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Graham S McDonald

and Silvia C Dalla

ing the integration of expressions of the form

[f (x)]n · f 0 (x), where n 6= −1

● Table of contents

● Begin Tutorial

c 2004 g.s.mcdonald@salford.ac.uk

Table of contents

1. Theory

2. Exercises

3. Answers

4. Standard integrals

5. Tips

Full worked solutions

Section 1: Theory 3

1. Theory

Consider an integral of the form

Z

[f (x)]n f 0 (x)dx

du

Letting u = f (x) gives = f 0 (x) and du = f 0 (x)dx

dx

un+1 [f (x)]n+1

Z Z

∴ [f (x)]n f 0 (x)dx = un du = +C = +C

n+1 n+1

u2 [f (x)]2

Z Z

f (x)f 0 (x)dx = u du = +C = +C

2 2

Toc JJ II J I Back

Section 2: Exercises 4

2. Exercises

Click on EXERCISE links for full worked solutions (10 exercises in

total).

Exercise 1.

Z

sin x cos x dx

Exercise 2.

Z

sinh x cosh x dx

Exercise 3.

Z

tan x sec2 x dx

Toc JJ II J I Back

Section 2: Exercises 5

Exercise 4.

Z

sin 2x cos 2x dx

Exercise 5.

Z

sinh 3x cosh 3x dx

Exercise 6.

Z

1

ln x dx , x > 0

x

Exercise 7.

Z

sin4 x cos x dx

Exercise 8.

Z

sinh3 x cosh x dx

Toc JJ II J I Back

Section 2: Exercises 6

Exercise 9.

Z

cos3 x sin x dx

Exercise 10.

Z

2x

dx

(x2 − 4)2

Toc JJ II J I Back

Section 3: Answers 7

3. Answers

1. 1

2 sin2 x + C ,

2. 1

2 sinh2 x + C ,

1

3. 2 tan2 x + C ,

4. 1

4 sin2 2x + C ,

5. 1

6 sinh2 3x + C ,

6. 1

2 ln2 x + C

sin5 x

7. 5 +C,

1 4

8. 4 sinh x + C,

4

9. − cos4 x + C,

10. − x21−4 + C .

Toc JJ II J I Back

Section 4: Standard integrals 8

4. Standard integrals

R R

f (x) f (x)dx f (x) f (x)dx

n xn+1 n 0 [g(x)]n+1

x n+1 (n 6= −1) [g (x)] g (x) n+1 (n 6= −1)

1 g 0 (x)

x ln |x| g(x) ln |g (x)|

x ax

e ex a x

ln a (a > 0)

sin x − cos x sinh x cosh x

cos x sin x cosh x sinh x

tan x − ln

|cos x| tanh x ln cosh x

cosec x ln tan x2 cosech x ln tanh x2

sec x ln |sec x + tan x| sech x 2 tan−1 ex

sec2 x tan x sech2 x tanh x

cot x ln |sin x| coth x ln |sinh x|

sin2 x x

2 −

sin 2x

4 sinh2 x sinh 2x

4 − x2

cos2 x x

2 +

sin 2x

4 cosh2 x sinh 2x

4 + x2

Toc JJ II J I Back

Section 4: Standard integrals 9

R R

f (x) f (x) dx f (x) f (x) dx

1 1

tan−1 x 1 1 a+x

a2 +x2 a a a2 −x2 2a ln a−x (0 < |x| < a)

1 1 x−a

(a > 0) x2 −a2 2a ln x+a (|x| > a > 0)

√

2 2

√ 1 sin−1 x √ 1 ln x+ aa +x (a > 0)

a2 −x2 a a2 +x2

√

2 2

(−a < x < a) √ 1 ln x+ xa −a (x > a > 0)

x2 −a2

√ a2

√ a2

h √ i

sinh−1 x a2 +x2

−1 x

x

a2 − x2 2 sin a a2 +x2 2 a + a2

√ i √ h √ i

a2

a2 −x2

− cosh−1

2 2

+x x

+ x xa2−a

a2 x2 −a2 2 a

Toc JJ II J I Back

Section 5: Tips 10

5. Tips

tables when you need to

SWERS or TIPS pages, use the Back button (at the bottom of the

page) to return to the exercises

● Use the solutions intelligently. For example, they can help you get

started on an exercise, or they can allow you to check whether your

intermediate results are correct

● Try to make less use of the full solutions as you work your way

through the Tutorial

Toc JJ II J I Back

Solutions to exercises 11

Exercise 1.

