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SS symmetry

Article
Fixed Point Theorem for Neutrosophic Triplet Partial
Metric Space
Memet Şahin 1, *, Abdullah Kargın 1 and Mehmet Ali Çoban 2
1 Department of Mathematics, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep 27310, Turkey; abdullahkargin27@gmail.com
2 Department of Computer Programming, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep 27310, Turkey;
coban@gantep.edu.tr
* Correspondence: mesahin@gantep.edu.tr

Received: 4 June 2018; Accepted: 19 June 2018; Published: 25 June 2018 

Abstract: Neutrosphic triplet is a new theory in neutrosophy. In a neutrosophic triplet set, there is a
neutral element and antielement for each element. In this study, the concept of neutrosophic triplet
partial metric space (NTPMS) is given and the properties of NTPMS are studied. We show that both
classical metric and neutrosophic triplet metric (NTM) are different from NTPM. Also, we show that
NTPMS can be defined with each NTMS. Furthermore, we define a contraction for NTPMS and we
give a fixed point theory (FPT) for NTPMS. The FPT has been revealed as a very powerful tool in the
study of nonlinear phenomena. This study is also part of the “Algebraic Structures of Neutrosophic
Triplets, Neutrosophic Duplets, or Neutrosophic Multisets” which is a special issue.

Keywords: neutrosophic triplet set (NTS); partial metric spaces (PMS); fixed point theory (FPT)

1. Introduction
Neutrosophy was first studied by Smarandache in [1]. Neutrosophy consists of neutrosophic logic,
probability, and sets. Actually, neutrosophy is generalization of fuzzy set in [2] and intuitionistic fuzzy set
in [3]. Also, researchers have introduced neutrosophic theory in [4–6]. Recently, Olgun and Bal introduced
the neutrosophic module in [7], Şahin, Uluçay, Olgun, and Kılıçman introduced neutrosophic soft lattices
in [8], and Uluçay, Şahin, and Olgun studied soft normed rings in [9]. Furthermore, Smarandache and Ali
studied NT theory in [10] and NT groups (NTG) in [11,12]. The greatest difference between NTG and
classical groups is that there can be more than one unit element. That is, each element in a neutrosophic
triplet group can be a separate unit element. In addition, the unit elements in the NTG must be different
from the unit elements in the classical group. Also, a lot of researchers have introduced NT theory
in [13–16]. Recently, Smarandache, Şahin, and Kargın studied neutrosophic triplet G-module in [17],
and Bal, Shalla, and Olgun introduced neutrosophic triplet cosets and quotient groups in [18].
Matthew introduced the concept of partial metric spaces (PMS) in [19]. It is a generalization of
usual metric space since self-distance cannot be zero in PMS. The most important use of PMS is to
transfer mathematical techniques to computer science. Also, Matthew introduced Banach contraction
theorem for PMS and a lot of researchers introduced PMS and its topological properties and FPT for
PMS in [20–23]. If f is a mapping from a set E into itself, any element x of E, such that f (x) = x, is called
a fixed point of f. Many problems, including nonlinear partial differential equations problems, may be
recast as problems of finding a fixed point of a mapping in a space. Recently, Shukla introduced FPT
for ordered contractions in partial b-metric space in [24]. Kim, Okeke, and Lim introduced common
coupled FPT for w-compatible mappings in PMS in [25]. Pant, Shukla, and Panicker introduced new
FPT in PMS in [26].
In this paper, we first introduced PMS and contraction in NT theory. So, we obtained a new
structure for developing NT theory. Thus, researchers can arrive at nonlinear partial differential

Symmetry 2018, 10, 240; doi:10.3390/sym10070240 www.mdpi.com/journal/symmetry


Symmetry 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 7

Lim introduced common coupled FPT for w-compatible mappings in PMS in [25]. Pant, Shukla, and
Panicker introduced new FPT in PMS in [26].
Symmetry 2018, 10, 240 2 of 7
In this paper, we first introduced PMS and contraction in NT theory. So, we obtained a new
structure for developing NT theory. Thus, researchers can arrive at nonlinear partial differential
equations problem
equations solutions
problem in NT theory.
solutions In Section
in NT theory. 2, we give
In Section 2, wesome
givebasic
someresults and definitions
basic results and definitions
for NTPM and NTM.
for NTPM and In Section
NTM. 3, NTPMS
In Section is defined
3, NTPMS and some
is defined andproperties of a NTPMS
some properties of a are
NTPMSgiven.are
It given.
was shown that both the classical metric and NTM are different from the NTPM, and NTPMS
It was shown that both the classical metric and NTM are different from the NTPM, and NTPMS can be can be
defineddefined
with each
withNTMS. Furthermore,
each NTMS. the convergent
Furthermore, sequence
the convergent and Cauchy
sequence sequence
and Cauchy in NTPMS
sequence in NTPMS
are defined. Also, complete
are defined. NTPMSNTPMS
Also, complete are defined. Later, we
are defined. define
Later, contractions
we define for NTPM
contractions and weand we
for NTPM
give some
giveproperties of theseofcontractions.
some properties Furthermore,
these contractions. we give awe
Furthermore, FPT for aNTPMS.
give FPT forIn Section In
NTPMS. 4, we
Section 4,
give conclusions.
we give conclusions.

2. Preliminaries
2. Preliminaries
Wesome
We give givebasic
someresults
basic results and definitions
andSymmetry
definitions for NTPM
forxNTPM
2018, 10, and
FOR PEER
and in
NTM
REVIEW
NTMthisin this section.
section.
Symmetry 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 2 of 7
Definition 1 ([19]).
Definition Let A be
1 ([19]). Letnonempty set.introduced
A be nonempty
Lim If the
set.function
If thecommon :AxA
function m→ ℝ →
pcoupled
:AxA R+for
satisfies
FPT the conditions
satisfies given
the conditions
w-compatible given below;
mappings in PMS in [25]. Pant, S
below; p
p is
is called
called a
a PM.
PM. ⩝ a,
a, b,
b, cc
Lim introduced common coupled FPT for w-compatible∈
∈ A;
A; Panicker introduced
mappings in newPMSFPTinin PMS
[25]. in [26].
Pant, Shukla, and
Panicker introduced
(i) (i)(a,new
a)p=mFPT
(a, a) in
(b, PMS
pm=(b,in
=b) [26].
b)(a,
= b) =Ina)
pm=(a, b)(b, pmthis

