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# POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS – FORMULA / REFERENCE SHEET BY WWW.MOVINGELECTRONS.

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Power Equations
Single Phase (1 ) Three Phase (3)
Real Power, P [W] 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = |𝑉||𝐼| 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = |𝐼|2 |𝑍| 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = |𝐼|2 𝑅 √3 |𝑉𝐿 ||𝐼𝐿 | 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃𝑝
2

## Real Power, Q [kVAR] 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = |𝑉||𝐼| 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = |𝐼|2 |𝑍| 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = |𝐼|2 𝑋 √3 |𝑉𝐿 ||𝐼𝐿 | 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑝
2
Complex Power, P [VA] 𝑄 2 = |𝑉||𝐼| = 𝑉𝐼 ∗
√𝑃2 + √3 |𝑉𝐿 ||𝐼𝐿 |
Power Factor, pf 𝑃 𝑄 𝑃 𝑄
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = = cos (𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = = cos (𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 )
𝑆 𝑃 𝑆 𝑃
Where: 𝑉𝐿 = 𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 ; 𝐼𝐿 = 𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 ; 𝜃𝑝 = 𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑝ℎ𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒
Per-Unit Quantities
Single Phase (1 ) Three Phase (3)
Power 𝑆𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,1∅ = (𝑉𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 )(𝐼𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 ) 𝑆𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,3∅ = √3(𝑉𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,𝐿 )(𝐼𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 )
Voltage 𝑉𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 = 𝑆𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,1∅ ⁄ 𝐼𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 𝑉𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,𝐿 = 𝑆𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,3∅ ⁄(√3 𝐼𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 )
Current 𝐼𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 = 𝑆𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,1∅ ⁄𝑉𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 𝐼𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,𝐿 = 𝑆𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,3∅ ⁄(√3 𝑉𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,𝐿 )
2 2
Impedance 𝑍𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 = (𝑉𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 ) ⁄ 𝑆𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,1∅ = 𝑉𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 ⁄𝐼𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 𝑍 = (𝑉 ) ⁄𝑆 𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸 𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,𝐿 𝐵𝐴𝑆𝐸,3∅

## Transmission Line Modelling

𝜌𝑙 𝑇+𝑡
Resistance, 𝑅𝐷𝐶 = [ohm()]; 𝑅𝐴𝐶 = (𝑅𝐷𝐶 )(1.02) @60𝐻𝑧; 𝑅𝑡1 = (𝑅𝑡2 ) (𝑇+𝑡2 )
𝐴 1

Inductance, 𝐿 = [H/m]; 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒  𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝐼; 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑜𝑓  𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑊𝑏 − 𝑡/𝑚
𝐼
𝐼 1
Inductance due to internal flux, 𝑖𝑛𝑡 = [Wb-t/m]; 𝐿𝑖𝑛𝑡 = × 10−7 [H/m];  = 4 × 10−7 [H/m]
8 2
𝐼 𝐷 𝐷 𝐷
Inductance due to external flux, 𝑒𝑥𝑡 = 𝑙𝑛 𝐷2 = (2 × 10−7 )𝐼 𝑙𝑛 𝐷2 [Wb-t/m]; 𝐿𝑒𝑥𝑡 = (2 × 10−7 ) 𝑙𝑛 𝐷2 [H/m]
8 1 1 1
𝐷 𝐷
Inductance-1 line, 𝐿1 = (2 × 10−7 ) 𝑙𝑛 𝑟.𝑒 −1/4 = (2 × 10−7 ) 𝑙𝑛 𝑟 ′ ; 𝑟 ′ = 𝑟. 𝑒 −1/4 is geometric mean radius (GMR)
1 1 1 1
Flux linkages due to several conductors, 1 = (2 × 10−7 ) (𝐼1 𝑙𝑛 𝑟 ′ + 𝐼2 𝑙𝑛 𝐷 + 𝐼3 𝑙𝑛 𝐷 + ⋯ + 𝐼𝑛 𝑙𝑛 𝐷 ) [Wb-t/m]
12 13 1𝑛
𝐷
Inductance-3 symmetrical line, 𝐿𝑎 = 𝐿𝑏 = 𝐿𝑐 = (2 × 10−7 ) 𝑙𝑛 𝑟 ′ ;
𝐺𝑀𝐷
Inductance-3 unsymmetrical line, 𝐿𝑎 = (2 × 10−7 ) 𝑙𝑛 𝐺𝑀𝑅 ; 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐺𝑀𝐷 = 3√𝐷𝑎𝑏 𝐷𝑏𝑐 𝐷𝑐𝑎 ; 𝐺𝑀𝑅 = 𝑟 ′
𝑛 𝐺𝑀𝐷 𝐺𝑀𝐷 …𝐺𝑀𝐷
√ 𝑎 𝑏 𝑛
Inductance-composite line, 𝐿𝑥 = (2 × 10−7 ) 𝑙𝑛 𝑛
√𝐺𝑀𝑅𝑎 𝐺𝑀𝑅𝑏 …𝐺𝑀𝑅 𝑛

