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CIVIL ENGINEERING

TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

HOMEWORK 2

Course: Transportation Engineering

Block: FC-PREINGCIV07A1T

Teacher: Sanchez Navarro, Alex Manuel

STUDENTS: CODE:

CCASA SUNI, Jhon. 1520494

PARIACHI ALVARADO, José Luis. 1421451

PUMA SUMA, Mirelia Dienisse. 1521561

REVATTA MARTINEZ. Ruth. 1421429


RODRIGUEZ CCOLQQUE, Orlando. 1321120

Lima -Peru

2018-1

1
INDEX
INDEX............................................................................................................................................. 2
I.-INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 3
II. OBJECTIVES............................................................................................................................ 4
III.-GENERAL CONCEPTS ................................................................................................................ 5
IV.-TRANSPORTATION PLANNING CONCEPTS ............................................................................... 6
1.-THE TRAFFIC VOLUME THAT THIS NEW DEVELOPMENT WILL GENERATE ............................... 6
2.-LEVEL OF SERVICE (LOS) ............................................................................................................ 8
3.-LEVEL OF SERVICE WITH THE INCLUSION OF THE PROJECT .................................................... 12
4.-ESTIMATE THE LOS AFTER 5, 10, 15 YEARS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT.
CONSIDER THAT AFTER IMPLEMENTATION THE PROJECT WILL BE OPERATING AT 100% ......... 16
5: THE LENGTH OF QUEUE AND WAITING TIME ......................................................................... 23
V.-CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................... 27

INDEX FOR THE IMAGES

Imagen 1: Trip generation manual , 9 edition………………………………………………………………….7


Imagen 2: Speed-Flow and LOS for the FFS= 30mph…………………………………...9
Imagen 3: LOS of the directions criteria for basisc freeway segments……………...10

Imagen 4: Speed-Flow and LOS for the FFS= 29.48mph……………………………...12


Imagen 5: LOS of the directions criteria for basic freeway segments.......................14

Imagen 6: LOS of the directions criteria for basic freeway segments……………….16

Imagen 7.- Speed- Flow and LOS with the Project for basic freeway segments …..18

Imagen 8.-LOS projected criteria for basic Freeway Segments………………………19

Imagen 9: Speed-Flow and LOS after 10 year…………………………………………..20


Imagen 10.-LOS projected criteria for basic Freeway Segments………………….…21

Imagen 11: Speed-Flow and LOS after 15 year………………………………………..22


Imagen 12.-LOS projected criteria for basic Freeway Segments…………………….23

Imagen 13.- The percentage the public and private transportation………………….24

Imagen 14: The porcentaje real of the trips in lima………………………………………………………….26

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I.-INTRODUCTION

Traffic is one of the main problems in Lima Peru which have affected people since
many years ago, because our currently number of vehicles haven been increased and
the Vehicular disorder caused by different modes of transport, so we have to know
the importance of calculating some traffic parameters to understand the behavior of
traffic in our country. Because this information helps us to know how to deal and
which possible solutions can be taken for this problem.

This research work is complemented by the methods that we have learnt during the
course of transportation for engineering, it helps us to Elaborate an excel spreadsheet
with the traffic data collected and determine parameters such as Design hour volume
(DHV), The peak hour factor (PHF), the Directional factor D and the Percentage of
trucks PT.

Also, in the second part of the report we can calculate the level of service of the route
and as the opening of new establishments generate quantities of trip that influenced
in the way.

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II. OBJECTIVES

We can define vehicular disorder as the main problem in our country, there are
different number of aspects which produce the inadequate transport operation in lima
such as the increasing number of vehicles, the disorder caused by public transport,
the inadequate police action keeping order in transportation, the traffic produced by
Infrastructure projects which reduce existing lanes and move the transit to nearby
areas and the lack of respect for traffic rules.

