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etc. PliLXTED FOK THE AUTHOli BY THE MAIL PUBLISHING COMPANY. ByF. accompanied by personal sketches and in teresting facts of the present day.ALER'S HISTORY OF MARTINSBURG AND BERKELEY CeUNTY. Sold Only by Subscription. including a complete sketch of the late Wars. Wars and Depredations. VER. From the origin of the Indians. Price $2. early Residents. embracing their Settlements. MD.YO.00 . consisting of the past and present History of the County. Strikes. also including the Wars between the Settlers and their mode and manner of ble living. WEST VIRGINIA. Besides a variety of valua- inforinatioti.. HAGERSTOWN.Y ALER. \ / . Organi- zations. to the first White Settlement of the Valley.

r if Library West Virginia UniversW . RM.APPAL.

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress.Entered accordmg to Act of Congress. A/l Rights Reserved. by F . VE IX N O N A L E n . at Washington. in the year 1888. 6541S9 .

you will find my collections have not fallen far short* of facts. I have ventured this work on the market. County — will The present generation. . ^^ presenting tliis work to tlie pulDlic I feel that a great responsibility lias been undertaken. feeling confident that the interested class the people that have labored for our City and County— the ones that owe and feel a debt of gratitude to their forefathers for the present . prosperity and history of Berkeley County will appreciate this honest attempt. In idle wishes fools supinely stay. and that every reader interested in the growth. this soil. have been made to give a history and reminiscence of our County but as yet none had been published full and complete. It may. lie there a will. to the present day. and by information from our old citizens. meet with the harsh criticism of N — stage of their existence and welfare of the sustain me in my efforts. now enjoying the benefits of have a very small conception as to the manner in which it was settled. accompanied by a complete history of both Martinsburg and Berkeley County. until the introduction of this work. cultivated and reared to its present state of prosperity. perhaps. in various ways.PREFACE. no doubt. . It will be found to contain from the origin of the Indian and White Settlers. Several attempts. 1^^"* 1^ many but as a consolation I feel satisfied that nothing but facts have been stated. then wisdom tinds a way. — Burns. and their early warfares. but I would ask a perusal and careful examination of early history. Perhaps many may doubt the credibility of these chapters.

Curtis. Veenon Alee. To tell them of how they performed the journey of life. acted at times as my critic and rendered valuable Considerable information has been taken assistance.writing of years gone by. 11 For days. to dive into the torn and rustypages of an old Court docket some half-printed histo- — published over half a century ago or some old newspapers upon which ink "was almost invisible. and Stuart W. F. . E. an honest and earnest task. and then to scan the hand. W. Faulkries. Esq.. J. J. I only hope that you will iind little to criticise and nothing to condemn. Esq. and then the thought of the rude settlements. in the object of which I am sure you will feel interested. forms elastic with health and eyes bright with the enjoyment of life. Then I shall feel that my undertaking has been crowned with success by a non-condemnatory people in a worthy and honest purpose. Walker. To the following gentlemen. I owe a debt of gratitude for their assistance in the work of publishing this small history Senator C. interrupted now and then by the savage warfare. who W. weeks and montlis. Yours very truly. and after all lived in harmonious companionIt has been with me ship. Doll. Esq. constant and laborious work has been a theme and pleasure. in the nature and style of the means by which I have sought to accomplish it. Hoke. Berkeley's most able and respected citizens. Vanmetre. Wm. and at times into the midhour of night. Faulkner. Hon. Esq. James M.. : — ner. C. I look around me and see the young of both sexes with hearts bounding high with hope.Preface. life and civilization of our fore-parents touches the tenderest chord. that one would hardly recognize as the English language. from a small history of the valley published by Samuel Kercheval in 1833.. B. Capt. I have published this work. hand in hand..

