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Integration

SUBSTITUTION III .. [f (x)]n · f 0 (x)

Graham S McDonald
and Silvia C Dalla

A self-contained Tutorial Module for practis-


ing the integration of expressions of the form
[f (x)]n · f 0 (x), where n 6= −1

● Table of contents
● Begin Tutorial


c 2004 g.s.mcdonald@salford.ac.uk
Table of contents
1. Theory
2. Exercises
3. Answers
4. Standard integrals
5. Tips
Full worked solutions
Section 1: Theory 3

1. Theory
Consider an integral of the form
Z
[f (x)]n f 0 (x)dx

du
Letting u = f (x) gives = f 0 (x) and du = f 0 (x)dx
dx

un+1 [f (x)]n+1
Z Z
∴ [f (x)]n f 0 (x)dx = un du = +C = +C
n+1 n+1

For example, when n = 1,

u2 [f (x)]2
Z Z
f (x)f 0 (x)dx = u du = +C = +C
2 2

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Section 2: Exercises 4

2. Exercises
Click on EXERCISE links for full worked solutions (10 exercises in
total).

Perform the following integrations:

Exercise 1.
Z
sin x cos x dx

Exercise 2.
Z
sinh x cosh x dx

Exercise 3.
Z
tan x sec2 x dx

● Theory ● Standard integrals ● Answers ● Tips


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Section 2: Exercises 5

Exercise 4.
Z
sin 2x cos 2x dx

Exercise 5.
Z
sinh 3x cosh 3x dx

Exercise 6.
Z
1
ln x dx , x > 0
x
Exercise 7.
Z
sin4 x cos x dx

Exercise 8.
Z
sinh3 x cosh x dx

● Theory ● Standard integrals ● Answers ● Tips


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Section 2: Exercises 6

Exercise 9.
Z
cos3 x sin x dx

Exercise 10.
Z
2x
dx
(x2 − 4)2

● Theory ● Standard integrals ● Answers ● Tips


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Section 3: Answers 7

3. Answers
1. 1
2 sin2 x + C ,
2. 1
2 sinh2 x + C ,
1
3. 2 tan2 x + C ,
4. 1
4 sin2 2x + C ,
5. 1
6 sinh2 3x + C ,
6. 1
2 ln2 x + C
sin5 x
7. 5 +C,
1 4
8. 4 sinh x + C,
4
9. − cos4 x + C,
10. − x21−4 + C .

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Section 4: Standard integrals 8

4. Standard integrals
R R
f (x) f (x)dx f (x) f (x)dx
n xn+1 n 0 [g(x)]n+1
x n+1 (n 6= −1) [g (x)] g (x) n+1 (n 6= −1)
1 g 0 (x)
x ln |x| g(x) ln |g (x)|
x ax
e ex a x
ln a (a > 0)
sin x − cos x sinh x cosh x
cos x sin x cosh x sinh x
tan x − ln
|cos x| tanh x ln cosh x
cosec x ln tan x2 cosech x ln tanh x2
sec x ln |sec x + tan x| sech x 2 tan−1 ex
sec2 x tan x sech2 x tanh x
cot x ln |sin x| coth x ln |sinh x|
sin2 x x
2 −
sin 2x
4 sinh2 x sinh 2x
4 − x2
cos2 x x
2 +
sin 2x
4 cosh2 x sinh 2x
4 + x2

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Section 4: Standard integrals 9

R R
f (x) f (x) dx f (x) f (x) dx

1 1
tan−1 x 1 1 a+x
a2 +x2 a a a2 −x2 2a ln a−x (0 < |x| < a)

1 1 x−a
(a > 0) x2 −a2 2a ln x+a (|x| > a > 0)


2 2
√ 1 sin−1 x √ 1 ln x+ aa +x (a > 0)

a2 −x2 a a2 +x2

2 2
(−a < x < a) √ 1 ln x+ xa −a (x > a > 0)

x2 −a2

√ a2
√ a2
h √ i
sinh−1 x a2 +x2
 −1 x
 x

a2 − x2 2 sin a a2 +x2 2 a + a2

√ i √ h √ i
a2
a2 −x2
− cosh−1
2 2
+x x
+ x xa2−a

a2 x2 −a2 2 a

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Section 5: Tips 10

5. Tips

● STANDARD INTEGRALS are provided. Do not forget to use these


tables when you need to

● When looking at the THEORY, STANDARD INTEGRALS, AN-


SWERS or TIPS pages, use the Back button (at the bottom of the
page) to return to the exercises

