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Universidad Autónoma De Nuevo León

Facultad De Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica


Materiales Compuestos II
Dr. Carlos Garza
Tarea #2
“Chapter 4: Elastic Behavior Of Composite Lamina-Macromechanics problems”

Viernes N1-N3
Equipo: “Los cinco”

Valeria Alejandra Ortiz Valerio 1626017


Jesús Josué Díaz Beltrán 1719157
Andrea Ricaño Columna 1719229
Gerardo Lizárraga Rochín 1719320
Luis Fernando Peña Segura 1719410

Fecha de entrega: 16 de febrero de 2018


Elastic Behavior of Composite Lamina-Macromechanics

4.14 Compare exact and approximate values of Young´s modulus at 45º to the fiber
direction for a carbon epoxy material having the following properties:
E1= 145 GPa (21 Msi)
E2=10.45 GPa (1.5 Msi)
G12= 6.9 GPa (1.0 Msi)
V12= 0.28
Given the basic properties we can use from the Eqs. (4.81) we obtain the following exact
relation:
1 𝑚2 𝑛2 𝑚 2 𝑛2
= (𝑚2 − 𝑛2 𝑣12 ) + (𝑛2 − 𝑚2 𝑣21 ) +
𝐸𝑥 𝐸1 𝐸2 𝐺12
If we simplify
1 1 − 𝑣12 1 − 𝑣 21 1
= + +
𝐸𝑥𝜃=45 4𝐸𝑖 4𝐸2 4𝐺12
This equation is for 45º
Then we can obtain V21
𝐸2 10.45
𝑣 21 = 𝑣 = (0.28) = 0.020
𝐸1 12 145
Then we can substitute values
1 1 − 0.28 1 − 0.20 1
= + +
𝐸𝑥 4(145) 4(10.45) 4(6.9)
1
= 0.0609 𝐺𝑃𝑎−1
𝐸𝑥
The exact solution is:
𝐸𝑥 = 16.416 𝐺𝑃𝑎
The above relation can be simplified for the case of a high stiffness composite for which
E1>E2 and v21<1. In that case we obtain the following approximate expression:
4𝐺12 𝐸2
(𝐸𝑥 )𝜃=45 ≅
𝐺12 + 𝐸2
Then we can substitute values
4(6.9)(10.45)
(𝐸𝑥 )𝜃=45 ≅
6.9 + 10.45
(𝐸𝑥 )𝜃=45 ≅ 𝟏𝟔. 𝟔𝟐𝟑 𝑮𝑷𝒂
Elastic Behavior of Composite Lamina-Macromechanics

4.16 Knowing E1, E2, G12, and v12, for a unidirectional lamina, determine (vxv)=45º , first
exactly and then using the approximation for high stiffness composites. Compare numerical
values for the carbon/epoxy material of problem 4.14.

From Eqs. (4.81) we obtain the following exact relation:

𝑣𝑥𝑦 1 1 1
( ) = (𝑣12 − 1) + (𝑣21 − 1) +
𝐸𝑥 𝜃=45º 4𝐸1 4𝐸2 4𝐺12

Then we substitute values


𝑣𝑥𝑦 1 1 1
( ) = (0.28 − 1) + (0.020 − 1) +
𝐸𝑥 𝜃=45º 4(145) 4(10.45) 4(6.9)

𝑣𝑥𝑦
( ) = 0.0115
𝐸𝑥 𝜃=45º

The exact solution is

(𝑣𝑥𝑦 )𝜃=45 = 0.189

For a high-stiffness composite, for which E1 > E2 and v21 < 1, taking into consideration the
approximate relation in Eq. (4.83), we obtain:

𝐸2 − 𝐺12
(𝑣𝑥𝑦 )𝜃=45 ≅
𝐸2 + 𝐺12
Then
10.45 − 6.9
(𝑣𝑥𝑦 )𝜃=45 ≅
10.45 + 6.9

(𝑣𝑥𝑦 )𝜃=45 ≅ 𝟎. 𝟐𝟎𝟒

This is the approximate solution.