by John W. Indian Settlements. Customs. J. Curtis) 24!) . Faulkner on Adjustment of between Virginia and Maryland VIII. Habits. CHAPTER V. Intrudiictoiy 15 CHAPTEK Origin of tlie I. Federal and Confederate. etc 82 CHAl'TEPv in.. 20!) CHAPTER XL Historical Reminiscence of Martinsburg from 1835 until the year 1801. Berkeley County laid off. The Lots laid off hy the first Commissionfil Sale of Lots. Vr. ed Sheriff. Tlieir Wars. Land Titles. to the establishment of . full War of the Rebellion. etc 25 CHAPTER First Settlements of the Valley. PAGE. Dwellings. by the late Hon.. The n. The different County. 47 the County 54 CHAPTER Martinsburg established. Happenings. Locations. The Wars between which they carried . 87 CHAPTER IX. on their Barbarism Forts F^stablislied.CONTENTS. Boundary Line 67 Historical Sketches of the early Inhabitants. tiie Report of H')U. from Lord Fairfax's tinii. The Indian Warfare..'58 the Settlers and Indians. witii etc Companies of Berkeley Names. Northern Neclc of Virginia. in CHAPTER Houses. etc. Slavery— Mode and Manner of Punishment— Freedom 200 CHAPTER The late X. Tlie Land Grants. Interesting and amusing Scenes of centuries back of our Foreparents. Diet and Dress of the early Settlers. etc.. C. Furniture. with terms to i)urchasers CHAPTER CHAPTER Charles James Faulkner VII. etc. different Tribes. and the manner IV.

Burr. CHAPTER Life of the late Hon. etc CHAPTER Present situation of the XVI. Incidents. Curiosities. James Faulkner. Lodges. A full and complete detail of the Happenings.4. etc 300 XIII. by XIV. XII.^ Natural Jlineralogy and Organizations. Charles CHAPTER Berkeley County in 1810.il4- The Churches— Organization and present Condition CHAPTER XV. 412 Biography of Martinsburg's Business Men .>(i(J Manufactories. Frank A.Cuuttnts. . Inhabitants. CHAPTER Commencing and ending of Strikes.. Col. Personal Sketches of the Enterprising Public and Professional Men of the present day 377 397 CHAPTER XVIII. . Town and County— Journalism in the County — County Court and Officials— Martinsburg Schools Ho. 13 PAGE. . etc CHAPTER XVII. Topographical Description. Towns.


INTRODUCTORY. the breast. as described by the Greek historian. put their prisoners to death by the most lingering and excruciating tor- . The Karatschatkans. whom. Berkeley County. will perhaps. fully illustrates the with scalps pendant from custom of the ancient Scythians. The ferocity of this race to their prisoners extended to the remotest part of Asia. and in Mr. from whence they originated. who carried about them at all times this savage mark of triumph. even at the time of their discovery by the Russians. From what particular part of the old world the aboriginals found their way to this continent is a question which has given rise to much disquisition among philosophical and learned historians. Snowden's History of America many able and ingenious arguments are advanced in support of this opinion. and to describe the customs of the old world. For centuries its soils were inhabited by the most barbarous races. : and sitting on a human skin. familiar to our people of the present day. carried out ?^S!k<S^ '^'^^y^^ in tlie HE the habits and customs of ages past to their fullest extent. A little image found among the Kalmucs. without doubt. prove of interest to the Mr. This is a matter. Indian origin and settlements contained following chapters will be found to em>\^ brace every imrticular trait and detail so famil'^^ iar to the race. However. will be found to be among the most historic pages of the world's history. it seems. Snowden states " The custom of scalping was a barbarism in use with the Scythians. it appears to be a settled opinion that America first received its inhabitants from Asia. however. of a Tartarian diety mounted on a horse reader.

of A race of the Scytliians were phagi. 1007. The author. 1606. Christopher Newport was sent to Virginia by the London Company with a colony of one hundred and five piersons. it is deemed an important part of this work to give a brief history of the settlement of Virginia. and entered Chesapeake Bay. and would refer the reader wishing to make a deeper research. On the 20th of December. now in North Carolina. page 57.16 Introductory. Capt. and the laws then in force. This was the first permanent settlement in . on the 10th day of April. 1. they were driven North of their destination. mems. and instructions to settle on the island However. known to throv/ the mangled limbs of their prisoners into the horrible caldron and devour them with the same quadruped. Charters to two separate companies called the "Lon- don and Plymouth Companies. After giving the foregoing brief sketch of the probable origin of the Indians in America. were granted by James I. from their feeding on human tiesh/ named AnthropoThe people Nootka Sound still make a repast on their fellow The s^avages of North America have been creatures. by stress of Roanoke. and on a beautiful peninsula commenced the settlement of Jamestown about May. will not be unacceptable to the general reader. King of England. first which vol. Among the aboriginal Americans these practices are said to be in full force at the present day. From here they ascended what they called the James River. of weather." These usages were continued for centuries. 1606." for settling colonies in Virginia. relish as those of a FIRST SETTLEMKNT OF VIRGINIA. having access to the large law libraries of Faulkner & Walker. has been enabled to gain much valuable information. to Hening's Statutes at Large. and have been described by many as of a horrid experience.