(b, a)paper,
= b; awe
a ⇐⇒ = b;first introduced PMS and contraction in NT theory. So, we obtai
In this (ii)
paper, (a,wea)first introduced PMS structure
and for
contraction developing
in NT NT So,
theory. theory. Thus, researchers
we obtained a new can arrive at nonlinear partial
(ii) pm≤(a, a)(a, ≤ b);
pm (a, b);
structure for developing
(iii) (a, b)p=m (a,NT (b, equations can
theory. Thus, researchers problem
arrivesolutions in NTpartial
at nonlinear theory.differential
In Section 2, we give some basic results and
(iii) b) =a);
pm (b, a);
equations problem
(iv) (iv) solutions
(a, c) ≤ in NT theory. In for NTPM
Section 2, and
we NTM.
give someIn Section
basic 3, NTPMS
results and is defined and some properties of a NTPMS a
definitions
p (a, c)(a,≤b)p + (a, b)(b,+c)p− (b, c)
(b,−b);p (b, b);
or NTPM and NTM. In mSection 3, m NTPMS ismdefined was shown m
and that both
some the classical
properties metric and
of a NTPMS NTM are
are given. It different from the NTPM, and NTP
Also,
was shown that both the (A, ) is
classical called a PMS. defined with each NTMS. Furthermore, the convergent
can be sequence and Cauchy sequence
Also, (A, pmmetric anda NTM
) is called PMS. are different from the NTPM, and NTPMS
defined with each NTMS. Furthermore, the convergent are defined. Also, complete
sequence and Cauchy NTPMS are defined.
sequence in NTPMS Later, we define contractions for NTP
Definition 2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and # be a binary operation. Then, N is called a NT if the given below
are defined. Also, Definition
complete NTPMS 2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and # be a binary operation. Then, N is called a NT ifwe
are give
defined. some
Later, properties
we define of these
contractionscontractions.
for NTPM Furthermore,
and we the give
givenabelow
FPT for NTPMS. In Se
conditions are satisfied.
give some properties of thesearecontractions.
conditions satisfied. give conclusions.
Furthermore, we give a FPT for NTPMS. In Section 4, we
(i) There is neutral element (neut(x)) for x ∈ N such that
give conclusions.
(i) There is neutral element (neut(x)) for x ∈ N such that x*neut(x) = neut(x)* x = x.
2. Preliminaries
x*neut(x) = neut(x)* x = x.
2. Preliminaries (ii) isThere
(ii) There is anti element
anti element (anti(x))(anti(x))
for x ∈ for
N x∈N
such such that x*anti(x) = anti(x)* x = neut(x).
that
We give some basic results and definitions for NTPM and NTM in this section.
x*anti(x) NT = anti(x)*
is shown xby= neut(x).
(x, neut(x), anti(x)).
We give some basic results and definitions for NTPM and NTM in this section.
NT is shown by (x, neut(x), anti(x)). Definition 1 ([19]). Let A be nonempty set. If the function :AxA → ℝ satisfies the condition
Definition 1 ([19]).Definition
Let A be nonempty 3 ([15]). set. If the#)function
Let (M, below;
be a NTS :AxA
p is and a#ba→
called ∈
PM.ℝN, ⩝satisfies ∈
a,a,bb,∈c M.
theA;conditions
NTM d T :MxM →R+ ∪ {0} such
given
is a map
below; p is called that ⩝3a,a,
a PM.
Definition b,b,cc∈∈Let
([15]). A; (M, #) be a NTS and a#b ∊ N, ⩝ a, b ∊ M. NTM is a map :MxM → ℝ ∪ {0} such
M,
(i) (a, a) = (b, b) = (a, b) = (b, a) ⟺ a = b;
i) = ⩝a,(b,
(a, a)that b, c ∈ M, (a, b) =
(a) b) =d T (a, b) ≥ 0 (b, a) ⟺(ii) a = b; (a, a) ≤ (a, b);
ii) (a, a)(a)≤ (b) b);If≥a0= b, then d T (a, b) = 0 (iii)
(a, b) (a, b) = (b, a);
iii) (a, b)(b)
= If (b,
a =a);
b, then (a,
(c) d T (a, b) = d T (a, b)b) = 0 (iv) (a, c) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c) − (b, b);
iv) (a, c) ≤
(c) (a, b) +
(a, b)If= there
(d) (b, c) −
(a,exists
b) (b, b);
any element c Also, in M(A, such )that dT (a,a c) ≤ dT (a, c*neut(b)), then dT (a, c*neut(b)) ≤
is called PMS.
Also, (A,(d) If there exists
dT (a,
) is called any element
b) + dT (b, c).
a PMS. c ∊ M such that
(a, c) ≤ (a, c*neut(b)), then Definition (a, c*neut(b)) ≤ Let
2 ([12]). (a, b)
N +be a nonempty
(b, c). and # be a binary operation. Then, N is called a NT if the
Also, ((M,*), d T ) space is called NTMS.
Definition 2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and
Also, ((M,*), ) space is called NTMS. # be a binary operation. Then,
conditions are satisfied. N is called a NT if the given below
conditions are satisfied.
(i) There is neutral element (neut(x)) for x ∈ N such that
3. Neutrosophic
3. Neutrosophic Triplet Partial
i) There is neutral element (neut(x)) for x ∈ N such Metric
Triplet Metric
Partial Space
that Space
x*neut(x) = neut(x)* x = x.
x*neut(x) = neut(x)* x = x. metric
Partial Partial
metric is the generalization (ii) There
of usual
is the generalization is anti element
ofmetric
usual (anti(x))
space,
metric since for
space, ∈ N such
xsince
self-distance that
cannot becannot
self-distance zero inbe zero
ii) There ispartial
anti element
inmetric (anti(x))
partialspace.
metricfor x
The ∈ N such
mostThe
space. that
importantx*anti(x) =
use of PMS
most important anti(x)*
use of x =
is PMS neut(x).
to transfer mathematical
is to transfer mathematicaltechniques to
techniques to
x*anti(x) = anti(x)*
computer x = neut(x).
science. Also, If f is a mapping
computer science. Also, If f is a mapping from a set E
frominto itself,
a set any element
E intoanti(x)). x of E such that f(x) = x
itself, any element x of E such that f (x)is
NT is shown by (x, neut(x),
called a
= fixed
x is point
called of
a
NT is shown by (x, neut(x), anti(x)). f. Many
fixed problems,
point of f. including
Many nonlinear
problems, partial
including differential
nonlinear equations
partial problems,
differential equations
may beproblems,
recast asmayproblems
be recastof as
finding a fixed point of a mapping in a space. In this
Definition 3 ([15]). Let (M, #) be a NTS and a#b ∊ N, ⩝ a, b ∊ M. NTM
problems of finding a fixed point of a mapping in a section,
space. In wesection,
this is a map :MxM → ℝ
introduced
Definition 3 ([15]).we firstly
Letintroduced PMS and
(M, #) be a firstly
NTS and FPT
PMS in
a#band NT
∊that theory.
⩝⩝a,in
N,FPT bb,∊NT So, we
∈ theory.
c M. obtained
NTM isSo,
M, a new structure
:MxM a→new
we obtained
a map for
ℝ structure developing NT
∪ {0} suchfor developing NT
theory.
hat ⩝a, b, c ∈ Thus, researchers
M, theory. can arrive
Thus, researchers at nonlinear
can arrive partialpartial
at nonlinear differential equations
differential problem
equations solutions
problem in
solutions in
NT theory. (a) (a, b) ≥ 0
NT theory.
a) (a, b) ≥ 0 (b) If a = b, then (a, b) = 0
b) If a = b, then (a, b) = 0 (c) (a, b) = (a, b)
c) (a, b) = (a, b) (d) If there exists any element c ∊ M such that
d) If there exists any element c ∊ M such that (a, c) ≤ (a, c*neut(b)), then (a, c*neut(b)) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c).
(a, c) ≤ (a, c*neut(b)), then (a, c*neut(b)) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c).
Also, ((M,*), ) space is called NTMS.
Also, ((M,*), ) space is called NTMS.
3. Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space
3. Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space
defined. Also, complete NTPMS are defined. give someLater,properties
we defineofcontractions
these contractions. for NTPM Furthermore,
and we we give a FPT for NTPMS. In Section
some properties of these contractions. Furthermore, give conclusions. we give a FPT for NTPMS. In Section 4, we
conclusions.
2. Preliminaries
eliminaries
Symmetry 2018, 10, 240 We give some basic results and definitions for NTPM and NTM in this 3 of section.
7
We give some basic results and definitions for NTPM and NTM in this section.
Definition 1 ([19]). Let A be nonempty set. If the function :AxA → ℝ satisfies the conditions given
nition 1 ([19]). LetDefinition
A be nonempty 4. Letset. If #)
(A, thebelow;
befunction
a NTS p isand :AxA
called →A,
a#ba in
PM. ℝ⩝ a, a, bb,inc ∈
satisfies A.the
A;
NTPMconditions given
is a map p N : AxA → R+ ∪{0} such that
w; p is called a PM. ⩝ a,a,b,b,cc∈∈ A A;
(i) (a, a) = (b, b) = (a, b) = (b, a) ⟺ a = b;
(a, a) = (b, b)(i)
= 0(a, b) = (b, a) ⟺(ii)
≤ p N (a, a) ≤ p N (a, b) a = b;(a, a) ≤ (a, b);
(a, a) ≤ (ii) If p N (a, a) = p N (a, (iii)
(a, b); b) = p N (b,(a, b)b) == 0, then
(b, a);
there exits any a, b such that a = b.
(a, b) = (b, a);(iii) p (a, b) = p (a, b) (iv) (a, c) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c) − (b, b);
N N
(a, c) ≤ (a, b)(iv)
+ If(b,there
c) −exists(b,any
b); element b in A such that p (a, c) ≤ p (a, c#neut(b)), then p (a, c#neut(b)) ≤ p (a, b)
Also, (A, ) is called
N a PMS.N N N
Also, (A, ) is called a +PMS. p N (b, c) − p N (b, b)
Definition 2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and # be a binary operation. Then, N is called a NT if the given
Additionally, ((A, #), p N ) is called NTPMS.
nition 2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and # beconditions a binary operation.
