.3 — Sea clutter cross-section against grazing angle proﬁles of X-band in the upswell and near cross-swell directions [9]. but at the same time we are reducing probability of detection. To deal with non-Gaussianity. Moreover several furtive ”superevents” are observed by an X band radar. 35 Figure 3.5 it can be seen that the data ﬁt the K-distribution best in the amplitude region for which the Pf a is ≤ 0. threshold plays an important role in detection scheme (that is not considered in this work). Images show power range-time diagrams for X-band 50 cm resolution radar. 3. so they are ”fast scatterers” (see for example Fig. 3. These superevents generate a lot of false alarms (which may lead to errors in tracking algorithms) and should be processed adaptively. For higher resolutions.6). as it is visible in Fig. From ﬁgures 3. These superevents are due to wave breaking and generate strong scatterer with high velocity.6.4 and 3. to detect targets it may be reasonable to apply image processing algorithms rather than classical radar detection methods. If we increase threshold we are reducing the number of false alarms. The same conclusion is conﬁrmed in [8]. we can even resolve single wave crest. Theory of SIRP . that detectors developed for Rayleigh clutter will not be appropriate in the case of low grazing angle radars. This observation implies.

V-polarized sea clutter data set with those predicted by Rayleigh. 3. 36 Figure 3.38 Hz and 0. K etc.15 m. This comes from the fact.1) where g = 9. main clutter component is related to Bragg scattering phenomenon.5.4 — Comparison of Pf a characteristics of an X-band.CHAPTER 3. lognormal.38 Hz. In HF radar band.81m/s2 and λ is a radio wavelength.. In the mentioned article. This formula means that main clutter components are more or less constant over look angles of the radar and over diﬀerent ranges. can be used as a model for diﬀerent types of clutter (Gaussian. SEA CLUTTER. Weibull. General formula for Doppler shift is: ∆f = g1 πλ (3. Range resolution . it is shown that for frequency 13. Therefore a new detector presented in chapter 4 is based on SIRP model.56 MHz ﬁrst-order Bragg lines have Doppler shifts −0.2) .2 Sea clutter characterization in HF band.) and have been exposed in section 2. that resonance occurs when λ = 2L (where L denotes sea wave length) and the speed of the sea wave is related to its length by the formula v= g L 2π (3. lognormal and K-models [9]. First description of this type of the clutter can be found in [11].

SEA CLUTTER.6 — Power range-time diagrams for VV polarization (a) and HH polarization (b).150 m. Range resolution .5 — Comparison of Pf a characteristics of an X-band.CHAPTER 3. Range resolution 50 cm [42]. V-polarized sea clutter data set with those predicted by Rayleigh. Figure 3. 37 Figure 3. Weibull. . lognormal and K-models [9].

that for higher integration time Bragg lines become very thin. Registered signals from WERA system working in Brittany in France were used to present clutter properties.15. Bragg lines frequencies are constant across all range cells. Bragg lines are clearly visible for all ranges but there is a signiﬁcant noise level increase relatively to Bragg lines maximum. Other maps were obtained using 96 chirps (22 s). Results are obtained by beamforming followed by Doppler processing.12 and 3. System description is presented in section 5. 40 and 60 km . We can see spectra for time shifts 0 s. Maps are obtained for diﬀerent integration times and therefore for diﬀerent Doppler resolutions.8 we can see Doppler spectra for range cell number 50. In the short distance from radar we can see also land clutter. that Bragg lines are present in all range cells until approximately 90 km. However for higher Doppler resolutions other factors play role. Images in Fig.14 we can see an interference that is relatively weak.1. These images illustrate how integration time increases inﬂuence Bragg lines thickness. that indeed there are advance and recede Bragg lines at frequencies -0. 3.CHAPTER 3. These eﬀects make target detection more diﬃcult and are the reason to use STAP. First one is that ﬁrst-order ocean wave scattering is coherent even for 2 minutes (512 chirps). Comparing images in Fig. currents velocity and direction [5]. In the next ﬁgure (3. Because of them it is worth to consider using STAP. where noise level becomes higher than sea clutter. It can be seen as a pattern of almost horizontal lines. 226 s (for 0. 100 and 150 respectively). For example in Fig. 500 and 1000 chirps respectively). We can see. In Fig. 3. and in fact Bragg lines are changing slightly accross angles and ranges.range cell number 50.9) we can see spectra for diﬀerent ranges (20. Single chirp duration is 0.9 s. More detailed description of such possibilities can be found in [30] and [29]. 113 s. We can see that Doppler band is changing considerably accross angles. better visible in black and white in Fig.13) illustrate that clutter can vary only little in time. In HF radar band there is also high probability of radio interferences. it is present only in some of beams whereas . This observation has two consequences.7 are presented range-Doppler maps for an exemplary beam. may give us better opportunities to reveal targets whose Doppler frequency is very close to Bragg line. 38 This mechanizm is called ﬁrst order Bragg scattering and is responsible for constant Doppler shift of Bragg lines.10 illustrate that structure of the ﬁrst order ocean waves clutter does not change signiﬁcantly across diﬀerent beams. We also have a slight change in Doppler shift.11 illustrates again how clutter is changing across beams. SEA CLUTTER. 50. therefore integration time in this case is 10. At the day of data collection radar was working at frequency around 12 MHz. It is visible. 3.2275 s. 3. 3. having long integration time. Since interference has usually a point source.35 Hz ans +0. Interferences can have diﬀerent sources and properties. It is also clearly visible. This is caused by complicated sea wave dynamics. that Bragg lines present constant Doppler across all ranges. Next two ﬁgures (3. 3. 256 chirps (59 s) and 512 (117 s) chirps respectively.35 Hz as predicted by theory (for 12 MHz carrier frequency). This is a result of a very low power transmitted by radar.7 we can see. Fig. 3. These are so called second order Bragg eﬀects. Bragg scattering mechanism is commonly used for sea parameters extraction such as wave height. Bragg lines Doppler and power is changing across diﬀerent azimuths. 11 s. The second is that since Bragg lines are very thin in Doppler. In Fig. It is clear that though general clutter structure is not changing. which is at most 30 W. First map was obtained for 48 chirps. this is 20 km.

7 — Bragg clutter for diﬀerent integration time (number of chirps processed from 48 to 512).CHAPTER 3. . SEA CLUTTER. 39 Figure 3.

SEA CLUTTER. 40 Figure 3.8 — Bragg clutter for diﬀerent integration time (number of chirps processed from 48 to 512). for the selected.CHAPTER 3. . 50-th range cell.

. SEA CLUTTER.9 — Clutter spectra for diﬀerent ranges (512 chirps integration). 41 Figure 3.CHAPTER 3.

42 Figure 3. SEA CLUTTER.CHAPTER 3. .10 — Range-Doppler maps for diﬀerent beams (512 chirps integration).

.11 — Beam-Doppler images for diﬀerent ranges (512 chirps integration). SEA CLUTTER.CHAPTER 3. 43 Figure 3.

SEA CLUTTER.CHAPTER 3. 44 Figure 3. .12 — Clutter spectra for diﬀerent starting time of the processing (512 chirps integration).

45 Figure 3. SEA CLUTTER.CHAPTER 3. .13 — Clutter spectra for diﬀerent starting time of the processing for Range cell number 50 (512 chirps integration).

14 — Bragg clutter plus interference (256 chirps integration). SEA CLUTTER.15 — Black and white image of Bragg clutter plus interference (256 chirps integration). Interference is visible as horizontal lines. 46 Figure 3.CHAPTER 3. . Interference is visible as horizontal lines. Figure 3.

recorded data. that clutter does not follow classical Rayleigh distribution. that for both bands. In HF-band it was caused by joint presence of the ﬁrst and second order sea clutter (Bragg lines) and interference which is inevitable in this frequency area. To . SEA CLUTTER. In Fig. On the other hand. because range resolution is very low (a few hundred meters to a few kilometers).18) shows time-range structure of the interference.3 Conclusions In this chapter the characteristic properties of the sea sea clutter for two radar bands (X and HF radar bands) were presented. This property can be used to suppress the interference. sea clutter can have two dimensional structure in space-time domain. This will also be investigated in the next two chapters. 47 Figure 3. in other beams it is not visible. 3. It was shown. which means that its power is changing considerably as a function of chirp number.16 we can see very strong directional interference. In ﬁgure 3. in HF radar systems usually there is no problem with non-Gaussianity.17 we can see range-Doppler map in the beam with interference. For X-band it turns out additionally.16 — Range-angle map of directional interference.CHAPTER 3. This will be veriﬁed later by performing experiments on real. See clutter is completely obscured by interference. and therefore classical adaptive techniques may lead to increased number of false alarms. 3. We can see that this interference has impulsive nature. In X-band this was caused by Doppler shift of clutter related to wind. Next ﬁgure (3. Two dimensional structure of the clutter and interferences is a reason to consider using STAP technique to improve detection possibilities. Interference is present for angles between -20 deg to -40 deg. Image presents range-azimuth map of mean received power. currents and waves direction as well as possible interference present in the data.

SEA CLUTTER.CHAPTER 3.18 — Time-range structure of the interference. . Figure 3.17 — Range-Doppler map oriented toward interference source. 48 Figure 3.

. it is reasonably to consider adaptive (in space and time) methods. • Lots of parameters to be taken into account. Among them there is. • Clutter that may be nonstationary. we can see that because of: • Correlated and strong clutter with spread Doppler. although there are also some other possibilities too. These other methods were not considered in this work. • Impossibility to estimate interference-free clutter and clutter-free interference. for example.CHAPTER 3. 49 summarize. SEA CLUTTER. such as STAP. a method of using passive mode of radar to estimate interferences [30].

55): η= where |ρ|2 = H |S0 Φ−1 Y |2 H (Y H Φ−1 Y )(S0 Φ−1 S0 ) ∞ 1 Y H Φ−1 Y (1−|ρ|2 ) )dFτ (τ ) τ 0 τ m exp(− ∞ 1 Y H Φ−1 Y )dFτ (τ ) τ 0 τ m exp(− (4. First two sections will be devoted to development of TDD STAP detector.CHAPTER 4 Two Dirac delta detector. K-distribution and others [52]. To evaluate performances of classical STAP detectors in non-Gaussian clutter. On the other hand in chapter 2 was presented the GLRT test in the case of Spherically Invariant Random Process.1) (4. Φ is a covariance matrix of the distortions.6 it was shown. log-normal.4 is devoted to performance evaluation of diﬀerent STAP algorithms. I will show. a problem with its practical use that is discussed below.1 it was shown. In this chapter.2) S0 is the completely known m-dimensional signal vector with magnitude 1. In this chapter the problem of the detector construction under Non-Gaussianity is addressed.2.3. that GLRT detector for SIRP is of the form of test statistics (2. section 4. I performed some simulations. Receiver Operation Curves (ROC) are presented. In section 3.1 Resolving GLRT. In section 2. . In particular. 4. that sea clutter has statistical properties that deviates from Gaussian (Rayleigh) case. however. In particular. Finally. There is. I will develop a practical implementation of this detector named Two Delta Dirac STAP (TDD STAP) detector. Y is a data vector. I discuss the estimation of parameters used in this nonlinear detector in section 4. Description of simulation technique is presented in section 4. m is a data vector dimension. It is also worth to pay attention to the work done by Fr´d´ric Pascal on the same subject e e [47]. that new developed TDD STAP detector can give some improvements in comparison to classical STAP algorithm in the presence of non-Gaussian clutter. τ is a modulating scalar and H denotes conjugate transpose. we discuss the performances of usual STAP and TDD STAP detector under diﬀerent kinds of noise (Gaussian. This detector is capable of dealing with wide spectrum of non-Gaussian distortions (clutter plus noise) including Weibull. non-Gaussian).

4. This approximation is discussed in the next section. Approximating distribution may be some arbitrary distribution (for example Gamma).2 and Fig.1). Solution. In the subsection 4. that now instead of a single Dirac delta.1 — Original distribution of τ .6. This is unrealistic. whereas τ is a positive scalar (pure Gaussian and original distribution are shown in Fig. 4.e. Assuming Gaussian clutter simpliﬁcation we put constant τ to achieve solution as in section 2. 4. The problem with Edgeworth approximation is that it is based on Gaussian distribution. 51 Figure 4.5 and is named Two Dirac Delta (TDD STAP). In this framework. is picturized in Fig. that will be simple enough to implement. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.2. 4. This solution gives one more degree of freedom comparing to simple Gaussian clutter case (compare Fig.2.2 (see Fig. 4. there are two Dirac deltas (each one of .2. both Dirac deltas have equal strength.2). 2. and at the same time. that I proposed in [22].2 some improvements are introduced in order to be more realistic in the noise pdf approximation. The problem now arises how to estimate all necessary parameters and how to calculate the integrals in the formula (4.4).1). I postulate to apply some other approximation. To do this we should know the distribution of τ (Fig. We can see. 4. to give performance improvement. it will ﬁt well enough real clutter.3. I approximate CPDF (Characteristic Probability Distribution Function) by two Dirac deltas. We may also employ some expansion approximations. 4.1 I will present a ﬁrst approach in order to introduce the idea behind the new detector.5). for example Edgeworth. 4. In the simplest case. but we have still some options: 1.CHAPTER 4. We can employ some kind of approximation as in Fig. In the subsection 4. which spreads from minus inﬁnity to plus inﬁnity. classical STAP detector for Gaussian clutter [49].1 First approach.2 Two Dirac Deltas approximation. 4. For simplicity we prefer to assume τ = 1 that results in E(τ ) = 1 and Φ = E{X H X} i.

