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m2= 1 halfstep

M2= 2 halfsteps
m3= 3 halfsteps
M3= 4 halfsteps
P4= 5 halfsteps
Aug4: Dim5: TriTone= 6 halfsteps
P5= 7 halfsteps
m6= 8 halfsteps
M6= 9 halfsteps
m7= 10 halfsteps
M7= 11 halfsteps

Ionion – Major Scale. WWhWWWh

Dorian – Starting on ^2 (D in C Major) – WhWWWhW
Phrygian (fridgin) – Starting on ^3 (E in C Major) – hWWWhWW
Lydian – Starting on ^4 (F in C Major) – WWWhWWh
Mixolydian – Starting on ^5 (G in C Major) – WWhWWhW
Aeolian (Natural Minor) – Starting on ^6 (A in C Major) – WhWWhWW
Locrian – Starting on ^7 (B in C Major) - HWWhWWW

Ionion - Major Scale

Dorian – to go from Natural Minor Scale to Dorian, raise ^6 by half step
Phrygian – To go from Natural Minor Scale to Phrygian, lower ^2 by half step
Lydian – To go from Major Scale to Lydian, raise ^4 by half step
Mixolydian – To go from Major Scale to Mixolydian, lower ^7 by a half step
Aeolian – Same as Natural Minor
Locrian – To go from Natural minor scale to Locrian, lower ^2 & lower ^5
Ab Major – Ab C Eb
D Major – D F# A
B Minor – B D F#
D Dim. – D F Ab
F# Aug. – F# A# Cx
A Minor – A C E
Root – nothing
First Inversion - 6
Second inversion – 6 4
Seventh Chords
Root – 7
First Inversion – 6 5
Second Inversion – 4 3
Third Inversion – 4 2
I ii iii IV V vi vii
i ii III iv V VI vii
Harmonic minor - Natural Minor with a raised 7th
I – Tonic
II – Supertonic
III - Mediant
IV – Subdominant
V – Dominant
VI –Submediant
VII – Leading Tone
Major Scale Seventh Chords
I M7
ii 7
iii 7
vi 7
vii half dim. 7
Minor Scale Seventh Chords
ii half dim. 7
iv 7

Cadence – two chords that make up the end of a phrase
V-I – Authentic Cadence
V7-I – Authentic Cadence
Conclusive – stronger
Perfect Authentic Cadence (PAC)
1. Both chords of cadence are in root position
2. The top voice is Do in the last chord
Imperfect Authentic Cadence (IAC)– anything that is not this (PAC) it is an imperfect authentic cadence
Half Cadence – x to a V chord H.C.
Deceptive Cadence – V to a VI (vi) D.C
Plagal Cadence – Some IV to some I
Phrygian Half Cadence
1. Minor
2. iv6 to V
Range – Low to High
Interval Structure
Conjunct Motion – My Country Tis of Thee
Disjunct Motion – Star Spangled Banner
Inverted Arch
Motive – Small idea
Create something new
Sequence – Numbers are the same
Real Sequence – The exact Transposition
Tonal Sequence – Each note is raised the same interval
Embellishing Tones / Non – Chord Tones
Passing Tones – Arrive from step
Leave by a step (in the same direction) / \
Neighbor Tone – Arrive from a step
Leave by a step (in the opposite direction) v
Step/Leap Combo
Appogiatura (App) – Arrives from a leap
Leaves by a step (in the opposite direction)
Escape Tone – Arrives from a step
Leaves by a leap (in the opposite direction)

Double Neighbor – Same note (Original, one down from original, one up from original, back to
original) ((or vice versa))
ANTICIPATION – Arrive from a step
Leave to the same note EARLY (Unaccented)
SUSPENSION – Arrive from the same note
Leaves by a step LATE (Accented)
2 phrases
1. sdfalksdf
2. More Conclusive
Parallel – Begins in a similar way
Contrasting - opposite of parallel
Less conclusive (not a period) = Phrase group – Same level of conclusiveness

 Open position
 Closed position
 Parallel Movement
o Two voices move the same amount in the same direction
 Similar Movement
o Same direction but different amounts
 Oblique Movement
o One voice stays the same
 Contrary Movement
o Opposite directions
 Counterpoint
o Melodic line
o Countermelody
 Doubling
 Spacing
o SA
o AT
 Must be octave or less
o TB
 Doesn’t matter
 Major and Minor Triads
o Double the bass in root position or 2nd inversion
o 1st inversion dbl the Soprano or Bass
 Augmented or Diminished
o Be in 1st inversion double the bass
 Voice crossing
 Voice overlap
 Root motion of 4th or 5th
o 4th or a 5th
o Use a common tone
o Other two voices move by step
 Root motion of 3rd or 6th
o Keep common tones (2)
o Other voice step-wise
 Root motion of 2nd
o There are no common tones
o Voices move contrary to the bass
 Adding Suspensions in part writing
o Look for a second
 Rules for Part writing with inversions
o No P8 or P5
o Do not double the leading tone
o In 1st inversion double the Soprano or the Bass
 Except if the leading tone is in the bass
o In 1st in version diminished chord double the bass
o Avoid unequal fifths
o Spacing in SAT
 Less than an octave
o Voice crossing and voice overlap
o Avoid melodic +2,+4, dim 5
o Leading tone must resolve to ‘Do’ in SB only
 Guidelines to Part writing with inversions
o Keep common tones
o Stepwise
o Avoid large leaps
o Move voices contrary to the bass
 2nd Inversions
 Cadential 6/4
o I 6/4 – 5
 Keep common Tones
 Passing 6/4
 Ti wants to go to Do
 Fa wants to go to Ti
 7th of the chord ALWAYS resolves down a step
Summary of Part-Writing Rules
1. Avoid Parallel octaves, perfect fifths, and unisons
2. Never double the leading tone of the scale
3. Avoid augmented 2nds and augmented 4ths between notes of the same voice