1.-The traffic volume that this new development will generate


2. Determine the existing LOS (Level of Service)
3. Determine de LOS with the inclusion of the project.
4. Estimate the LOS after 5, 10, 15 years of the implementation of the project. Consider
that after implementation the project will be operating at 100%.
New Development Project
5. The building has only one access for entry and exit, which is controlled by an automatic
gate, which can serve 360 vehicles per hour. Determine the length of queue and waiting
time, considering M/M/1.
6.- Know most concepts with respect a transportation system.

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III.-GENERAL CONCEPTS

We can define vehicular disorder as the main problem in our country, there are
different number of aspects which produce the inadequate transport operation in lima
such as the increasing number of vehicles, the disorder caused by public transport,
the inadequate police action keeping order in transportation, the traffic produced by
Infrastructure projects which reduce existing lanes and move the transit to nearby
areas and the lack of respect for traffic rules.

The root cause of congestion is the interference between vehicles in the traffic flow.
Up to a certain intensity of that flow, the vehicles can circulate at a relatively free
speed, determined by the speed

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IV.-TRANSPORTATION PLANNING CONCEPTS

Include a new development project, which will be located at the main street of the road
network you have previously worked in your Homework 01.

The characteristics of this project are:


 The project has a gross area of 9800 m2
 It includes the construction of 650 apartments divided into 4 buildings of 18
floors.
 This project includes the construction of pedestrian ramps to provide access for
people with disabilities.
 The project complies with the RNE requirements

Using the data collected in Homework 01 and determine:

1.-THE TRAFFIC VOLUME THAT THIS NEW DEVELOPMENT


WILL GENERATE

Data:

Area = 6800 m2

Apartments = 650

6
Imagen 1: Trip generation manual, 9 edition

We need to obtain the number of trips for this we resort to the following table:

 To calculate the number of trips we used the rule of three simple:


1 𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 0.62 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡
650 𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 = 𝑥
𝑥 = 650 ∗ 0.62 = 403 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑠
 Consideration of % private vehicle (the people who use private transport
will generate more traffic volume than people who use public transport).
 The next table was recovered from UNCEM. (2018). it allow us determine
the number of vehicles due to project.
 We considered the percentage of private transport to the sum of individual
transport and non
 Previously we had calculated the number of trips:
Private transport : 16.3%+8.9%=25.2 %

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403 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑠 × 25.6% = 101.55 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑠

We calculated in the homework 1 the volume of total cars in one lane.

Direction From E to W Direction From W to E Total of car

9075 11683 20758

So, considering the lane whit more volume the traffic Volume that is new
development will generate is:

11683+ 101.55= 11784.55 ≈ 11785 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑝𝑠

2.-LEVEL OF SERVICE (LOS)

LOS FOR WEST TO EAST DIRECTION

To calculate this parameter, we need other parameters such as PHF, PT (percentage


of trucks and buses), DDHV and other more. But we have this data in table 5 that we
calculated in the previous homework.

Direction from WEST to


EAST

DDHV PHF D PT

160 0.94 0.56 11.06%


 STEP 1
Findin the fHV: assuming the terrain like LEVEL (ET = 1.5) and the percentage of
recreational 0%

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1 + 𝑃𝑇(𝐸𝑇 − 1) + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

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1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 = = 0.9476
1 + 11.06%(1.5 − 1) + 0%(ER − 1)

 STEP 2
Now, we are going to calculate the Flow Rate:

𝑉
𝑉𝑝 =
𝑃𝐻𝐹 ∗ 𝑁 ∗ 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ∗ 𝑓𝑝

𝑽: Hourly volume or it is equal to DHV (veh/hr)


𝑷𝑯𝑭: Peak Hour Factor
𝑵: Number of lane in one direction
𝒇𝒑: Driver population adjustment factor ( In this case we will consider 𝑓𝑝=1 for
driver commuter traffic).
160
𝑉𝑝 =
0.94 ∗ 1 ∗ 0.914 ∗ 1
𝑉𝑝 = 179.62 = 180 𝑝𝑐/𝑝ℎ/𝑝𝑙

 STEP 3
We need to calculate la FFS (Free Flow Speed) because this change when the
Flow Rate increase. For this direction:
FFS = 48.31 km/h = 30.02 mph

Imagen 2: Speed-Flow and LOS for the FFS= 30mph

9
So, we need to look if the FFS change
According this graphic the S = 30 mph
 STEP 4
Now with the data we can calculate the density the we can obtain the LOS

𝑉𝑃
𝐷=
𝑆
180
𝐷= = 5.99 𝑝𝑐/𝑚𝑖/𝑙𝑛
30

Imagen 3: LOS of the directions criteria for basisc freeway segments

ANSWER: The LOS for direction from WEST to EAST before the project is A

LOS FOR EAST TO WEST DIRECTION

To calculate this parameter, we need other parameters such as PHF, PT (percentage


of trucks), DHV and other more.

10
Direction from EAST to
WEST

DDHV PHF D PT

126 0.83 0.44 9.33%

 STEP 1
Finding the 𝑓𝐻𝑉; assuming the terrain like LEVEL (𝐸𝑇=1.5) and the
percentage of recreational vehicles equal to 0.

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1 + 𝑃𝑇(𝐸𝑇 − 1) + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅 − 1)
1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 = = 0.9554
1 + 9.33%(1.5 − 1) + 0%(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

 STEP 2
Now, we are going to calculate the Flow Rate:

𝑉
𝑉𝑝 =
𝑃𝐻𝐹 ∗ 𝑁 ∗ 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ∗ 𝑓𝑝

𝑽: Hourly volume or it is equal to DHV (veh/hr)


𝑷𝑯𝑭: Peak Hour Factor
𝑵: Number of lane in one direction
𝒇𝒑: Driver population adjustment factor ( In this case we will consider 𝑓𝑝=1 for
driver commuter traffic).
126
𝑉𝑝 = = 1588.89
0.83 ∗ 1 ∗ 0.9554 ∗ 1
𝑉𝑝 = 159 𝑝𝑐/𝑝ℎ/𝑝𝑙

 STEP 3
We need to calculate la FFS (Free Flow Speed) because this change when the
Flow Rate increase. For this direction our FFS = 47.45 km/h=29.48 mph
So, we need to look if the FFS change.
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Imagen 4: Speed-Flow and LOS for the FFS= 29.48mph
According this graphic the S = 30 mph
 STEP 4
Now with the data we can calculate the density the we can obtain the LOS

𝑉𝑃
𝐷=
𝑆
159
𝐷= = 5.3 𝑝𝑐𝑝ℎ𝑝𝑙
30

The LOS for direction from EAST TO WEST before the project is A

3.-LEVEL OF SERVICE WITH THE INCLUSION OF THE


PROJECT

The demand including the project is:

The number of apartments that the project will have is about 650 and following the
table (Institute if transportation engineers common trip generation) we find the
number of trips per unit which is 0.62.

𝑉 = 0.62 × 650 = 403 𝑝𝑐𝑝ℎ𝑝𝑙

WEST TO EAST
From our previous homework, but now including the project
 The new DHV including the project is:

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160 𝑉𝑒ℎ/ℎ𝑟 + 203𝑉𝑒ℎ/ℎ𝑟 = 363 𝑉𝑒ℎ/ℎ𝑟

 Percentage of trucks and buses= 11.06%


 Number of lanes on the highway = 1
 PHF= 0.94
 The ground is level
 The Design speed or FFS (free flow speed ) 𝑢s=30 mph

 STEP 1: Finding𝑓ℎ𝑣,

Assuming a level terrain and recreational vehicles equal 0 so the 𝐸𝑇 = 1.5 and
𝑃_𝑅=0

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1 + 𝑃𝑇(𝐸𝑇 − 1) + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 = = 0.9476
1 + 0.1106(1.5 − 1) + 0(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

 STEP 2:

We determine the flow Rate, for commuter traffic we consider that 𝑓𝑃 (The driver

population adjustment factor) is equal to 1.

