You are on page 1of 5

Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2017; 5(6): 2106-2110

E-ISSN: 2320-7078
P-ISSN: 2349-6800
JEZS 2017; 5(6): 2106-2110
Field screening of chilli cultivars against thrips
© 2017 JEZS
Received: 23-09-2017
(Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and its management
Accepted: 26-10-2017 under West Bengal condition
Subhashree Priyadarshini
Department of Agricultural
Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Subhashree Priyadarshini, Soumita Pal and Sunil Kumar Ghosh
Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Mohanpur, Nadia,
West Bengal, India
Screening of chilli varieties against thrips, population dynamics of thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood)
Soumita Pal and their sustainable management by using some new molecules were worked out in the present study
Department of Agricultural during 2016 at District Seed Farm (AB Block) of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya located at
Entomology, Bidhan Chandra Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal. The mean population of thrips was recorded to be lowest in Bhanger
Krishi Viswavidyalaya, variety i.e. 2.13 thrips/ three leaves followed by Bullet and Jhumko with mean as (2.71 and 2.87 thrips/
Mohanpur, Nadia, three leaves) respectively. Peak population of thrips was recorded to be in 18th standard week i.e.
West Bengal, India 12.58/three leaves when the average temperature, relative humidity and weekly total rainfall were 31.2
0c, 66.79% and 17.8 mm respectively. Correlation studies between thrips population and weather
Sunil Kumar Ghosh parameters revealed that population of thrips showed significant positive correlation with average
Department of Agricultural temperature, maximum and minimum temperature and a significant negative correlation with maximum
Entomology, Bidhan Chandra relative humidity while non-significant positive correlation with temperature difference and non-
Krishi Viswavidyalaya, significant negative correlation with relative humidity (minimum and average) and weekly rainfall. Peak
Mohanpur, Nadia,
population was recorded to be 28.55/three leaves, when the average temperature, relative humidity and
West Bengal, India
weekly total rainfall were recorded to be 31.040C, 74.29% and 71.1mm respectively. The treatment
Imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 25 a.i. g/ha was rendering satisfactory result against chilli thrips.

Keywords: Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, Screening, cultivars

1. Introduction
Chilli (Capsicum annuam L.) is an important spice crop as well as vegetable crop grown all
over India. In India, chilli is cultivated in an area of 7.67 lakh hectares and the production is
estimated at 12.34 lakh tones [17]. India is the largest producer of dry chillies and peppers in the
world [5]. A survey conducted by Asian Vegetable Research and Development Committee in
Asia indicated that the key insect pests of chilli are revealed that chilli (Capsicum annum L.
and Capsicum frutescens L.) the universal spice, belonging to the family- solanaceae and is
known to be infested by several insect and non-insect pests of which the tarsonemid mite,
Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and yellow thrips, Scirtothrips
dorsdalis Hood are the most destructive and are considered as major pests [1]. Chilli leaf curl is
one of the most destructive syndrome affecting chilli in India and is considered to be caused
by thrips, mites,whitefly [6]. Contribution of thrips in this case is of great importance. Thrips
can cause necrosis of tissues by extracting contents from the epidermal cells. Both nymphs and
adults suck the sap from tender crop canopy, resulting in shriveling of leaves, retarded shoot
development and finally the leaves fall-off, eruption of internal areas, puckering of leaves and
upward curling of leaves is also noticed [17]. In multilocation trials in India, Phule Sai is
moderately resistant to thrips (caused by Scirtothrips dorsalis), leaf curl and mosaic viruses
under field conditions and tolerant to thrips under in vitro conditions [7]. Thrips population
touched the peak during the third week of September (10.2/ 3 leaves) [20]. Thrips exhibited a
negative correlation with temperature and rainfall, whereas positive correlation with relative
humidity. During the last two decades insecticidal control of chilli pests especially in irrigated
Correspondence crop is characterized by high pesticide usage and hence has posed problems of residues in the
Soumita Pal
Department of Agricultural
fruits [12, 8]. The indiscriminate use of broad spectrum chemicals have resulted in reduction in
Entomology, Bidhan Chandra biodiversity of natural enemies, outbreak of secondary pests and development of resistance to
Krishi Viswavidyalaya, pesticides, pesticides induced resurgence and contamination of food and eco-system [21]. For
Mohanpur, Nadia, the effective control of chilli thrips farmers usually use a lot of pesticides chemicals
West Bengal, India indiscriminately and frequently due to their lack of education and awareness. Most of the
~ 2106 ~
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies

Conventional chemicals are broad spectrum, persistent in Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal (22058‘52‖ N; 88026‘30‖E, 10
nature and having long residual action. So, there is search m above sea level) during the period of 2015-16 crop
for newer insecticides in proper dose in specific time that season. The chilli variety ‘Bullet’ was grown during this
can break the resistance and are less persistent, non-toxic to period in both years under recommended fertilizer levels
non-target organisms, and have less residual action. The (50:50:80 kg NPK/ha) and cultural practices in3 m x 3m
objective of the study was to search the tolerant variety of plots at a spacing of 30 cm x 30 cm. The treatments were
chilli against thrips by screening method, peak period of replicated three times in a Randomized Block Design
thrips incidence to make a decision for taking plant (RBD).
protection measure and to formulate suitable control
measure with the use of some new molecules to reduce the 2.4.1. Treatments
infestation of thrips. Imidacloprid 17.8% SL, Chlorpyriphos 20%EC, Profenofos
50%EC and Fipronil 5% SC against chilli thrips
2. Material and Methods (Scirtothrips dorsalis) were used. Three round spraying
2.1. Study period and location were done during the crop season by using 500 litres of
The present experiment was conducted at the District Seed spray solution per hectare with high volume knapsack
Farm (A-B Block) of Bidhan Chandra Krishi sprayer. The data of target pest was recorded from randomly
Viswavidyalaya located at Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal in selected five plants in each plot.
experimental field during the year 2016-2017. The
geographical details of the site are 23° N latitude, 89° E 2.4.2. Data recording
longitude and 9.75 meter above mean sea level (MSL). Observations of total number of thrips were recorded from
five top young leaves of each plant per plot. First count was
2.2. Screening of different Chilli varieties against thrips: taken one day before first spray and post treatment counts
To study the varietal screening of the chilli cultivars against were recorded on 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after each spray. The
different insect pests of chilli, 6 different chilli cultivars data were subject to analysis after making necessary
were considered as planting materials. The chilli seedlings transformation and express on the basis of percent reduction
were transplanted following randomized block design in the of pest population. The green chilli yield from each plot was
plots of 3.5m x 3.0m. Incidence of chilli thrips (Scirtothrips recorded and analyzed statistically in terms of t/ha. The
dorsalis) was recorded at an interval of 3 days. Pest counts count data of insects before spraying and after spraying with
were made from 3 top leaves of 5 randomly selected plants different formulations of insecticides had been used to work
per plot. out the corrected per cent mortality due to Henderson and
Tilton (1955).
2.3. Seasonal incidence Percent reduction = [1 – (Ta×Cb)/ (Tb×Ca)] X 100 Where,
To study the seasonal incidence of chilli thrips as well as the Ta = Population in treated plants after treatment
influence of prevailing weather conditions on the population Cb = Population in treated plants before treatment
dynamics, the chilli variety ‘Bullet’ was grown round the Tb = Population in control plots after treatment
year during 2016-2017. Standard plots each of 3 x 3 sq mt Ca = Population in control plots before treatment
area where the seedlings were planted maintaining of 30 cm
row to row and 30 cm plant to plant distance to 2.4.3. Statistical analysis
accommodate 10 to 12 plants/ square meter. Well The corrected per cent mortality data of insects on chilli was
decomposed Farm yard manure (FYM) @ 6 tonnes/ ha was taken at different dates after spraying with different
incorporated thoroughly into the soil 15 days prior to formulations of pesticides and it was then transformed using
transplanting. Inorganic fertilizers @ 50 kg N, 50 kg P2O5 angular transformation value. Once the transformation had
and 80 kg K2O were applied. Irrigation was provided at 5 been made, the transformed data were analyzed by using
days interval when dry weather prevailed for a long time INDO-STAT- software for analysis of variance following
and at 7-10 days interval under normal climatic conditions. randomized block design (RBD) treatment means were
The experiment was conducted in a Randomized Block separated by applying CD Test (critical difference) at 5%
Design (RBD) with 3 replications and 8 treatments. The level of significance.
meteorological data on different abiotic factors viz.
temperature (maximum & minimum in °C), relative 3. Results and Discussion
humidity (maximum & minimum in %), total rainfall (in Screening of Chilli cultivars for evaluation of
mm) wind speed (Km/hr), and bright sunshine hours (hr) Susceptibility against thrips
during the period of investigation were collected from the The mean population of thrips (Table 1) was recorded to be
AICRP on Agro meteorology, BCKV, Kalyani. Incidence of lowest in Bhanger variety i.e. 2.13 thrips/ three leaves
chili thrips was recorded at an interval of 3 days. Pest counts followed by Bullet and Jhumko with mean as (2.71 and 2.87
were made from 3 top leaves of 5 randomly selected plants thrips/ three leaves) respectively. The highest number of
per plot at seven days interval (standard meteorological thrips population was recorded in variety Mocha
week). Correlation co-efficient (r) was worked out between (5.12thrips/three leaves), followed by Surya mukhi (2.94
incidence of thrips and important weather parameters during thrips/three leaves) and Akashi (2.90 thrips/three leaves).
the period to find out influence of weather on population All the varieties were found to be significantly at par from
fluctuation. each other except Akashi and Suryamukhi, which are not
statistically at par with each other in all the weeks of
2.4. Evaluation of bio effectiveness of different observations. Thrips population has initiated from the 32nd
insecticides against thrips: SW and reached its peak by 43rd SW. The population of
The present experiment was conducted at AB‘Block Farm thrips was found to be consistently higher in Mocha variety.
(Seed Farm) of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, All the varieties were found to be significantly different

~ 2107 ~
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies

from each other and superiorly tolerant than Mocha. Bio effectiveness of different insecticides against chilli
Seasonal incidence Among the different pests attacked the chilli crop, thrips
The relationship between the pests and prevailing weather was the most dominating and damaging pest recorded
conditions is a very important aspect of studies since during the period of investigation. One day before spray
knowledge of this relationship helps us to know the time of thrips population ranged from 10.67 to 11.51 per leaf and it
pest incidence as well as to take appropriate measures of was statistically non significant showing equal distribution
pest control. But, this relationship is not simple, always due (Table-2). The different treatments and their persistence at
to they are multitude of different factors and their different days after application varied significantly in their
interactions. Data recorded on seasonal incidence of thrips suppression of whitefly populations (Table-2).Highest
show that it was not active throughout the experimental reduction of thrips was noticed from the treatments
period. It is a time specific insect. Observations were Imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 50 a.i. g/ha. No significant
recorded as thrips/three leaves basis. The first incidence of variation was observed on percent reduction of thrips at 1, 3.
population was recorded from 1st week of January. Peak 7 and 14 days after spray for both the treatments of
population was recorded to be in 18th standard week i.e. Imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 50 a. i. g/ha and 37.5 a.i. g/ha and
12.58/three leaves when the average temperature, relative recorded maximum reduction of 96.13% and 94.96%
humidity and weekly total rainfall were 31.2 0c, 66.79% and respectively at one day after spray. The treatment
17.8 mm respectively (Fig 1). The lowest population Imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 25 a.i. g/ha was rendering
recorded was found in 5th standard meteorological week i.e. satisfactory result. Similar trend of per cent reduction of
0.11/ three leaves when the average temperature, relative thrips was observed at 3, 7 and 14 days after spray as well as
humidity and weekly total rain fall were 21.52 0C, 70.50% second and third round of spray. The lowest percent
and 0.0 mm respectively. Correlation studies (Table 2 ) reduction was observed in the plots treated with
between thrips population and weather parameters revealed Chlorpyriphos 20% EC @ 200 a. i. g/ha followed by
that population of thrips showed significant positive Fipronil 5% SC @ 50 a.i. g/ha. The results were in
correlation with average temperature, maximum and conformity with the previous studies [13, 14]. Yield is the
minimum temperature and a significant negative correlation ultimate output to the farmer which makes them content. In
with maximum relative humidity while non-significant this view, comparison has done for yield in order to find out
positive correlation with temperature difference and non- effectiveness of chemical insecticide over chilli pests. Here
significant negative correlation with relative humidity over all yields is taken for evaluation.
(minimum and average) and weekly rainfall. The results
were confirmed with the past studies [2, 3, 14, 19].

Table 1: Varietal Screening of Chilli Cultivars against Thrips

Standard Meteorological Week
Varieties Mean
30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th 36th 37th 38th 39th 40th 41st 42nd 43rd 44th 45th
0.05 0.09 0.15 0.87 1.06 1.52 1.61 1.61 2.49 2.82 2.49 4.38 5.55 6.38 5.91 6.33
Bullet 2.71
(0.74) (0.77) (0.81) (1.17) (1.25) (1.42) (1.45) (1.45) (1.73) (1.82) (1.73) (2.21) (2.46) (2.62) (2.53) (2.61)
0.01 0.20 0.21 0.74 1.42 1.95 2.16 1.97 2.18 2.56 2.98 5.35 6.10 6.21 5.84 6.55
Akashi 2.90
(0.71) (0.84) (0.84) (1.11) (1.39) (1.57) (1.63) (1.57) (1.64) (1.75) (1.87) (2.42) (2.57) (2.59) (2.52) (2.66)
0.14 0.10 0.54 1.12 1.43 2.00 2.26 2.17 2.84 2.52 2.76 5.05 6.13 6.15 5.52 6.23
Suryamukhi 2.94
(0.80) (0.77) (1.02) (1.27) (1.39) (1.58) (1.66) (1.63) (1.83) (1.74) (1.81) (2.36) (2.57) (2.58) (2.45) (2.59)
0.00 0.02 0.48 1.15 1.26 2.26 2.02 2.19 3.01 2.63 2.66 2.63 2.60 3.04 2.94 5.17
Bhangar 2.13
(0.71) (0.72) (0.99) (1.28) (1.33) (1.66) (1.59) (1.64) (1.87) (1.77) (1.78) (1.77) (1.76) (1.88) (1.85) (2.38)
0.03 0.03 0.42 1.19 1.41 1.89 2.05 2.01 2.63 2.48 2.90 5.21 5.95 6.32 4.85 6.54
Jhumko 2.87
(0.73) (0.73) (0.96) (1.30) (1.38) (1.55) (1.60) (1.58) (1.77) (1.73) (1.84) (2.39) (2.54) (2.61) (2.31) (2.65)
1.45 0.96 1.60 2.80 1.33 4.83 4.58 6.76 6.72 7.04 7.66 6.05 6.85 7.36 7.68 8.28
Mocha 5.12
(1.40) (1.21) (1.45) (1.82) (1.35) (2.31) (2.25) (2.69) (2.69) (2.75) (2.86) (2.56) (2.71) (2.80) (2.86) (2.96)
CD 0.32 0.38 0.59 0.88 0.23 1.03 1.41 0.86 1.31 0.90 1.00 1.27 1.05 1.25 1.15 1.29 -
S.E m (+) 0.10 0.13 0.20 0.29 0.08 0.34 0.47 0.28 0.43 0.30 0.33 0.42 0.35 0.41 0.38 0.43 -

Table 2: Correlation Co-efficient between Thrips and Weather Parameters

Co-efficient of
Correlation co-
Regression equation
Environmental parameter determination
efficient (r)
Temperature 0C Maximum 0.652** 0.426 Y = 0.757x+28.86
Minimum 0.361** 0.130 Y =0.594x+19.47
Difference 0.157 0.037 Y = 0.214x+8.84
Average 0.511** 0.181 Y=0.727x++23.58
Relative Humidity Maximum (-)0.352* 0.124 Y = 0.346x+94.90
(%) Minimum (-)0.145 0.021 Y=-0.663x+65.92
Average (-)0.186 0.035 Y =-0.504x+80.41
Weekly rainfall (mm) Total (-)0.114 0.013 Y=1.501x++36.75
*Significant at 5% level of significance
**Significant at 1% level of significance

