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Changes in Males and Females during Puberty

Males Females
• involve the production of male sex • involve the production of female sex
hormones and sperms hormones, the release of mature eggs
• a change in attitude towards girls • a change in attitude towards boys
• an enlargement of the penis and the • the development of the breasts, the
growth of beard, chest hair, armpit growth of pubic and armpit hair
hair and pubic hair • a rapid increase in height and the
• a rapid increase in height, the widening of hips
broadening of the shoulders
• the development of body muscles
and the deepening of the voice

4.3 The Menstrual Cycle

• Menstruation is a process by which the blood, dead ovum and the lining of the uterus wall
breaks down are discharged through the vagina.
• The menstrual cycle begins when a female reaches puberty.
• Each cycle is about 28 days.

4.4 Fertilisation and Pregnancy
• Fertilisation is a process of fusion between the nucleus of male gamete with the nucleus
of the female gamete to produce a zygote.

Development of an embryo into a foetus until birth

4.5 Importance of Prenatal Care
• A balanced diet and nutritious food for the mother is important for proper growth and
development of the foetus.
(a) Protein: for the rapid growth of the foetus
(b) Calcium: for the development of strong bones and teeth
(c) Iron: to produce haemoglobin in the expectant mother’s blood
• Harmful substances such as drugs, alcohol and chemicals in tobacco smoke may cause
miscarriages and birth defects such as mental retardation and brain damage in the foetus.

4.6 Research in Human Reproduction

• Sterility is the inability to reproduce.
• The problem of sterility may be overcome by
(a) taking nutritious food which is rich in vitamins and minerals
(b) hormone treatments to increase sperm or egg production
(c) surgery to correct problems such as blocked sperm ducts or blocked fallopian tubes
(d) in vitro fertilisation
• Methods used in birth control
(a) For males:
i. Barrier method: use of condoms
ii. Surgical method: vasectomy
(b) For females:
i. Natural method: Rhythm
ii. Barrier method: use of diaphragm
iii. Mechanical method: Intrauterine contraceptive device, IUCD
iv. Hormonal method: use of contraceptive pills
v. Chemical method: use of spermicides
vi. Surgical method: ligation

4.7 Sexual Reproductive System of Flowering Plant

Part Function
Sepal Protects the flower at the bud stage
Attracts insects for pollination and
protects the stamens and pistil
Anther Produces pollen grains
Filament Supports the anther
Stigma Receives pollen grains

Supports the stigma; forms a passage for

the male gamete to move to the ovule

Ovary Produces ovules

Produces a sweet liquid which is

known as nectar

4.8 Pollination
• Pollination is the transfer of mature pollen grains from the stamen to the stigma.


Self-pollination Cross-pollination

4.9 Development of Fruits and Seeds In Plants

After fertilization:
(a) the ovary develop into a fruit.
(b) the ovule develop into a seed.
(c) the sepals, petals, stamens,
style and stigma wither and fall

4.10 Germination Of Seeds

• Germination is the process in which the embryo in a seed begins to grow.
• During germination, the embryo grows into a seedling.
• The radicle grows out first into the ground and forms the root.
• Then the plumule grows out upwards and becomes the shoot.
• The cotyledon provides food for the growing seedling.
• Conditions for seed germination is (a) water (b) air (c) suitable temperature

4.11 Vegetative Reproduction In Flowering Plants
• A type of asexual reproduction.
• New plants are produced from certain parts of the parent plant, such as leaf, stem and root.
• The various vegetative parts and example of plants which carry out vegetative reproduction
are shown in the following table.
Reproduction Examples
Rhizome Ginger, lotus, canna, lemon grass, turmeric
Tuber Potato, dahlia
Runner Grass, strawberry. water lettuce
Corm Yam, Chinese turnip
Leaf Bryophyllum, Aloe vena, Begonia
Bulb Onion, hyacinth, lily plant
Sucker Banana tree, pineapple, bamboo
Stem Tapioca, sugarcane, hibiscus plant

Uses of Calcium Compounds

Calcium carbonate as antacid, to treat acidic soil and water

Calcium oxide as a drying agent for ammonia gas

to treat acidic soil

Calcium hydroxide to reduce the acidity of water

solution coagulate suspended particles
mortar, paint, plaster

6.5 Natural Fuel Resources And Their Importance

• Petroleum, natural gas and coal are classified as fossil fuels.

• Fossils are the remains of dead plants and animals that have been buried in the ground for
millions of years.
• Petroleum consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds consisting of hydrogen and
carbon atoms only.
• The various hydrocarbon compounds can be separated through fractional distillation.
• The different types of hydrocarbon can be distilled because they have different boiling points.
• The higher the boiling point of a petroleum fraction,
a. The darker its colour will be
b. The more viscous the fraction will be.
c. The more difficult it burns.
d. The more soot the flames produce.
• Uses of various fractions of petroleum.

Distillation Product Use

Petroleum gas For heating

Petrol As fuel at the oil refinery and for cars

Naphtha To make solvent, pesticides and as a base material in petrochemical


Kerosene As fuel for aircraft

Diesel oil As fuel for buses and taxis

Lubricants For machines

Fuel oil For ships and power stations

Bitumen For road surfacing

● Diseases of the respiratory system

Diseases Symptoms
a. Lung emphysema •shortness of breath
•the abnormal growth of the cells lining the fine air •the feeling of pain while breathing
vessels in the lungs which block the air vessels. •tiredness
•the alveoli swell and burst
b. Bronchitis •continuous coughing(smoker’s
•is the inflammation of the bronchi caused by tar and cough)
the irritants in cigarette smoke •constant breathlessness
c. Lung cancer •regular coughing
•unusual cell growths in the lungs •blood in the sputum
•carcinogen is the cause of cancer •feeling of pain while breathing
d. Asthma
•is caused by the inflammation of the breathing •shortness of breath
channel •wheezing
•breathing channel suddenly becomes narrow causing •excessive coughing
difficulty in breathing
•very sensitive to certain allergens
e. Influenza
•is caused by viruses which attack the mucus •blocked noses, teary eyes, giddiness
membranes in the respiratory system •headaches, aches in the limbs
•coughs and fever
f. Pneumonia
•is caused by bacteria, viruses and chemical •chest pains
substances •coughs and fever
•trachea and alveolus are attacked by bacteria and
•lungs are filled with pus and fluid
g. Tuberculosis
•is caused by bacterial infection (Mycobacterium •prolonged coughs and spits out
tuberculosis) blood in the end stages



• The circulatory system is a system of tubes with a pump and valves that ensure the one-way
flow of blood.
• The function of heart is to pump blood to all parts of the body.
• The heart is divided into four chambers. The upper two chambers are the right atrium and left
atrium. The lower two chambers are the right ventricle and left ventricle.
• The upper and lower chambers are divided by a muscular wall.
• The left ventricle has the thickest wall because it has to pump blood to all parts of the body.
• There are three types of valves inside the heart.
(a) The tricuspid valve is found between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
(b) The bicuspid valve is found between the left atrium and the left ventricle.
(c) The semilunar valves are situated at the beginning of the pulmonary artery and the aorta.
• The valves prevent blood from flowing backwards.
• Each chamber of the heart is connected to one or two major blood vessels.
(a) The vena cava returns blood to the right atrium.
(b) The pulmonary artery carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
(c) The pulmonary vein carries blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
(d) The aorta carries blood out of the left ventricle to all parts of the body.
• Figure below shows the structure of a heart.