are satisfied. Then, N is called a NT if the given below
tions are satisfied.
Example 1. Let A be a nonempty (i) There set isand neutral
P(A) beelement
power(neut(x))
set of A and x ∈ Nbe
for m(X) such that of X ∈ P(A). Where, it is
cardinal
There is neutral elementclear that X∪X
(neut(x)) for=xX.∈ Thus;
N suchwex*neut(x)
give that=neut(X)
that neut(x)*=xX= and x. anti(X) = X for X ∈ P(A). So, (P(A), ∪) is a NTS.
x*neut(x) = neut(x)* We x. the function p N : (ii)
x =give P(A)x There
P(A)is→ R+element
anti ∪ {0} such(anti(x))
that for x ∈ N=such
p N (X,Y) that
max{m(X), m(Y)}. From Definition 4,
There is anti element (anti(x)) for x ∈ N such thatx*anti(x) = anti(x)* x = neut(x).
(i), (ii) and (iii) are apparent.
x*anti(x) = anti(x)* x = neut(x).
(iv) Let ∅ be empty element ofNT P(X).is shown
Then, by p N(x,
(X,neut(x), (X, Y ∪ ∅) since for p N (X, Y ∪ ∅) = p N (X, Y) =
Y) = p Nanti(x)).
NT is shown by (x, max{m(X),
neut(x), anti(x)).
m(Y)}. Also, it is clear that
max{m(X), m(Y)} ≤ max{m(X), Definition m(Z)}+ 3 ([15]). Let (M,
max{m(Z), #) be–amax
m(Y)} NTS{m(∅),
and a#b ∊ N, ⩝ a, b ∊ M. NTM is a map :MxM → ℝ ∪ {0
m(∅)}.
nition 3 ([15]). Let (M, #) be a NTS and a#bthat ∊ N,⩝⩝a,a,b,bc∊∈M. M,NTM is a map :MxM → ℝ ∪ {0} such
Therefore, p N (X, Y∪∅) ≤ p N (X, ∅) + p N (∅, Y) – p N (∅, ∅). Thus, ((P(A), ∪), p N ) is a NTPMS.
⩝a, b, c ∈ M,
(a) (a, b) ≥ 0
(a, b) ≥ 0 Corollary 1. NTPM is different (b) If afrom = b, thethenpartial(a,metric.
b) = 0 Because there isn’t a “#”binary operation and neutral
If a = b, then (a, of
b)x=in0 PMS. (c) (a, b) = (a, b)
(a, b) = (a, b) (d) If there exists any element c ∊ M such that
If there exists any element c ∊ M such that
Corollary 2. Generally the NTPM (a, isc)different from NT metric,
≤ (a, c*neut(b)), then since (a, for p N (x, x)≤ ≥ 0.
c*neut(b)) (a, b) + (b, c).
(a, c) ≤ (a, c*neut(b)), then (a, c*neut(b)) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c).
Theorem 1. Let A be a nonempty Also, set((M,*),
and P(A) )bespace power is called
set of ANTMS.
and m(X) be cardinal of X ∈ P (A) and (P(A),
Also, ((M,*), ) space is called NTMS.
#), d) be a NT metric space (NTMS). If there exists any Z ∈ P(A) such that m(Y#neut( Z ) = m(Y); then ((P(A),
3. Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space
#), p N ) is a NTPMS such that
eutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space
Partial metric is the generalization of usual metric space, since self-distance cannot be ze
partial metric d( X, Y ) + mimportant
( X )cannot
+ m(Yuse ) zero
Partial metric is the generalization of usual metric X, space.
p N (space, = The
Y ) since most
self-distance be of PMSin is to transfer mathematical techniqu
al metric space. The most important use computer
of PMSscience. Also, If fmathematical
is to transfer 2
is a mapping from a set E to
techniques into itself, any element x of E such that f(x)
puter science. Also, If f is a mapping fromcalled a set Eaintofixed point
itself, anyof element
f. Many problems,
x of E suchincluding
that f(x) =nonlinear
x is partial differential equations prob
Proof.
d a fixed point of f. Many problems, including may be recast as
nonlinear problems
partial of finding
differential a fixed
equations point of a mapping in a space. In this section
problems,
be recast as problems (i) p of finding ad(X,
N (X, X) =
fixed)+m ( X )+mof
Xintroduced
point ( X )afirstly
=mapping
m(X)PMS ≤ in d( X,
and Y )+min
a FPT
space. ( X )+
NT
In (Y
mthis) section,
theory.
= p NSo,
(X, weY),obtained
we since fora d(X,X)
new structure
= 0. for developin
2 2
duced firstly PMS andThus; FPT in NT theory. theory.
So, we Thus,
obtained researchers
0 ≤ p N (X, X) ≤ p N (X, Y) for X, Y ∈ P(A). a new can arrive
structure at
for nonlinear
developing partial
NT differential equations problem solutio
ry. Thus, researchers can arrive at nonlinearNT theory.
partial
(ii) If p N (X, X) = p N (X, Y) = p N (Y, Y) = 0, thendifferential equations problem solutions in
heory. d( X, X )+m( X )+m( X ) d( X, Y )+m( X )+m(Y ) d(Y, Y )+m(Y )+m(Y )
(iii) 2 = 2 = 2 = 0 and d( X, Y ) + m( X ) + m(Y) = 0.
Where, m(X) = 0, m(Y) = 0 and d( X, Y ) = 0. Thus, X = Y = ∅ (empty set).
d( X, Y )+m( X )+m(Y ) d(Y, X )+m(Y )+m( X )
(iv) p N (X, Y) = 2 = 2 = p N (Y, X), since for d(X, Y)= d(Y, X).
(v) We suppose that there exists any Z ∈ P(A) such that m(Y#neut( Z )) = m(Y) and p N ( X, Y ) ≤
p N ( X, Y#neut( Z )). Thus,