52 Figure 4.3 — Original distribution of τ and approximation.CHAPTER 4.4 — Original distribution of τ and pure Gaussian approximation. Figure 4.2 — Original distribution of τ and Dirac delta simpliﬁcation. . Figure 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.

we obtain: η= 1/2 1 am exp(− Y 1 am H Φ−1 Y (1−|ρ|2 ) H Φ−1 Y a a )+ )+ + + 1 bm 1 bm 1 bm 1 bm exp(− Y exp(− Y exp(− Y H Φ−1 Y (1−|ρ|2 ) b H Φ−1 Y ) 1/2 1 am exp(− Y H Φ−1 Y b ) (4. One of them is placed in the point a of the τ axis.5).6) .5 we have: E(τ ) = 1 having in mind that τ ≥ 0. them multiplied by 1/2).CHAPTER 4. we can write: 1 1 a+ b=1⇔a+b=2⇔a=2−b 2 2 Now if we have true value of variance V AR(τ ) or at least its estimate.4) E(τ ) = 0 ∞ τ f (τ )dτ 1 1 δ(τ − a) + δ(τ − b) dτ 2 2 0 1 ∞ 1 ∞ τ δ(τ − a)dτ + τ δ(τ − b)dτ 2 0 2 0 1 1 a+ b 2 2 τ = = = (4.4). Selection of a and b is discussed below. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.1) according to two Dirac delta simpliﬁcation. we can rewrite: ∞ (4.5) Therefore using (4.5 — Original distribution of τ and two Dirac delta simpliﬁcation.3) ⇔η= exp(− Y (1−|ρ|2 ) ) a H Φ−1 Y Y 1 ) am exp(− a (1−|ρ|2 ) ) b H Φ−1 Y exp(− Y b ) H Φ−1 Y From section 2. then: 1 1 V AR(τ ) = E(τ 2 ) − E 2 (τ ) = a2 + b2 − 1 2 2 1 1 ⇔ (2 − b)2 + b2 − 1 − V AR(τ ) = 0 2 2 (4. By rewriting (4. the other in the point b (4. 53 Figure 4.

Figure 4. ⇔ b2 − 2b + 1 − V AR(τ ) = 0 this equation has two solutions if V AR(τ ) is greater than zero (which is always true): b1.2 = 1 ± V AR(τ ) Keeping in mind. (4. Since now we have one additional degree of freedom by introducing ∆ parameter. 4.b. b as a function of V AR(τ ). I proposed a closed loop procedure shown in Fig. that both a and b must be greater than zero we have restriction for the variance V AR(τ ): 1 − V AR(τ ) > 0 V AR(τ ) < 1 In Fig. 4. I introduced additional parameter in place of a. and now a = 1 − ∆ and b = 1 + ∆ as in Fig.7.8 [24].7 — ∆ parameter. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.7) . 54 Figure 4.CHAPTER 4. This parameter will be called ∆. 4. To simplify analysis and accordingly (4.6 we see how a and b depend on V AR(τ ).6 — a.5). we need a procedure to estimate this additional parameter.

Procedure is repeated until diﬀerence between theoretical and true histogram changes insigniﬁcantly.8. To avoid the problem of local minima. 4. 55 Figure 4. This time a. This histogram is then compared to the true histogram. Appropriate automatic procedure to ﬁnd q. This problem can be transformed to the problem of two dimensional optimization .9 — Unequal strength Dirac Deltas approximation.a and b is presented in Fig. from secondary data. This procedure tries to minimize mean square error between theoretical histogram and histogram derived from secondary-training data. Having covariance matrix.b and q are related to each other.2. This integral allows us to obtain theoretical histogram of samples in our model.8 — ∆ estimation procedure. and theoretical histogram is recalculated. covariance matrix is estimated. this approach allows us to break the symmetry of the CPDF and to devote one Dirac delta to describe the tail of the CPDF which is of great importance as discussed in section 2.5 and 3.9 [23]. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 4.10.2 Reﬁned approach. Next step in this reasoning is to introduce not equal strength of Dirac deltas as in Fig.1. 4. In particular. exhaustive search is used. by the integral in the central part of Fig. 4. Therefore it is necessary to ﬁnd only two of them. Mean square error between theoretical and true histogram is used to update ∆ parameter. In the ﬁrst step.CHAPTER 4. Figure 4. it is possible to introduce f (τ ) (texture). obtained from secondary (training) data. ∆ is then updated to generate texture in integral.

56 Figure 4. Some of the parameters where taken from a well known DLR system E-SAR : Carrier center frequency Transmit power Pulse bandwidth Azimuth beamwidth Elevation beamwidth Platform Velocity fc P B Φ Θ Vp = = = = = = 9. I proposed Downhill Simplex Method to cope with this problem. This parameters set should be appropriate to the state of the art in radar technology and have been introduced in section 2. 4.3.3 and 4.11 and Fig. Airborne radar systems are supposed to be the primary application of STAP technique [38]. Having carrier frequency it is possible to calculate wavelength: λ= c = 3 cm fc . I have chosen to simulate airborne system. This subsection describes process of choosing the parameter set.1.4. a and b estimation procedure. In subsection 4. In this section.12.2 reader can ﬁnd a description of target simulation.4. Their results are presented in the sections 4. simulation technique is described.10 — q. This is the main diﬀerence between Fig.6 GHz 2500 W 100 M Hz 17o 30o 90 m s Geometry of the system is presented in Fig.10 . it is necessary to choose some parameter set. 4.CHAPTER 4.3 is devoted to noise simulation. for which non-Gaussianity may occur when detecting targets on the sea surface. 4. To validate algorithms and to evaluate its performances.3. 4. First subsection describes parameters chosen for simulations. Subsection 4.3. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. I generated simulated data. 4. 4. In order to evaluate behavior of both classical STAP and TDD STAP detectors I performed simulations. problem.8 and Fig.3 Simulations.1 Simulation parameters. In order to perform simulations.4.

12 — Earth plane geometry. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.5 m 2B where c is the electromagnetic wave speed. Figure 4. 57 Figure 4.CHAPTER 4. Minimum range can be calculated from the formula (approximately. Azimuth beamwidth is related to the antenna size La by equation: λ 17o =Φ= π ≈ 0.3 La 180o . assuming azimuth angle=0): Θ Rmin = H · tan ξ − 2 Θ Rmax = H · tan ξ + 2 Range resolution Rresolution is determined by the pulse bandwidth B: Rresolution = c = 1.11 — Vertical situation.

13 — Antenna array. For range ambiguity. 58 Figure 4. because single antenna is approximately 10 cm long. In order to avoid angle ambiguity. Therefore: cos α = so: α ≈ 73o and: β = 90o − α ≈ 17o Next parameter to be set is PRF. so: La ≈ 10 cm For STAP a linear antenna array parallel to the ﬂight axis as in Fig.2 kHz). In classical conﬁguration for STAP. Figure 4. 4.3 La 10 . it is necessary to calculate ambiguous angle β.14 — Azimuth angle ambiguity. Now it is necessary to check range and velocity ambiguity. array elements spacing d is equal λ [37]. Therefore here.CHAPTER 4.13 is often assumed. let the maximum λ 3 = = 0.14. Let PRF be 4 kHz (for E-SAR it was 1. 4.5 cm. This is technically diﬃcult to achieve. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. Ambiguous angle β is deﬁned by the situation where a is equal λ. in this case 2 1. This can be done using geometry presented in Fig. spacing d = 10 cm is assumed.

03 PRF should be twice the Doppler shift. therefore PRFmin = 3. This will occur at the maximum range at the edge of the beam (see Fig. PRF has to be set in accordance with the condition: PRF < c = 5 kHz 2Rmax Second condition concerns velocity ambiguity. It is now s s possible to calculate Doppler shift: fD = 2Vrmax sum 2 · 24 = = 1. Let us assume velocity resolution equal 0. Overall radial velocity is therefore Vrmax sum = 24 m . To .3 2 s Additionally some moving targets can be expected. Last parameter to be set is dwelling time. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. Dwelling time determines Doppler resolution which determines velocity resolution. Therefore Doppler resolution s fD resolution should be: 2 · 0.2 fD resolution = = ≈ 6Hz λ 0.03 Dwelling time is given by the formula: TDW ELL = 1 fD resolution = 1/6 s Finally.2 kHz. First it is necessary to calculate maximum radial velocity from the ground.1 0. Resolving triangle of velocities: Vrmax = Vp · cos(90o − Φ m ) = 90 · 0. 4.6kHz λ 0.CHAPTER 4.1 m . range migration problem should be faced.15). 59 Figure 4. range Rmax = 30 km.147 = 13. TDW ELL = 1/6 s gives (assuming 24 m s radial velocity) 4 m of range migration which is more than range resolution cell (1.5m).15 — Triangle of velocities. Let the additional radial movement of the target be limited to 10 m .

60 Figure 4.03 ≈ 0.5 = ≈ 33Hz fD resolution = λ 0. This section describes methodology that was used to do this. Considering only 0. Geometry of the radar platform and the target is shown in Fig.8) .2.5 m velocity s resolution gives: 1 2 · 0. To evaluate probability of detection versus probability of false alarm. 4. l. k) = KP (n) · σn · ejφ · f (k − where Xn ) · AZ(n) · Ant(l.2 Target Simulations. l. I injected target echo into clutter data. resolve this problem. formula for data cube is given by: Data(n.3.16. The result of simulations should be a complex data cube: Data(n.16 — Radar and target geometry. k) where n is a pulse index l is an antenna index and k is range cell index (see section 2.CHAPTER 4.03 therefore: 1 = 0.5).03 s TDW ELL = fD resolution Now range migration becomes: Rmigration = 24 · 0. dwelling time reduction can be applied. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. n) Rresolution (4. For a single target. Simulations were based on the backscattered energy given in [45].75m which is less than range resolution cell. 4.

After this step. KP (n) also reﬂects antenna elevation and azimuth pattern. In simulations. • KP (n) . 61 • KP (n) is radar equation. vectors describing positions and relative angles of the target as well as the radar platform in subsequent moments deﬁned by the PRF. Let us assume that. • Ant(l. Let us assume following model for the target movement: X(t) = X0 + Vt · t Y (t) = Y0 Z(t) = Z0 = 0 (4.In the simplest case is constant from pulse to pulse (which means. that R changes only slightly in radar equation during dwelling time).11) Having this information it is possible to calculate slant range to the target (see Fig.10) (4. we adopted KP (n) = G(ϕn . In order to calculate all elements of the data cube equation it is necessary to perform preliminary geometrical calculations. Let radar platform be ﬂying along Y axis at the speed Vp . will be available. these moments can be calculated from PRF: n tn = PRF where n is a pulse number starting from 0.9) (4. 4. we can now calculate data cube evaluating each term in the equation (4. • AZ(n) is a modulation function. In order to achieve this. Having all this information.8). α) in azimuth and elevation is shown in Fig. where pattern G(ϕ. . radar platform position be Y=0.CHAPTER 4.18. 4. αn ). TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. • ejφ is a random unknown phase. n) is factor related to an antenna array element. • σn is a RCS.16): R(t) = X(t)2 + (Y (t) − Vp · t)2 + H 2 We can also simply calculate angles using formulas tan(ϕ(t)) = Y (t) − Vp · t X(t) X(t) H tan(α(t)) = θ(t) = where (see Fig. • f (k − Xn Rresolution ) is a range gate factor.17): tan χ(t) = π − χ(t) 2 Y (t) − Vp · t H 2 + X(t)2 We should evaluate above formulas in moments deﬁned by the reception of subsequent backscattered pulses from the target. in the moment t=0 (reception of the ﬁrst pulse). 4. some radar and target movement models must be adopted. Assuming that t0 = 0.

• ejφ . 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. n) is additional phase advance as a result of the antenna elements displacement. • σn . assuming some mean RCS σ. Rn • f (k − Rresolution ) is function giving range cell response for the target at a distance Rn .This is an unknown initial phase of the target signal.We can assume Swerling II model for example [39].is a modulating function of the form AZ(n) = e−j 4πRn λ • Ant(l.18 — Single antenna azimuth G(ϕ) (left) and elevation G(α) (right) pattern.CHAPTER 4. n) = e−j2πl λ cos(θn ) d . We can assume ejφ = 1 without loss of generality. 62 Figure 4.17 — θ and χ. Then for each pulse (n) we should choose a random RCS using PDF: p(σn ) = The phase is however coherent within CPI.19 1 − σn e σ σ • AZ(n) . Ant(l. In the simplest case we can assume rectangular function as shown in Fig. Figure 4.

that will show how TDD STAP will perform with the same kind of (TDD) of noise. 4. In practice. Results were generated under the following assumptions: SNR is a Signal to Noise Ratio deﬁned as SNR = log10 ( Psignal ). More detailed explanations are presented in Appendix B. and u(τ ) is a unit step function. if s denotes signal column vector.22.3 Additive Noise. 4. 63 Figure 4. This noise can be viewed as a noise with Dirac Delta as a characteristic PDF (see section 2. Covariance marix can also be randomized. Problem of Covariance matrix structure is separable from the problem of non-Gaussianity as a result of employing SIRP.3. 4. First type is a classical Gaussian noise.7). where Psignal is a signal power.19 — f function of range cell response. The second type is TDD noise.2). This is typical situation for airborne radars at high grazing angles. characteristic PDF must be of the form [49]: f (τ ) = b2 τ 2 2b (bτ )2ν−1 exp − u(τ ) Γ(ν)2ν 2 (4.20-4.CHAPTER 4. Examples of results after performing STAP processing are shown in Fig. This is a noise generated using two Dirac deltas as a characteristic PDF (two Dirac deltas in Fig. 4. after quadrature receiver. where many scatterers contribute to overall RCS. and Pnoise noise is noise power. we use formula SNR = xH x 1 P . In ﬁgures 4. In order to simulate the data close to the real one. In order to achieve this kind of noise. and x denotes noise sH s column vector. white or colored noise according to our needs. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. This kind of noise can occur for high resolution radars on the sea surface or for radars with low grazing angle. This allows us to add Gaussian or non-Gaussian. In this work three types of noise were used.5) of SIRP (as in Fig. This is an academic example.12) where Γ(ν) is a gamma function.20-4. we add noise and clutter to our target data.22 white covariance matrix is adopted for the purpose of technique demonstration. Last two ﬁgures present results for the same SNR 1 . This noise occurs for low resolution radars. that can be used as an input for a STAP processor. After this step we have data. Finally the most interesting is the case (among these tested in this work) where characteristic PDF is chosen to obtain K-distributed noise. This is done using procedure from [49]. b and ν are parameters of K-distribution.

CHAPTER 4.21 — STAP result on target signal with Gaussian noise (test statistics intensity image). 64 Figure 4. Figure 4.20 — STAP result on target signal without noise (test statistics intensity image). . TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.

I performed some tests.5o ].4. This signal was used in all tests. Single target signal was generated using procedure described in section 4.5o . and in section 4. 4.22 — STAP result on target signal with non-Gaussian. On the basis of simulation experiments I was able to compare diﬀerent processing algorithms.0.5o .4. 4. X0 Y0 Vt P RF Vp L N = = = = = = = 7000 m 500 m 4 m/s 4000 Hz 90 m/s 16 120 STAP test was performed for discrete velocities [−15 m/s.4 Results. K-distributed (test statistics intensity image).2. which will be presented in section 4. TDD STAP detector has to be slightly modiﬁed.15 m/s.4. In the ﬁrst subsection I will show.3 I will present comparison between classical STAP and TDD STAP for a priori chosen ∆.0. 65 Figure 4. In section 4. similar comparison for automatic ∆ ﬁnding procedure.1 Classical STAP detection performance evaluation. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. In order to evaluate inﬂuence of non-Gaussianity. that classical STAP performance becomes worse under nonGaussian conditions.8.5 m/s ] and azimuth angles [ −8. For .3.4.4. As a result of computer precision limitations.CHAPTER 4.

Gaussian and non-Gaussian Noise was generated independently 300 times. that SNR does not inﬂuence number of false alarms (CFAR property). Non-Gaussianity was introduced by K-distribution (ν = 2. 4. In section 4. Two Dirac Deltas (TDD STAP) detector presented in section 4.5o . Pattern is similar for diﬀerent thresholds as a result of using the same target and noise signals.5o . signal plus Gaussian noise.1o ]. I will show modiﬁcations that will be used to implement TDD STAP detector in Matlab environment.24 we can see. In this subsection.CHAPTER 4.1 m/s ] and azimuth angles [ −8.23 we can see Receiver Operating Curves. although number of false alarms increases for non-Gaussian case (characteristics shifted up.2 needs to be reformulated for practical implementation. In Fig. Classical STAP test (2.5). b = 2 in 4. False alarms were counted for each trial based on number of target reports in pure noise (without target signal).14) was performed independently on Gaussian noise. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. 4.13) . toward higher mean number of FA). In Fig. 66 diﬀerent SNRs.3) was presented in the form : 1 am η= exp(− Y (1−|ρ|2 ) ) a H Φ−1 Y 1 Y ) am exp(− a H Φ−1 Y + + 1 bm 1 bm (1−|ρ|2 ) ) b H Φ−1 Y exp(− Y b ) exp(− Y H Φ−1 Y (4. Too low resolution in tests (test grid too sparse) may lead to some performance deterioration as a result of a mismatch between the true steering vector and its surrogate from the grid (see section 2.12) for real and imaginary samples with unit covariance matrix. For each noise trial. signal plus non-Gaussian noise. However sometimes number of repetitions was considerably higher. For the same PD the aim is to have the lowest possible mean number of FA. We can see that mean number of FA is higher for non-Gaussian case (having the same PD) in which the characteristics are shifted to the right (higher mean number of FA).15 m/s. Vertical axis denotes Probability of Detection (PD) and horizontal axis denotes mean number of False Alarms (FA) per single range cell. As a result of a ﬁnite computer calculation precision. 300 was chosen to achieve reasonably high (eg. This is true for any SNR.8. Therefore we can calculate average number of false alarms per STAP image for diﬀerent SNR’s and thresholds.2. 4.4. independently for Gaussian noise and for non-Gaussian noise.2 Numerical simpliﬁcations for TDD STAP. we assumed successful detection. Other parameters of simulations are presented below: X0 Y0 Vt P RF Vp L N = = = = = = = 7000 m 500 m 4 m/s 4000 Hz 90 m/s 8 30 Classical STAP test was performed for discrete velocities [−15 m/s. classical STAP test was performed using diﬀerent thresholds. This procedure allows us to obtain probability of detection for diﬀerent SNR’s and thresholds for Gaussian and non-Gaussian cases.10) number of false alarms. If number of targets reported in signal plus noise was greater than number of target reported in noise only. non-Gaussian noise.2 Two Dirac Deltas (TDD STAP) detector (4.

23 — Probability of detection (PD) as a function of mean number of false alarms per STAP picture (FA number) for diﬀerent SNR’s for Gaussian and non-Gaussian case.CHAPTER 4.14) I will use the following transformation: 1 am exp(− X ) + a 1 am 1 am 1 am 1 bm exp(− X ) b X am exp(− b ) m b exp(− X ) a = = = exp(− X ) 1 + a exp(− X ) 1 + ( a )m exp(− X + a b b X a) 1 exp(− X ) 1 + ( a )m exp ( − X( 1 − a )) a b b Let me rewrite test statistics according to the above transformation: exp(− Y 1 am H Φ−1 Y η= 1 am (1−|ρ|2 ) a 1 ) 1 + ( a )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )( 1 − a )) b b 1 ) 1 + ( a )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y ( 1 − a )) b b exp(− Y H Φ−1 Y (4. where |ρ|2 = H |S0 Φ−1 Y |2 H (Y H Φ−1 Y )(S0 Φ−1 S0 ) (4. 67 Figure 4.15) a . TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.

17) 1 1 a + ln 1 + ( )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )( − )) b b a H Φ−1 Y Y − − a a 1 1 − ln 1 + ( )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y ( − )) b b a H Φ−1 Y − Y H Φ−1 Y + Y H Φ−1 Y |ρ|2 Y = a a 1 1 + ln 1 + ( )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )( − )) b b a .24 — Number of false alarms (FA number) as a function of SNR for diﬀerent thresholds (Thr).16) is given by: Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 ) a ln(η) = − (4. canceling 1 am : η= exp(− Y H Φ−1 Y (1−|ρ|2 ) a 1 ) 1 + ( a )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )( 1 − a )) b b 1 ) 1 + ( a )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y ( 1 − a )) b b exp(− Y H Φ−1 Y (4.16) a The logarithm of expression (4. 68 Figure 4. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.CHAPTER 4.

|S H Φ−1 Y |2 a(S H Φ−1 S) a 1 1 + ln ( )m − Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )( − ) b b a a m 1 1 H −1 − ln ( ) + Y Φ Y ( − ) b b a H Φ−1 Y |2 |S ln(η) = a(S H Φ−1 S) 1 1 −Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )( − ) b a 1 1 +Y H Φ−1 Y ( − ) b a |S H Φ−1 Y |2 1 1 = + Y H Φ−1 Y |ρ|2 ( − ) H Φ−1 S) a(S b a ln(η) = .16) is much higher than some value. b depending on the numerical precision (for example 400 in Matlab).CHAPTER 4. 1 1 a ln 1 + ( )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y ( − )) b b a a m 1 1 ≈ ln ( ) exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y ( − )) b b a a m 1 1 H −1 = ln ( ) − Y Φ Y ( − ) b b a Remark (4.19) Below I will show. that if we apply two approximations at the same time (for nominator and denominator). 69 a 1 1 − ln 1 + ( )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y ( − )) b b a H Φ−1 Y |2 |S = a(S H Φ−1 S) 1 1 a + ln 1 + ( )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )( − )) b b a a m 1 1 − ln 1 + ( ) exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y ( − )) b b a 1 If −Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )( 1 − a ) in the nominator of (4. we obtain classical STAP ﬁlter. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.18) (4. we should use approximation neglecting 1 in: a 1 1 ln 1 + ( )m exp ( − Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )( − )) b b a a m 1 H −1 2 1 ≈ ln ( ) exp ( − Y Φ Y (1 − |ρ| )( − )) b b a a m 1 1 = ln ( ) − Y H Φ−1 Y (1 − |ρ|2 )( − ) b b a Similarly with the denominator.

4.4). • For some values of ∆ parameters (eg. 4. then TDD STAP detector behaves exactly like classical STAP detector.3): 1 1 f (τ ) = δ(t − a) + δ(t − b) 2 2 In Fig.7) TDD STAP performance is even worse than classical STAP. Again we can see. More precisely (see section 4. I performed comparisons using method described in section 4. Non-Gaussianity was introduced by TDD noise. In ﬁrst experiments.25 we can see Probability of Detection (PD) as a function of mean Number of False Alarms (NFA) for diﬀerent choice of spread parameter ∆. that there is some performance improvement in comparison to classical STAP. In the ﬁrst result. then TDD STAP detector behaves exactly as classical STAP detector. 0.26. Similar experiments were performed for K-distributed (ν = 2 and b = 2) noise. TDD STAP detector has better performance than classical STAP. 0.1. Results are presented in Fig.3) the function f (τ ) takes on the form: f (τ ) = 2b b2 τ 2 (bτ )2ν−1 exp − u(τ ) Γ(ν)2ν 2 where Γ(ν) is a gamma function. 0. • Unfortunately for badly chosen ∆ (eg.CHAPTER 4. b and ν are parameters of K-distribution.5).3. These results were already presented in [22]. This time in noise generation scheme (see section 4. This means that CPDF (for SRIP) adopted in noise generation algorithm follows TDD distribution. 70 = = 1 |S H Φ−1 Y |2 1 |S H Φ−1 Y |2 1 |S H Φ−1 Y |2 + − a (S H Φ−1 S) b (S H Φ−1 S) a (S H Φ−1 S) 1 |S H Φ−1 Y |2 b (S H Φ−1 S) In this case. 4. there is no advantage using TDD STAP detector in comparison with classical STAP (TDD STAP is equal to classical STAP). This procedure was used in practical implementation of TDD STAP detector.4 or 0. and u(τ ) is a unit step function.3 Comparison of classical STAP and TDD STAP for ﬁxed ∆ parameter.4.16 was higher than 400. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. • If ∆ approaches 0 or 1. Therefore I postulate to use approximations according to the needs (appropriate procedure should chose simpliﬁcation only when necessary).3. • If ∆ approaches 0 or 1. the value of ∆ was not estimated but chosen a priori in order to estimate the discrepancies when ∆ is poorly estimated. . This is not surprising since for ∆ = 0 or ∆ = 1 expressions for TDD STAP reduce to classical STAP formula. newly developed TDD STAP detector has a better performance than classical STAP. • When ∆ is appropriately chosen (eg. I used approximation when exponential of nominator or denominator in 4. 4.3 or 0.

CHAPTER 4.25 — Probability of Detection (PD) as a function of mean Number of False Alarms (NFA) for TDD STAP detector in the presence of Gaussian and TDD noise for diﬀerent values of ∆. 71 Figure 4. . TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.

72 Figure 4.CHAPTER 4. . TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.26 — Probability of Detection (PD) as a function of mean Number of False Alarms (NFA) for TDD STAP detector in the presence of Gaussian and K-distributed noise for diﬀerent values of ∆.