𝑞
Electric Flux Density, 𝐷 = 2𝑟 ; Electric Field Intensity, 𝐸 = 𝐷 ∈; 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ∈= 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦; 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑒 ∈𝑜 = 8.85 × 10−12

𝑞 𝐷
Potential difference b/w 2 pts. due to a charge, 𝑣12 = 𝑙𝑛 𝐷2 [𝑉];
2𝜋∈ 1
𝑞𝑎 𝐷2 2𝜋∈
A two wire line (line a and line b, separated by a distance D) , 𝑉𝑎𝑏 = 2𝜋∈
𝑙𝑛 𝑟 [𝑉]; 𝐶𝑎𝑏 = 𝑙𝑛(𝐷2 ⁄𝑟𝑎 𝑟𝑏 )
[𝐹/𝑚]
𝑎 𝑟𝑏
2𝜋∈
Capacitance-3 line with equilateral spacing, 𝐶𝑎𝑛 = [𝐹/𝑚]
𝑙𝑛(𝐷⁄𝑟 )
2𝜋∈
Capacitance-3 line with unsymmetrical spacing, 𝐶𝑎𝑛 = [𝐹/𝑚]; 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐷𝑒𝑞 = 3√𝐷12 𝐷23 𝐷31
𝑙𝑛(𝐷𝑒𝑞⁄𝑟 )
Capacitance-bundled conductors,
2𝜋∈ 𝐹 𝑏 𝑏 𝑏 𝑏 3 4
𝐶𝑎𝑛 = 𝑏 ) [ ] ; 𝐷𝑠𝐶 = √𝑟. 𝑑; 2 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑠, 𝐷𝑠𝐶 = √𝑟. 𝑑; 3 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑠, 𝐷𝑠𝐶 = √𝑟. 𝑑2 ; 4 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑠, 𝐷𝑠𝐶 = 1.09√𝑟. 𝑑3
𝑙𝑛(𝐷𝑒𝑞⁄𝐷𝑠𝐶 𝑚
𝑉 𝑉
[𝐴 𝐵 ] [ 𝑅 ] ; 𝐴 = 𝐷 = 1 + ( ) ; 𝐵 = 𝑍; 𝐶 = 𝑌 (1 + ( )) ; 𝑌 = 𝑎𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 , 𝑍 = 𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑑𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
𝑌𝑍 𝑌𝑍
Power Flow through a transmission line, [ 𝐼𝑆 ] =
𝑆𝐶 𝐷 𝐼𝑅 2 4
(Nominal  model of a medium length line, with generalized circuit constants, ABCD)
Transformer Modelling
1−𝑎 1 𝑎−1 1
 Model of a transformer, 𝑍𝑠 = 𝑎𝑍𝐿 ; 𝑌1 = ( 𝑎2 ) (𝑍 ) ; 𝑌2 = ( 𝑎
) (𝑍 )
𝐿 𝐿

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