~ 2108 ~
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies
Table 3: Efficacy of Insecticides against Thrips in Chilli Crop during 2016
Per cent reduction of thrips Per cent reduction of thrips Per cent reduction of thrips
Pre spray
population population population
Treatment thrips after 1st round of spray after 2nd round of spray after 3rd round of spray
population 14 14 14
leaf / DAS DAS DAS
Imidacloprid 11.33 81.62 82.51 63.69 52.21 76.82 75.31 63.25 48.23 81.62 79.21 63.25 46.79
17.8% SL (65.30) (68.21) (54.10) (46.80) (61.87) (60.65) (52.74) (43.98) (65.30) (62.87) (52.74) (43.13)
(Rainbow) 25
ai g/ha
Imidacloprid 11.23 94.96 87.59 74.86 66.68 95.12 91.14 82.21 67.76 97.13 89.30 81.62 63.25
17.8% SL (78.06) (69.61) (60.24) (54.85) (77.25) (73.19) (65.43) (55.71) (81.45) (71.15) (65.30) (52.74)
37.5 ai g/ha
Imidacloprid 10.67 96.13 90.14 80.97 69.37 96.55 93.96 84.26 69.37 99.16 92.14 86.80 67.76
17.8% SL (79.45) (72.19) (64.23) (56.71) (79.61) (77.06) (67.02) (56.71) (84.35) (74.19) (68.75) (55.71)
(Rainbow) 50
ai g/ha
Chlorpyriphos 10.96 76.82 72.51 54.70 43.48 75.82 69.37 55.58 46.79 72.51 69.37 50.23 44.15
20% (61.87) (58.10) (47.74) (41.88) (60.94) (56.71) (48.21) (43.13) (58.10) (56.71) (45.14) (41.93)
EC @ 200 a.i.
Profenophos 11.15 83.55 80.80 63.25 52.21 79.21 76.82 65.29 45.84 80.80 81.62 65.99 53.02
50% (66.12) (64.53) (52.74) (46.80) (62.87) (61.87) (54.21) (42.90) (64.53) (65.30) (54.41) (46.80)
EC @ 750 a.i.
Fipronil 5%
10.84 72.51 70.83 50.20 37.92 71.50 72.51 51.91 34.39 70.60 71.50 53.02 35.12
SC 50 ai
g/ha (58.10) (57.39) (45.40) (38.30) (58.05) (58.10) (46.11) (35.79) (57.48) (58.05) (46.80) (36.64)
Untreated 11.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
control (4.05) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05) (4.05)
S. Em. ± 2.58 2.13 1.11 1.67 1.53 1.86 1.71 2.00 1.39 2.25 1.40 2.53
CD (0.05) 7.94 6.33 3.42 5.06 4.73 5.63 5.26 6.17 4.01 6.75 4.17 7.59
Values in the parenthesis are angular transformed, DAS: Days after spray

Fig 1: Incidence of Thrips as Influenced by Temperature, Humidity and Total Rainfall During 2016

4. Conclusion were found to be toletant and susceptible cultivars

The result revealed that peak population of thrips was respectively against Thrips. The treatment Imidacloprid
recorded to be in 18th standard week i.e during April- May 17.8% SL @ 25 a.i. g/ha was rendering satisfactory result
whereas lowest population recorded was found in 5th against chilli thrips. So as per the study we can conclude
standard meteorological week i.e during January-February. that the right pest management strategy should be adopted at
From the experiment this can be inferred that activity of the specific time of pest appearance.
thrips population increases with high temperature, high
relative humidity and decreases with rainfall but population 5. Acknowledgement
increases with the rise of temperature difference. Bhangar This study was carried out with the support of the
(2.13 thrips/ 3 leaves) and Mocha (5.12 thrips/ 3 leaves) Department of Agricultural Entomology, BCKV, and the
~ 2109 ~
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies

authors are grateful to Directorate of Farms, Bidhan 17. Reddy DNR, Puttaswamy. Pest infesting chilli
Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West (Capsicum annuum L.) in the transplanted crop. Mysore
Bengal for allotting the field in order to conduct the Journal of Agricultural Science. 1983; 17:246-51.
concerned research. 18. Reddy M, Chandrasekhar, Reddy K, Gurava K.
Tirupamma and Reddy KV Siva. International Journal
6. References of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences. 2011;
1. Berke T, Sheih SC. Chilli peppers in Asia. Capsicum 1:140-143.
and Egg Plant Newsletter. 2000; 19:38-41. 19. Sahu PS, Kumar A, Khan HH. Seasonal incidence and
2. Bhede BV, Bhosle BB, More DG. Influence of management of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis. J.
meteorological factors over the incidence of chilli mite, Exp.2001. India. 2017; 20:587-589.
Polyphagotarsonemus latus and its chemical control 20. Saini A, Ahir KC, Rana BS, Kumar R. Population
strategies. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 2008a; dynamics of sucking pests infesting chilli (Capsicum
36:200-203. annum L.). Journal of Entomology and Zoology
3. Bhede BV, Suryawanshi DS, More DG. Population Studies. 2017; 5:250-252.
dynamics and bioefficacy of newer insecticides against 21. Singh SP. Bio Intensive approach Helpful. The Hindu
chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood). Indian Survey of Indian Agrilturcue, 2000, 159-163.
Journal of Entomology. 2008b; 70:22.
4. Chavan BP, Kadam JR, Koli HR. Effects of dates of
sowing on incidence of red spider mite, Tetranychus
cinnabarinus(Boisd) infesting okra. Karnataka Journal
of Agricultural Science. 2003; 22:729-31.
5. 28th October, 2017.
mites/article5448331.ece. 28 October, 2017.
7. Jadhav MG, Dhumal S, Burli AV, Moro SM. Phule Sai
(GCH-8): a new rainfed chilli variety. Journal of
Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 2000; 25:110-
8. Joia BS, Jaswinder Kaur, Udean AS. Persistence of
ethion residues on/in green chilli. In: The Nation.
Symp. Int. Pest Mgmt. (IPM) in Hort. Crops,
Bangalore, 2001.
9. Karupachamy P, Vasudevan P, Rangaswamy P. Chillies
yellow mite– a serious pest. Spice India. 1993; 6:14.
10. Lingeri MS, Awaknavar TS, Lingappa S, Kulkarni KA.
Seasonal occurance of Chilli Mite
(Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks) and thrips
(Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood). Karnataka Journal of
Agricultural Science. 1998; 11:380-385.
11. Manjunatha M, Mallapur CP, Hanchinal SG, Kulkarni
SV. Evaluation of imidacloprid 75 WS with
recommended chemicals on chilli thrips and mite.
Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2000;
12. Nandihalli BS. Efficacy of different insecticides in
control of chilli leaf curl and their residues. University
of Agricultural Science, Bangalore, India, 1979.
13. Nayak US, Soni VK, Senapati S. Comparative efficacy
of certain insecticides against thrips (Scirtothrips
dorsalis H.) and aphids (Aphis gossypii G.) on chilli.
Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 2014;
14. Patel BH, Koshiya DJ, Korat DM. Population dynamics
of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood in relation to
weather parameters. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural
Sciences. 2009; 22:108-110.
15. Pathipati VL, Vijayalakshmi T, Naram Naidu L.
Seasonal incidence of major insect pests of chilli in
relation to weather parameters in Andhra Pradesh. Pest
Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 2014; 20:36-
16. Patil RS, Nandihalli BS. Seasonal incidence of mite
pests on brinjal and chilli. Karnataka Journal of
Agricultural Science. 2009; 22:729-31.

~ 2110 ~