You are on page 1of 9

International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299

Volume: 2 Issue: 4 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

FABRICATION OF WORMS AND WORM SHAFT OF COTTON SEEDS


OIL EXPELLER MACHINE AND THEIR TESTING

S.S.Bhansali1, Mayur Puri2, Ajay Ingole3

1
Asst. Professor,Mechanical Department,J.D.I.E.T, sushant2511@yahoo.co.in
2
Student,Mechanical Department,J.D.I.E.T, purimayur@yahoo.com
3
Student, Mechanical Department, J.D.I.E.T, author3@email.com
ABSTRACT
The research fruit forward the diagnosis of failure of the worms and worm shaft assembly will hereafter
called as screw shaft of cotton seed oil extraction unit before prescribed life period having frequency of 1-2 times
a month and suggest the solution in the same regards. The proposed works not only checks the existing
dimensions through traditional method but also implies computerized techniques to evaluate various parameters.
The industry at which the project work is carried out consist of eleven screw press machines of size 36 x 6.5
inches, having working principle on the rotation of a tapered screw-shaft mounted inside a grooved vessel. The
screw shaft is a single square-threaded power screw having an increasing root diameter from inlet to exit. There
in total clearance of nearly 0.5 inch is between the vessel and screw-shaft. As it is not economical to alter the
dimension of the machine as per the present situation in the industry, the changes in the existing system will be
based on the change of material for which we studied the three different materials used for worm and select best
material for manufacturing of worm to replace existing low strength material. This could help the industries
working in this area to improve the life and function ability of the unit which would in their term lead to higher
productivity. Thus the study contributes to reduction of running cost of an industry by reducing the
suddenbreakdowns occurring because of failure of main shaft and worms’ assembly of cotton seed oil expeller
machine.

Keywords: Cotton Seeds, Oil Expeller, Worm..


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. INTRODUCTION
The cotton plant is shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the
America, Africa, China and India. The greatest species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and America. The
largest producer of the cotton, currently are China and India, with annual production of about 34 million bales and
33.4 million bales, respectively. The largest exporters of raw cotton are the United State, with sale of $4.9billions
and Africa, with sales of $2.1 billion. Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fibre that grows in boll, or protective case,
around the seed of cotton plant. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tends to increase the dispersal of the
seed. The mature seeds are brown ovoid weighing about a tenth of a gram. These are 20% protein, 20% oil and 3.5%
starch. Fibres grow from the seed coat to form a boll of cotton lint. The boll is a protective fruit and when the plant
is grown commercially, it is stripped from the seed by ginning and the lint is then processed into cotton fibre. The
cotton seeds are about 15% of the value of the crop and are pressed to make oil and used as ruminant animal feed.
About 5% of the seeds are used for sowing the next crop. The Rana industry., Yavatmal at which the project work
carried out consist ten screw pressed machine of size 36×6.5 inches, having working principle on rotation of a
tapered screw-shaft mounted inside he grooved vessel. The industry also has a ginning and pressing plant at the
same location and used the cotton seed of the cotton after the ginning operation is carried out.

Screw type oil expeller are advanced oil processing machinery, characterized by their high oil output rate
with good quality, simple design, easy to use and continuous operation. Expeller’s use a horizontally rotating metal
screw, which feeds oil-bearing seeds into a barrel shaped outer casing with perforated walls. The seeds are
continuously fed to the expeller, which grinds, crushed and presses the oil out as it passes through the machine. The
pressure ruptures the oil cells in the product and oil flows through the perforations in the casing and is collected in a
trough underneath. The residue of the material from which oil has been expressed exits from the unit, and is known

IJRISE| www.ijrise.org|editor@ijrise.org [04-12]


International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Volume: 2 Issue: 4 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

as the cake. With some types of expellers takes place. This allows for greater oil expression and reduces wear and
tear on the machine.