Elastic Behavior of Composite Lamina-Macromechanics

4.18 Compare exact and approximate values of (ηsx) ϴ=45° for the material of Problem 4.14.

To obtain (nsx)=45º the following equation is used:

𝑛𝑠𝑥 2𝑚3 𝑛 2𝑚𝑛3 𝑚𝑛(𝑚2 − 𝑛2 )


( )= (1 + 𝑣12 ) − (1 + 𝑣21 ) −
𝐺𝑥𝑦 𝐸1 𝐸2 𝐺12

1
𝑚 = cosθ = cos45º =
√2
1
𝑚 = sinθ = sin45º =
√2
To obtain v21 the following expression is used:

𝐸2
𝑣21 = (𝑣 )
𝐸1 12
Solving for v21:
𝑣21 = 0.023

Gxy is needed for the proble, obtained in the next equation:

1 4𝑚2 𝑛2 4𝑚2 𝑛2 ((𝑚2 − 𝑛2 )2 )


( )= (1 + 𝑣12 ) − (1 + 𝑣12 ) −
𝐺𝑥𝑦 𝐸1 𝐸2 𝐺12

1 1 + 𝑣12 1 + 𝑣21
( )= −
𝐺𝑥𝑦 𝐸1 𝐸2

1 1 + 0.28 1 + 0.02
( ) = − = 0.10643
𝐺𝑥𝑦 𝜃=45° 145 10.45

Then (𝐺𝑥𝑦 )𝜃=45° = 9.396 𝐺𝑝𝑎


Elastic Behavior of Composite Lamina-Macromechanics

η𝑠𝑥 0.5(1 + 𝑣12 ) 0.5(1 + 𝑣12 ) 0.5(1 + 1.28) 0.5(1 + 1.02)


( ) = − = −
𝐺𝑥𝑦 𝜃=45°
𝐸1 𝐸2 145 10.45

The exact result would be:

(𝛈𝒔𝒙 )𝜽=𝟒𝟓° = (−0.0438) ∗ 9.396 = −𝟎. 𝟒𝟏𝟕 𝑬𝒙𝒂𝒄𝒕 𝒗𝒂𝒍𝒖𝒆

For the approximate value, E1 >> E2 and v21 << 1 is considered.

1 1 + 𝑣12 1 + 𝑣21 1 1
( )= − 𝑐𝑎𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑜 ( )=
𝐺𝑥𝑦 𝐸1 𝐸2 𝐺𝑥𝑦 𝐸2

So (𝐺𝑥𝑦 )𝜃=45° = 𝐸2 = 10.45 𝐺𝑝𝑎

η𝑠𝑥 0.5
( ) =−
𝐺𝑥𝑦 𝐸2
𝜃=45°

(𝛈𝒔𝒙 )𝜽=𝟒𝟓° = −𝟎. 𝟓 Approximate value


Elastic Behavior of Composite Lamina-Macromechanics

4.20 Determine Poisson’s ratio at 45° to the principal material axes of a woven glass/epoxy
composite with the following properties:
E1/E2=1.25
G12/E2=0.25
V12=0.16
V21=0.128
R:
From the transformation relations for the engineering constants, we obtain the following exact
relation:
𝜈𝑥𝑦 1 1 1
( ) = (𝜐12 − 1) + (𝜐12 − 1) +
𝐸𝑥 𝜃=45° 4𝐸1 4𝐸2 4𝐺12

𝐸1
>1 𝑇ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝐸1 > 𝐸2
𝐸2
𝐴𝑙𝑠𝑜 𝜐12 < 1
For a high-stiffness composite, for which E1>E2 and ν12 < 1, taking in consideration the approximate
relation
1 1 − 𝑉12 1 − 𝑉21 1
= + +
𝐸𝑥 4𝐸1 4𝐸2 4𝐺12
1 1 − .16 1 − .128 1 27.72
= + + =
𝐸𝑥 4(1.25𝐸2 ) 4𝐸2 4(.25𝐸2) 20𝐸2
20𝐸2
𝐸𝑥 =
27.72
4𝐺12 𝐸2
(𝐸𝑥 )𝜃=45° =
𝐺12 + 𝐸2
we obtain
𝜈𝑥𝑦 1 1 1
( ) = (𝑉12 − 1) + (𝑉21 − 1) +
𝐸𝑥 𝜃=45° 4𝐸1 4𝐸2 4𝐺12
𝜈𝑥𝑦 1 1 1
( ) = (. 16 − 1) + (. 128 − 1) +
𝐸𝑥 𝜃=45° 4(1.25𝐸2 ) 4𝐸2 4(.25𝐸2 )
12.28 12.28 20𝐸2
(𝜈𝑥𝑦 )𝜃=45° = ∗ 𝐸𝑥 = ∗
20𝐸2 20𝐸2 27.72