d( X, Y ) + m( X ) + m(Y ) d( X, Y#neut( Z )) + m( X ) + m(Y#neut( Z ))


≤ (1)
2 2

From (1), d( X, Y ) ≤ d( X, Y#neut( Z )). Since (P(A), #), d) is a NTMS,

d( X, Y#neut( Z )) ≤ d( X, Z ) + d( X, Z ) (2)
Symmetry 2018, 10, 240 4 of 7

From (1), (2)

d( X, Y ) + m( X ) + m(Y ) d( X, Y#neut(Z)) + m( X ) + m(Y#neut(Z)) d( X, Z ) + d( Z, Y ) + m( X ) + m(Y ) + m( Z )


≤ ≤ =
2 2 2
d( X, Z ) + m( X ) + m( Z ) d( Z, Y ) + m( Z ) + m(Y )
+ −m( Z ). Where, p N ( Z, Z ) = m( Z ).
2 2

Thus, p N (X, Y*neut(Z)) ≤ p N (X, Z) + p N (Z, Y) − p N (Z, Z). Hence, ((P(A), #), p N ) is a NTPMS.

Theorem 2. Let (A, #) be a NT set, k ∈ R+ and ((A, #), d T ) be a NTMS. Then; ((A, #), p N ) is a NTPMS
Symmetry 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 4 of 7
such that
p N (a,2.b)Let
Theorem = d(A,
T (a,#)b)be+ak,
NT∀ a, b∈
set, k ∈A.ℝ and ((A, #), ) be a NTMS. Then; ((A, #), ) is a NTPMS such
that
Proof.
(a, b) = (a, b) + k, ∀ a, b ∈ A.
Symmetry 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW 4 of 7
(i) Since for d T (a, a) = 0, 0 ≤ p N (a, a) = d T (a, a) + k = k ≤ p N (a, b) = d T (a, b) + k. Thus;
Proof.
(ii) 0 ≤ p (a, a) ≤ p (a, b).
Theorem 2.N Let (A, #) N be a NT set, k ∈ ℝ and ((A, #), ) be a NTMS. Then; ((A, #), ) is a NTPMS such
(i)
(iii) Since
Therefor do not (a,exists
a)= 0, a,0 b≤∈ A(a, a) = that(a,p Na)(a,
such + ka)= =k p≤N (a, (a, b) b)= p=N (b,(a, b)b)= +0k.since Thus;for k ∈ R+ and
that
(ii) 0d T≤ = 0.a) ≤ (a, b).
(a, a) (a,
(iv)(a,There
(iii) pb)N=(a, b)(a,
do =not k,b)∀ a,
db)T +(a,
exists + a, b∈∈
kb= dA.
A such that (a, a) = (a, b) =
T (b, a) + k, since for d T (a, b) = d T (b, a).
(b, b) = 0 since for k ∈ ℝ and
(a, a) = 0. Symmetry 2018, Symmetry
10, x FOR 2018, PEER 10, xREVIEW
FOR PEER REVIEW
(v) Suppose that there exists any element c in A such that p N (a, b) ≤ p N (a, b#neut(c)). Then d T (a, b) +
Proof.
(iv) k ≤ (a,db) = (a, b) + k = (b, a) + k, since for (a, b) = (b, a).
T (a, b#neut(c)) + k. Thus,
(v) Suppose that there exists any element c ∊ A such that Lim(a, introduced
b) Lim introduced
common Then coupled
common FPTcoupled
b) for w-compatible
FPT for w-com m
(i) Since for (a, a)= 0, 0 ≤ (a, a) = (a, a) + k = k ≤ (a, b) =≤ (a, (a, b)
b#neut(c)).
+ k. Thus; (a,
Panicker introduced
Panicker introduced
new FPT in
new PMS FPT in in
[26].
PMS in [26].
(ii) 0+ k≤≤ (a, (a, a)b#neut(c))
≤ (a, b). + k. Thus, d T ( a, b) ≤ d T ( a, b#neut(c)) (3)
In this paper, In this wepaper, first introduced
we first introducedPMS and PMS contract an
(iii) There do not exists a, b ∈ A such that(a, b)(a, ≤ a) (a,
= b#neut(c))
(a, b) = (b, b) = 0 since for k ∈ ℝ and (3)
structure for structure
developing for developing
NT theory. NT Thus,
theory. researchers
Thus, resc
Also,(a, a) = 0. Symmetry 2018, Symmetry
10, x FOR 2018, PEER10, xREVIEW
FOR PEER REVIEW
equations equations problem solutions problem in solutions
NT theory. in NT In theory.
Section In 2, Sw
(iv) Also, (a, b) = (a, b) + k = (b, a) + k, since for (a, b) =
d T ( a, b#neut(c)) ≤ d T ( a, c) +ford TNTPM (b, a).
(c, b)for (4) 3,isNTPMS
and NTPM
NTM. andIn Section
NTM. In
3, Section
NTPMS defined is
and
de
(v) Suppose that there exists any element (a, b#neut(c))c ∊ A such≤ c)Lim
that
(a, + was (a,introduced
b)b)
(c, ≤ Lim(a,
shown was
introduced
that
common coupled
b#neut(c)).
shown
both the
that
common
Then FPT
classical
both the
coupled
metric
for w-compatible
(a, (4)
b)
classicaland
FPT for w-comp
metric
NTM and
are
ma
diff
NT
since for ((A, #), d T ) is a NTMS. Panicker introducedPanicker introduced new FPT in new PMS FPT inin[26].
PMS in [26].
+k≤ (a, b#neut(c)) + k. Thus,
sinceFromfor ((A,(3)#),
and (4), ) is a NTMS. defined
In this withdefined
Ineach
paper, thiswe with
NTMS.
paper,
first each Furthermore,
NTMS.
introduced
we Furthermore,
first introduced
PMS theandconvergent
PMS theand
contractio conse
From (3) and (4), (a, b) ≤ (a, b#neut(c)) are defined.
structure structure are Also,
defined.
for developing complete
for developingAlso,
NT theory.NTPMS
complete (3)
are
NTThus, NTPMS
theory.defined. are
researchers Later,
define
Thus, resea can w
p N ( a, b) ≤ p N ( a, b#neut(c)) = d T ( a, b#neut(c)) + k ≤ d T ( a,equations cgive
) + some give
properties
d T (equations
c, b
problem) = some
p ( properties
a, of c )these
+ p ( c, b ) −
contractions.
of these k contractions.
Furthermore, Furth w
+ k = solutions
Nproblem solutions
(a, c) + in (c,NT b) −theory.
k. in NT Intheory.
SectionIn 2, Sec
we
N
Also,
(a, b) ≤ (a, b#neut(c)) = (a, b#neut(c)) + k ≤ (a, c) + (c, b)
give
for NTPMfor conclusions.
give
and NTPM conclusions.
NTM.and In Section
NTM. In 3, Section
NTPMS3,isNTPMS definedisand defin
so
where, p N (c, c) c) = k.k. Thus; (a, b#neut(c)) ≤ (a, c)was
+ shown (c, b)was that shown
both the thatclassical
both themetric (4)andmetric
classical NTMand are differ
NTM
p N (a, b#neut(c)) ≤ p N (a, c) + p N (c, b) − p N (c, c). Hence, 2. ((A, #), p N2.
Preliminaries ) isPreliminaries
a NTPMS.
since for ((A, #),≤ ) (a,
