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Control of VSC connected to the grid through LCL-

filter to achieve balanced currents


Fainan A. Magueed Jan Svensson
Dept. of Energy and Environment ABB Power Technologies
Chalmers University of Technology SE-721 64 Västerås, Sweden
SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden jan.r.svensson@se.abb.com
fainan.magueed@chalmers.se

Abstract— Grid-connected voltage source converters (VSCs) are the VSC because of overcurrent, in order to protect the IGBTs.
the heart of many applications with power quality concerns due Moreover, most faults are unbalanced and result in unbalanced
to their reactive power controllability. However, the major voltage dips, which produce current harmonics and unbalance
drawback is their sensitivity to grid disturbances. Moreover, that also cause current protection to trip.
when VSCs are used in DG applications, voltage unbalance may
be intolerant. The current protection may trip due to current Many controllers have been developed to deal with grid
unbalance or due to overcurrent. In this paper, a vector current voltage unbalance for a VSC system connected to the grid
controller for VSC connected to the grid through LCL-filter is through L-filter [5] - [8]. In [9], LCL-filter is considered along
developed with the main focus on producing symmetrical and with grid voltage unbalance. Moreover, a dual controller, that
balanced currents in case of unbalanced voltage dips. comprises one controller in the positive and one controller in
Implementing this controller helps the VSC system not to trip the negative sequence frame, has been implemented. The
during voltage dips. reference negative sequence currents are set to zero. One case
of voltage unbalance has been discussed showing the response
Keywords- DG, LCL-filter, power quality, VSC, vector current only in the grid current.
control, voltage dips.
In this paper, a vector current controller for VSC connected
I. INTRODUCTION to the grid through LCL-filter is developed with the main focus
on reducing current unbalance in case of different unbalanced
Voltage source converters (VSCs) are now widely used in voltage dips. The idea of implementing the controller in
many grid-connected applications including STATCOMs, positive synchronous reference frame with feed-forward of
UPFCs, DVRs and as active interfaces for distributed negative voltage (first introduced in [7]) is adopted and
generation (DG) systems (for instance photovoltaics, wind, fuel modified for the system with LCL-filter. The performance of
cells and microturbines). Benefits of using a VSC are this controller is compared with a dual vector controller (DVC)
sinusoidal grid currents and high controllability of both active regarding the VSC side current unbalance and the grid side
and reactive power. To make the VSC operating towards the current unbalance. This comparison is done by calculating the
grid, an inductor is needed in each phase to limit and to control amount of unbalance, which is the ratio of negative sequence to
the currents. For DG systems, the output voltage of the grid- positive sequence components, for each current and for
connected VSC needs often to be stepped up to the distribution different types of unbalanced voltage dips at the grid.
level. Therefore, a step-up transformer should be used and the
leakage inductance of the transformer will be equivalent to the
II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
needed series inductance. However, high frequency current
harmonics are generated due to PWM switching of the VSC, A scheme of the investigated system is shown in Fig. 1.
which may affect the EMC sensitive loads connected to the The VSC of rated power 69 kVA is connected to 400 V grid
same bus. The isolation of transformers is sensitive to high via LCL-filter, which has the parameters provided in Table I.
dv/dt. Therefore, the VSC voltages should be filtered. This can The inductor on the grid side represents the leakage inductance
be done by inserting a reactor (inductor) towards the VSC and of the transformer needed to match the grid requirement. Its
shunt-connected capacitors between the reactor and the inductance value is a ratio of the inductance at the VSC side.
transformer. Hence, LCL-filters are utilized to interface the The ratio is higher than one in order to limit the high frequency
VSC to the grid, which have the potential of improved grid harmonics in the VSC current. The choice of the LCL-filter
current harmonics [1]-[4]. parameters depends on the system rating. The criterion that is
described in [4] and [10] has been used to choose the
The major drawback of using VSC is its sensitivity to parameters. In this paper, the DC side has been assumed to
voltage disturbances, e.g. voltage dips. A voltage dip is a short have a constant DC voltage equal to 650 V. This assumption is
duration drop in voltage that is normally due to a fault. For a reasonable if the DC capacitance Cdc is high [2].
VSC, a sudden decrease in grid voltage normally causes an
increase in the current, as the control attempts at maintaining
the power to the DC link constant. This can lead to tripping of

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The LCL-filter is described in the instantaneous time TABLE I. LCL FILTER PARAMETERS (BASE IMPEDANCE IS ZBASE =2.3Ω).
domain and with single-phase notation, using KVL in the outer Parameter Description pu
loop and KCL at the capacitor connection bus, as follows: L1 VSC side inductance 0.071
R1 VSC side inductor
0.1 L1
di1 − R1 1 1 resistance
= i1 − uc + u (1) L2 Grid side inductance 0.027
dt L1 L1 L1 R2 Grid side inductor
0.1 L2
resistance
di2 − R2 1 1 Cf Filter capacitance 0.1
= i2 + uc − e (2)
dt L2 L2 L2
u => i2
duc 1 1
80

= i1 − i2 (3)
dt Cf Cf 60

where 40

i1 is the phase current on the VSC side; 20

i2 is the phase current on the grid side;

Gain [dB]
0
uc is the capacitor phase voltage;
u is the VSC phase voltage; −20

e is the grid phase voltage. −40

Using the foregoing equations, the frequency response from −60


the VSC voltage to the grid current is calculated and shown in
Fig. 2. The figure shows that the LCL-filter has harmonic −80

attenuation of 60 dB/decade at frequencies above the resonance


peak equal to 1.1 kHz, thus eliminating the PWM switching −100
10
1 2
10
3
10
4
10
current harmonics. The switching frequency is set to 2.5 kHz. frequency [Hz]
The drawback of the LCL-filter is its peak gain at the
resonance frequency, which implies an oscillatory behavior and Figure 2. LCL-filter frequency response from VSC voltage to grid current.
consequently controller instability. Hence, this resonant peak
should be damped actively within the controller.
III. CONTROLLER DESCRIPTION
R2 L2
i2 i1 R1 L1
ua (t )
VSC iv (t ) A. Basic controller
ea (t )  ~+
+ The basic controller block diagram is shown in Fig. 1. The
ic ub (t) ~ three-phase grid currents and voltages, VSC currents and
eb (t )  ~+ Cdc udc(t) voltages, and capacitor three phase voltages, are all measured
ucc(t ) = and sampled with 5 kHz sampling frequency. All signals are
ec (t )  ~+ 
then transformed into vectors in the fixed αβ-frame and then in
+ SWabc the rotating dq-frame synchronized with the grid voltage. This
uc(t) Cf
PWM is done by using the transformation angle θ obtained by using a

PLL, which is assumed here to be slow and not to react on
voltage dips. To increase the stability limits and in the same
S&H and coordinate transformation time damping oscillations at resonant frequency, three
i1dq Transformation cascaded controllers are applied [13]. The outer controller (PI1)
u cdq to three-phase tracks the reference grid current vector i*2dq and the output is
edq i 2dq Smith
predictor the reference capacitor voltage vector u*cdq , which is the
iˆ1dq reference for the second controller (P2). In P2 the measured
P2 P3 capacitor voltage vector ucdq is compared with the reference
PI1 u*dq
(kp1, ki) (kp2) (kp3) command using a proportional controller, which produces the
* * for the third controller (P3).
reference VSC current vector i1dq
u*cdq i1dq
i*2dq
The third controller is also a proportional controller, which
Figure 1. Power circuit along with main controller blocks.
outputs the reference voltage vector u*dq . The equations
describing the cascaded controller in the dq-frame in the
discrete time domain are:

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u*cdq ( k ) = edq ( k ) + ( R2 + jω L2 ) i 2dq ( k ) response considering the overshoot, the rise time and the
(4) damping at the resonance frequency.
( )
+ kp1 i*2dq ( k ) − i 2dq ( k ) + ∆u idq ( k )
TABLE II. LCL-CONTROLLER PARAMETERS.
*
i1dq ( k ) = i 2dq ( k ) + jω Cf u cdq ( k ) k1 1
(5) k2 1
(
+ kp2 u*cdq ( k ) − u cdq ( k ) ) k3
Ti
0.2
0.01 s
kps 0.07
where k is a sampling instant, edq is the grid voltage vector in
dq-frame, ∆uidq is the integration part that eliminates steady B. Performance in case of grid voltage unbalance
state errors and finally ω is the angular frequency of the grid To be able to analyze the grid voltage unbalance, the
voltage. The integration part is calculated using the following decomposition of the voltage vector into positive and negative-
equation: sequence is needed. This is performed in a dqp-frame with the
technique proposed in [8], which originates from [15]. By
(
∆u idq ( k + 1) = ∆u idq ( k ) + ki i*2dq ( k ) − i 2dq ( k ) ) (6) delaying the voltage vector by one fourth of the grid cycle T, a
vector composed of the same positive sequence component and
where ki = kp1Ts /Ti , Ti and Ts are the integral time constant and a negative sequence component with equal amplitude and
the sampling time respectively. The reference voltage is then opposite sign is obtained. Therefore, if this vector is added to
generated as: the measured supply voltage vector, the negative sequence
voltage will be removed. The positive sequence voltage
component can, thus, be extracted from the measured values as
u*dq ( k + 1) = u cdq ( k ) + ( R1 + jω L1 ) i1dq ( k )
(7)
(
*
+ kp3 i1dq ( k ) − iˆ1dq ( k − 1) ) e dqp (t ) = 1
2
(e dq (t ) + e dqp (t − T 4)) (10)

The controller constants kp1, kp2, and kp3 are fractions of the The negative sequence, in dqp-frame, can be calculated as
corresponding dead-beat gains, kDB1, kDB2, and kDB3, as
e dqn ( p ) (t ) = 1
2
(e dq (t ) − e dqp (t − T 4)) (11)
L R 
kp1 = k1kDB1 = k1  2 + 2  The latter will be seen as a constant signal in the negative
 Ts 2 
rotating plane dqn, which utilizes the opposite angle for the dq-
C  (8) transformation. This technique is applied to the current vectors
kp2 = k2 kDB2 = k2  f 
 Ts 
as well, to be able to look at positive and negative sequence
currents resulting due to the voltage imbalance.
L R 
kp3 = k3 kDB3 = k3  1 + 1 
 Ts 2  The voltage imbalance due to unbalanced voltage dips is
considered here. Three different dips are applied; one is due to
To compensate for the time delay due to the calculation a single phase fault, another is due to double phase fault, and
time, Smith predictor is used [14], which attempts to remove the third is due to double phase to ground fault. The phasor
the effect of the delay time from the closed loop control system diagram of voltage dips resulting from the three different faults
so that the controller can be designed as if no time delay was is shown in Fig. 3. The dip magnitude Edip, which is the
present. Hence, the Smith predictor is implemented in a way magnitude of the remaining voltage during the dip, is chosen
analogous to a state observer, which means running a model of such that all dips have the same positive sequence component.
the plant parallel to the plant itself. The predicted current The active current reference is chosen to be 1 pu while the
equation is then calculated in the dq-frame as: reactive current reference is set to zero to produce unity power
factor at the grid side. The resulting positive sequence current
 R 
T
L1
( )
iˆ1dq ( k + 1) = s u*dq ( k ) − u cdq ( k ) + 1 − 1 − jω Ts  iˆ1dq ( k )
 L1  (9)
is shown in Fig. 4. This current is the same for all dips apart
from the transients at the start and the end of the dip. This
transient time is produced mainly due to the delay introduced
ps ( 1dq
+ k i ( k ) − iˆ ( k − 1)1dq ) by the sequence detection algorithm.
where kps is the observer gain that compensates for the error E3=E3,dip E3 E3
between the actual and the predicted currents.
E3,dip E3,dip
Theoretically, choosing dead-beat gains for the controller E1, dip E1 E1=E1,dip E1=E1,dip
should result in fast transient response. However, this is not E2,dip
possible in cascaded controllers, since the operation of the E2,dip
controllers should be decoupled. To choose the proper gains,
E2=E2,dip E2 E2
the stability of the complete system has been examined looking (a) (b) (c)
at the pole location on the unit disc [13]. The controller
Figure 3. Voltage dips due to (a) single phase fault, (b) double phase fault,
parameters stated in Table II are chosen to produce an adequate and (c) double phase to ground fault.

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A dip due to a single phase fault with 10 % remaining 2

Converter current [p.u.]


voltage has been applied at 0.2 s for duration of 0.1 s, as shown 1
d−component

in Fig. 5. The resulting negative sequence currents, on the VSC


and grid sides, in dq-frame will be as shown in Fig. 6. The 0

amount of imbalance, which is the ratio of negative sequence q−component

to positive sequence components at fundamental frequency −1

[12], given by −2
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

2 2
i2dn + i2qn 2
ri = ×100 (12) d−component

Grid current [p.u.]


2 2
i2dp + i2qp 1

is 132 % in this case. For a dip due to double phase fault with 0
q−component
40% remaining voltage, shown in Fig. 7, ri = 89 %. In this case, −1
the negative sequence currents are shown in Fig. 8. For the last
case, which is a dip due to double phase to ground fault, −2
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
ri = 69 %. The voltage and negative sequence current are Time [s]
shown in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10, respectively.
Figure 6. Negative sequence of VSC current (upper) and grid current
2 (lower): 10 % voltage dip due to single phase fault.
Converter current [p.u.]

1.5
d−component

1 1

0.5 0.8
q−component

0 0.6

−0.5 0.4
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Grid voltage [p.u.]

0.2

2
0
Grid current [p.u.]

1.5 d−component
−0.2
1
−0.4
0.5 q−component −0.6
0
−0.8
−0.5
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 −1
Time [s]
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

Figure 4. Positive sequence VSC current (upper) and grid current (lower) in Time [s]
dq-frame.
Figure 7. Grid voltage: 40 % voltage dip due to double phase fault.

2
Converter current [p.u.]

1
d−component
1
0.8

0.6 0

0.4
Grid voltage [p.u.]

−1
q−component
0.2
−2
0 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

−0.2
2
−0.4
d−component
Grid current [p.u.]

1
−0.6

−0.8 0

−1
−1 q−component

0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35


−2
Time [s] 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Time [s]
Figure 5. Grid voltage: 10 % voltage dip due to single phase fault.
Figure 8. Negative sequence of VSC current (upper) and grid current
(lower): 40 % voltage dip due to double phase fault.

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d − R2 1 1
i = i − jωi 2dq + u − e (14)
1
dt 2dq L2 2dq L2 cdq L2 dq
0.8

0.6 d 1 1 (15)
u cdq = i1dq − i + jωu cdq
0.4 dt Cf Cf 2dq
Grid voltage [p.u.]

0.2
In steady state and dqn-frame, the foregoing equations are
0 read as follows:
−0.2
− R1 1 1
−0.4 i + jωi1dqn − u cdqn + u dqn = 0 (16)
L1 1dqn L1 L1
−0.6

−0.8
− R2 1 1
i + jωi 2dqn − u + e =0 (17)
−1
L2 2dqn L2 cdqn L2 dqn
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Time [s] 1 1 (18)
i − i − jωu cdqn = 0
Cf 1dqn Cf 2dqn
Figure 9. Grid voltage: 55 % voltage dip due to double phase to ground
fault.
For the grid currents to be symmetrical, the negative
2 sequence components in dq-frame should be nullified; i.e.
Converter current [p.u.]

i2dqn=0. That should be achieved by adjusting the reference


1 d−component
VSC voltage vector described in (7). Substituting with i2dqn=0
in (18) and using the result in (16) yields
0

−1 q−component
( )
u*dqn = u cdqn 1 + ω2 Cf L1 + jR1ωCf u cdqn (19)
−2
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
This is implemented using positive sequence grid and
capacitor voltage vectors within the controller equations and
2
the negative sequence capacitor voltage vector is fed-forward
to calculate the negative part of the VSC reference voltage
Grid current [p.u.]

d−component
1
vector, as suggested in Fig. 11.
0
iˆ1dq

−1
q−component

−2 i1dq
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Time [s] u dqp
P3
Figure 10. Negative sequence of VSC current (upper) and grid current
(lower): 55 % voltage dip due to double phase to ground fault.
u*cdq
i 2dq P2 dqp
*
IV. PROPOSED CONTROLLER FOR BALANCED CURRENTS i1dq 
i*2dq
PI1
A. One controller in the positive sequence frame with feed edq
forward for the negative sequence (NSFF)
u cdqp
Since the main interest of the controller is to deal with u*dq
u cdqn (19) dqn


voltage imbalance, the LCL-filter should be described in  dqp

positive and negative sequence synchronous frames (dqp- and


dqn- frames) to derive relevant control laws. The dqp-frame is Figure 11. Schematic diagram for the controller for balanced currents.
synchronized with the grid voltage with the same direction of
rotation, while dqn-frame rotates in the opposite direction. However, recalculating (19) with the specified filter
parameters, yields
The LCL-filter equations (1) to (3), is described in the dqp-
frame as follows:
u *dqn ≈ u cdqn (20)
d R 1 1
i = − jωi1dq − 1 i1dq − u cdq + u dq (13) which is the condition for balanced converter currents. With
dt 1dq L1 L1 L1
this algorithm, the VSC currents are forced to be balanced,
which reduces the ratio of imbalance in the grid currents.

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Moreover, substituting i1dqn = 0 and i2dqn = 0 in (17) results 1

Converter current [p.u.]


in u*cdqn = edqn and in (18) results in u*cdqn = 0 . Since these 0.5

conditions contradict with each other, it is not possible to 0


achieve symmetrical grid and VSC currents simultaneously.
−0.5
B. Dual vector controller (DVC)
The controller equations (4) to (9) can be described in dqp- −1
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

frame and dqn-frame, and then two parallel controllers, one for
each frame, can be implemented as shown in Fig. 12 [8]. To 1

achieve symmetrical grid currents during grid voltage

Grid current [p.u.]