Z Z

1 2

sin x cos x dx is of the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] + C

2

du

To see this, set u = sin x, to find = cos x and du = cos x dx

dx

Z Z

∴ sin x cos x dx = u du

1 2

= u +C

2

1

= sin2 x + C.

2

Return to Exercise 1

Toc JJ II J I Back

Solutions to exercises 12

Exercise 2.

Z Z

2

sinh x cosh x dx is of the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] + C

du

To see this, set u = sinh x then = cosh x and du = cosh x dx

dx

Z Z

∴ sinh x cosh x dx = u du

1 2

= u +C

2

1

= sinh2 x + C.

2

Return to Exercise 2

Toc JJ II J I Back

Solutions to exercises 13

Exercise 3.

Z Z

2

tan x sec2 x dx is of the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] + C

du

Let u = tan x then = sec2 x and du = sec2 x dx

dx

Z Z

∴ tan x sec2 x dx = u du

1 2

= u +C

2

1

= tan2 x + C.

2

Return to Exercise 3

Toc JJ II J I Back

Solutions to exercises 14

Exercise 4.

Z Z

2

sin 2x cos 2x dx is close to the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] +C

du du

Let u = sin 2x then = 2 cos 2x and = cos 2x dx

dx 2

Z Z

du

∴ sin 2x cos 2x dx = u

2

Z

1

= u du

2

11 2

= u +C

22

1

= sin2 2x + C.

4

Return to Exercise 4

Toc JJ II J I Back

Solutions to exercises 15

Exercise 5.

Z Z

2

sinh 3x cosh 3x dx is close to the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] + C

du du

Let u = sinh 3x then = 3 cosh 3x and = cosh 3x dx

dx 3

Z Z

du

∴ sinh 3x cosh 3x dx = u

3

Z

1

= u du

3

11 2

= u +C

32

1

= sinh2 3x + C.

6

Return to Exercise 5

Toc JJ II J I Back

Solutions to exercises 16

Exercise 6.

Z Z

1 2

ln x dx is of the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] + C

x

du 1 1

Let u = ln x then = and du = dx

dx x x

Z Z

1

∴ ln x dx = u du

x

1 2

= u +C

2

1 2

= ln x + C .

2

Return to Exercise 6

Toc JJ II J I Back

Solutions to exercises 17

Exercise 7.

Z Z n+1

n [f (x)]

sin x cos x dx is of the form [f (x)] f 0 (x)dx =

4

+C

n+1

Z Z

∴ sin4 x cos x dx = u4 du

u5

= +C

5

sin5 x

= + C.

5

Return to Exercise 7

Toc JJ II J I Back

Solutions to exercises 18

Exercise 8.

Z Z n+1

n [f (x)]

sinh x cosh x dx is of the form [f (x)] f 0 (x)dx =

3

+C

n+1

Z Z

∴ sinh3 x cosh x dx = u3 du

1 4

= u +C

4

1

= sinh4 x + C.

4

Return to Exercise 8

Toc JJ II J I Back

Solutions to exercises 19

Exercise 9.

Z Z n+1

n [f (x)]

cos x sin x dx is close to the form [f (x)] f 0 (x)dx =

3

+C

n+1

Let u = cos x then du = − sin x dx

Z Z Z

3 3

∴ cos x sin x dx = u · (−du) = − u3 du

u4

= − +C

4

cos4 x

= − + C.

4

Return to Exercise 9

Toc JJ II J I Back

Solutions to exercises 20

Exercise 10.

Z Z n+1

2x n 0 [f (x)]

dx is of the form [f (x)] f (x)dx = +C

(x2 − 4)2 n+1

Let u = x2 − 4 then du = 2x dx

Z Z Z

2x 1

∴ dx = du = u−2 du

(x2 − 4)2 u2

1

= −u−1 + C = − +C

u

1

= − +C.

x2 −4

Return to Exercise 10

Toc JJ II J I Back

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