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Spiritual Care in Nursing b.

Spiritual support - finding value, meaning, trust,
By: Luth M. Mondano,RN,MAN and strength during difficult times.
c. Spiritual growth - helping to identify, connect
Principles in the study of spiritual care with, and call upon the source of meaning,
1. Nursing diagnosis is intended to identify strengths comfort, strength, and hope in his/her life.
of the client as well as actual and potential d. Forgiveness facilitation - assisting
problems. an individual to forgive and/or experience forgiven
2. Our primary goal in spiritual care is to mobilise the ess in relationship with self, others
patient's spiritual resources. and higher power.
3. Nursing staff should be aware that spiritual care is e. Religious addiction prevention –
not an attempt to win converts to a particular point prevention of a self -
of view. Rather, it is responding to a client's imposed controlling religious lifestyle
expressed needs. Interventions are by their request
or permission. Spirituality - the manner by which a person seeks meaning in
4. Spiritual assessment and care should be sensitive their lives.
and based on a relationship of trust between client (as personal concept) - individual’s attitudes and beliefs
and nurse. It will involve awareness of the person's related to transcendence (God) or to the non material forces
culture, social and spiritual preferences, as well as of life and of nature.
a respect for their beliefs and religious practices. (as related to holistic nursing) - encompasses values, meaning
5. Recognizing our own limitations and knowing when ,and purpose as described by Dossey (1989)
to make a referral, or utilize other members of the - relationship with supreme being that directs one’s
team is as important for spiritual care as it is for beliefs and practises, Madeleine Leininger (1997,p.104)
other aspects of care. Three Characteristics of Spirituality:
6. The importance of documenting spiritual care in 1. Unfolding mystery - related to one’s attempt to
nursing plans must be recognised, since this will understand the meaning and purpose of life
ensure that care is systematic, well thought out, 2. Harmonious interconnectedness - individual’s
and consistent. relationship to other persons and/or God
3. Inner strength - relates to one’s personal spiritual
Acceptable diagnosis as identified by NANDA: resources
1. Risk for spiritual distress: At risk for altered sense Elements of Spirituality:
 Compassion
of harmonious connectedness with all of life and
 Caring
the universe in which dimensions that transcend
 Transcendence
and empower the self may be disrupted.  Relationship with God
2. Spiritual distress: Impaired ability to experience  Connection of body, mind, and spirit
and integrate meaning and purpose in life through
the individual's connectedness with self, others, The essence of good nursing is to help a person attain or
art, music, literature, nature, or a power greater maintain wholeness in every dimension of their being.
than oneself Rogers, Parse, Newman and others, introduced holistic
Signs of Spiritual Distress: view of persons into the nursing literature in 1980’s .
 Anger  The BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL is a general model
 Fear
or approach stating that biological (physical health,
 Preoccupation with illness, suffering
disability, genetic vulnerabilities), psychological
 Loss of hope
 Change in beliefs
(which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors),
 Questioning beliefs and social (socio-economical, socio-environmental,
3. Readiness for enhanced spiritual well-being: Ability and cultural) factors, all play a significant role in
to experience and integrate meaning and purpose human functioning in the context of disease or
in life through connectedness with self, others, art, illness.
music, literature, nature, or a power greater than
Virtues Needed of a nurse:
 Truthfulness/honesty
Spiritual Care –the provision of interventions in the domain of  Integrity - personal choice to hold oneself to
spirituality. consistent high moral and ethical standards.
- a type of counselling that offers spiritual and  Sympathy/compassion - The essence of caring as a
emotional support. nurse is torecognize the value and worth of those you
care for and that the patient and his or her experience
Four Specific Interventions for Spiritual Care as identified MATTERS to you.
by Nursing Intervention Classification:  Humility- reflected as an attitude that finds joy and
satisfaction in serving others. The best nurses have a
a. Religious ritual enhancement

the influence behaviour and actions in a person. Wellness (health) . mind  produces a feeling of inner peace. Some examples of community resources -religious The legitimate goal of nursing is restoring wholeness. can go a long way to mitigate the stress that is inherent in academia. the conscious relaxation of muscles and the face of significant trauma. accepting the External factors: For example. This includes or it can be practiced individually. verbalization of feelings of having a void conscious intentionality. analyze. harmony and and spirit" as defined by the American Holistic Nurses healing. congregations. strong desire to serve their patients and putting their Interpersonal skills and supports: needs ahead of their own  The ability to develop and maintain intimate and  Thankful-embracing an attitude of acceptance and supportive social networks. thankfulness for both the good and bad. include:  Defense mechanisms are largely unconscious  “Spiritual Pain. environment" (Dossey 1995) Sufism. as evidenced by expressions of  Coping enables the individual to attain realistic loneliness. the ability to assess accurately one’s own capacities or contributions to the situation and the ability to SEVEN NURSING DIAGNOSES RELATED to “ALTERATIONS In perceive. pain. claimed. times of trial or need. to bounce back in breathing. agencies. and even the institutions. intense physical challenges as a stimulus for growth.  Dispositional Factors (also known as Often a chronically ill person expresses frustration in Internal Factors) are individual characteristics that terms of closeness to God during sickness. . and/or a negative attitude Temperamental and dispositional factors: toward receiving any comfort or help from God”. Meditation Resources Holism has been defined as "concerned with the inter-  adherence to a particular belief system such as the relationship of body. or the feeling that God seems very far goals by using available resources and past away and remote from one’s everyday life. focusing attention on one’s functioning in the face of stress. volunteers belonging to social service meaning whole or complete. and comprehend alternative SPIRITUAL INTEGRITY". and Christian mysticism.” may verbalize a fear that he or she has not  Coping. nursing program you are a part of. comprehend a challenging situation. and to use exercise. "The needs of  consists of the spiritual support that a person can the spirit are as critical to health as those individual organs receive from a relationship or from belonging to a which make up the body". therapy  the term 'holistic' came from the Greek 'Holos' groups. to use external stress points within the body. and/or a lack of peace  The characteristic mechanisms an individual uses in terms of one’s relationship to one’s creator”. Association. health care professionals. which were identified from strategies for responding to it.scheme/activities that a person can do for the purpose of attaining inner peace and harmony. and most?” genetics are all dispositional factors. Spiritual Resources . mind and spirit in an everchanging meditative practices found in Buddhism. stress and distress without any choice or with God. are conscious strategies lived “according to God’s will” that are chosen in calm emotional states. as evidenced by expressions of mechanisms which are activated in times of discomfort or suffering relative to one’s relationship anxiety. temperament. analyze.  Spiritual Alienation. or lack of spiritual fulfilment. as in a worship service. Florence Nightingale (nursing brought to nursing her Examples: traditional Christian and some very 'modern‘ values such Community Resources as autonomy and professionalism). experiencing such “spiritual sources of stress. and accurately  Prayer can be communal. experiences while acting within society’s rules of verbalization that one has to depend upon oneself in conduct. others. A to deal with problematic internal and external terminally ill patient. O’Brien’s research (1982a) on spirituality and life Defense and coping mechanisms threatening illness. Hinduism. Things comment may be “Where is God when I need him like individual personality traits. to maintain attention on an object.  Meditation is a conscious effort to change how the mind works. on the other hand. group of people who care for one another."a state of harmony between body. What are patient strengths?  Some examples of meditative practices are focusing  the capacity to cope with difficulties. social supports as a source of resilience Prayer Resources Examples:  Prayer is a resource for those who believe in the Cognitive and appraisal skills existence of God (or higher power)  The ability to perceive. financial resources. supportive social imperfections of yourself.