Sometimes Broken
1. If a chord has a 7th, the 7th should resolve down a step
2. The leading tone should resolve to the tonic when it is in SB
3. Unequal 5ths should be used sparingly
4. Spacing between adjacent voices should not exceed an octave in SAT.
5. Avoid Crossing voices
6. Do not overlap two adjacent voices
7. Do not write pitches outside the range of a particular voice.
8. Do not move in the same direction to perfect intervals in SB, unless S is stepwise.

Position Chord Type Double
Root M and m Root
1st inversion M and m Soprano or Bass (except V6)
2nd inversion M and m Bass

1st inversion diminished Third (most likely, the bass)

Secondary Dominance
1. “This chord is V of What (x)?”
2. “x is what scale degree of original key?”
3. Bottom Roman Numeral is Interval from original key to “x”
Tonicization – to make a chord that is not in the tonic key sound like it belongs in the tonic
V/ii – ii (Lower Roman Numeral)
Secondary L.T. chords
“This chord is the seventh scale degree of what (x)?”
“x is what scale degree of the original key?” `
Mm7 Chords (Major)

V7/IV C7 C E G Bb 1 3 5 b7 Do Mi Sol Te
V7/ii A7 A C# E G 6 #1 3 5 La Di Mi Sol
V7/iii Bb7 Bb D F Ab 7 #2 #4 6 Te Re Fa Le
V7/V D7 D F# A C 2 #4 6 8 Ra Fi La Do
V7/vi E7 E G# B D 3 #5 7 2 Mi Si Ti Rw

Mm7 Chords (Minor)

V7/iv C7 C E G Bb 1 #3 5 7 Do Mi Sol Te
V7/VII F7 F A C Eb 4 #6 1 3 Fa La Do Me
V7/III Bb7 Bb D F Ab 7246 Te Re Fa Le
V7/V D7 D F# A C 2 #4 #6 1 Re Fi La Do
V7/VI Eb7 Eb G Bb Db 3 5 7 b2 Me Sol Te Ra

Fully Diminished 7 Chords (Major)

vii°7/ V F# A C Eb #4 6 1 b3 Fi La Do Me
vii°7/ii C# E G Bb #1 3 5 b7 Di Mi Sol Te
vii°7/iii D# F# A C #2 #4 6 1 Ri Fi La Do
vii°7/IV E G Bb Db 3 5 b7 b2 Mi Sol Te Ra
vii°7/vi G# B D F #5 7 2 4 Si Ti Re Fa

Half Diminished 7 Chords (Major)

viiØ7/ V F# A C E #4 6 1 3 Fi La Do Mi
viiØ 7/ii C# E G B #1 3 5 7 Di Mi Sol Ti
viiØ 7/iii D# F# A C# #2 #4 6 #1 Ri Fi La Di
viiØ 7/IV E G Bb D 3 5 b7 2 Mi Sol Te Re
viiØ 7/vi G# B D F# #5 7 2 #4 Si Ti Re Fi

Fully Diminished 7 Chords (Minor)

vii°7/III D F Ab Cb 2 4 6 b1 Re FA Le Da
vii°7/V F# A C Eb #4 #6 1 3 Fi La Do Me
vii°7/iv E G Bb Db #3 5 7 b2 Mi Sol Te Ra
vii°7/VI G Bb Db Fb 5 7 b2 b4 Sol Te Ra Fe
vii°7/VII A C Eb Gb #6 1 3 b5 La Do Me Se

Half Diminished 7 Chords (Minor)

viiØ7 /III D F Ab C 2461 Re FA Le Do

viiØ7 /V F# A C E #4 #6 1 #3 Fi La Do Mi
viiØ7/iv E G Bb D #3 5 7 2 Mi Sol Te Re
viiØ 7/VI G Bb Db F 5 7 b2 4 Sol Te Ra Fa
viiØ 7/VII A C Eb G #6 1 3 5 La Do Me So
Chord Progression
X goes to bottom of secondary function

Harmony III