9) should be stronger than the other (in point b). that there exists better detector than TDD STAP. This way it is possible to better approximate skewed distributions. as a result of additional degree of freedom. In Fig. In fact. all considered distributions (CPDFs) will be skewed. presented in section 4. 73 • If ∆ is badly chosen (∆ = 0. This is due to the fact.3). This time however we can expect. For high probabilities of detection we can see. Automatic procedure properly choses the ∆ parameter.2. I assume discrete CPDF. Results of this approach were already published in [23] and [24]. Having two Dirac deltas with unequal strength we can better approximate distributions with skewness.4 Results for TDD STAP detector with automatic ∆ ﬁnding. and there is an improvement in detector performance.7) and noise is generated using TDD as a characteristic PDF (see section 2.5 and 4. This is due to the better approximation of real CPDF of SIRP by unequal-strength deltas than by equal deltas. In such a case. This can be achieved by better approximating CPDF.4. It the parameter is poorly estimated results are much worse.10. 4. Advantage of having additional degree of freedom can be outweighted by the necessity of estimating more parameters.29) presents results of automatic a. 4. 4. b and q ﬁnding for K-distributed noise and unequal Dirac deltas as described in section 4. We can see again some slight improvement of TDD STAP detector in comparison to classical STAP. and there is a possibility for further improvement. We can see that in comparison to Fig. In order to do this I postulate to employ method presented in Fig. that deltas strength is equal (see Fig. 4.2. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR.28 there is a slight improvement. Situation is diﬀerent if we use other type of noise. Nevertheless. that in this case real CPDF is continuous. TDD STAP detector proves. and in TDD STAP. Real CPDF is exactly the same as CPDF assumed in TDD STAP detector.27 we can see results of automatic ∆ ﬁnding under assumption. but automatic procedures are necessary to ﬁnd ∆ parameter. . as discussed in section 4. that behavior of TDD STAP is slightly worse than classical STAP. The last ﬁgure (4.7) than TDD STAP performance is worse than classical STAP. Dirac delta placed in point a (see Fig. 4. because τ is greater than 0 and potentially continuous and unlimited.CHAPTER 4. In such a case.8 and 4. that improvement is possible. TDD STAP detector is only an approximation of a real GLRT detector. Following this path we can expect further improvement when using for example more Dirac-deltas.3. In this case detector is appropriately chosen for the noise in the framework of SIRP theory. 4.2 and depicted in Fig. As it was shown previously. As a conclusion we can say that automatic procedure.28 similar results are presented for the K-distributed noise. works well.10. and poorly estimated parameters can lead to detection losses. to be better than classical STAP. it is necessary to appropriately choose ∆ parameter. We cannot have better detector in this model. Nevertheless this is in the area of high probabilities of false alarms (mean number of false alarms per image more than 1). This can be diﬃcult to perform. To conclude it can be seen. In Fig. 4. Usually radars are working in areas with lower levels of false alarms. 4.

27 — Automatic ∆ ﬁnding for TDD noise.28 — Automatic ∆ ﬁnding for K-distributed noise. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. .CHAPTER 4. Figure 4. 74 Figure 4.

which was shown in section 4. . The use of TDD STAP detector can bring some improvements. This detector can better ﬁt sea clutter than traditional STAP algorithm. In chapter 3 we have seen. able to deal with a larger class of non-Gaussianity. Therefore GLRT from section 2.4. In next sections. a and b ﬁnding for K-distributed noise. In section 4. 4.6 was employed.4. that there is a performance decrease when classical STAP algorithm is working in non-Gaussian environment.4.3.CHAPTER 4.5 Conclusions. We can imagine more Dirac-deltas as a better approximation of characteristic PDF (under the limitations discussed in section 4. I postulated an automatic procedure.2 (this chapter).1 it was shown. TWO DIRAC DELTA DETECTOR. The future improvement in this area seems possible. In this chapter I have presented a concept of TDD STAP detector.4). that sea clutter has diﬀerent statistical properties than those assumed in classical STAP detection schema. It is clear that automated procedures can deal with the problem. Therefore in section 4.29 — Automatic q. 75 Figure 4.4.4. However this improvement can be outweighted by badly chosen ∆ parameter. I resolved the problem with its practical use in section 4. that was later used in evaluating TDD STAP detector performance. This can lead to better detectors. and there is a performance improvement clearly visible in characteristics presented in ﬁgures. simulation method was presented.

will be described. classical algorithms must be adapted. Each radar consists of 16 line-aligned receiving antennas separated by approximately . full system consists of two radars displaced approximately 50 km apart (see Fig. In this chapter experiments. have a potential to detect targets which are located beyond optical horizon on the sea surface (Over The Horizon visibility . and the second is STAP that has been theoretically described in section 2. Sections 5. continuous data collection about currents and waves in the area of Brest Gulf (Atlantic. The aim of the chapter is to present the problem and the solution to non-stationarity. It will be shown what new problems are to be faced in real-data implementation. Therefore. 5. west coast of France).2 will show how AMTI and STAP algorithm must be adapted to WERA radar system design. in section 5. In order to have unambiguous vectorial information of the currents. High Frequency (HF) radar systems. sometimes it is possible to obtain better results using Adaptive MTI. more and more attention has been paid to such a systems in the context of the ship traﬃc surveillance in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). WERA system was designed to operate as an oceanographics system. Data were collected from the WERA [30] [29] HF radar system.3 results of traﬃc survey will be presented. On the other hand there is a problem with strong clutter and interference as was emphasized in section 3. Finally.1 I will introduce WERA radar system that was used in experiments. in recent years. Such a trials were already undertaken and described for example in [1] [13] [18] [19] [15] [16] [17] [14] [26].2.CHAPTER 5 HF radar signals experiments and STAP technique modiﬁcations.2.1 WERA radar system.OTH). In particular two techniques will be presented. there is no problem with non-Gaussianity.2. Comparison between AMTI and STAP is of secondary importance. concerning real data from HF radar system WERA. Because of the diﬃculties with covariance matrix estimation (see sec 2. First one is AMTI (purely temporal adaptive ﬁltering). Because of these practical problems. which operate in frequency range between 3 and 30 MHz. In the section 5.1). System’s primary task is to provide real-time. In the case of HF radar. that was established by United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982. Installation that was used in experiments is a property of the French Service Hydrographique et Oc´anographique de la e Marine (SHOM) and is operated by the company SAS ActiMar.6). which will be also shown in this chapter. therefore this application will also be described in the same section. 5.

2).2 — Receiving antenna array. 9. 5. This is necessary to apply algorithm like AMTI or STAP (see section 2.2. Such raw data have to be range . HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. signal must be demodulated. Transmitting array consists of 4. Signal must be then sampled with Nyquist frequency.2). Signals from receiving antennas are independently sampled for digital beamforming and storage for oﬀ-line processing. Transmitted waveform is FMCW. square arranged.3 m (Fig. Figure 5. To achieve this goal.3). The next step is to apply appropriate low pass ﬁlter.5. 77 Figure 5. therefore it is necessary to perform preprocessing in range to obtain data equivalent to pulsed systems described in section 2.CHAPTER 5. antennas (Fig. 5.1 — Radars displacement (Google Earth).

5).4 km to 1. Doppler processing is performed in a little bit complicated manner. ship length.48 s) for 120 to 256 range cells by 16 separate channels of array antenna..2275 s to 0. which gives maximum range 144 km. Data ﬁle consists of complex samples taken from 2048 coherent chirps (532. For 1. The next step is Doppler processing. At the beginning 13 spectra are calculated.4 km of range resolution. In the case of frequency modulated signals this means simply to perform Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). it was possible to obtain Automatic Identiﬁcation System (AIS) data. From AIS data it was possible to obtain information about trajectories of certain ships together with additional information e. For example for 0. . data ﬁle consists of 240 range cells which gives maximum range 96 km. Additionally. processed. draft etc (see Fig.26 s. 78 Figure 5.19 in section 2. data are taken for 120 range cells. In the ﬁrst stage of its processing it uses classical beamforming and Doppler processing (by Fast Fourier Transform . HF radar systems have a long history as an ocean monitoring systems.4 (for the 96 km maximum range mode). The number of range cells depends on the range resolution.2 km of range resolution.g.5 km). Bragg scattering from ocean waves (ﬁrst described in [11]) plays a crucial role in this process. 5. 257-768. IMO number. each using overlapping sets of 512 samples (chirps). Carrier frequency of the system is around 12 MHz. Chirps used to calculate each spectrum are accordingly: number 1-512. WERA chirp duration can vary from 0. AIS data allowed to compare HF detections against the true data. After this operation the data can be presented as a complex data cube (Fig. Data used in experiments for target detection were collected in July 2007. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. Beamforming uses 16 signals from diﬀerent antennas. MMSI number.. Possibility of employing HF radar system to ocean monitoring is presented in more detail for example in [5] [40] [30] [29]. 1537-2048. concerning ship traﬃc around Brest Gulf.2. WERA radar system was designed for the same purpose.3 — Transmitting antenna array. . 129-640.5) appropriate for AMTI or STAP processing. 2.FFT). They proved to be capable of extracting currents speed and direction as well as sea state and wind information. . This conﬁguration allows to cover area presented in Fig.CHAPTER 5. 5. Bandwidth is set independently to achieve desired range resolution (from 0. More detailed explanation can be found in Appendix C.

5 — AIS trajectories.4 — Coverage area of radars.CHAPTER 5. 79 Figure 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. Figure 5. .

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.

80

Figure 5.6 — Single subband after beam-Doppler processing.

After this operation all 13 spectra are incoherently added (ie. summation of the magnitude) in order to obtain 512 Doppler bands. A typical X-Y image of an area surveilled by the radar for a single Doppler band is presented in Fig. 5.6. After appropriate analysis, it is possible to obtain oceanographical information. In Fig. 5.7 we can see current map obtain from WERA system. Fig. 5.8 presents waves map and Fig. 5.9 wind information.

5.2

Implementation of Adaptive MTI and STAP - covariance matrix estimation problem.

In this section, the application of Adaptive MTI and STAP processing to WERA radar data will be described. The main problem of both techniques is to estimate covariance matrix. Usually covariance matrix is calculated using auxiliary range cells. Unfortunately for WERA radar system overall number of range cells is at most 256. The ﬁrst step for both techniques is data trim. From the 2048 chirps in data ﬁle, only J chirps of interest are chosen for further processing (see Fig. 5.10). Number of chirps J is chosen in order to operate on data more eﬀectively and is not important from theoretical point of view. From this point data for AMTI and STAP are processed diﬀerently.

5.2.1

Adaptive MTI implementation

The theoretical description of AMTI can be found in section 2.2.4). The ﬁrst step of AMTI is beamforming (Fig. 2.20 in section 2.2.4). Beamforming is performed using 16 antennas for discrete angles [−60o ,+60o ,2o ] (Fig. 5.11). After this step data are available as a cube with 61 beams instead of 16 antennas (Fig.

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.

81

Figure 5.7 — Current map (ActiMar).

CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.

82

Figure 5.8 — Waves map (ActiMar).

HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.9 — Wind map (ActiMar). .CHAPTER 5. 83 Figure 5.

. Figure 5.11 — Angle Coverage. 84 Figure 5.CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.10 — Data trim.

Auxiliary snapshots were taken by sliding snapshot window over chirps and ranges in the test area.2 m/s]. 2.13 — Test snapshot and training area. Figure 5.20 and 2. After such a processing.CHAPTER 5. Training areas were separated in range from test snapshot by guard cells. Steering was performed for discrete velocities [−10 m/s. In Fig. Test statistic is presented as an image for the speciﬁc range.4. For each range-beam cell. This prevents target self-nulling.12 — Data snapshot. this is why echo is present in diﬀerent range cells. Since in WERA there are at most 256 range cells I decided to use time spread of the data to estimate covariance matrix. . Processing was performed using 48 chirps (N=48). results are available in the form of the test statistics cube (range × velocity × angle). It is not possible to present it directly.14 we can see example of a target visible after AMTI processing. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.+10 m/s. 5. It is necessary to cut this cube across one dimension. Sample covariance matrix was calculated using auxiliary snapshots of the same beam.2. In Fig.0.13 we can see test snapshot and area that auxiliary snapshots were taken from. 85 Figure 5.21). 6 images present target that is moving away from the radar. adaptive ﬁlter is calculated as described in section 2. 5.

86 Figure 5. .CHAPTER 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.14 — Example of a target visible after AMTI processing.

Fully adaptive STAP is operating on data before beamforming (suboptimum techniques were not considered in this work). 5. Extending time spread allows us to estimate covariance matrix in the situation. 5. However this eﬀect can be outweighted by the problem of covariance matrix estimation. STAP algorithm is applied to each range cell separately to obtain test statistics as in section 2. After STAP processing.2. training snapshot and training areas in the data cube (compare with Fig. 87 Figure 5.15 — Test snapshot and training area for STAP processing. Classical schema for estimating covariance matrix fails to work because in WERA system there are at most 256 range cells whereas in the case of STAP processing it is necessary to estimate covariance matrix of a very high dimension (eg.2. First one is the number of guard cells.15 we can see test snapshot.13). Covariance matrix converges with increasing number of auxiliary range cells.10). STAP has a potential to suppress clutter and interference at the same time. 5. The last parameter is time spread. but after data trim (Fig.5 . Moreover having wide range-spread means high probability of other targets falling into clutter covariance estimation area. Unfortunately covariance matrix estimate converges slowly with extending timespread. 1600 × 1600 in the case of STAP for 16 antennas and 100 chirps). HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. the test statistics is available in the same form as for AMTI (test statistics cube: range × velocity × angle). In comparison to AMTI.2 STAP implementation. Usually 2 or 3 guard cells on both sides of test cell is suﬃcient to avoid this eﬀect. Covariance matrix must be calculated from secondary (training) data. 5. adaptive single-domain methods may perform poorly and joint domain (space and time) adaptive processing may be advantageous [18].CHAPTER 5. Guard cells are necessary to avoid target self-nulling.see equation (2. In Fig. Moreover there is a risk of clutter non-stationarity that will degrade covariance matrix .14). When interference cannot be estimated independently from the clutter (because of coupling azimuth-Doppler). Unfortunately there is also a risk of clutter non-homogeneity. I use overlapping sliding snapshots. Therefore it is necessary to ﬁnd more auxiliary snapshots. I decided (similarly as for AMTI) to use time spread of the data to obtain more snapshots. The next parameter to chose is range spread. For both techniques there is possibility to chose certain parameters of covariance matrix estimation. when there is not enough range cells to do this. Clutter covariance matrix was estimated using similar schema as for AMTI.

5. which gave maximum range 96 km. 5. We will compare AMTI and STAP techniques for both targets and both localizations (Garchine and Brezzelec).18).CHAPTER 5. Bandwidth was set 375 MHz.16. We can see that playing with these three parameters may be a crucial problem in application both AMTI and STAP.16 — Targets localization. This will deﬁnitely have a negative inﬂuence on detection possibilities.19 we can see Garchine data ﬁle after classical beamforming. One ﬁle contains recording from Brezzelec site and the other from Garchine. estimation. Transmitted power was 30 W.17). 5. single chirp duration 0. Recording started at 05:20 UTC and its duration was almost 8 min (2048 chirps.2275 s). 5. L’AR VOALEDEN is a ﬁshery boat 23 m long (Fig. In Fig.1 Data ﬁle and target description. 5.3. We can see a strong radio interference from the same direction as ﬁshery boat. Files contain samples for 240 range cells. 88 Figure 5. It will be shown how both algorithms can cope with the interference and clutter in order to reveal targets. Signiﬁcant wave height at the moment of data collection was approximately 1. EERLAND 26 is a small tug ship 25 m long (Fig. Results of such experiments will be shown in next sections of this chapter. which gave range resolution 0. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.3 m. From AIS data I chose two interesting potential targets shown in Fig.4 km. In experiments two data ﬁles from 19 July 2007 were used. 5. .3 Comparisons between the results of AMTI and STAP In this section I will compare AMTI and STAP techniques.

that in this case 200 chirps AMTI outperforms 100 chirps AMTI by 6 dB.20 target is well visible. in Fig. 5. 89 Figure 5. Fig. This gives total number of 3000 training snapshots. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. In this subsection I will present results of the processing in order to reveal the tug ship using data from Garchine localization. Upper-left graph presents comparison between lower (100 chirps) and higher (200 chirps) integration time AMTI with low training samples support.17 — Tug ship. This ﬁgure presents test statistics (in decibels) for range cell number 158 and beam 25. We can see.13) were used for training.2 Detection of the tug ship from Garchine radar site. 5. Figure 5. We can say.CHAPTER 5. 5.3.18 — Fishery boat. 100 time slides and 15 range cells on both sides of test cell (see Fig.20 presents behavior of AMTI and STAP algorithms for diﬀerent integration times and for diﬀerent training samples support. 5. The lower-left graph presents . In this case. From AIS data it is possible to deduce. 0 dB in the ﬁgure denotes the reference level of detected target. Indeed. that the highest non-target peak for 200 chirps AMTI is 6 dB lower than for 100 chirps AMTI. that target should be present in the range cell number 158 (distance 63 km) and in the beam number 25 (-10 degrees left to the normal to the antenna).

25 we can see the inﬂuence of diﬀerent training schemes on detection possibilities. This time we can see. For low training samples support (upper-right) we can see that only 100 chirps STAP can reveal the target. • STAP needs more training samples (200 slides and 60 range cells on both sides of test cell). . Situation is diﬀerent for high training samples support (lower-right in Fig. 5. Right graphs show similar results for STAP.21). it is possible to conclude that: • AMTI works well even for relatively low number of training samples (100 slides. that in this case AMTI outperforms STAP by 8 dB. 15 range cells on both sides of test cell). In this case.20). We can see. that 200 chirps STAP outperforms 100 chirps STAP by 5 dB. General pattern is clear that more training samples gives better chances of target detection. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. For longer integration time (200 chirps) and low number of training samples we can see. • Because of interferences present in the data ﬁle. For high number of training samples. similar results for high training samples support. We can see that improvement is even better and 200 chirps AMTI outperforms 100 chirps AMTI by 8 dB.22 to 5. This is valid for extending training area in time (100 vs 200 slides) as well as in range (from 15 to 60 range cells on both sides of test cell). STAP outperforms AMTI by 5 dB. that STAP fails. • Using both techniques it is possible to detect tug ship. Generally. 5.CHAPTER 5. whereas AMTI can reveal the target (see upper-right graph of Fig. In this case 200 slides and 60 range cells on both sides of test cell are used. 5. 200 chirps STAP fails to detect the target. STAP outperforms AMTI by 3 dB. In Fig.21 we can see comparison between AMTI and STAP. Upper-left graph presents comparison between AMTI ans STAP for shorter integration time (100 chirps) and low number of training samples. STAP techniques gives slightly better results. In ﬁgures from 5.19 — Interference. This gives 24000 samples used to estimate covariance matrix. Situation changes dramatically with high number of training samples. 90 Figure 5.

lower-right: STAP for high training samples support.26). If we compare AMTI and STAP (5. lower-left: AMTI for high training samples support. Indeed. For longer integration time. we can see that: • There is no advantage of STAP.CHAPTER 5.3. First.26 target is visible.20 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site .3 Detection of the tug ship from Brezzelec radar site. that main advantage of STAP will not play a role here. in Fig. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. 5. target is better visible.inﬂuence of integration time. • For longer integration time (200 chirps).27). upper-right: STAP for low training samples support. STAP gives the same result. In the case of Bezzelec ﬁle. let us compare the inﬂuence of integration time as before. The same target is visible from the second radar site (Brezzelec). . This should mean. there are almost no interferences present. 5. From AIS data we can expect target in the range cell number 160 (distance 64 km) and in the beam number 34 (6 degrees right to the normal to the antenna). Upperleft: AMTI for low training samples support. that pattern is similar as for Garchine ﬁle (Fig. 5. 91 Figure 5. We can see.

Unfortunately strong interference was present in the same beam as the target. It is well visible.comparison between AMTI and STAP. In ﬁgure 5. Exemplary image is presented in ﬁgure 5. it was impossible to detect this target. 5.29.28 we can see a PPI image after beamforming. using similar techniques as for tug ship. . Interference was so strong that. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.CHAPTER 5. The second target to detect was the ﬁshery ship L’Ar Voaleden. 92 Figure 5.21 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site .4 Detection of the ﬁshery ship from Garchine radar site. that interference covers the area where target is present. This is PPI image (rangeazimuth). PPI image is produced by taking maximum value of test statistics from all test velocities for range-azimuth cell of interest.3. • For shorter integration time (100 chirps) AMTI better reveals the target (I could not explain this anomaly).

93 Figure 5.22 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site .diﬀerent range support for AMTI with 100 chirps.CHAPTER 5. . HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.

23 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site . 94 Figure 5. .diﬀerent range support for AMTI with 200 chirps. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.CHAPTER 5.

diﬀerent range support for STAP with 100 chirps.24 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site . HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. 95 Figure 5. .CHAPTER 5.

25 — Tug ship detection from Garchine site . 96 Figure 5.diﬀerent range support for STAP with 200 chirps.CHAPTER 5. . HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.

We can see. Generally we should try to have very long integration times in order to achieve Doppler resolution allowing to separate target from Bragg lines. where V is a speed and λ is radar wavelength (around 28 m for 12 MHz carrier frequency). From chapter 3. To understand possibilities of this detection it is necessary to calculate Bragg line Doppler speed. Let us recall. lower-left: AMTI for high training samples support.CHAPTER 5. that Bragg Doppler frequency (f ) is around 0. On the other hand it is diﬃcult to estimate covariance matrix for long integration times.9 to 5.2 we know. From mentioned expression we can derive. that f = 2V /λ. The same ﬁshery ship should be visible from the second radar site (Brezzelec).26 — Tug ship detection from Brezzelec site .3.38 Hz for 12 MHz radar. Similar experiments were performed to detect this target. 5. that this is exactly the radial speed of our target.1 m/s. From AIS data it was possible to extract position and velocity information of the target. lower-right: STAP for high training samples support. Upperleft: AMTI for low training samples support. upper-right: STAP for low training samples support.5 Detection of the ﬁshery ship from Brezzelec radar site. 97 Figure 5. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. For . Fishery boat was going almost directly toward the Brezzelec radar site at the speed of about 10 knots (this is 5 m/s). that Bragg lines (ocean waves) speed is around 4. This will make detection very diﬃcult.inﬂuence of integration time.

30 and 5. but is revealed by AMTI. .CHAPTER 5. that for the target with the radial velocity equal to Bragg line Doppler velocity. example it is hard to achieve STAP for longer than 200 chirps and AMTI for longer than 500 chirps. In the case of AMTI this is false alarm. We can conclude. It seems that ﬁshery boat is not revealed by STAP. 98 Figure 5. Moreover this seeming detection for AMTI indicates radial velocity which is negative. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. target can change range speed.comparison between AMTI and STAP. In Fig. This is not true. whereas ﬁshery boat is in fact approaching radar. Moreover. having very long integration time we can face the situation. detection possibilities are very poor. For example.31 we can see a PPI image (range-azimuth) that is produced by taking maximum value of test statistics from all test velocities for range-azimuth cell of interest.27 — Tug ship detection from Brezzelec site . In fact neither AMTI nor STAP can reveal this target. orientation etc. that target is no longer time-coherent. that disappears with time. 5.

CHAPTER 5.28 — Strong interference present in the target beam. Figure 5.29 — PPI image after AMTI processing for 200 chirps. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. . 99 Figure 5.

test statistics cube was reduced to test statistics image by taking (for each range-beam cell) maximum across all velocities. In ﬁgures 5. Choosing appropriate threshold is a very important issue. 5. Processing after thresholding is also very important.33 we can see PPI images after thresholding. Instead.31 — PPI image after STAP processing for 100 chirps. In a complete system. it was shown how AMTI and STAP techniques can reveal the target in the terms of test statistics. We can see that some targets were detected.32 and 5. that is not treated in this work.4 Thresholding and detections presentation. I used AMTI algorithm for 200 chirps and low number of training samples.2. After AMTI processing.CHAPTER 5. the last step it to apply thresholding for the detections (see section 2.3 and chapter 4). but there are still some undetected targets. that are mostly related to the presence of islands and rocks as well as to the sidelobes of strong echo from target. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.30 — PPI image after AMTI processing for 200 chirps. 2. . that is not treated in this work. The last step was to apply threshold. This was due to the computational reasons. We can also see some false alarms. In sections before.5. I will present some detection results for a priori chosen threshold. 100 Figure 5. Figure 5.

Thresholding for other techniques (AMTI with longer integration time and STAP) was not performed from computational reasons. can also reduce the number of false alarms as well as give additional vectorial information about target velocity. In this chapter a practical implementation of AMTI and STAP techniques was shown. but it should give better results (lower number of false alarms). We could see that: . 5. Knowledge aided techniques could be used to remove false detections from islands and rocks. Tracking can reduce number of false alarms considerably (see for example [1] and [13]). Finally. 101 Figure 5.5 Conclusions. after thresholding. To reduce sidelobe false detections it is worth considering to use dominant scatter removal. simultaneous processing from two radars.32 — PPI images 05:20-05:22. HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS.CHAPTER 5.

HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. 102 Figure 5.33 — PPI images 05:24-05:26.CHAPTER 5. .

it is also necessary to perform analysis on the inﬂuence of meteorological conditions. WERA radar was designed to provide information about waves and currents. For target detection it may be proﬁtable. only two targets were considered as an example of detections. that bigger ships (eg. • Longer-distance detections are diﬃcult because of the very low transmitting power of WERA radar system (only 30 W). HF RADAR SIGNALS EXPERIMENTS AND STAP TECHNIQUE MODIFICATIONS. In the case of a simple ﬁrst order Bragg clutter plus interferences. adaptive arrays followed by adaptive temporal ﬁltering may be suﬃcient. It is worth to reconsider radar waveforms used in HF radars. Nevertheless. Moreover AMTI is less computational and training data demanding. Either way. This may be an important factor. or chirp repetition frequency. Therefore an airplane or a very fast speed boats can be detected with false velocity. For example for low chirp repetition frequency. In fact. 100 m) are well visible using both AMTI and STAP even at longer distances (100 km). In this chapter. • On the other hand. during experiments many other targets were detected successfully. STAP technique seems to be more eﬀective than AMTI. • In the case of the presence of a strong interference. for example: • Parametric adaptive methods. Generally we can conclude. STAP prevails over AMTI when interference is present together with clutter. • Diagonal loading.CHAPTER 5. For example sea state can be a crucial factor when detecting targets. all fast targets fall into false Doppler cell of a slow target. AMTI performance is good enough when very little interference is present. 103 • AMTI and STAP techniques can reveal quite small ships even 60 km away from the shore. • Reduced-rank STAP. . both techniques failed to detect target that is buried completely in interference or having the same speed as the Bragg waves. Tu summarize we can say that for HF radar the rationale standing behind using STAP is second order Bragg eﬀects (azimuth-Doppler coupling of the clutter) plus interferences (jamming). Second order Bragg scattering makes STAP prevail over AMTI. In order to achieve this. that were not considered in this work. to change some radar parameters such as transmitted power. It seems that HF radar systems have a potential to improve target detections at long distances that is not yet suﬃciently explored. There are however some other possibilities to improve STAP calculations.

a limit of improvement that is related to non-Gaussian distribution itself. Doppler clutter related do Bragg scattering and clutter non-stationarity. In the ﬁrst chapter basic concepts were introduced. This can be viewed as an Cram´r-Rao bound for the problem of detection. that indeed.1 I presented graphically three cases in the typical detection problems. It was shown. e In ﬁgure 6.CHAPTER 6 Conclusions and perspectives In this work it was shown how classical STAP concept can be adapted to the sea surveillance. however. In order to show potential detection diﬃculties. Classical STAP algorithm was shown as well as Adaptive MTI processing. These problems were addressed in chapters 4 and 5. this detector can give some improvement in the case of non-Gaussian clutter. We could sea. Two main problems were addressed. They are: • Gaussianity • Non-Gaussianity • Determinism Figure 6. that for see clutter we can expect non-Gaussianity. There is. Two Dirac Delta (TDD STAP) detector was presented in chapter 4 as a solution to the problem of non-Gaussianity. . sea clutter properties were presented in chapter 3. Detection theory was also presented in order to have a good base to develop other detectors.1 — Triangle of detection problems. There is a possibility to develop this concept and introduce for example more Dirac deltas to further improve detections. First one is non-Gaussianity of the clutter and the second is covariance matrix estimation.

where we have large number of independent contributors to overall eﬀect. knowledge aided algorithms. Nevertheless. To test adaptive methods on real data. that having clutter covariance matrix well calculated STAP outperforms AMTI when clutter plus interference is present in the data. both STAP and AMTI are eﬀective algorithms in canceling clutter and interferences. We cannot apply imaging algorithms and classical (Gaussian) algorithms fail in the sense. Its characteristic feature is that in fact this is most random case. simulated data were used in chapter 4. because there is only strictly random pattern and as such cannot be predicted precisely. . Even then. To validate results. This case can occur for very high resolution radars. To conclude we can say. that can cope with non-Gaussianity. that they produce more false alarms. that under non-Gaussian K-distributed clutter there is a possibility to improve detection in comparison to classical STAP algorithms using a new concept of Two Dirac Delta detector. From this point of view this is the worst case. Because of low number of range cells in WERA radar system as well as clutter nonstationarity it was necessary to precisely chose certain algorithm parameters. • Developing concept of TDD STAP detector by introducing more Dirac deltas. The third case is statistical non-Gaussian distribution. in the case of determinism. In this work it was proved. • Applying techniques like reduced-rank STAP. STAP algorithm was tested together with Adaptive MTI. and clutter can be predicted (anticipated) and suppressed. The future work should concentrate on: • Testing algorithm under diﬀerent sea state and weather conditions. These improvements should reduce number of false alarms and false tracks considerably. On the other hand. This is the case. WERA radar system was used in chapter 5. performance will be worse than classical algorithms working under Gaussian noise and clutter. because of distribution imminent properties. It means that this is a result of the law of large numbers. usually. that indeed. It was proved. This is very diﬃcult situation. Typical detectors were developed under assumption of Gaussian clutter and noise. In fact this may occur in the situations that are in the middle between Gaussian and deterministic case (middle resolution radars). CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES 105 Very often we are placed in between all of these cases.3. and this work give certain solutions to some problems with its practical application. The main problem in practical application was the way the covariance matrix should be estimated. in the case of underestimated covariance matrix. • Applying tracking algorithms after signal processing. This case is well studied.CHAPTER 6. It was shown. dominating scatterer removal and diagonal loading. there is a perfect information about the process standing behind the clutter. that STAP technique can be an eﬀective algorithm to detect targets on the sea surface. I presented sliding window method. this advantage can vanish. when new algorithms must be developed.

This notation is used in the rest of this PhD thesis. Therefore we can easily apply transformation into complex domain [44]: Let z = x + jy z is a N/2 dimensional complex vector. Let us assume Gaussian N-dimensional process. Now we have formula for a Gaussian process [44]: [xT yT ]M−1 |M| exp(− 2 x y p x y = 1 (2Π)N/2 ) (A. covariance matrix is of a special form [44]: M= 1 2 V −W W V where WT = −W. it will be presented transformation that is commonly used in narrowband systems.3) (A.4) (A. and therefore it is necessary to present it in an appendix. that allows to employ compact complex notation instead of classical real-numbers notation.1) where M is a covariance matrix: M=E x [xT yT ] y where || denotes determinant. Let us split random. For a narrowband Gaussian process.2) .APPENDIX A Gaussian complex process. In this appendix. and T denotes transposition. Let also C = V + jW There are some interesting properties of this transformation: [xT yT ] V −W W V x y = zH Cz (A. N dimensional vector (N is even) into vectors x and y (both having dimension N/2 and zero mean value).

8) s = Ax + b then E(s) = AE(x) + b and COV (s) = ACAH (A. GAUSSIAN COMPLEX PROCESS. 107 [xT yT ] So V −W W V −1 x y = zH C−1 z (A.APPENDIX A.5) [xT yT ]M−1 2 Moreover p(z) = 1 x y = zH C−1 z (A. A is a transformation matrix and b is a vector such that: (A.6) ΠN/2 |C| exp(−zH C−1 z) (A. Additional properties: If z is a random complex Gaussian vector.7) where H denotes transpose conjugate.9) .10) (A.

very useful property [49]: If X is a SIRV with characteristic PDF g(σ).3) is also SIRV with the same characteristic PDF. If X is a zero mean Gaussian vector with identity covariance matrix. B. Generate product X = Zσ. then Y = AX + b (B. In radar detection problems we need to have complex samples. . as described in chapter 4. 4. Generate a white zero mean Gaussian random vector Z.1) where X is a Spherically Invariant Random Vector (SIRV) and T denotes transpose. Therefore algorithm must be modiﬁed. If E(σ 2 ) = 1 then M = E[XX T ]. we need to generate Gaussian and SIRP vectors. then covariance matrix of Y = E(Y Y T ) = Σ. 2. In order to test performance of STAP. At this step. having identity covariance matrix.APPENDIX B f (X) = f (X) = Data generation. Normalize v to obtain σ: σ = v/a. So general algorithm looks as follows [49]: 1. Generate a random variable v from the PDF g(v). we have a white SIRV having zero mean and identity covariance matrix. Perform linear transformation to obtain SIRV having desired mean value and covariance matrix. 5. We will be using continuous version: 1 n/2 |M |1/2 (2π) ∞ 0 1 − X T M −1 X 2σ 2 g(σ)dσ e σn (B.2) SIRV has a. Denote mean square value of v by a2 . In Fig. 3.1 exemplary histograms are shown. To do this we will use this representation of a PDF (for real SIRP) [49]: 1 n/2 |M |1/2 (2π) ∞ 0 1 − X T M −1 X 2σ 2 dGσ (σ) e σn (B.It is assumed that A is a matrix such that AAT = Σ and b is a known vector having the same dimension as X.

1 — Generated SIRVs histograms. 109 Figure B. . DATA GENERATION.APPENDIX B.

A structure of the signal processor is presented and assumptions necessary to be fulﬁlled are deﬁned. Eﬀects of the proposed approach implementation in HF.5 km → B = 100 kHz (C.APPENDIX C Space Time Adaptive Processing based on Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave system. C. The appendix presents a simple analysis of a proposed approach to achieve this goal.1 Introduction. and X bands are evaluated on the basis of selected parameters of the appropriate FMCWSTAP systems. It seems extremely important to look for a possibility of using STAP procedures in FMCW systems to make them even more attractive. all results from section C.1) . In this document we assume the following standard data set: fc fdoppler fr Doppler resolution range resolution = ± = = = 10 MHz 0. More precisely. C. The fundamental assumption that is made while space-time adaptive processing (STAP) technique is considered is that the signal to be processed takes on the form of a sequence of coherent pulses. C.1.2 Preliminaries.2 were published in [4].5 Hz PRF = 1 Hz → PRI = Tr = 1 s 0. Therefore. I.02 Hz → TDWELL = 50 s 1. but without all step-by-step transformations. here I present a complete derivation. Frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) systems are in widespread use because of their numerous advantages. for example low transmitting power. Derivations presented in this appendix were inspired by the work [4]. Let us consider single receiving antenna system shown in Fig.

3. centered at time zero): (C.5. Condition f2 f1 is fulﬁlled if we assume that time delay td of echo from target is much less than Tr (we keep in mind that T = Tr − td ). 111 Figure C. C. C. Mixing with transmitted signal is the same as subtracting the phase.6) 2π dt If f2 f1 . Frequency (over time) of transmitted and received signal is shown in Fig.4) Received signal is both delayed in time (due to distance from radar to target) and shifted in frequency (due to non-zero radial velocity).4.3 are : f1 = f2 = 1 d [φT (t − td ) − φT (t)] 2π dt (C. After mixing with transmitted signal. than it is possible to ﬁlter out part of the signal having frequency f2 as shown in Fig.5) 1 d [φT (t − td ) − φT (t + Tr )] (C.APPENDIX C.3) (C. This condition also imply that Tr > T 2 Tr . Following calculations assume only re-centered part of the mixed .2) vT (t) = cos[ωc t + πBfr t2 ] = cos[φT (t)] where −Tr /2 < t < +Tr /2 From above we can derive instantaneous frequency as: fT (t) = Let us consider a single target: ν t R0 R(t) td = = = = = 5 m/s 0 15km R0 + νt = 15 km + 5 m t s 2 R(t) c 1 dφT (t) = fc + Bfr t 2π dt (C. Therefore two frequencies f1 and f2 in Fig. Now it is possible to recenter each pulse as shown in Fig. Transmitted waveform (we assume here only one period from FMCW waveform. C. C. frequency over time is shown in Fig. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. Therefore distance to the target is 1 bounded. C.2.1 — Single receiving antenna system.

SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. .2 — Frequency over time of transmitted and received signal.3 — Received signal after mixer and low pass ﬁlter.APPENDIX C. 112 Figure C. Figure C.

Figure C. . 113 Figure C.5 — Demodulated pulse. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM.APPENDIX C.4 — Signal after ﬁltering out high frequency factor.

11) For assumed set of data (eg. frequency fI is fI = 1 dφ(t) 2ν = fc + Bfr t0 2π dt c (C. 114 signal.13) 2ν fc + Bfr t0 ]ti c (C.12) . Therefore we have: φ(ti ) ≈ φ0 − 2π[ hence within the ﬁrst pulse. received signal is: vb (t) = A j[ωc (t−td )+πBfr (t−td )2 ] 2 e + e−j[ωc (t−td )+πBfr (t−td ) ] · 2 1 j[ωc t+πBfr t2 ] 2 e + e−j[ωc t+πBfr t ] 2 A j[ωc (t−td )+πBfr (t−td )2 +ωc t+πBfr t2 ] 2 2 e + e−j[ωc (t−td )+πBfr (t−td ) −ωc t−πBfr t ] + 4 ej[ωc (t−td )+πBfr (t−td ) 2 −ω t−πBf t2 ] c r (C.10) (C. during one pulse duration the quadratic term and second part of the linear term may be neglected. t0 = 2R0 c (C.7) = + e−j[ωc (t−td )+πBfr (t−td ) 2 +ω t+πBf t2 ] c r (C. After this operation only underlined terms in (C.9) 2 td = Then : φ(ti ) = 2πfc (ti − td ) + πBfr (ti − td )2 − 2πfc ti − πBfr t2 i = 2πfc ti − 2πfc td + πBfr (t2 − 2ti td + t2 ) − 2πfc ti − πBfr t2 i i d = 2πfc ti − 2πfc td + πBfr t2 − 2πBfr ti td + πBfr t2 − 2πfc ti − πBfr t2 i i d = −2πfc td − 2πBfr ti td + πBfr t2 d 2νti 2νti 2νti = −2πfc (t0 + ) − 2πBfr ti (t0 + ) + πBfr t0 + c c c 2νt2 2νti i − 2πBfr ti t0 − 2πBfr = −2πfc t0 − 2πfc c c 2νti 2νti 2 +πBfr t2 + 2πBfr t0 + πBfr ( ) 0 c c ν = [ − 2πfc t0 + πBfr t2 ] + 2π[ − 2fc 0 c ν 2ν ν +2Bfr t0 − Bfr t0 ]ti − 2πB fr 1 − t2 c c c i 2 2R c Let us introduce = t0 + 2νti c .APPENDIX C.8) remain: vl (t) = = A j[ωc (t−td )+πBfr (t−td )2 −ωc t−πBfr t2 ] 2 2 e + e−j[ωc (t−td )+πBfr (t−td ) −ωc t−πBfr t ] 4 A cos[ωc (t − td ) + πBfr (t − td )2 − ωc t − πBfr t2 ] (C. Backing oﬀ to primitive echo from the target: vR (t) = AvT (t − td ) = A cos[ωc (t − td ) + πBfr (t − td )2 ] A j[ωc (t−td )+πBfr (t−td )2 ] 2 = e + e−j[ωc (t−td )+πBfr (t−td ) ] 2 After mixing. providing ν/c 1).8) Then signal is passed through a low-pass ﬁlter. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM.

SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM.APPENDIX C. analysing only one pulse.15) (C. It is not possible to separate velocity from range. this frequency oﬀset consists of two terms: the ﬁrst is due to target velocity and the second is due to time delay (range) to the target.14) = t0 + 2ν c (nTr + ti ) .16) ti − is a time variable within one pulse duration φ(ti ) = 2πfc (ti − td ) + πBfr (ti − td )2 − 2πfc ti − πBfr t2 i = 2πfc ti − 2πfc td + πBfr (t2 − 2ti td + t2 ) − 2πfc ti − πBfr t2 i i d = 2πfc ti − 2πfc td + πBfr t2 − 2πBfr ti td + πBfr t2 − 2πfc ti − πBfr t2 i i d = −2πfc td − 2πBfr ti td + πBfr t2 d 2ν = −2πfc [t0 + (nTr + ti )] c 2ν −2πBfr ti [t0 + (nTr + ti )] c 2 2ν +πBfr t0 + (nTr + ti ) c 2ν 2ν = −2πfc t0 − 2πfc nTr − 2πfc ti c c 2ν 2ν −2πBfr ti t0 − 2πBfr ti nTr − 2πBfr ti ti c c 2 2ν 4ν +πBfr t2 + 2t0 (nTr + ti ) + 2 (nTr + ti )2 0 c c 2ν 2ν = −2πfc t0 − 2πfc nTr − 2πfc ti c c 2ν 2ν −2πBfr ti t0 − 2πBfr ti nTr − 2πBfr ti ti c c 2 2ν 2ν 4ν 2 +πBfr t2 + 2t0 nTr + 2t0 ti + 2 (n2 Tr + 2nTr ti + t2 ) 0 i c c c 2ν 2ν = −2πfc t0 − 2πfc nTr − 2πfc ti c c 2ν 2ν −2πBfr ti t0 − 2πBfr ti nTr − 2πBfr ti ti c c 2ν 2ν 4ν 2 2 +πBfr t2 + πBfr 2t0 nTr + πBfr 2t0 ti + πBfr 2 (n2 Tr + 2nTr ti + t2 ) 0 i c c c 2ν 2ν = −2πfc t0 − 2πfc nTr − 2πfc ti c c 2ν 2ν −2πBfr ti t0 − 2πBfr ti nTr − 2πBfr ti ti c c 2ν 2ν 4ν 2 2 +πBfr t2 + πBfr 2t0 nTr + πBfr 2t0 ti + πBfr 2 n2 Tr 0 c c c 4ν 2 4ν 2 +πBfr 2 2nTr ti + πBfr 2 t2 c c i 2ν 2ν = −2πfc t0 − 2πfc nTr − 2πfc ti c c . t0 = 2R0 c (C. 115 As can be seen. c 3 similar analysis for the nth pulse: td = 2R c Bfr t0 = 10 Hz (C. In our example for the target: 2ν 1 fc = Hz.

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 116

2ν 2ν nTr − 2πBfr ti ti c c 2ν 2ν 4ν 2 2 +πBfr t2 + πBfr 2t0 nTr + πBfr 2t0 ti + πBfr 2 n2 Tr 0 c c c 4ν 2 4ν 2 +πBfr 2 2nTr ti + πBfr 2 t2 c c i 2ν 2ν = −2πfc t0 − 2πfc nTr − 2πfc ti c c 2ν ν ν −2πBfr ti t0 − 2πBfr ti nTr − 4πBfr 1 − t2 c c c i 2ν 4ν 2 2ν 4ν 2 2 +πBfr t2 + πBfr 2t0 nTr + πBfr 2t0 ti + πBfr 2 n2 Tr + πBfr 2 2nTr ti 0 c c c c 2ν 2ν 2ν = −2πfc t0 + πBfr t2 − 2πfc nTr − 2πfc ti − 2πBfr ti t0 − 2πBfr ti nTr 0 c c c ν ν 2 −4πBfr 1 − ti c c 2ν 4ν 2 4ν 2 2ν 2 +πBfr 2t0 nTr + πBfr 2t0 ti + πBfr 2 n2 Tr + πBfr 2 2nTr ti c c c c 2ν 2ν 2ν 2 = −2πfc t0 + πBfr t0 − 2πfc nTr − 2π fc + Bfr t0 + n B ti c c c ν ν 2 −4πBfr 1 − ti c c 2ν 4ν 2 2ν 4ν 2 2 +πBfr 2t0 nTr + πBfr 2 n2 Tr + πBfr 2t0 ti + πBfr 2 2nTr ti c c c c 2ν 2ν 2ν fc + Bfr t0 + n B ti = −2πfc t0 + πBfr t2 − 2πfc nTr − 2π 0 c c c ν ν 2 −4πBfr 1 − ti c c 4ν 2 2ν +πB2t0 n + πB 2 n2 Tr c c 2ν 4ν 2 +πBfr 2t0 ti + πB 2 2nti (C.17) c c In order to neglect terms: ν ν −4πBfr 1 − t2 c c i 2ν 4ν 2 +πB2t0 n + πB 2 n2 Tr c c 2ν 4ν 2 +πBfr 2t0 ti + πB 2 2nti (C.18) c c certain assumptions must be made: −2πBfr ti t0 − 2πBfr ti 1. 4πBfr ν ν 1 − t2 c c i 2π → B 2νmax 1 Tr c 4 1

since max value of ti is 1 Tr 2 2. 2ν 2Rmax 2νmax n 2π → B N 1 c c c where N is a number of pulses and Rmax is a max range from the radar to the target πB2t0

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 117

**3. πB 4. πBfr 2t0 2ν ti c 2π → B 2Rmax c 2νmax 1 c 2
**

1 Tr .

4ν 2 2 n Tr c2

2π

→

1 2νmax B 2 c

2

N 2 Tr

1

1 This condition is

1 again we have to remember that max value of ti is 2 Tr and fr = 1 weaker than (2.) since 2 N.

5. πB 4ν 2 2nti c2 2π → 1 2νmax B 2 c

2

N Tr

1

again max value of ti is 1 Tr and max value of n is N . This condition is weaker than (3.) 2 because N < N 2 . So after simpliﬁcations based on conditions 1. 2. 3. we have: φIn (ti ) = φ0 − 2nπfc so fIn = 2ν 2ν 1 dφ(t) = fc + Bfr t0 + n B 2π dt c c (C.20) 2ν 2ν 2ν Tr − 2π[ fc + Bfr t0 + n B]ti c c c (C.19)

**Let us perform Fourier transformation on the received (n-th) pulse (C.9) using (C.19)
**

T/2

VIn (f ) = =

−T/2 T/2 −T/2 T/2

A cos (φIn (t))e−j2πf t dt A cos (φ0 − 2nπfc 2ν Tr − 2πfIn t)e−j2πf t dt c

=

−T/2 T/2

2ν A j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr −2πfIn t) c e + e−j(φ0 −2nπfc c Tr −2πfIn t) e−j2πf t dt 2

=

−T/2 T/2 −T/2 T/2

A j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr −2πfIn t−2πf t) −j2πf t c e e dt + 2 A −j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr −2πfIn t+2πf t) −j2πf t c e e dt 2 A j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr −2πfIn t−2πf t) c e dt + 2 A −j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr −2πfIn t+2πf t) c e dt 2

T/2

=

−T/2 T/2 −T/2

=

A j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr ) c e 2 A −j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr ) c e 2

ej(−2πfIn t−2πf t) dt + e−j(−2πfIn t+2πf t) dt

−T/2 T/2 −T/2

APPENDIX C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. 118

Figure C.6 — Spectrum of the received pulse.

=

A j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr ) c e 2 A −j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr ) c e 2

T/2

e−j(2πfIn t+2πf t) dt + e−j(2πf t−2πfIn t) dt

−T/2 T/2 −T/2

= = = = = =

A j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr ) 2 sin [2π(fIn + f )T /2] A −j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr ) 2 sin [2π(f − fIn )T /2] c c e + e 2 2π(fIn + f ) 2 2π(f − fIn ) AT j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr ) 2 sin [2π(fIn + f )T /2] AT −j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr ) 2 sin [2π(f − fIn )T /2] c c e + e 2 2π(fIn + f )T 2 2π(f − fIn )T 2ν 2 sin [2π(f − fIn )T /2] AT j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr ) 2 sin [2π(fIn + f )T /2] c + e−j(φ0 −2nπfc c Tr ) e 2 2π(fIn + f )T 2π(f − fIn )T 2ν AT j(φ0 −2nπfc 2ν Tr ) sin [2π(fIn + f )T /2] sin [2π(f − fIn )T /2] c + e−j(φ0 −2nπfc c Tr ) e 2 2π(fIn + f )T /2 2π(f − fIn )T /2 2ν AT jφ0 −j2nπfc 2ν Tr sin [2π(f + fIn )T /2] sin [2π(f − fIn )T /2] c + e−jφ0 +j2nπfc c Tr e 2 2π(f + fIn )T /2 2π(f − fIn )T /2 2ν AT jφ0 −j2πfc 2ν nTr sin [2π(f + fIn )T /2] sin [2π(f − fIn )T /2] c e + e−jφ0 +j2πfc c nTr 2 2π(f + fIn )T /2 2π(f − fIn )T /2 (C.21)

Let us investigate (C.21). Considering only positive frequencies, maximum of (C.21) is in point f = fIn , and fIn is related to the distance to the target (see (C.20) and (C.10)). Therefore distance to the target can be read from the spectrum of the received signal as can be seen in Fig. C.6 (this is true as long as 2ν fc and n 2ν B are much less than Bfr t0 , eg. (C.14)). We c c sin [2π(f ±f )T /2] see that from pulse to pulse, two parameters can change: fIn in 2π(f ±fInIn /2 and nTr in )T e±jφ0

j2πfc 2ν nTr c

hence can be interpreted as function of f only (let say K(f )). Taking into account only positive frequencies we can neglect term ejφ0 −j2πfc

2ν nTr c

sin [2π(f ±fIn )T /2] 2π(f ±fIn )T /2

. For standard data set, over dwelling time (50 s) fIn changes only slightly,

**sin [2π(f + fIn )T /2] 2π(f + fIn )T /2
**

2ν nTr c

Therefore we have the following approximation: VIn (f ) ≈ K(f )e−jφ0 +j2πfc (C.22)

no range migration condition dν dt N Tr ν ν − velocity resolution. C.3 Antenna array with FMCW. Lets perform similar calculations for multi-dimensional case (see Fig. Assumptions are summarized in the table C.23) We can see that for the speciﬁc range (which means frequency f ) from pulse to pulse only 2ν term ej2πfc c nTr changes.1. no velocity migration condition 2νmax c fc Bfr t0 → νmax fc Tr B Rmin min t0 = 2Rc violation of this condition leads to range errors which can be mitigated after Doppler processing (not true for STAP) N 2νmax B c Bfr t0 → νmax N Tr Rmin min t0 = 2Rc this condition is weaker than condition for the range migration C. Table C.7): vmr (t) = Av(t − td − ta ) = A cos[ωc (t − td − ta ) + πBfr (t − td − ta )2 ] .APPENDIX C. B 2Rmax c 2νmax c N 1 2. 2νmax 1 2B c 2 N 2 Tr 1 3.7). T 1 2 Tr → 1 Tr 2 2Rmax c → Rmax 1 4 Tr c range limitation B 2νmax c Tr 1 4 1 1. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. coming from the target will be now expressed in similar way as in (C. 119 Including e−jφ0 in K(f ) leads to: VIn (f ) = K(f )ej2πfc 2ν nTr c (C.1 — Assumptions. νmax N Tr R R − range resolution. Received signal.

. = = Aej[ωc (t−td −ta )+πBfr (t−td −ta ) ] + Ae−j[ωc (t−td −ta )+πBfr (t−td −ta ) ] 2 A j[ωc (t−td −ta )+πBfr (t−td −ta )2 ] 2 e + e−j[ωc (t−td −ta )+πBfr (t−td −ta ) ] 2 (C.25) Let tboth = td + ta : tboth = t0 + Now: φm (ti ) = 2πfc (t − tboth ) + πBfr (t − tboth )2 − 2πfc ti − πBfr t2 i 2νti md 2νti + sin(α) = t0 + c c c (C. Figure C.8). 120 Figure C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. where d is a distance between antenna c elements and c is a speed of wave propagation.24) 2 2 where ta is an additional delay due to the distance between antenna elements.7 — System with antenna array.8 — Geometry of the target echo and antenna array. Subscript m denotes antenna element (m = 1 .APPENDIX C. . M). C.26) . We assume the ﬁrst antenna as a reference antenna (see Fig. Time delay will be equal md sin(α). After low pass ﬁlter we have: vml (t) = A cos[ωc (t − td − ta ) + πBfr (t − td − ta )2 − ωc t − πBfr t2 ] 2 (C.