Expellers are power-driven, and are able to process 12 tons per 24 hours of product or even more
depending upon the type of expeller used. Bigger units processing greater quantities of oil are available for use in
larger mills. The percentage of oil expressed by expellers is nearly 90% depending upon the type and kind of
products as well as the expeller being employed. The friction created by the products being expressed wears down
the worm shaft and other internal parts, and also have the problem of uncertain failure of main shaft. With small
machines this occurs often after expressing little, after which parts have to be replaced or repaired through
resurfacing by welding. Maintenance of an oil expeller, therefore, calls for machinery and equipment rarely found in
small repair shops and local manufacture of expellers would be most unlikely at the village small town level. The
profitability of the businesses, including oil processing, depends on reducing the capital and operating costs as much
as possible, and at the same time maximizing the income.

2.BACKGROUND
Screw type oil expeller are advanced oil processing machinery, characterized by their high oil output rate
with good quality, simple design, easy to use and continuous operation. Expeller’s use a horizontally rotating metal
screw, which feeds oil-bearing seeds into a barrel shaped outer casing with perforated walls. The seeds are
continuously fed to the expeller, which grinds, crushed and presses the oil out as it passes through the machine. The
pressure ruptures the oil cells in the product and oil flows through the perforations in the casing and is collected in a
trough underneath. The residue of the material from which oil has been expressed exits from the unit, and is known
as the cake. With some types of expellers takes place. This allows for greater oil expression and reduces wear and
tear on the machine.

Fig-1: Sectional View of Expeller [2]

3.OBJECTIVE
The objectives of this project were as follows:
 Investigation of the reasons for uncertain Failure of Main shaft and Worms of cotton seed oil expeller.
 To model all the components using modelling software CREO.
 To assemble the components of the Screw shaft in the software.
 Study all the materials used for manufacturing of worm.
 Manufacture the worm from the best material studied.

IJRISE| www.ijrise.org|editor@ijrise.org [04-12]


International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Volume: 2 Issue: 4 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

 Test the material in industry and get the result.

4.CALCULATION
These details are taken from the mechanical catalogue:-
1. Quantity to be crushed 12 tones per 24 hours.
2. Motor rotation N1 = 960 RPM
3. Motor capacity = 50 HP
4. Motor pulley diameter D1 = 22806 mm
5. Gear box pulley diameter D2 = 762 mm
6. Input speed for Gear Box = N2
7. Main Gear Teeth = 74, Spur pinion Teeth = 12, Bevel Gear Teeth = 42, Bevel Pinion Teeth = 15
8. Shaft Torque = T
Analytical Calculations:
Calculate Gear ratio and verify Screw (main Shaft + Worm) rotation:
a) Find input speed for Gear Box:
For belt drive D1/D2 = N2/N1
228.6/762=N2/960
N2=288 RPM
For Gear Ratio G1 = T3/T2
G1=74/12
G1=6.166
Similarly: G2= T5/T4
G2 = 42/15
Gear Ratio = G1×G2 = 17.2648
Main Shaft Rotation (N):
= input speed at gear box (N2) / Gear Ratio
=288/17.2648
= 16.68 Rpm = Approx. 18 Rpm

Shaft Torque Calculation (T):

As 1 Hp = 0.754699 KW
Therefore Motor power = 50 HP = 37.73 KW
We, know, Power = 2×π×N×T/60
P = 1.8849×T
T = 20016.28×103 N-mm
Angular Velocity of Screw Shaft = 2×π×N/60
= 1.8849rad/sec
Shaft force calculation (F):
Considering, d = 80mm;
T = F×r
20016.89×103 = F× (80/2)
F1 = 500.40×103 N
Considering, d = 85mm;
T = F×r
20016.38×103 = F× (85/2)
F2 = 470.97×103 N

Stress Calculation:
Considering smallest diameter for calculations
- Normal stress developed (σn) = Force/Area
= 500.40×103/5026.54
= 99.55 N/mm2
- Shear stress develop (τ):

IJRISE| www.ijrise.org|editor@ijrise.org [04-12]


International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Volume: 2 Issue: 4 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

Working stress developed = T = π×τ×d3/16


= 20016.38×103 = π×τ×803/16
Working stress (τ) = 199.10 N/mm2
- Maximum shear stress developed (τmax) = Kt×16×T/π×d3
= 1.61×16(20016.38×103)/3.14×803
= 231.08 N/mm2

4. MATERIAL SELECTION[1]
1. Availability: The most important factor while selecting material is the availability of material. If
the material is easily available at the nearest place, then the time required for supply of raw
material, hence manufacturing time is less.
2. The cost of material: If the cost of material is less it is economical to purchase. As the cost of the
Mild Steel is less as compared to other EN8, EN19, EN24, then manufacturing cost of worm from
this material is also less.
3. Suitability of material for the application: The materials generally used for manufacturing of worm
are Mild steel, EN8, EN19, EN24. The selection of material is depends upon the type of
application. If the material from which oil is extracted is soft then material used is of less hardness
and vice versa.
4. Considering Chemical, Physical and Mechanical properties of material suitable for the application.

A) MATERIAL USED FOR MANUFACTURING OF SHAFT


The materials generally used for manufacturing of shaft are described below:-

1) EN8 (080M40):-
EN8 is medium carbon steel has good tensile strength and is often used in application as gears, shaft,
stressed pins, studs, bolts, keys, etc.
EN8 is a very popular grade and is readily machinable in any condition. It can be further surface-hardened to
produce component with enhance wear resistance, typically in the range 50-55 HRC through induction process.
EN8 (080M40) specifications:-
CONTENTS PERCENTAGE
Carbon 0.36 – 0.44 %
Silicon 0.10 - 0.40 %
Manganese 0.60 – 1.00 %
Sulphur 0.050 max
Phosphorous 0.050 max
Chromium --------
Molybdenum --------
Nickel --------

EN8 – Mechanical Properties:


Maximum stress – 700 – 850 N/mm2
Yield stress – 465 N/mm2 min
Hardness – 201-255 HB

2) EN19 (709M40):-
EN19 also known as 709M40 is a high quality alloy steel, renowned for its good ductility and shock
resistant and its resistance to wear properties. It is suitable for gears, pinions, shafts, spindles. It is also widely used
in the oil and gas industry. EN19 is normally supplied as high tensile grades EN19T [709M40T] or EN19U. EN19
has a tensile strength of 850 – 1000 N/mm2. For additional wear resistance EN19T can be nitride.

IJRISE| www.ijrise.org|editor@ijrise.org [04-12]


International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Volume: 2 Issue: 4 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

A closely related grade to EN19 is 708M40. High Pick Steels can supply EN19 in bright and black b ar from
Stock.

EN19 [709M40] Specifications:


CONTENT PERCENTAGE
Carbon 0.36 – 0.44 %
Silicon 0.10 - 0.40 %
Manganese 0.60 – 1.00 %
Sulphur 0.050 max
Phosphorous 0.050 max
Chromium 0.90 – 1.20 %
Molybdenum 0.25 – 0.35 %
Nickel --------

EN19 – Mechanical Properties:


Max Stress – 850 – 1000 N/mm2
Yield Stress – 700 N/mm2 m
Hardness - 248-302 HB

3) EN24 (817M40):-
EN24 steel is a popular grade through hardening alloy steel due to its excellent machinability. En24 is used
in components such as gears, stud and bolts, its hardness is in the range 248-302 HB. EN24 can be surface hardened
to create components with enhance wear resistance by induction or nitriding processing. EN24/817M40 is often
supplied in T condition with a tensile strength in the range 850 – 1000 N/mm2. High Pick Steels can also supply
black EN24 in the annealed condition for easier machining prior to heat treatment.
EN24 steel is a readily machinable material, widely use and engineering steel due to its tensile strength. The
material provides a combination of high tensile strength with shock resistance, ductility and wear resistance. EN24
is often using to produce parts for heavy equipment such as locomotives, cranes, rolling mills and coal cutting
machinery.