𝑉
𝑉𝑝 = = 407.53
𝑃𝐻𝐹 ∗ 𝑁 ∗ 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ∗ 𝑓𝑝

363
𝑉𝑝 = = 408 𝑝𝑐𝑝ℎ𝑝𝑙
0.94 ∗ 1 ∗ 0.9476 ∗ 1
 STEP 3:

The FFS is obtained in the highway from the homework before so it does not need
to be adjusted and its value is 30 mph.

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 STEP 4: We calculate de Density

𝑉𝑃 408
𝐷= = = 13.58 𝑝𝑐𝑝𝑚𝑝𝑙
𝑆 30

 STEP 5:

Imagen 5: LOS of the directions criteria for basic freeway segments

The new Level of service for lane from WEST TO EAST will be B

EAST TO WEST
From our previous homework, but now including the project 35
 The new DHV including the project is:
126𝑉𝑒ℎ/ℎ𝑟 + 200𝑉𝑒ℎ/ℎ𝑟 = 326 𝑉𝑒ℎ/ℎ𝑟
 Percentage of trucks and buses = 9.33%
 Number of lanes on the highway = 1
 PHF= 0.83
 The ground is level

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 The Design speed or FFS (free flow speed) 𝑢s=30 mph

 STEP 1: Finding𝑓ℎ𝑣,

According to the table, we assume a level terrain and recreational vehicles equal 0 so
the 𝐸𝑇=1.5 and 𝑃𝑅=0

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1 + 𝑃𝑇(𝐸𝑇 − 1) + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 = = 0.9554
1 + 0.0933(1.5 − 1) + 0(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

 STEP 2:

We determine the flow Rate, for commuter traffic we consider that 𝑓𝑃 (The driver
population adjustment factor) is equal to 1.

𝑉
𝑉𝑝 =
𝑃𝐻𝐹 ∗ 𝑁 ∗ 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ∗ 𝑓𝑝

326
𝑉𝑝 = = 411 𝑝𝑐𝑝ℎ𝑝𝑙
0.83 ∗ 1 ∗ 0.9554 ∗ 1

 STEP 3:

The FFS is obtained in the highway from the homework before so it does not need
to be adjusted and its value is 30 mph.

 STEP 4:
We calculate de Density

𝑉𝑃 411
𝐷= = = 13.70 𝑝𝑐𝑝𝑚𝑖𝑝𝑙
𝑆 30
 STEP 5:

15
Imagen 6: LOS of the directions criteria for basic freeway segments

So, the new Level of service for lane from EAST TO WEST will be B

4.-ESTIMATE THE LOS AFTER 5, 10, 15 YEARS OF THE


IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT. CONSIDER THAT
AFTER IMPLEMENTATION THE PROJECT WILL BE
OPERATING AT 100%

In this case, to determine the volume within 5, 10 and 15 years, we need the growth
factor. EL COMERCIO.(2017). indicates that the growth rate in 2017 was 10%.
we use this data because the growth rate for this year is not yet indicated.

𝐕𝐟𝐮𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞 = 𝐕𝐜𝐮𝐫𝐫𝐞𝐧𝐭(𝑮𝑭𝒆𝒙𝒑𝒐𝒏𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 )
And:
𝐆𝐅𝐞𝐱𝐩𝐨𝐧𝐞𝐧𝐭𝐢𝐚𝐥 = (𝟏 + 𝐆)𝐧

16
Where:
 𝑉𝑓𝑢𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒 : The volumen of cars in years after now.
 𝑉𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 : 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑠 𝑛𝑜𝑤
 𝐺 ∶ annual 𝐺𝑟𝑜𝑤𝑡ℎ 𝑓𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟
 𝑛 ∶ 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑠
we determine the VFuture: where V in this year is:
𝑉2018 = 𝑃𝐻𝑉/𝑃𝐻𝐹
𝑉2018 = 2688/0.93
𝐷𝐻𝑉 = 𝑉2018 = 2890 𝑉𝑃𝐻