(𝜈𝑥𝑦 )𝜃=45° = 𝟎. 𝟒𝟒𝟑


Elastic Behavior of Composite Lamina-Macromechanics

4.22 Obtain an approximate value for Poisson's ratio 𝑉𝑥𝑦 , of an off-axis unidirectional
lamina at an angle
𝜃 = 60° to the fiber direction for a high-stiffness composite material with 𝐸1 ≫ 𝐸2 and
𝐸2 = 1.5 𝐺12 .

𝑚 = cos 𝜃 = cos 60 = 0.5


𝑛 = sin 𝜃 = sin 60 = 0.866

1 𝑚2 2− 2 𝑛2 𝑚 2 𝑛2
= (𝑚 𝑛 𝑣12 ) + (𝑛2 − 𝑚2 𝑣21 ) +
𝐸𝑥 𝐸1 𝐸2 𝐺12
Substituting values
1 0.8662 0.52 0.8662
= (0.8662− 0.52 𝑣12 ) +
𝐸𝑥 1.5𝐺12 𝐺12
𝑉21 𝐸2 𝐸2
= → 𝑉21 = 𝑉12 = 0
𝑉12 𝐸1 𝐸1
1 0.375 0.187489
= +
𝐸𝑥 𝐺12 𝐺12
𝐺12
𝐸𝑥 =
0.562489

𝑉𝑥𝑦 𝑚2 2 𝑛2 𝑚 2 𝑛2
= (𝑚 𝑣12 − 𝑛2 ) + (𝑛2 𝑣21 − 𝑚2 ) +
𝐸𝑥 𝐸1 𝐸2 𝐺12
Substituting values, we obtain:
𝑉𝑥𝑦 0.8662 0.52 0.8662
= (−0.52 ) +
𝐸𝑥 1.5𝐺12 𝐺12
Solving for 𝑉𝑥𝑦
𝐺12
0.0625
𝑉𝑥𝑦 = 0.562489
𝐺12
Substituting values

𝑉𝑥𝑦 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝟏
Elastic Behavior of Composite Lamina-Macromechanics

4.29 Determine the extreme values of the shear coupling coefficient ɳ𝑠𝑥 and
corresponding angles to the principal
material directions for a woven glass/epoxy composite with the following properties:
o 𝐸1 = 15.8 GPa (2.3 Msi)
o 𝐸2 = 12.9 GPa (1.9 Msi) Obtain an approximate value for Poisson's ratio 𝑉𝑥𝑦 , of an
off-axis unidirectional lamina at an angle
o 𝐺12 = 2.7 GPa (0.4 Msi)
o 𝑉12 = 0.16
Using the relation of the shear moduli
1 4𝑚2 𝑛2 4𝑚2 𝑛2 (𝑚2 −𝑛2 )2
= (1 + 𝑣12 ) + (1 + 𝑣12 ) +
𝐺𝑥𝑦 𝐸1 𝐸2 𝐺12

𝑚 = cos 𝜃
𝑛 = sin 𝜃
𝑉21 𝐸 𝐸
= 𝐸2 → 𝑉21 = 𝐸2 𝑉12
𝑉12 1 1

12.9 𝐺𝑃𝑎
𝑉21 = 0.16 = 0.13
15.8 𝐺𝑃𝑎

Matlab code
E1=15.8;
E2=12.9;
G12=2.27;
V12=0.16;
V21=(E1/E2)*V12;
t=0:1:90;
m=cosd(t);
m2=n.^2;
n=sind(t);
n2=n.^2;
m3=m.^3;
n3=n.3^3;
%%Substituting for the first equation on matlab
Elastic Behavior of Composite Lamina-Macromechanics

A=4*m2.*n2.*(1/E1)*(1+V12)+4*m2.*n2.*(1/E2)*(1+V12)+((m2-n2).^2)/G12;
%% for the shear moduli
Gxy=1./A;

B=2*m3.*n.*(1/E2)*(1+V12)-2*m.*n3.*(1/E2)*(1+V21)-(m.*n.*(m.^2-n.^2))/G12;
Ethasx=b.*Gxy;

The plot of Etha respect the Poisson values is the following: