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Transmitter Receiver Modulator Demodulator 2 .Analog Communication System Information Source Signal Modulator Propagation Channel Signal Demodulator Information Destination • Analog signals may be transmitted directly via carrier modulation over the propagation channel and to be carrier-demodulated at the receiver.

modulated signal) is varied in accordance with message signal (i.e.Modulation: The process by which some characteristics of a carrier signal (i. In effect. modulating signal) • f(t): message signal A bandlimited signal whose frequency content is in the neighbourhood of f=0 (DC) ? baseband signal • c(t): the carrier signal. independent of f(t) c(t)=Ac cos(2pfct+? c) Ac : Carrier amplitude fc : Carrier frequency wc=2pfc (radian frequency) ? c : Carrier phase f(t) modulates c(t) in either amplitude. 3 . modulation converts f(t) to a bandpass form.e. in the neighborhood of the center frequency fc. frequency or phase.

Example: Voice signal bandwidth f=3kHz c 3 ⋅108 λ= = = 105 m f 3 ⋅103 ? λ/4=25000m!! If we modulate a carrier wave @ fc = 100MHz with the voice signal c 3 ⋅108 λ= = =3 m 6 f 100 ⋅10 ? λ/4=75cm 4 . Dimension of the antennas is limited by the corresponding wavelength. antennas are required to radiate and receive the signal.Why is Modulation Required? • To achieve easy radiation: If the communication channel consists of free space.

Why is Modulation Required? (Cont’d) • To accommodate for simultaneous transmission of several signals s1 f fC1 s2 f fC2 s3 f fC3 Example: Radio/TV broadcasting 5 .

Why is Modulation Required? (Cont’d) • To expand the bandwidth of the transmitted signal for better transmission quality (to reduce noise and interference) C = B ⋅ log 2 (1 + SNR ) Channel capacity Bandwidth Signal-to-noise ratio Channel capacity: Maximum achievable information rate that can be transmitted over the channel SNR = 2 − 1 B The required SNR (for fixed noise level. corresponding signal power) decreases C B 6 .

5 in Textbook) Objectives: • To study different amplitude modulation scheme • To study generation and detection of AM signals • To study application of AM We will study • Double Sideband Large Carrier (DSB-LC) Modulation: Commercial broadcast stations use this type and it is commonly known as just amplitude modulation (AM). • Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSB-SC) Modulation • Single Sideband (SSB) Modulation • Vestigial Sideband (VSB) Modulation 7 .Amplitude Modulation (AM) (Ch.

Double Side Band Large Carrier (DSB-LC) (5.2 in Textbook) f (t ) Modulator c(t ) = Ac cosωc t F (ω ) = F { f (t )} Φ (ω ) = F {φ (t )} φ (t ) = ( f (t ) + Ac ) cosωc t = f (t )cosωc t + Ac cosωc t Φ(ω ) = F [ Ac cos(ωc t ) + f (t ) cos(ωc t )] A f (t ) jωct f (t ) − jωct A = F c e jωct + c e − jωc t + e + e 2 2 2 2 1 1 = πAcδ (ω − ωc ) + πAcδ (ω + ωc ) + F (ω − ωc ) + F (ω + ωc ) 2 2 cos ωc t = 1 jωc t e + e − j ωc t 2 ( ) 8 .

f(t) F(ω)= F [f(t)] F(0) baseband 2πB t f(t) cosωct -2πB ω F [f(t) cosωct] F(0)/2 passband ωc t Ac cosωct -ω c ω ω c+2πB ω c-2πB F [Ac cosωct] pA pA t Ac cosωct + f(t)cosωct envelope -ω c ωc ω F [Ac cosωct + f(t)cosωct] t -ω c ωc ω 9 .

• F(ω) for ω∈[0. • Let B denote the highest frequency component of f(t). 0] is shifted to Φ(ω) for ω∈[ωc-2πB. • F(ω) for ω∈[-2πB.e. its spectral content is located in the immediate vicinity of some high center frequency) 10 . ωc+2πB] and called as upper sideband. ωc] and called as lower sideband. Assume fc >> B ? φ(t) is defined as a narrowband signal (i. 2πB] is shifted to Φ(ω) for ω∈[ωc.baseband F(ω)= F [f(t)] F(0) -2πB passband pA Φ(ω)= F [Ac cosωct + f(t)cosωct] F(0)/2 Lower pA Upper sideband sideband 2πB ω -ω c ω c-2πB ω ω c+2πB c ω Bandwidth=B [Hz] Bandwidth=2B Observations: • Modulation shifts the content of F(ω) to the neighbourhood of ωc .

e. DSB-LC is wasteful of bandwidth) • The carrier term does not carry any information and hence the carrier power is wasted. 11 . The transmission bandwidth βT=2B (i.F(ω)= F [f(t)] F(0) -2πB pA Φ(ω)= F [Ac cosωct + f(t)cosωct] F(0)/2 Lower pA Upper sideband sideband 2πB ω -ω c ω c-2πB ω ω c+2πB c ω Bandwidth=B [Hz] Bandwidth=2B Observations (cont’d) • The bandwidth of message signal is B.

the carrier wave becomes over-modulated.Envelope has the same shape of f(t) Zero crossings Envelope distortion Observations (cont’d) • If Ac+f(t)>0 for all t. • If Ac+f(t)<0 for any t. resulting in carrier phase reversal whenever Ac+f(t) crosses zero. 12 ? φ(t) has envelope distortion . the envelope of φ(t) of has essentially the same shape as the f(t).

13 .

overmodulated ? envelope dist. Effects of varying modulation indexes 14 .

Carrier and Sideband Power in DSB-LC φ (t ) = Ac cos(ωc t ) + f (t ) cos(ωc t ) φ 2 (t ) = Ac2 cos 2 (ω c t ) + f 2 (t ) cos 2 (ωc t ) + 2 Ac f (t ) cos 2 (ω c t ) Assume f (t ) = 0 and f(t) varies slowly with respect to cos (ω c t ) φ 2 (t ) = Ac2 cos 2 (ω c t ) + f 2 (t ) cos 2 (ωc t ) φ 2 (t ) = Ac2 2 + f 2 (t ) 2 1 +T / 2 2 1 +T / 2 1 cos (ωc t ) = lim lim ∫ cos ωc t dt = T →∞ ∫ (1 + cos 2ωc t )dt T →∞ T −T / 2 T −T / 2 2 2 1 t = lim 2 T →∞ T T /2 −T / 2 1 1 +T / 2 (1 + cos 2ωct )dt = 1 + lim ∫ 2 T →∞ T −T / 2 2 15 =0 .

φ 2 (t ) = Ac2 2 + f 2 (t ) 2 Carrier Power Sideband Power (carries information) Modulation (Power) µ= Efficiency useful power total power f 2 (t ) 2 = 2 Ac 2 + f 2 (t ) 2 16 .

e. Under the best condition. i. m=1.Example (Cont’d) mAc mAc φ (t ) = Ac cos(ωc t ) + cos[(ωc + ωm )t ] + cos[(ωc − ωm )t ] 2 2 Upper sideband mA 2 2 m 2 Ac2 c cos [(ωc + ωm )t ] = power 8 2 Lower sideband power m 2 Ac2 mAc 2 cos [(ωc − ωm )t ] = 8 2 2 m 2 Ac2 4 m2 total useful power = 2 = µ= 2 2 total power Ac 2 + m Ac 4 2 + m 2 For m= 1 ? µ= 33%. 17 . 67% of the total power is used in the carrier and represents wasted power.

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