e) Geometric Construction

# GEOMETRIC CONSTRUCTION

LINES
1. POINT ± a geometric figure w/o any dimension. It represents a location in a drawing space & is indicated by an intersection of 2 lines, a small cross, or a short cross bar upon a longer line.

3. RELATIONSHIP OF ANGLES a) Complementary angles ± those whose sum is 90o. b) Supplementary angles ± those whose sum is 180o. 4. MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES a) Sexagesimal system ± angles are measured in degrees (o). A full circle has 360o. b) International system of units or SI ± angles are measured in radians (rad). A full circle has 2 rad. ( = 3.1416)

2. LINE ± is a path of a moving point, & is thought of as having only length. Lines may be curved, broken, or straight line. Used plainly, ³line´ generally indicates straight line. Likewise, lines may be horizontal, vertical, sloping, perpendicular, or parallel.
HORIZONTAL VERTICAL SLOPING PARALLEL

TRIANGLES
1. TRIANGLE ± a closed plane figure bounded by 3 sides & having 3 angles. 2. KINDS OF TRIANGLES a) Right triangle ± has a right angle. Its longest side is called HYPOTENUSE. b) Equilateral/Equiangular triangle ± has all sides & angles equal. c) Isosceles triangle ± w/ 2 equal sides & 2 equal angles. d) Scalene triangle ± w/ unequal sides & unequal angles.
NOTE: The combined angle of any triangle is

PERPENDICULAR

BROKEN

BROKEN

ANGLES
1. ANGLE ± a space, opening or figure formed when a) Two straight lines meet at a point. b) A point rotates around a fixed center called vertex through w/c passes a datum. 2. KINDS OF ANGLE a) Acute angle - that w/c is less than 90o. b) Right angle ± a 90o angle. c) Obtuse angle ± that w/c is more than 90o but less than 180o. d) Straight angle ± a 180o angle. e) Reflex angle ± that w/c is more than 180o.
ACUTE RIGHT REFLEX OBTUSE STRAIGHT

always 180o.

RIGHT

ISOSCELES

EQUILATERAL

SCALENE

1. QUADRILATERAL ± a closed plane figure bounded by 4 sides. 2. KINDS OF QUADRILATERAL a) Parallelogram ± opposite sides are parallel & equal. y SQUARE ± 4 equal sides, 4 right angles. y RECTANGLE ± adjacent sides are unequal; 4 angles are equal at 90o. y RHOMBUS ± 4 equal sides; opposite angles are equal but oblique (either acute or obtuse). y RHOMBOID ± all angles are oblique; adjacent sides are unequal. b) Trapezoid ± 2 sides are parallel. c) Trapezium ± no 2 sides are parallel. d) Deltoid ± 1 pair of opposite angles are equal; 2 pairs of adjacent sides are equal.

POLYGON

NO. OF SIDES

POLYGON

NO. OF SIDES

Triangle Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Heptagon Octagon Nonagon Decagon Hendecagon

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

CONIC SECTIONS
In cutting a right circular cone (a cone of revolution) by planes at different angles, we obtain four (4) curves called conic sections. These are the: 1. CIRCLE ± cut by a plane perpendicular to the axis. 2. ELLIPSE ± cut by a plane making a greater angle w/ the axis than do the elements. 3. PARABOLA ± cut by a plane making the same angle w/ the axis as do the elements. 4. HYPERBOLA ± cut by a plane making a smaller angle than do the elements.

SQUARE

RECTANGLE

RHOMBUS

RHOMBOID

TRAPEZOID

TRAPEZIUM

DELTOID

NOTE: The combined angle of any triangle is

always 360o.

OTHER POLYGONS
1. POLYGON ± a closed plane bounded by straight lines or sides. figure

2. INSCRIBED POLYGON ± that w/c is constructed w/in a circle. 3. CIRCUMSCRIBED POLYGON ± that w/c is constructed w/o a circle. 4. REGULAR POLYGONS ± polygons having equal sides & equal angles.

CIRCLE
1. CIRCLE ± a closed curved line all points of w/c are of equal distance from a point w/in called center. 2. TERMS USED RELATING TO CIRCLE/S a) Arc ± any point of the curve of a circle. b) Radius ± a straight line drawn from the center to any point on a circle. c) Diameter ± a straight line that passes through the center & joins any two points on a circle. d) Chord ± a straight line that joins any two points on a circle but does not pass through the center. e) Circumference ± the length of circle. f) Segment ± a portion of a circle bounded by a chord & an arc. g) Sector ± a portion of a circle bounded by two radii & an arc. h) Quadrant ± a portion of a circle bounded by two perpendicular radii & an arc, & corresponding to ¼ of a circle. i) Semicircle ± ½ of a circle. j) Secant ± a straight line passing through a circle at two points. k) Tangent ± any line having only one point in common w/ a circle. l) Concentric circles ± circles having the same center but different radii. m) Eccentric circles ± circles having different centers.

3. ANGLES ASSOCIATED WITH A CIRCLE a) Central angle ± formed by 2 radii. b) Inscribed angle ± formed by 2 chords w/ a common endpoint. c) Circumscribed angle ± formed by 2 tangents intersect outside the circle.

CENTRAL ANGLE

INSCRIBED ANGLE

CIRCUMSCRIBED ANGLE

OTHER PLANE CURVES
1. SPIRAL OF ARCHIMEDES ± the path of a point moving uniformly along a straight line & rotating about a fixed point at an even speed. 2. INVOLUTE ± the path as traced by a thread as it unwound from a circle or polygon. 3. HELIX ± the path of a point moving around a cylinder (cylindrical helix) or cone (conical helix) axially w/ the ratio of two movements constant. 4. CYCLOID ± the path of a point on the circumference of a circle rolling along a straight line.

DIAMETER

CHORD

SEGMENT

SECTOR