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R. Chandramouli

Associate Dean-Research

SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401

NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

Table of Contents

drawing: ....................................................................................... 3

1.1 Redundant work: ................................................................................................................. 3

1.2 Optimum die angle: ............................................................................................................. 4

1.3 Maximum reduction in drawing: ................................................................................... 4

1.4 Die pressure: .......................................................................................................................... 5

1.5 Tube drawing: ....................................................................................................................... 6

1.6 Strain rate in hot drawing: ............................................................................................... 7

1.7 Drawing defects: .................................................................................................................. 8

NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

Redundant deformation happens during wire drawing due to shear of the material in

the deformation zone. A redundant work factor can be employed to account for

redundant work. The redundant work factor is defined as:

------3.1

Where is the increased strain of the deformed material corresponding to the yield

stress. can be obtained from stress-strain curve by superimposing the flow curve

of the drawn material on the annealed flow curve for the same material.

The redundant factor is related to the deformation zone geometry parameter as:

0.8+ -------3.2

where the deformation zone geometry for wire drawing is given by:

[1+(1-r)1/2]1/2 ----3.3

As seen from the above expressions, the redundant work increases as the semi-die

angle is increased. Similarly, it decreases for increase in reduction r.Practically, the

NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

commercially are in the range 20 to 25%. ranges from 2 to 3.

One method of including the redundant work in draw force is multiplying the draw

stress by redundant work factor as given below:

p= (1+ ) -----------3.4

Another approach is similar to what has been discussed in extrusion chapter. We can

determine the redundant work from the shear strain on the material both at entry

and exit of the draw die. This work is then added to the draw stress obtained by the

slab analysis.

+ -----3.5

Similar to extrusion, there exists optimum die angle for drawing process. The

optimum angle is determined based on the minimum total energy required for

drawing. The total energy for drawing (or work for drawing) is the sum of ideal

deformation work, redundant work and frictional work.

One can also define an optimum for the deformation zone geometry as:

1/2

--------3.6

Number of drawing steps or passes required are more if larger reductions are

desired. If the required reduction is attempted in a single step, the draw stress

required may be too high.

If the draw stress applied reaches the material’s yield strength, then instead of

getting drawn, the material will start yielding. The material will start elongating

locally instead of getting drawn out. Therefore, the draw stress should not be

NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

allowed to reach the yield strength of the work material. For maximum drawing, we

can say that the draw stress is just equal to the material yield strength. Considering

frictionless, ideal deformation without any shear, we can write for maximum

drawing:

p = ln( = -------3.7

Or, we have:

ln =1

Or

(Ao/Af)max = 2.718

The above analysis is based on the assumption that friction is absent and there are

no redundant work and there is no work hardening during drawing.

If work hardening and friction are considered, the limiting reduction will be less than

63%.

Applying the yield criterion for wire drawing, at any location within the deformation

zone, we can write:

p=Y- , where Y is yield strength at the location considered and is the tensile

stress at the location.

NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

i.e.

Towards the die exit, the yield strength increases due to work hardening. Therefore,

draw stress increases towards the exit, as shown in figure. Due to this reason the die

pressure p decreases towards the die exit.

Draw stress

Die pressure

Entry Exit

Fig. 1.4.1: Variation of die pressure and draw stress during drawing process

Tube drawing is a tube finishing process carried out on the tubes made through the

other methods like Mannesmann mill. Tube sinking is done without using a mandrel,

to reduce the diameter of the tube without affecting the thickness.

Tube drawing is used to reduce thickness and diameter using mandrels.

Mandrel or plug may be cylindrical or conical in shape. Using a plug ensures uniform

thickness. The mandrel may be kept stationary or moved along with the tube.

Floating mandrel are used where the length of the tubes are long. Drawing forces

involved in tube drawing with plug are always higher. With moving mandrel, there is

a forward frictional drag which pulls the metal into the die, at the entry.

NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

Draw stress for tube drawing with fixed plug is given by:

---------3.9

where B =

Because the friction at die tube interface acts against the direction of drawing while

at tube – mandrel interface friction acts so as to drag the tube towards the exit.

--------3.10

Similar to hot extrusion, the average strain rate during hot drawing can be written

as:

= -------3.11

NPTEL - Mechanical Engineering - Forming

The average flow stress can be determined from the stress-strain rate relation for

the work material.

Center cracks can occur in drawn products due to larger die angle, lower reduction

per pass, friction etc.

Longitudinal cracks or folds occur on surface of the drawn wire which may open out

during the use of the drawn product.

Residual stresses are induced in drawn bars or wires during cold drawing. If the

reductions are low, the surface of the drawn part is subjected to compressive

residual stress. Compressive residual stress on surface improves the fatigue life and

corrosion resistance of the product.

For larger reductions, surface stress is tensile while the center has compressive

residual stress. Increase in die angle increases the surface tensile stress. For

reductions between 20 and 35%, highest surface tensile residual stresses are

reported.

Example: Derive an expression for the maximum reduction during the drawing of a

wire, which is made of a strain hardenable material.

Solution: We can write the flow stress for strain hardenable material as

Where is average flow stress and =

Equating draw stress to the yield strength of the material:

=k

Or, = ln(Ao/Af)

We can write reduction r = (A0-Af)/A0

Or Ao/Af = 1/(1-r)

Therefore, maximum reduction = rmax = 1-exp-(1+n)

Note: If we substitute n = 0, above we get rmax = 0.632, which was proved earlier in

the lecture.

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