(a, b#neut(c)) is ac)NTMS.
+ (c, b) − (c, c). Hence, ((A, #), defined ) is with
adefined
NTPMS. eachwith NTMS.
□ each Furthermore,
NTMS. Furthermore, the convergent the conveseq
From (3) and (4), are defined. Weare give Also,
defined.
some
We complete
give Also,
basic some complete
NTPMS
results basic are
NTPMS
andresults defined.
andare
definitions Later,
defined.
definitions
for NTPM we
Corollary 3. From From Theorem 2, we can define NTPMS with eachgive NTMS. somegive properties
some propertiesof these contractions.
of these contractions.Furthermore, Furthewe
(a, b) ≤ (a, b#neut(c)) = (a, b#neut(c)) + k ≤ (a, c) + (c, b) + k = (a, c) + (c, b) − k.
giveDefinition
conclusions.
give Definition
1 conclusions.
([19]). Let1 A ([19]). Let A be set.
be nonempty If the function
nonempty set. If the fu:
Definition
where, (c, ((A,
Let= ((A,
5. c) k. Thus;#), p N )) be
#), be aa NTPMS,
NTPMS,{x { n }}be
beaasequence
sequenceininNTPMS NTPMS
below; isand
pand a ain∊A.
below;
called A.
apPM.Iffor
Ifis for ⩝⩝εa,
called ε>>ab,00PM. ∈ A;
and
cand ⩝⩝nna,≥≥b,M,
M,c ∈ A;
there exist
exist aa MMin ∊ ℕ suchsuch that p N (a, {x { n })})<< εε++ p N (a,(a,a), then{x{ n2.
a),then Preliminaries
} }converges
converges 2. to ∊ A.
Preliminaries
to aa in A. It It is shown
shownby by
(a, b#neut(c)) ≤ (a, c) + (c, b) − (c, c). Hence, ((A, #),(i) ) is a(a, NTPMS.
(i)
a) = □
(a,
(b, a) b) == (b,
(a, b) = (a,
(b, b)a) =⟺ a(b, a) ⟺
= b;
(ii) We give (a, some
(ii)
a) We≤ give
basic
(a, (a, a)some
b); ≤
results basic
(a,and results
b); definitions
and definitions
for NTPMfoa
lim xn == a or
lim or xn → → a.
Corollary 3. From Theorem 2, we can define n→ ∞
→NTPMS with each NTMS. (iii) (a, (iii)
b) = (a,
(b, b) a);= (b, a);
Definition
(iv) Definition
1
(a, (iv) ([19]).
c) ≤ (a, Let 1
(a,c) ≤([19]).
A be
b) + (b, nonempty
Let A
b)−be
(a, c) + set.(b,If c)
nonempty the− function
b); set.(b,
If the
b); func
:A
Definition 5. Let ((A, #), ) be a NTPMS, { } be a sequence in NTPMS
below;
Definition 6. Let ((A, #), N ) be a NTPMS, n{ } be a sequence in NTPMS and a ∊ A. If for ⩝ε > 0 and ⩝n, m
6. Let ((A, #), p ) be a NTPMS, {x } be a sequence in NTPMS p is
and and
below;
called
a in a ∊
ap
A. A.
PM.
is
If If
called
for ⩝
for ε ⩝
a,>aε0 >
PM.
b, c
and0 ∈ ⩝
andA;n, ⩝
a, n
mb,≥≥
c ∈
M,
M, A;
therethere
≥M, existexist
exist aa M
Min a∊M ℕ ∊suchℕ such
such thatthat (a, m{({
p N ({x }) n},
}, {x <}){ε<+ε})+<p(a, a), a);
εN+(a, then { then
(a,then
a); } is aAlso,
{x} nconverges}Cauchy
(A,asequence
a to ∊Also,
A. (A,
) isItcalled
isinshown a)PMS.
((A, isby
in#),
called
p ). a PMS.
(i) { (a, is(i)
a) Cauchy
= (b,sequence
(a, a)
b)== (b, (a, ((A,
b)==N#), (a,
b) (b,).a) =⟺ a(b,= a)
b) b; ⟺ a =
(ii)Definition
(a,(ii) 2≤([12]).
a)Definition b);≤
(a,(a,a)Let2N be(a,
([12]). b); N be aand
a nonempty
Let nonempty
# be a binary
and # be
oper
a
Theorem 3.
Theorem 3. Let
Let ((A,
((A, #),
#), p N )) be NTPMS,lim
be aa NTPMS, {xn } be=aaconvergent
or
→{ } be a convergent
→ a. sequence
sequence in in NTPMS
NTPMS and and p N ({x { n })}) ≤
({ m },}, {x ≤
(iii) (a,(iii)
conditions b)are= satisfied.
(a,
conditions(b,b) a);= satisfied.
are (b, a);
p N({({xm},}, {{xn})}) *neut(a))
*neut(a)) for any aa ∊inA.A.Then
for any Then{ {xn} }isisaaCauchy
Cauchysequence
sequenceininNTPMS.
NTPMS.
(iv) (a,(iv)
c) ≤ (a, (a,c) ≤
b) + (b, (a, c)
b) −+ (b, (b, c)
b);− (b, b);
(i) There (i) is neutral
Thereelement
is neutral (neut(x))
elementfor x ∈ N such
(neut(x)) ∈ N suc
for xthat
Definition 6. Let ((A, #), ) be a NTPMS, { } be a sequence in NTPMS and a ∊ A. If for ⩝ε > 0 and ⩝n, m
Proof. It is clear that Also, (A, Also,
)
x*neut(x) =x*neut(x)is (A,
called a) PMS.
is
neut(x)* x= =neut(x)* called
x. a PMS.
x = x.
≥M, there exist a M ∊ ℕ such that ({ }, { }) < ε + (a, a); then { } is a Cauchy sequence in ((A, #), ).
p N ( a, { xn })< ε/2 + p N ((ii) a, a)There (ii) is antiThere
element
is anti(anti(x))
element x∈ (5)N such
for(anti(x)) ∈ N such th
for xthat
It is clear that
Definition Definition
2 ([12]).
x*anti(x) = Let
x*anti(x)
anti(x)*2N([12]).
be
x == aneut(x).
nonempty
Let N be
anti(x)* x a neut(x).
= and
nonempty
# be a binary
and # be
operat
a bin
Theorem 3. Let ((A, #), ) be a NTPMS, { } be a convergent sequence in NTPMS and ({ }, { }) ≤
conditions conditions
are satisfied. are satisfied.
({ }, { }) *neut(a)) for any a ∊ A. Then(a, { { } is})a<Cauchy
ε/2 + sequence
(a, a) in NTPMS.
NT is shown NTbyis(x, shown
neut(x),by (x,
anti(x)).
(5)
neut(x), anti(x)).
(i) There(i) is neutral
Thereelement
is neutral (neut(x))
elementfor x ∈ N such
(neut(x)) ∈ N such
for xthat
for each n ≥ M or
Proof. x*neut(x)
DefinitionDefinition=
x*neut(x)
neut(x)*
3 ([15]). Let3 (M,=
x neut(x)*
= x.
([15]).
#) be x
Leta (M,= x.
NTS#)and be aa#b
NTS∊ N,
and⩝ a#b
a, b ∊ NM
(a, { }) < ε/2 + (ii)
(a, a)
that ⩝
There
a, (ii)
b, ∈
iscthat
antiM,⩝
There
element
a, b, ∈
iscanti
(anti(x))
M, x ∈(6)
elementfor(anti(x)) ∈ N such that
for xthat
N such
It is clear that
Symmetry 2018, 10, 240 5 of 7