EN24 [709M40] Specifications:


CONTENT PERCENTAGE
Carbon 0.36 – 0.44 %
Silicon 0.10 - 0.35 %
Manganese 0.45-0.70 %
Sulphur 0.040 max
Phosphorous 0.035 max
Chromium 1.0 – 1.40 %
Molybdenum 0.20-0.35 %
Nickel 1.30-1.70%

EN24 -Mechanical Properties:-


Tensile Strength- 850-1000 N/mm2
Yield Stress- 680 N/mm2Min
Hardness- 248-302HB

B) COMPARISON OF MATERIAL USED FOR MANUFACTURING OF WORM

After study of various materials used for manufacturing of worm shaft, the comparison is given below:-

On the basis of chemical composition:-

CONTENT EN8 EN19 EN24


Carbon 0.36 – 0.44 % 0.36 – 0.44 % 0.36 – 0.44 %
Silicon 0.10 - 0.40 % 0.10 - 0.40 % 0.10 - 0.35 %

IJRISE| www.ijrise.org|editor@ijrise.org [04-12]


International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Volume: 2 Issue: 4 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

Manganese 0.60 – 1.00 % 0.60 – 1.00 % 0.45-0.70 %


Sulphur 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.040 max
Phosphorous 0.050 max 0.050 max 0.035 max
Chromium -------- 0.90 – 1.20 % 1.0 – 1.40 %
Molybdenum -------- 0.25 – 0.35 % 0.20-0.35 %
Nickel -------- -------- 1.30-1.70%

On the basis of Mechanical Properties:-

Tensile Stress Yield stress Hardness

N/mm2 N/mm2 min HB

EN8 700-850 465 201-255

EN19 850-1000 700 248-302

EN24 850-1000 680 248-302

5] MODEL CREATION BY USING THE MODELING SOFTWARE “CREO”

The existing Mainshaft and Worm assembly consist of Mainshaft and worm having following dimension:-
Total Length of Shaft = 2569.4mm
Shaft Keyway = 1600.2mm×20mm×8mm
Worm Lengths = 254mm, 203.2mm, 139.7mm, 92.25mm,76.2mm,63.5mm
Worm Inner hub Diameter = 80mm, 85mm
Worm Outer hub Diameter = 130mm
Worm Thread thickness = 10 mm
Worm Outer Diameter = 165.1 mm

fig8: CAD module of Worm

IJRISE| www.ijrise.org|editor@ijrise.org [04-12]


International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Volume: 2 Issue: 4 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

Figure 9: Assembly of Worm and Shaft


6] TESTING ON COTTON SEED OIL EXPELLER MACHINE
As our project is to fabricate the worm of cotton seed oil expeller and test whether the suggested material is feasible,
economical, or give better result or not than the present material. We know that, the life of worm manufactured from
EN8 material is 15-17 days. After that it is necessary to repair or replace the worm. The amount of wear depends
upon the pressure applied at that point. The greatest pressure is applied at the end of the worm where cotton seeds
are pressed and oil is extract and supply for cake manufacturing. The material is wear at that location so we are
manufacturing the worm from EN24 material which is placed at the end. First of all open the cover of the machine
and remove the shaft from the machine. Then disassemble the entire worm from the shaft and replace our worm at
the end of the shaft. Then again assemble all new worms (EN8) and shaft is mounted on the machine. The shaft is
now in working and we are waiting for the result.

Figure 13: View of Worm (En8) Mounting on a Machine Shaft before Disassemble

Figure 14: View of Mounting of New Worm (EN24) On a Machine Shaft

IJRISE| www.ijrise.org|editor@ijrise.org [04-12]


International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Volume: 2 Issue: 4 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

7. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

We are comparing the result on Visual basis and Weight basis.

a) Result on Visual basis

Figure 15: Wear Worm of EN8 Material after Trial

Figure 16: Wear Worm of EN24 Material after Trial

From above visual observation we find that EN8 material is more wear than EN24 material.

b) Result on Weight basis

For getting a result first we take the weight of the worm manufactured from EN8 and EN24 material before trial and
after. The weight is given in the table below:-

Material Weight of worm before trial (kg) Weight of the worm after trial (kg)
EN8 6.942 6.913
EN24 7.428 7.410

From above observation we find that there is more reduction in the weight of the material of the worm manufactured
from EN8 material than EN24 material.