𝑉2023 = Vcurrent(𝐺𝐹𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 )
𝑉2023 = 2890((1 + 0.01)5 )
𝑽𝟐𝟎𝟐𝟑 = 𝟑𝟎𝟑𝟕. 𝟒 = 𝟑𝟎𝟑𝟖 𝑽𝑷𝑯 = 𝑫𝑯𝑽

𝑉2028 = Vcurrent(𝐺𝐹𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 )
𝑉2028 = 2890((1 + 0.01)10 )
𝑽𝟐𝟎𝟐𝟖 = 𝟑𝟏𝟗𝟐. 𝟒 = 𝟑𝟏𝟗𝟐 𝑽𝑷𝑯 = 𝑫𝑯𝑽

𝑉2033 = Vcurrent(𝐺𝐹𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 )
𝑉2033 = 2890((1 + 0.01)15 )
𝑽𝟐𝟎𝟑𝟑 = 𝟑𝟑𝟓𝟓. 𝟐 = 𝟑𝟑𝟓𝟓 𝑽𝑷𝑯 = 𝑫𝑯𝑽

a. THE LOS AFTER 5 YEARS


LOS for EAST to WEST direction
The FFS do not change, because the road conditions do not change, so:

 𝐷𝐻𝑉 = 3038 VPH  fLW = 1.8


 BFFS = 70mph urban street  𝑃𝑇 = 10.3 %
 fLC = 0  𝐸𝑇 = 1.5
 fN = 4.5  𝑃𝑅 = 0
 fIC = 7.5  𝑁=2
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𝐹𝐹𝑆 = 𝐵𝐹𝐹𝑆 − 𝑓𝐿𝑊 − 𝑓𝐿𝐶 − 𝑓𝑁 – 𝑓𝐼𝐶

𝐹𝐹𝑆 = 70 − 1.8 − 7.5 − 4.5 − 7.5

𝐹𝐹𝑆 = 56.2

Where:

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1 + 𝑃𝑇(𝐸𝑇 − 1) + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1 + 0.103(1.5 − 1) + 0(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 0.951
𝑉
𝑉𝑝 =
𝑃𝐻𝐹 ∗ 𝑁 ∗ 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ∗ 𝑓𝑝

3038
𝑉𝑝 =
0.93 ∗ 2 ∗ 0.951 ∗ 1
𝑉𝑝 = 1717.5 = 𝑉𝑝 = 1718𝑃𝐶𝑃𝐻𝑃𝐿

Imagen 7.- Speed- Flow and LOS with the Project for basic freeway segments

So, 𝑆 = 55 𝑀𝑃𝐻

18
𝐕𝐩 𝟏𝟕𝟏𝟕
𝐃= =
𝐒 𝟓𝟓
𝐃 = 𝟑𝟏. 𝟐𝟐 = 𝟑𝟏𝒑𝒄𝒑𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒍

Finally, we find the LOS

Imagen 8.-LOS projected criteria for basic Freeway Segments.

The Level of Service is “D”

b. THE LOS AFTER 10 YEARS


LOS for EAST to WEST direction
The FFS do not change, because the road conditions do not change, so:

 𝐷𝐻𝑉 = 3192 VPH  fLC = 0


 BFFS = 70mph urban street  fN = 4.5

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 fIC = 7.5  𝑃𝑅 = 0
 fLW = 1.8  𝑁=2
 𝑃𝑇 = 10.3 %
 𝐸𝑇 = 1.5
𝐹𝐹𝑆 = 𝐵𝐹𝐹𝑆 − 𝑓𝐿𝑊 − 𝑓𝐿𝐶 − 𝑓𝑁 – 𝑓𝐼𝐶

𝐹𝐹𝑆 = 70 − 1.8 − 7.5 − 4.5 − 7.5

𝐹𝐹𝑆 = 56.2

Where:

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1 + 𝑃𝑇(𝐸𝑇 − 1) + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1 + 0.103(1.5 − 1) + 0(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 0.951
𝑉
𝑉𝑝 =
𝑃𝐻𝐹 ∗ 𝑁 ∗ 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ∗ 𝑓𝑝

3192
𝑉𝑝 =
0.93 ∗ 2 ∗ 0.951 ∗ 1
𝑉𝑝 = 1804.55 = 𝑉𝑝 = 1805𝑃𝐶𝑃𝐻𝑃𝐿

Imagen 9: Speed-Flow and LOS after 10 year.