● Use the solutions intelligently. For example, they can help you get
started on an exercise, or they can allow you to check whether your
intermediate results are correct

● Try to make less use of the full solutions as you work your way
through the Tutorial

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Solutions to exercises 11

Full worked solutions


Exercise 1.
Z Z
1 2
sin x cos x dx is of the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] + C
2

du
To see this, set u = sin x, to find = cos x and du = cos x dx
dx
Z Z
∴ sin x cos x dx = u du
1 2
= u +C
2
1
= sin2 x + C.
2

Return to Exercise 1

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Solutions to exercises 12

Exercise 2.
Z Z
2
sinh x cosh x dx is of the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] + C

du
To see this, set u = sinh x then = cosh x and du = cosh x dx
dx
Z Z
∴ sinh x cosh x dx = u du
1 2
= u +C
2
1
= sinh2 x + C.
2

Return to Exercise 2

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Solutions to exercises 13

Exercise 3.
Z Z
2
tan x sec2 x dx is of the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] + C

du
Let u = tan x then = sec2 x and du = sec2 x dx
dx
Z Z
∴ tan x sec2 x dx = u du
1 2
= u +C
2
1
= tan2 x + C.
2

Return to Exercise 3

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Solutions to exercises 14

Exercise 4.
Z Z
2
sin 2x cos 2x dx is close to the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] +C

du du
Let u = sin 2x then = 2 cos 2x and = cos 2x dx
dx 2
Z Z
du
∴ sin 2x cos 2x dx = u
2
Z
1
= u du
2
11 2
= u +C
22
1
= sin2 2x + C.
4

Return to Exercise 4

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Solutions to exercises 15

Exercise 5.
Z Z
2
sinh 3x cosh 3x dx is close to the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] + C

du du
Let u = sinh 3x then = 3 cosh 3x and = cosh 3x dx
dx 3
Z Z
du
∴ sinh 3x cosh 3x dx = u
3
Z
1
= u du
3
11 2
= u +C
32
1
= sinh2 3x + C.
6

Return to Exercise 5

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Solutions to exercises 16

Exercise 6.
Z Z
1 2
ln x dx is of the form f (x)f 0 (x)dx = [f (x)] + C
x
du 1 1
Let u = ln x then = and du = dx
dx x x
Z Z
1
∴ ln x dx = u du
x
1 2
= u +C
2
1 2
= ln x + C .
2

Return to Exercise 6

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Solutions to exercises 17

Exercise 7.
Z Z n+1
n [f (x)]
sin x cos x dx is of the form [f (x)] f 0 (x)dx =
4
+C
n+1

To see this, set u = sin x to find du = cos x dx

Z Z
∴ sin4 x cos x dx = u4 du

u5
= +C
5
sin5 x
= + C.
5
Return to Exercise 7

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Solutions to exercises 18

Exercise 8.
Z Z n+1
n [f (x)]
sinh x cosh x dx is of the form [f (x)] f 0 (x)dx =
3
+C
n+1

To see this, set u = sinh x then du = cosh x dx

Z Z
∴ sinh3 x cosh x dx = u3 du
1 4
= u +C
4
1
= sinh4 x + C.
4

Return to Exercise 8

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Solutions to exercises 19

Exercise 9.
Z Z n+1
n [f (x)]
cos x sin x dx is close to the form [f (x)] f 0 (x)dx =
3
+C
n+1
Let u = cos x then du = − sin x dx

Z Z Z
3 3
∴ cos x sin x dx = u · (−du) = − u3 du

u4
= − +C
4
cos4 x
= − + C.
4
Return to Exercise 9

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Solutions to exercises 20

Exercise 10.
Z Z n+1
2x n 0 [f (x)]
dx is of the form [f (x)] f (x)dx = +C
(x2 − 4)2 n+1

Let u = x2 − 4 then du = 2x dx
Z Z Z
2x 1
∴ dx = du = u−2 du
(x2 − 4)2 u2
1
= −u−1 + C = − +C
u
1
= − +C.
x2 −4

Return to Exercise 10

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