for each n ≥ M or Symmetry 2018, 10, x FOR PEER REVIEW


{ xm })<2018,
p N ( a,Symmetry ε/210,+xpFOR N ( a,PEERa) REVIEW (6)
Lim introduced common coupled FPT for w-compatible mappings in
for each m ≥ M
Panickercommon introduced new FPT infor
PMS in [26].
Because {xn } is a convergent. Then, Lim introduced
we suppose that p N ({xm }, coupled {xn }) ≤ pFPT w-compatible
N ({xm }, {xn }) *neut(a)) for
mappings in PMS in
Panicker In this paper,
introduced new we in
FPT first
PMS introduced
in [26]. PMS and contraction in NT t
any a in A. It is clear that for n, m ≥ M;
In structure
this paper,forwedeveloping first introduced NT theory.PMS and Thus, researchers
contraction in can
NT arrive
theory.atS
p N ({ xm }, { xn }) ≤ p N ({ xm }, { xn }) ∗structure neut( aequations
))for
≤ pdeveloping problemNT solutions
theory.inThus, NT theory.
N ( a, { xn }) + p N ( a, { xm }) − p N ( a, a ) (7)
researchersIn Section 2, we at
can arrive give som
nonlin
equations forproblem
NTPM and NTM. In
solutions Section
in NT 3, NTPMS
theory. In Section is defined
2, we giveand some basic prope
Because ((A, #), p N ) is a NTPMS. From for (5)–(7),
NTPM wasand shown NTM. that Inboth
Sectionthe 3, classical
NTPMS metric and NTM
is defined are different
and some propertiesfromoft
p N ({xm }, {xn }) < ε/2 + p N (a, a) + ε/2 was+ pshown
N (a,defined − pwith
a) that N (a, a)each
both the= ε+ NTMS.
classical Furthermore,
p N (a, metric
a). Thus; and{xNTM the
n } is convergent
aare different from
Cauchy sequence and
the NTP
sequence in ((A, #), p N ). definedare with defined.
each NTMS. Also, complete
Furthermore, NTPMS are defined.sequence
the convergent Later, we anddefine
Cauch co
give some properties of these contractions.
are defined. Also, complete NTPMS are defined. Later, we define contractio Furthermore, we give a FP
give some giveproperties
conclusions. of these contractions. Furthermore, we give a FPT for N
Definition 7. Let ((A, #), p N ) be a NTPMS and {xn } be a Cauchy sequence in NTPMS. If every {xn } is
give conclusions.
convergent in ((A, #), p N ), then ((A, #), p N ) is called2.a Preliminaries complete NTPMS.
2. Preliminaries
Definition 8. Let ((A, #), p N ) be a NTPMS and m: A → We A begive a map. some basic
If the mapresults
m and and definitions
the NTPM for NTPM and NTM i
p N satisfy
the conditions given below, then m is called a contraction We giveforsome ((A, #), basic p Nresults
). and definitions for NTPM and NTM in this se
Definition 1 ([19]). Let A be nonempty set. If the function :AxA → ℝ s
(i) There exists any element c in A such that Definition b) ≤1 ([19]).
p N (a,below; ppNis(a,called
Let A a PM.
b*neut(c)); ⩝ a,a,bb,inc set.
be nonempty ∈ A;If the function :AxA → ℝ satisfies
A.
(ii) There exists k in [0, 1) such that p N (m(a), below;
m(b))p is≤calledk. p Na(a, PM. b); ⩝ a,a,bb,inc A. ∈ A;
(i) (a, a) = (b, b) = (a, b) = (b, a) ⟺ a = b;
(i) (ii)
(a, a) = (a, (b, a) b) ≤ = (a,(a,b);b) = (b, a) ⟺ a = b;
Example 2. Let A = {∅, {x}, {x, y}} be a set (ii) and m(X) (a,bea)cardinal
(iii) ≤(a, b)(a,of X in
= b); (b,A.a);Where, it is clear that X∩X = X.
∩ +
Thus, we give that neut(X) = X and anti(X) = X.
(iii) So, (A,
(iv) ) is
(a, b) = (a, (b, a c) ≤a); (a,give
NTS. We b) + the function
(b, c) − p N (b,: AxAb); → R ∪
{0} such that p N (X, Y)= max{2 2 − m ( X ) 2
− 1, 2(iv) − m ( Y ) − 1}. From(a, Definition 4, c) −
(a, c) ≤Also, (A, b) + ) is called
(b, a PMS. (b, b);
(i), (ii) and (iii) are apparent.
(iv) p N (X, {x, y})= p N (X, Y ∩ {x, y}) since for Also,X, (A, ) is called a PMS.
YinA. Furthermore, it is clear that
− − − Definition − 2 x,
([12]).
}) Let N be a nonempty and # be a binary operation. Then, N
max{2 2 m ( X ) − 1, 2 2 m ( Y ) − 1} ≤ max{2 2 m ( X ) − 1, 2 2 m ({ y − 1} + max{22−m(Z) − 1, 22−m({ x,y})
conditions are satisfied.
− 1} − max{22−m({ x,y}) − 1, 22−m({ x,y}) −Definition 1}. Thus,
2 ([12]). Let N be a nonempty and # be a binary operation. Then, N is calle
p N (X, Y ∩ {x, y})≤ p N (X, {x, y})+ p N ({x, y},B) conditions are satisfied. ∈ aNNTPMS.
 − (i)p N There
({x, is neutral
y},{x, y}). Furthermore, ((A, ∩), for
element (neut(x)) p Nx) is such that
(i) There
 { x, yis},x*neut(x)
X = {element
neutral x,=yneut(x)*
} (neut(x)) x = x.for x ∈ N such that
Let m: A → A be a map such that m(X) = x*neut(x) {(ii)
x }, XThere = ∅is anti xelement
= neut(x)* = x. (anti(x)) for x ∈ N such that
{ x, yis},x*anti(x) { x }= anti(x)* x =for x ∈ N such that
neut(x).

