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# Binary Arithmetic

Binary Arithmetic
• Basic of binary arithmetic
– Binary subtraction
– Binary multiplication
– Binary division

0 0 1 1 augend /aw-jend/

+0 +1 + 0 +1 addend
----- ------ ------ ------
0 1 1 2 sum

10
carry

## 2 doesn’t exist in binary!

KFUPM
• The four basic rules for adding digits are as
follows:
– 0+0=0  sum of 0 with a carry of 0
– 0+1=1  sum of 1 with a carry of 0
– 1+0=1  sum of 1 with a carry of 0
– 1+1=10  sum of 0 with a carry of 1

A B A+B Carry
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
Binary Subtraction
• The four basic rules for subtracting digits are
as follows:
– 0-0 = 0
– 1-1 = 0
– 1-0 = 1
– 10-1 = 1 ; 0-1 with a borrow of 1
A B A-B Borrow
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
Binary Multiplication
• The four basic rules for multiplying digits are as
follows:
– 0x0 = 0 A B A×B
– 0x1 = 0
0 0 0
– 1x0 = 0
– 1x1 = 1 0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
• Multiplication is performed with binary numbers in
the same manner as with decimal numbers.
– It involves forming partial products, shifting each
successive partial product left one place, and then adding
all the partial products.
Binary Arithmetic
Augend: 101101 Minuend: 101101

## Sum: 1010100 Difference: 000110

• Multiplication
Multiplicand 1011
Multiplier × 101
Partial Products 1011
0000 -
1011 - -
Product 110111

11 3 100 4
+11 +3 + 10 +2
110 6 110 6

111 7 110 6
+ 11 +3 +100 +4
1010 10 1010 10
Examples : Perform the binary addition of the binary
numbers 101010 and 010011:

1 0 1 0 1 0
+ 0 1 0 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 0 1

## Example: Q: How to verify?

1 111 A: Convert to decimal
carries
1100001111 783
+ 0111101010 + 490
-------------------------- -----------
sum
10011111001 1273

KFUPM
• We can also perform the binary addition on more than
two binary numbers.
A B C A+B+C Carry
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1
Example : Perform the binary addition operation on
the following three numbers: 0010, 0001, 0111

0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
+ 0 1 1 1
1 0 1 0
Binary Subtraction
• Borrow a “Base” when needed
1 2 = (10)2
0 2 2 0 0 2
1 0 0 1 1 0 1 = (77) 10
− 1 0 1 1 1 = (23) 10

0 1 1 0 1 1 0 = (54) 10

13
Binary Subtraction (by example)

11 3 11 3
-01 -1 -10 -2
10 2 01 1

101 5
-011 -3
010 2
Binary Subtraction
• Examples : Perform the binary subtraction of the
following numbers: 10101 and 01110

1 1 1
1 0 1 0 1
- 0 1 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 1
Binary Multiplication (by example)

11 3 101 5
x11 x3 x111 x7
11 9 101 35
+11 101
1001 +101
100011
Binary Multiplication
Example : Perform the binary multiplication of the decimal numbers 12 and 10.

## The equivalent binary representation of the decimal number 12 is 1100.

The equivalent binary representation of the decimal number 10 is 1010.

1 1 0 0
× 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
1 1 0 0
Binary multiplication 0 0 0 0
does not involve the 1 1 0 0
concept of carry. 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
• Subtraction
Augend: 101101 Minuend: 101101

## Sum: 1010100 Difference: 000110

• Multiplication
Multiplicand 1011
Multiplier × 101
Partial Products 1011
0000 -
1011 - -
Product 110111
Binary Division
• Division in binary follows the same procedure
as division in decimal.

10 2 11 3
11 110 3 6 10 110 2 6
11 6 10 6
000 0 10 0
10
00
Binary Division
• Examples : Perform the binary division of the decimal
numbers 18 and 8.
The equivalent binary representation of the decimal number
18 is 10010.
The equivalent binary representation of the decimal number
8 is 1000.

1 0 0 0 ) 1 0 0 1 0 ( 1 0 Quotient
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 Remainder