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Binary Arithmetic

• Basic of binary arithmetic

– Binary addition

– Binary subtraction

– Binary multiplication

– Binary division

Binary Addition

0 0 1 1 augend /aw-jend/

+0 +1 + 0 +1 addend

----- ------ ------ ------

0 1 1 2 sum

10

carry

KFUPM

Binary Addition

• The four basic rules for adding digits are as

follows:

– 0+0=0 sum of 0 with a carry of 0

– 0+1=1 sum of 1 with a carry of 0

– 1+0=1 sum of 1 with a carry of 0

– 1+1=10 sum of 0 with a carry of 1

A B A+B Carry

0 0 0 0

0 1 1 0

1 0 1 0

1 1 0 1

Binary Subtraction

• The four basic rules for subtracting digits are

as follows:

– 0-0 = 0

– 1-1 = 0

– 1-0 = 1

– 10-1 = 1 ; 0-1 with a borrow of 1

A B A-B Borrow

0 0 0 0

0 1 1 1

1 0 1 0

1 1 0 0

Binary Multiplication

• The four basic rules for multiplying digits are as

follows:

– 0x0 = 0 A B A×B

– 0x1 = 0

0 0 0

– 1x0 = 0

– 1x1 = 1 0 1 0

1 0 0

1 1 1

• Multiplication is performed with binary numbers in

the same manner as with decimal numbers.

– It involves forming partial products, shifting each

successive partial product left one place, and then adding

all the partial products.

Binary Arithmetic

• Addition • Subtraction

Augend: 101101 Minuend: 101101

Addend: +100111 Subtrahend: −100111

• Multiplication

Multiplicand 1011

Multiplier × 101

Partial Products 1011

0000 -

1011 - -

Product 110111

Binary Addition (by example)

11 3 100 4

+11 +3 + 10 +2

110 6 110 6

111 7 110 6

+ 11 +3 +100 +4

1010 10 1010 10

Binary Addition

Examples : Perform the binary addition of the binary

numbers 101010 and 010011:

1 0 1 0 1 0

+ 0 1 0 0 1 1

1 1 1 1 0 1

Binary Addition

1 111 A: Convert to decimal

carries

1100001111 783

+ 0111101010 + 490

-------------------------- -----------

sum

10011111001 1273

KFUPM

Binary Addition

• We can also perform the binary addition on more than

two binary numbers.

A B C A+B+C Carry

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1

1 1 0 0 1

1 1 1 1 1

Binary Addition

Example : Perform the binary addition operation on

the following three numbers: 0010, 0001, 0111

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

+ 0 1 1 1

1 0 1 0

Binary Subtraction

• Borrow a “Base” when needed

1 2 = (10)2

0 2 2 0 0 2

1 0 0 1 1 0 1 = (77) 10

− 1 0 1 1 1 = (23) 10

0 1 1 0 1 1 0 = (54) 10

13

Binary Subtraction (by example)

11 3 11 3

-01 -1 -10 -2

10 2 01 1

101 5

-011 -3

010 2

Binary Subtraction

• Examples : Perform the binary subtraction of the

following numbers: 10101 and 01110

1 1 1

1 0 1 0 1

- 0 1 1 1 0

0 0 1 1 1

Binary Multiplication (by example)

11 3 101 5

x11 x3 x111 x7

11 9 101 35

+11 101

1001 +101

100011

Binary Multiplication

Example : Perform the binary multiplication of the decimal numbers 12 and 10.

The equivalent binary representation of the decimal number 10 is 1010.

1 1 0 0

× 1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

1 1 0 0

Binary multiplication 0 0 0 0

does not involve the 1 1 0 0

concept of carry. 1 1 1 1 0 0 0

• Addition Binary Arithmetic

• Subtraction

Augend: 101101 Minuend: 101101

Addend: +100111 Subtrahend: −100111

• Multiplication

Multiplicand 1011

Multiplier × 101

Partial Products 1011

0000 -

1011 - -

Product 110111

Binary Division

• Division in binary follows the same procedure

as division in decimal.

10 2 11 3

11 110 3 6 10 110 2 6

11 6 10 6

000 0 10 0

10

00

Binary Division

• Examples : Perform the binary division of the decimal

numbers 18 and 8.

The equivalent binary representation of the decimal number

18 is 10010.

The equivalent binary representation of the decimal number

8 is 1000.

1 0 0 0 ) 1 0 0 1 0 ( 1 0 Quotient

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 Remainder

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