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Acoustics

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Objective :

- reconstruct a dipôle using 2 monopoles;

- show the link between monopoles and dipoles.

- apply the theory of monopole and dipole distributions

!

Let (O, x1, x2, x3) be a cartesian coordinate system (vector ei à direction xi).

Two monopoles are located at x1= -d/2 and x1=d/2 : their strength is respectively

-A(t) and + A(t) (see figure 1)

x2 M(x1 , x2)

r2 r r1

θ

O x1

- A(t) A(t)

d/2 d/2

figure 1

1. Explain why the study may be restricted to the plane (O, x1, x2).

!

2. Express the source distribution s as a function of A(t), d, e1 , and spatial variables

using Dirac functions. What is the total (or equivalent) monopole strength?

Conclusion? What happens if d vanishes?

4. Find a far field approximate assuming that r>>d (geometric far field), and keeping

“enough” de terms (leading order).

Show that the geometric far field is the sum of two terms, an acoustic near field term

and an acoustic far field term.

5. Let d tend to 0 in the expression of question 4., such that this limit makes sense

physically. Relate the result to what has been discussed in the lecture and relate it to

the dipole characteristics.

5°) Sinusoidal (single) dipole: express the radiated pressure field and plot its

directivity diagram (θ denotes the angle with respect to the dipole axis)

1

II. Application: Noise due to an unsteady force on a rod

Consider a rod that can be regarded as a straight line of length L (negligible cross-

section) and assume it vibrates in a fluid at rest. It exerts upon the fluid a fluctuating

! !

force density F ( y , t ) at each point y along the rod. Introduce additional notations

required to treat the problem.

1. Write the linearised equations of acoustics. Introduce the fluctuating part 𝑓′ of the

! !

fluctuating force F( y, t )

!

4. Assume the force is concentrated at the rod centre A( y0 ) and that it fluctuates

along a fixed axis normal to the rod.

Express the acoustic force and derive the simplified expression of the far field

pressure (θ being the angle between the receiver direction and the force, sketch the

far field directivity).

5. If the force is uniformly distributed along the rod, what condition must the length

L verify if one wants to apply the result of question 4 ?

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