(ii) There X =element
anti (anti(x))
For k = 0, 2 x*anti(x)NT = anti(x)* x = neut(x).
is shown by (x, neut(x), anti(x)).
p N (m(∅), m(∅)) = p N ({x}, {x}) = 1 ≤ 0, 2. pNT N (∅, ∅) = 1,by5 (x, neut(x), anti(x)).
is shown
p N (m(∅), m({x})) = p N ({x}, {x, y}) = 1 ≤ 0, 2. Definition p N (∅, {x}) =31,([15]). 5 Let (M, #) be a NTS and a#b ∊ N, ⩝ a, b ∊ M. NTM is a
p N (m(∅), m({x, y})) = p N ({x}, {x, y}) =Definition 1 ≤ 0, that2. p N 3⩝(∅,
a, c ∈y})
b,{x,
([15]). LetM,=(M, 1, 5#) be a NTS and a#b ∊ N, ⩝ a, b ∊ M. NTM is a map
p N (m({x}), m({x})) = p N ({x, y}, {x, y}) that =0≤ ⩝a,0,(a)
b,2.c p∈NM,({x},
(a, b) {x})
≥ 0= 0, 5
p N (m({x}), m({x, y})) = p N ({x, y}, {x, y}) = 0 ≤(b) 0, 2.IfpaN=({x}, {x,y}) =(a, 0, b)
5 =0
(a) (a, b) ≥ 0 b, then
p N (m({x, y}), m({x, y})) = p N ({x, y}, {x, y}) = 0(c) ≤ 0, 2. (a, p Nb)({x, y},
= b) (a, {x, y}) = 0, 5
(b) If a = b, then (a, = 0b)
Thus, m is a contraction for ((A, ∩), p N )
(c) (d)b) If
(a, = there b) any element c ∊ M such that
(a,exists
(a,
(d) If there exists any element c) ≤ c ∊ M such
(a, c*neut(b)), then
that (a, c*neut(b)) ≤ (a, b) + (b, c).
Theorem 4. For each contraction m over a complete NTPMS ((A, #), p N ), there exists a unique x in A such
(a, c) Also,
≤ (a, c*neut(b)),
((M,*), thenis called
) space (a, c*neut(b))
NTMS. ≤ (a, b) + (b, c).
that x = m(x). Also, p N (x, x) = 0.
Also, ((M,*), ) space is called NTMS.
Proof. Let m be a contraction for ((A, #), p N ) complete 3. Neutrosophic NTPMS Triplet and xn Partial= m(xn− x0 ∈ A be a
1 ) andSpace
Metric
unique element. Also, we can take 3. Neutrosophic Triplet Partial Metric Space
Partial metric is the generalization of usual metric space, since s
p N ( xn , xk ) ≤ pPartial
N partial xk ∗metric
( xn , metric neut is(thexspace. )) The most important
n−1generalization of usual metric use of (8)PMSsince
space, is toself-dist
transfe
partial computer
metric space. science. TheAlso,mostIfimportant
f is a mapping use from
of PMS a setisE to
into itself, any
transfer ele
mathe
since for m is a contraction over ((A, #), p N ) complete NTPMS. Then,
computer called a fixed
science. Also,point If f of
is af. mapping
Many problems,from a set including nonlinear
E into itself, partial di
any element x
p N (x2 , x1 ) = p N (m(x1 ), m(x0 )) ≤ c. p N (x1 , x0 ) and
called amay fixedbe pointrecastof f.asMany problemsproblems, of finding
including a fixed point partial
nonlinear of a mapping
differentii
may beintroducedrecast as problems firstly PMS of and
finding FPTainfixedNT theory.
point ofSo, a we obtained
mapping in a new
spa
introduced theory. Thus,
firstly PMS researchers
and FPT in can NTarrive
theory.at nonlinear partial differential
So, we obtained a new structe
theory. NT Thus, theory.
researchers can arrive at nonlinear partial differential equation
NT theory.
Symmetry 2018, 10, 240 6 of 7

p N (x3 , x2 ) = p N (m(x2 ), m(x1 )) ≤ c. p N (x2 , x1 ) ≤ c2 . p N (x1 , x0 ). From mathematical induction, n ≥ m;


p N (xm+1 , xm ) = p N (m(xm ), m(xm−1 ))≤ c. p N (xm , xm−1 ) ≤ cm . p N (x1 , x0 ). Thus; from (8) and definition
of NTPMS,

p N ( xn , xm ) ≤ p N ( xn xm ∗ neut( xn−1 )) ≤ p N ( x n , x n −1 ) + p N ( x n −1 , x m ) − p N ( x n −1 , x n −1 )
≤ cn−1 .p N ( x1 , x0 ) + p N ( xn−1 , xm ) − p N ( xn−1 , xn−1 )
≤ c n −1 . p N ( x 1 , x 0 ) + p N ( x n −1 , x n −2 ) + . . . + p N ( x m , x m −1


≤ (cn−1 + cn−2 + . . . + cm−1 +cm ). p N ( x1 , x0 ) − ∑in=−m1 p N ( xi , xi )


≤ ∑in=−m1 ci .p N ( x1 , x0 ) − ∑in=−m1 p N ( xi , xi )
≤ ∑in=−m1 ci .p N ( x1 , x0 ) + p N ( x0 , x0 )
= ∑in=−m1 ci .p N ( x1 , x0 ) + p N ( x0 , x0 ) (For n, m → ∞ )
m
= 1c−c p N ( x1 , x0 )+ p N ( x0 , x0 ) → p N ( x0 , x0 )

Thus {xn } is a cauchy sequence. Also {xn } is convergent such that xn → x . Because ((A, #), p N )
is complete NTPMS. Thus; m(xn ) → m(x) since for xn = m(xn−1 ); m(xn ) = xn+1 → x . Thus; m(x) = x.
Suppose that m(x) = x or m(y) = y for x, y ∈ xn . Where;
p N (x, y)= p N (m(x), m(y)) ≤c. p N (x, y). p N (x, y)> 0, c ≥ 1 and it is a contradiction. Thus; p N (x, y) =
p N (x, x) = p N (y, y) = 0 and x = y. Therefore, p N (x, x) = 0.

4. Conclusions
In this paper, we introduced NTPMS. We also show that both the classical metric and NTM are
different from the NT partial metric. This NT notion has more features than the classical notion. We also
introduced contraction for PMS and we give a fixed point theory for PMS in NT theory. So, we obtained
a new structure for developing NT theory. Thus, researchers can arrive at nonlinear partial differential
equations problem solutions in NT theory thanks to NTPMS and FPT for NTPMS.

Author Contributions: In this paper, each Author contributed equally. M.S. introduced NTPMS and provided
examples. A.K. introduced contraction for NTPMS and provided examples. M.A.C. gave fixed point theory for
NTPMS and organized the paper.
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors are not report a conflict of interest.

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