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# 1MAE600 - Acoustics

## Exercise n°1. Single Dipôle

Objective :
- reconstruct a dipôle using 2 monopoles;
- show the link between monopoles and dipoles.
- apply the theory of monopole and dipole distributions

## I. Compact dipolar pair of Monopoles

!
Let (O, x1, x2, x3) be a cartesian coordinate system (vector ei à direction xi).
Two monopoles are located at x1= -d/2 and x1=d/2 : their strength is respectively
-A(t) and + A(t) (see figure 1)

x2 M(x1 , x2)

r2 r r1
θ
O x1
- A(t) A(t)
d/2 d/2
figure 1

1. Explain why the study may be restricted to the plane (O, x1, x2).
!
2. Express the source distribution s as a function of A(t), d, e1 , and spatial variables
using Dirac functions. What is the total (or equivalent) monopole strength?
Conclusion? What happens if d vanishes?

## 3. For d ≠ 0, express the radiated pressure field at a reception point M.

4. Find a far field approximate assuming that r>>d (geometric far field), and keeping
Show that the geometric far field is the sum of two terms, an acoustic near field term
and an acoustic far field term.

5. Let d tend to 0 in the expression of question 4., such that this limit makes sense
physically. Relate the result to what has been discussed in the lecture and relate it to
the dipole characteristics.

5°) Sinusoidal (single) dipole: express the radiated pressure field and plot its
directivity diagram (θ denotes the angle with respect to the dipole axis)

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II. Application: Noise due to an unsteady force on a rod
Consider a rod that can be regarded as a straight line of length L (negligible cross-
section) and assume it vibrates in a fluid at rest. It exerts upon the fluid a fluctuating
! ! 
force density F ( y , t ) at each point y along the rod. Introduce additional notations
required to treat the problem.

1. Write the linearised equations of acoustics. Introduce the fluctuating part 𝑓′ of the
! !
fluctuating force F( y, t )

## 3. Express the field radiated by he rod.

!
4. Assume the force is concentrated at the rod centre A( y0 ) and that it fluctuates
along a fixed axis normal to the rod.
Express the acoustic force and derive the simplified expression of the far field
pressure (θ being the angle between the receiver direction and the force, sketch the
far field directivity).

5. If the force is uniformly distributed along the rod, what condition must the length
L verify if one wants to apply the result of question 4 ?