20
So, 𝑆 = 55 𝑀𝑃𝐻

𝐕𝐩 𝟏𝟖𝟎𝟓
𝐃= =
𝐒 𝟓𝟓
𝐃 = 𝟑𝟐. 𝟖𝟏 = 𝟑𝟑𝒑𝒄𝒑𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒍

Finally, we find the LOS

Imagen 10.-LOS projected criteria for basic Freeway Segments


The Level of Service is “D”

c. THE LOS AFTER 15 YEARS


LOS for EAST to WEST direction
The FFS do not change, because the road conditions do not change, so:

21
 𝐷𝐻𝑉 = 3355 VPH  𝑃𝑇 = 10.3 %
 BFFS = 70mph urban street  𝐸𝑇 = 1.5
 fLC = 0  𝑃𝑅 = 0
 fN = 4.5  𝑁=2
 fIC = 7.5
 fLW = 1.8
𝐹𝐹𝑆 = 𝐵𝐹𝐹𝑆 − 𝑓𝐿𝑊 − 𝑓𝐿𝐶 − 𝑓𝑁 – 𝑓𝐼𝐶

𝐹𝐹𝑆 = 70 − 1.8 − 7.5 − 4.5 − 7.5

𝐹𝐹𝑆 = 56.2

Where:

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1 + 𝑃𝑇(𝐸𝑇 − 1) + 𝑃𝑅(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

1
𝑓𝐻𝑉 =
1 + 0.103(1.5 − 1) + 0(𝐸𝑅 − 1)

𝑓𝐻𝑉 = 0.951
𝑉
𝑉𝑝 =
𝑃𝐻𝐹 ∗ 𝑁 ∗ 𝑓𝐻𝑉 ∗ 𝑓𝑝

3038
𝑉𝑝 =
0.93 ∗ 2 ∗ 0.951 ∗ 1
𝑉𝑝 = 1896.7 = 𝑉𝑝 = 1897𝑃𝐶𝑃𝐻𝑃𝐿

Imagen 11: Speed-Flow and LOS after 15 years.


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So, 𝑆 = 30 𝑀𝑃𝐻

𝐕𝐩 𝟏𝟕𝟏𝟕
𝐃= =
𝐒 𝟓𝟓
𝐃 = 𝟑𝟒. 𝟓 = 𝟑𝟓𝒑𝒄𝒑𝒎𝒊𝒑𝒍

Finally, we find the LOS

Imagen 12.-LOS projected criteria for basic Freeway Segments


The Level of Service is “D”

5: THE LENGTH OF QUEUE AND WAITING TIME

The building has only one access for entry and exit, which is controlled by an automatic
gate, which can serve 360 vehicles per hour. Determine the length of queue and waiting
time, considering M/M/1.

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We assume that this building has one entry and one exit controlled by an automatic

AVERAGE LENGTH OF QUEUE

𝜌2 𝜆
𝑄 = (1−𝜌) ; 𝜌 = 𝜇 ;.........................(1)

Where 𝜌 <1.0

AVERAGE TIME WAITING IN QUEUE


Average time waiting in queue

1 𝜆
𝑊 = 𝜇 ∗ [𝜇−𝜆] ………………(2)

Where:

λ = Arrival rate μ = Departure

From the question 1, we know that the numbers of trips that the project will generate is:

Number. trips = 403 trips

• Now, we need to know how many vehicles per hour that the project generates, so

we looked for information on the web page of “RPP noticias” it is an information

recollected of the stadisticcs of “Ministry of Transport and Communications”.

link: http://rpp.pe/lima/obras/el-75-de-limenos-se-moviliza-en-transporte-publico-y-el-
25-viaja-2-horas-noticia-992721

Imagen 13.- The percentage the public and private transportation


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• According to this information, we know that in Lima, there are 25% of people that

use their own vehicle to transport. We assume that the arrival rate will be 75 percent
of private transport while the departure rate will be 25 percent of private transport .