APPENDIX C.4 STAP system using FMCW. Then we are left with the signal as in the Figure C.31) Again for positive frequencies we have the following approximation: VmIn (f ) ≈ K(f )e−jφ0 +j2πfc Including e−jφ0 in K(f ) leads to: VmIn (f ) = K(f )ej2πfc = K(f )ej2πfc md c md c md c sin(α)+j2πfc 2ν nTr c (C. C.27) Similar simpliﬁcations as before lead us to formulas as follows.30) VmIn (f ) = = −T/2 A cos (φmIn (t))e−j2πf t dt AT jφ0 −j2πfc md sin(α)−j2πfc 2ν nTr sin [2π(f + fIn )T /2] c c + e 2 2π(f + fIn )T /2 2ν md sin [2π(f − fIn )T /2] e−jφ0 +j2πfc c sin(α)+j2πfc c nTr 2π(f − fIn )T /2 (C. Now for N pulses we have to .9 (for clarity reasons transmitted sawtooth waveform is also shown but on a diﬀerent frequency scale). First we need to set cut-oﬀ frequency of the low-pass ﬁlter.29) md 2ν 2ν 2ν sin(α) − 2nπfc Tr − 2π[ fc + Bfr t0 + n B]ti c c c c 2ν 2ν 1 dφ(t) = fc + Bfr t0 + n B 2π dt c c (C. In this section digital processing will be explained. To get rid of frequency f2 (C. Phase for single pulse: φm (ti ) ≈ φ0 − 2πfc md 2ν sin(α) − 2π[ fc + Bfr t0 ]ti c c (C.6) the cut-oﬀ frequency can be set B/2. 121 = −2πfc tboth − 2πBfr ti tboth + πBfr t2 both ν ν 2ν ν 2 = [ − 2πfc t0 + πBfr t0 ] + 2π[ − 2fc + 2Bfr t0 − Bfr t0 ]ti − 2πB fr 1 − t2 c c c c i (C. instantaneous frequency fmI is fmI = And for the for the nth pulse φmIn (ti ) = φ0 − 2πfc so fmIn = After Fourier transformation: T/2 1 dφ(t) 2ν = fc + Bfr t0 2π dt c (C.33) We see that (C.32) sin(α)+j2πfc 2ν nTr c sin(α) j2πfc 2ν nTr c e (C. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM.33) changes (from pulse to pulse and between array elements) exactly in the same way as it is assumed for STAP processing (see for example [37]).28) hence within the ﬁrst pulse.

10) see for example [37]. C.5 FMCW HF system . separately perform L point FFT. 122 Figure C. Thus the sampling rate should be L/Tr . SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. C. After this operation (for each antenna array receiving element) we can arrange our complex samples into data cube: M antenna elements * N pulses * L/2 range cells.9 — Sampling after ﬁltering. In this section we summarize practical considerations .APPENDIX C.10 — Data cube. fImax depends on the maximum range of the radar system and on the range resolution since B is set to obtain desired range resolution. L should be set that condition L/TR > 2fImax is fulﬁlled. This is the form accepted by digital STAP processor (Fig. After sampling and FFT we have L/2 samples for positive frequencies and L/2 samples for negative frequencies (from which 2 are the same frequency-zero frequency).practical example. Figure C.

42) Now we want to have a radar range 150 km.41) 1 1 2R Tr → Tr 2 2 c After calculations we have condition for the radar range R 75 000 km (C. This means that fImax = 100 Hz. fc = 10 GHz which gives: λ = 0. Sawtooth signal changes within 100 kHz band during 1 s. 123 fc = 10 MHz which gives: λ = 30 m Let B = 100 kHz → range resolution = 1. SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM.38) (C.02 Hz → TDWELL = 50 s Now let us consider condition f2 This implies that T f1 (Vmax < 7. frequency diﬀerence is 100 Hz.36) (C.40) (C.5 m ) s (C. Our sampling rate should be twice this number.43) .44) (C.practical example. we can set L=256 (we will have 256 range cells).34) (C.5 km Let max Doppler shift be: fdoppler ± 0. Since FFT operates on samples number equal power of 2.37) (C. N will be 50 since dwelling time is 50 s. This is because two way distance is 300 km which gives 1 ms time delay. In this section similar considerations for X-band system are presented.5 m ) s (C.6 FMCW X-band system .46) (C.03 m Let B = 1 MHz → range resolution = 150 m Let max Doppler shift be: fdoppler ± 500 Hz Which gives: fr = PRF = 2 ∗ 500 Hz = 1 kHz → PRI = Tr = 1 ms (C.5 Hz = 1 Hz → PRI = Tr = 1 s We want to have: Doppler resolution = 0.APPENDIX C.45) (C.47) (Vmax < 7. So after 1 ms.39) (C. After calculations we have L=200. C.5 Hz Which gives: fr = PRF = 2 ∗ 0.35) (C.

APPENDIX C. .60) (C.7 FMCW L-band system .62) c If we put radar range 150 km we will have L > 2000 (eg.51) Additional calculations to verify assumptions (target at the range of 1 km and at the speed of 5 m ) : s 2ν 1 fc = kHz. and N=100.1 s Now let us consider condition f2 This implies that T f1 (C.57) (Vmax < 7.53) 1 2R 1 Tr → Tr 2 2 c After calculations we have condition for the radar range R 750 km (C. and N=100. Bfr t0 = 6 kHz (C.55) (C.practical example.52) c 3 If we put radar range 10 km we will have L > 120 (eg.54) (C. 2048). SPACE TIME ADAPTIVE PROCESSING BASED ON FREQUENCY MODULATED CONTINUOUS WAVE SYSTEM. Bfr t0 = 6000 Hz (C. 124 We want to have: Doppler resolution = 10 Hz → TDWELL = 0. 128).49) (C. In this section are presented similar considerations for L-band system.48) 1 1 2R Tr → Tr 2 2 c After calculations we have condition for the radar range R 75 km (C.50) (C. fc = 1 GHz which gives: λ = 0.61) Additional calculations to verify assumptions (target at the range of 10 km and at the speed of 5 m ) : s 2ν fc = 30 Hz.59) (C.58) (C.5 m ) s (C.3 m Let B = 1 MHz → range resolution = 150 m Let max Doppler shift be: fdoppler ± 50 Hz Which gives: fr = PRF = 2 ∗ 50 Hz → PRI = Tr = 10 ms We want to have: Doppler resolution = 1 Hz → TDWELL = 1 s Now let us consider condition f2 This implies that T f1 (C. C.56) (C.

Speed of light CDF .Conjugate transpose HF .Maximum Likelihood MMSI .Automatic Identiﬁcation System AMTI . Abbreviations have following meaning (unless otherwise stated): AB .Constant False Alarm Ratio CPDF .Likelihood Ratio Test M .Characteristic PDF CW .Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave GLRT .Maritime Mobile Service Identity .Number of antennas ML .APPENDIX D List of symbols and abbreviations.International Maritime Organization L .Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test H .Discrete Fourier Transform EEZ .Low Pass Filter LRT .Locally Optimum (detector) LPF .Number of range cells LMSE .Least Mean Square Error LO .Continuous Wave DFT .Exclusive Economic Zone fD .False Alarm FFT .Cumulative Distribution Function CFAR .purely temporal Adaptive MTI c .Fast Fourier Transform FMCW .Adaptive Beamforming A/D .Analog-Digital converter AIS .Doppler frequency FA .High Frequency IMO .

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS.APPENDIX D. 126 MTI MV N OTH PD PDF PPI PRF PRI R RCS ROC SIRP SIRV SM SNR STAP T t TDD UTC Vr VAR λ ⊗ - Moving Target Indication Minimum Variance Number of pulses/chirps Over The Horizon Probability of Detection Probability Distribution Function Plan position indicator Pulse Repetition Frequency Pulse Repetition Interval Distance Radar Cross Section Receiver Operating Curve Spherically Invariant Random Process Spherically Invariant Random Vector Sample covariance Matrix Signal to Noise Ratio Space Time Adaptive Processing Time Time Two Dirac Deltas Universal time Radial velocity relative to the radar Variance Wavelength Hadamard product .

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2008 Directeurs : dr hab. in˙ Jean-Marc Le Caillec.06.SYNTHESE Traitement Adaptatif Temps-Fr´quence Pour les Radars de e Surveillance Maritime Tomasz G´rski o 30. Telecom Bretagne z .TELECOM BRETAGNE MILITARY UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ´ ` ` MEMOIRE DE THESE . in˙ Adam Kawalec. prof. WAT z dr hab. prof.

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e Aﬁn de g´n´raliser les d´tecteur ` des cas non gaussien. Il pr´sente des statistiques non e e gaussiennes. Ces techniques du STAP sont ´t´ d´velopp´es aﬁn d’utiliser ee e e conjointement toute l’information disponible (´nergie/Doppler) pour la d´tection de cibles. Des exp´riences similaires ont ´t´ eﬀectu´s avec ee e ee e des donn´es r´elles (obtenues ` partir du radar HF WERA. Le fouillis pr´sentent de e e e fortes non stationnarit´s aussi bien temporelles que spatiales. Les r´sultats (de simulation et exp´rimentaux) obtenus conﬁrment la possibilit´ de e e e traitement STAP eﬃcace pour la surveillance maritime. Cette approximation sert ` simpliﬁer les calculs n´cessaires pour la proc´dures ee e a e e de d´tection et plus particuli`rement pour l’estimation de la matrice de covariance. une approximation de la densit´ de e e e a e probabilit´ de cette variable al´atoire par deux Dirac a ´t´ propos´e.L’objet de ce travail est l’´tude de l’application de la technique du traitement spatioe temporelle adaptative (en anglais STAP. nous retrouvons le cas gaussien usuel). e e e nous avons mod´lis´ le fouillis de mer par un processus al´atoire sph´riquement invariant e e e e (SIRP) dont l’un des cas particuliers est le processus gaussien. Une optimisation concere e ee e nant la distance entre les deux Diracs ainsi que des coeﬃcients de pond´ration de ces Diracs a e ´t´ eﬀectu´e.). les interf´rences ou simplement le fouillis de mer en HF. En eﬀet. Malgr´ le bruit. avec un ´tat de mer connu ainsi e e a e que deux navires dont les positions ont ´t´ fournies par un AIS (Automatic Identiﬁcation ee System). Space-Time Adaptative Processing) pour la surveillance de la surface de la mer. les diﬀ´rentes souse classes des signaux SIRP se distinguent par une fonction auxiliaire d’une variable al´atoire e τ (lorsque cette variable al´atoire devient constante. les e e r´sultats de d´tection des objets ﬂottants par la technique STAP sont tr`s prometteurs. Plusieurs exp´riences d’application sur des donn´es simul´es du e e e e e traitement spatio-temporelle ont ´t´ faites. e e et dans notre cas de cibles marines. Des algorithmes plus classiques. Par cons´quent une red´ﬁnition des e e e e e algorithmes de d´tection est un probl`me primordial pour une application en milieu marin. Une e e e poursuite des recherches semble cependant n´cessaire pour une application temps r´el. De plus. tel ” l’Adaptative Multiple Target Indicators ” AMTI. il pr´sente un spectre e e Doppler tr`s ´tendu englobant l’´cho Doppler de la cible. le fouillis de mer pr´sentent des caract´ristiques qui ne sont pas e e compatibles avec les hypoth`ses th´oriques d’utilisation des STAP. En particulier. e e Aﬁn de tenir compte de la non gaussianit´ des signaux r´trodiﬀus´s par la surface de la mer. e e . En eﬀet. ce travail analyse les limitations dues au fouillis de mer. Cette e e matrice est indispensable pour l’estimation du rapport de vraisemblance sur lequel se base les proc´dures de d´tection. ont aussi ´t´ d´velopp´s ` des ﬁns de ee e e a comparaisons. ce qui inﬂue sur la forme du d´tecteur optimal.

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une modiﬁcation des techniques e a e de STAP (traitement et d´cision) pour la prise en compte des probl`mes mentionn´s ci-dessus e e e est d´taill´e dans cette th`se. ee . This PhD thesis is a result of cooperation between Military University of Technology in Warsaw (Poland) and Telecom-Bretagne in Brest (France).Space-Time Adaptive Signal Processing for Sea Surveillance Radars There are several limitations of radar systems for sea surveillance. En particulier. Cependant. As a result this work serves as a complete guide how to deal with sea clutter by modiﬁng STAP technique. Ces modiﬁcations ont ´t´ test´es sur des donn´es simul´es. cette m´thodologie est confront´e ` e e e a plusieurs diﬃcult´s : Non stationnarit´ (dans le temps et l’espace) du fouillis de mer. In experiments author used a simulated data as well as data from th real Surface Wave system WERA. fouillis avec un spectre Doppler ´tendu. nous proposons l’utie e lisation de traitement adapatif dans les domaines temps-fr´quence (STAP en englais) pour e la d´tection d’objets sur la surface de mer. In this work it is proposed to apply Space-Time Adaptive Technique for target detection on the sea surface. The purpose of this work is to resolve these problems. Le propos de ce travail a ´t´ e e ee d’´tudier des solutions ` ces divers probl`mes. En pare ticulier. Therefore a big challenge is to ﬁnd new processing techniques for this application. La d´´ﬁnition de nouvelles techniques de traitement de e ee ces donn´es radar est un domaine en pleine expansion. clutter non-Gaussianity. clutter with spread Doppler spectrum. Non e e gaussianit´ de ce fouillis. mais e e e ee e e e aussi sur des donn´es r´elles obtenues grˆce au radar ` onde de surface WERA. Dans cette th`se. One group of limitations is related to strong clutter from sea waves (especially during heavy seas periods). un probl`me important est le fort retour ´lectromagn´tique de la surface de mer e e e (notamment pour les mers form´es). Problems addressed in this work cover : clutter non-stationarity in space and time. Traitement adaptatif temps-fr´quence pour les radars de surveillance marie time Il existe plusieurs limitations dans les syst`mes radar de surveillance maritime. e e a a Cette th`se s’inscrit dans le cadre de la coop´ration entre l’Universit´ Militaire de Varsovie e e e et T´l´com bretagne (Brest).

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