unbalance, the reference negative sequence currents are set to 0.5

zero. This controller cannot achieve symmetrical VSC current, 0


since there is no direct access to the VSC current reference.
−0.5

−1
i*2dqp (k )
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Time [s]
Positive Figure 13. Negative sequence of VSC current (upper) and grid current
i 2dqp (k )
sequence u* (k )
vector dqp dqp (lower): NSFF and 10 % voltage dip due to single phase to ground fault.
i1dqp (k )
current  1.5

Converter currents [p.u.]


u cdqp (k ) controller
1

edqp (k ) 0.5
u*áâ (k ) 2
*
uabc (k )

+
0

3 −0.5
i*2dqn (k )
−1
i 2dqn (k ) Negative
u*dqn (k ) dqn
−1.5
sequence 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
i1dqn (k ) vector
current 
u cdqn (k ) controller 1.5
Grid currents [p.u.]

1
edqn (k )
0.5

0
Figure 12. Dual vector controller.
−0.5

−1
C. Results −1.5
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
The first proposed controller, to achieve balanced currents Time [s]
in case of grid voltage unbalance, using the feed forward of the
negative sequence capacitor voltage (NSFF) is tested in case of Figure 14. VSC current phasors (upper) and grid current phasors (lower)
balanced current control.
unbalanced voltage dips. The VSC negative sequence current is
nullified, for the three introduced different voltage dips, while 1
Converter current [p.u.]

the negative sequence grid current is significantly reduced. 0.5


This is shown for the dip due to single phase fault, since it
produces the most amount of imbalance, in Fig. 13. This 0

amount of unbalance is reduced from 132 % to less than 5 %


when applying the current balancing algorithm. The three
−0.5

phase VSC and grid currents are also shown in Fig. 14. When −1
the dual controller, DVC, is implemented with the same
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

voltage dip, the resulting negative sequence in the grid and


VSC currents is as shown in Fig. 15. The negative sequence of 1

the grid current is nullified during the dip, while the negative
Grid current [p.u.]

0.5
sequence of the VSC current is reduced to less that 5 %.
0

−0.5

−1
0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Time [s]

Figure 15. Negative sequence of VSC current (upper) and grid current
(lower): DVC and 10 % voltage dip due to single phase to ground fault.

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V. CONCLUSIONS [5] H. Song. K. Nam, “Dual Current Control Scheme for PWM Converter
under Unbalanced Input Voltage Conditions,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial
A vector current controller for VSC connected to the grid Electronics, vol.46, pp. 953-959, October 1999.
through LCL-filter is developed with the main focus on [6] Y.Suh, V. Tijeras, T. A. Lipo, “A Nonlinear Control of the
reducing current imbalance in case of unbalanced voltage dips Instantaneous Power in dq Synchronous Frame for PWM AC/DC
at the grid. The controller is applied in the positive sequence Converter Under Generalized Unbalanced Operating Conditions,” in
Proc. IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting 2002, vol. 2,
frame and the negative sequence capacitor voltage vector is pp. 1189-1196.
fed-forward with relevant relations that are derived here.
[7] H.S. Kim, H.S. Mok, G.H. Choe, D.S. Hyun, S.Y. Choe, “Design of
Implementing this controller the currents on the VSC side are Current Controller for Three-Phase PWM Converter with Unbalanced
symmetrical while the amount of imbalance in the current on Input Voltage,” in Proc. of IEEE 29th Annual Power Electronics
the grid side is reduced from 132 % to 5 % in case of a voltage Specialists Conference (PESC’98), pp. 503-509.
dip due to a single phase fault with 10 % remaining voltage. [8] G. Saccomando, J. Svensson, “Transient Operation of Grid Connected
The controller has been tested also for dips due to double phase Voltage Source Converter Under Unbalanced Voltage Conditions,” in
fault and double phase to ground fault. The grid currents are Proc. of IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting 2001, vol.
4, pp. 2419–2424.
almost symmetrical during the different voltage dips, which
[9] E. J. Bueno, F. Espinosa, F. J. Rodriguez, J. Urena, and S. Cobreces,
results in protecting the VSC from tripping due to overcurrents “Current Control of Voltage Source Converters Connected to the Grid
or current imbalance during the dip period. This controller has Through an LCL-filter,” 35th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists
been compared with a dual vector controller (DVC) that is Conference PESC’ 2004, pp 68-73.
composed of two controllers; one is implemented in the [10] M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg, and S. Hansen, “Design and Control of an
positive sequence frame and the other is implemented in the LCL-filter Based Three-phase Active Rectifier,” 36th Industry
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– 307.
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[11] R. Ottersten, J. Svensson, “Vector Current Controlled Voltage Source
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[12] M.H.J. Bollen, Understanding power quality problems: voltage sags and
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