• So, we calculate:

Public Transport = 75% ∗ 403 = 302.75vph

Privete Transport = 25% ∗ 403 = 100.75vph

M/M/1

AVERAGE LENGTH OF QUEUE

Then: Departure rate (u)

u =360veh/hour∗1hour /60min

u = 6veh/min

Arrival rate (ƛ)

ƛ = 100.75 ∗ 70% = 70.53veh/hour∗1hour/60min

ƛ = 1.18veh/min

✓ Determining the Average length of queue (Q)

𝜆
𝜌=
𝜇

1.18𝑣𝑒ℎ/𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝜌= , 𝜌 = 0.1967
6𝑣𝑒ℎ/ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

𝜌2
𝑄 = (1−𝜌)………………(1)

0.19672
Q =(1−0.1967)

Q =0.048 vehicles|

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AVERAGE TIME WAITING IN QUEUE

1 𝜆
𝑊 = 𝜇 ∗ [𝜇−𝜆]………………..(2)

1 1.18
𝑊= ∗[ ]
6 6 − 1.18

𝑄 = 0.041𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑠 → 𝑄 = 2.4 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠

The Project will have 650 apartments, for apartments, the rate is 0.62

Traffic volume =Rate *number of apartments.

Traffic Volume =0.62*650

Number of trips: Then we replace

Traffic volume =403

The new development will generate 403 trips in the transport path.

In Lima 75% of people prefer public transport while 25% prefer the private transport,
According to the survey. We can see in this picture.

Imagen 14: The percentage real of the trips in lima

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V.-CONCLUSION

 Through this work it has been possible to put into practice the knowledge
acquired during the development of classes, with which data have been
obtained from the various parameters required in this work.
 know LOS helps us to classify what type or quantity of veheculos is circulating
on the urban area, being the most critical or maxima of the circulation that
would come from the PHV rush hour in an hour may be sooner or later, the
important thing is that be in the rush hour of traffic
 With the data obtained from the different speeds and comparing these with the
limits indicated by the Ministry of Transport and Communications (MTC), it
has been noted that some drivers exceed the permitted speed limit.
 this work helps us to familiarize ourselves with the engineering transport area,
in order to know the main factors of the cause of traffic in the urban area, and
with those factors that affect the circulation of vehicles, see the options of how
to improve traffic stagnant in urban roads
 With the results obtained it was observed that the level of service (LOS)
changes with respect to time, that is to say, this level is dynamic since it was
compared with previous works.
 According to the work developed, it is concluded that when a particular
establishment (shopping centers, residential areas, etc.) is constructed; These
will generate an additional amount of travel number to the route with which
this infrastructure is connected.

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VI.-BIBLIOGRAFIA

 MTC. (2003). Reglamento Nacional de Vehículos. LIMA: DIARIO EL PERANO.


 PhD CE, M. K. (2004). HANDBOOK OF TRANSPORTATION. Texas : McGraw
Hill.
 Capacity and LOS Analysis. [Online]: Peak Hour Factor. [Date of consultation:
17 May 2017]. Available in:
http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/niatt_labmanual/Chapters/capacityandlos/the
oryandconcepts/PeakHourFactor.htm.
 Materials used in class.
 EL COMERCIO. (2017). CRECIMIENTO DEL SECTOR AUTOMOTRIX.
JUNIO 07, 2018, de EL COMERCIO Sitio web:
https://elcomercio.pe/economia/peru/crecimiento-sector-automotriz-
seria-10-2017-230274
 UNCEM. (2018). ENCUESTA DE LIMA COMO VAMOS. junio 16, 2018,

de Unacem Sitio web: http://www.limacomovamos.org/cm/wp-


content/uploads/2018/03/EncuestaLimaC%C3%B3moVamos_2017.
pdf

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