7] FUTURE SCOPE

The future of alternative gear materials could lie with the creation of bulk metallic glass (BMG). BMG is a
designed compound that can have the combined mechanical properties of ceramics and crystalline metals.
Similar to ceramics, BMG has high strength and is resistant to wear, but has lower melting temperatures. Lower

IJRISE| www.ijrise.org|editor@ijrise.org [04-12]


International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering e-ISSN: 2394-8299
Volume: 2 Issue: 4 p-ISSN: 2394-8280

temperatures will help in the manufacturing of parts—areas where ceramics and MIM tend to have a high initial
cost. Its non-crystalline amorphous structure allows it be as strong as steel, yet as malleable as plastic. BMG is
also resistant to corrosion and has a potential for high fracture toughness. The problem that plagues metals,
ceramics, and MIM parts is their brittleness, with a poor resistance to fatigue. However, in the case of BMG, the
shear band plasticity that results in a crack profile helps increase the resistance to fatigue. According to Robert
Ritchie, a materials scientist from Berkley Lab’s Materials Sciences Division, ―The effect of multiple shear-
banding is multifold. The formation of shear bands leads to extensive crack-tip blunting, which leads to intrinsic
toughening, whereas the resulting crack deflections and closures lead to crack-tip shielding, which leads to
extrinsic toughening.

13] REFERENCES

1. S.S.Bhansali,Ajay B.Solanke Rama S. Jadhav, Sandip D. Kaware, Minal G. Bhugul,‖A


Review On Fabrication Of Worms And Worm Shaft Of Cotton Seeds Oil Expeller Machine And
Their Testing‖, International Journal For Engineering Applications And Technology.
2. Mr. Mangesh A Pachkawade, Prof. Pawan A Chandak (2013) ―A Review on Design and Analysis of Oil
Expeller Spares‖, International Journal of Research in Advent Technology, volume 1, issue 5, December
2013.
3. Dr. Sachin P. Unthawale, Prof. Pawan A. Chandak, Mr. Mangesh A. Pachkawade: “Diagnosis through
Analysis of Failure of Mainshaft and Worms of Oil Expeller‖, International Journal of Advance Science
and Technical Research, issue volume 4, July-August 2014.
4. V. S. Khangar, Dr. S. B. Jaju,(2012) ―A Review of Various Methodologies Used for Shaft Failure
Analysis‖, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, ISSN 2250-2459,
Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2012.
5. Mehul K. Modh, J. R. Mevada,(2011) ―Design, Improvement and Thrust Bearing Analysis of Oil Expeller
Machine‖, International Journal for Engineering and Technological science Volume 2(3) 2011,246-252.
6. A. Ibrahim and A. P. Onwualu,(2005), ―Technologies For Extraction Of Oil From oil-bearing agricultural
products: A Review‖, Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (JAET) Volume 13, 2005.
7. Deli, S. Farah Masturah, M., Tajul Aris, Y. and Wan Nadiah, W. A.,(2011), ―The Effects of physical
parameters of the screw press oil expeller on oil yield from Nigella sativa L seeds‖ International Food
Research Journal 18(4): 1367-1373 (2011).
8. Adesoji M. Olaniyan, Kamaldeen A. Yusuf, Adebayo L. Wahab and Kunle O. Afolayan,(2012)‖ Design,
Development and Testing of a Screw Press Expeller for Palm Kernel and Soybean Oil Extraction‖,
Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 8, 1-9
(2012).
9. M. Zamanzadeh, E. Larkin and D. Gibbon,(2004),Case study on― A Re-Examination of Failure Analysis
and Root Cause Determination‖ ,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15244412-788-1263 December 2004.
10. Aremu, A. K and Ogunlade, C. A,(2013),‖ Development and Performance Evaluation of an Extractor for
Removing Oil from Soaked Kenaf Bast and Core‖, International Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN NO
2320-5407 Volume 1, Issue 4, 196-201(2013).
11. S Sreenatha Reddy, Dr V Pandurangadu, and I Srinivas,(2010)‖ Studies on the effect of compression
recovery and energy consumption in mini oil expeller for Pongamia and Jatropha seed oil expulsion‖,
NREE A quarterly electronic newsletter on renewable energy and environment, volume 7,issue 2 April–
June 2010.ratio and speed on oil.
12. R.S. Khurmi, ―Machine Tool Design‖, S. Chand Publication.

IJRISE| www.ijrise.org|editor@ijrise.org [04-12]