Council and two burgesses out of every town. ^'Instructions to Governor Wyatt^ : instructions dated 24th July. No law to continue or be of force till ratified by a quarter court to be held in England and returned under seal. "By the laws of England. . to have power to make orders and acts necessary wherein they are to initiate the policy of the form of government. 1621 To keep up religion of the Church of England as near as may be to be obedient to the King and do justice after the form of . the country. who are to decide all matters by the greater number of voices but the Governor is to have a negative voice. gaming .Introductory. and strengthening them against enemies. which said cliarters to the : Council are to assist the Governor in the administration of justice.' " The following is the commission to Sir Francis Wyatt. the first Governor under that ordinance and constitution. "and in the year 1619 the first legislative council was convened at Jamesto"\vn. and not to injure the natives and to forget old quarrels now buried. and Council. Alter the colony is well framed and settled. no order of quarter court in England shall bind till ratified by the General Assembly. hundred or plantation. customs. to erect the colony in obedience to his majesty and in maintaining the people in justice and christian conversation. as the company are required by their letters patent. to make up a General Assembly. 1621. The said Governor. to call a meeting of the General Assembly "T'/ie Treasvrer and Company\'i Commission to Sir Francis Wyatt. '"To be industrious and suppress drunkenness." ''Dated 24th July. manner of trial and other administration of justice used in England. Governor. then called 'James City. to advance Christianity among Indians. to be chosen by the inhabitants. laws. Yl King James granted several subsequent company for the better ordering and government of the colony." .

'To review the commissions to Sir George Yeardley. and their conditions ' . "To use means to convert the heathens. he is to deliver to Sir Francis Wyatt the imndred tenants belonging to Governor's place Yeardley' s government to expire the ISth November next. for dividing the colony into cities. "After Sir George Yeardley has gathered the present year's crop.) "To make a catalogue of the peoi)le in every plantaand of deaths. 1618. 'cil and excess in deaths not to permit any but the Coimand heads of hundreds to wear gold in their cloaths •or to wear silk till they make it themselves. and the Council. to con verse with some each town to teach some children lit for the college intended to be built. .. . and to observe all former instructions (a copy whereof was sent) and all orders of if they did not contradict the present court (made in England. of the rivers.18 Iniroduciory. secretary. . "George Saudis appointed treasurer. and the same to the execution . to the iDhysician five hundred acres and twenty tenants. dated ISth November. Governor. . persons' estat8S for the right of all cattle. . "To take care of every i^lantation upon the death of their chief not to plant above one hundred pounds of tobacco per head to sow great quantities of corn for . and then Wyatt to be published Governor to swear the . and he is to put in all orders or court about staple commodities whom is allotted fifteen hundred acres and fifty tento ants to the marshal]. viz. and cause the sec- retary to return copies of the premises once a year. Council. to punish pirato build fortresses and block-houses at the mouths cies . the same to the company's deputy the same. Sir ^Yilliara Newce. boroughs. . marriages and tion. . christenings. "Not to oilend any foreign princes. . &c.. "To take care of dead owners and keep a list ..

&c. soap. tar. . 19 own . kept clean.mills. Wm. to send the state of affairs quarterly and a duplicate next shipping. poultry. and them at the falls that they may bring their timber by the current of the water. good. that they don't miscarry again. and esi^ecially Mr. and that very . so often recommended and for which materials had been sent to make oyl of walnuts and employ apothecaries in distilling lees of beer and searching after minerals. swine. use. "A copy of the^treatise of the x)lantation business and excellent observances made by a gentleman of capacity . Norton and certain Italians sent to set up a glass house. ashes.. this being the greatest hope and expectation of the colonies. pitch. and the breaches punished according to justice. "To take care of Capt. "That all contracts in England or Virginia be performed.. which are not to be killed and to inclose lands to "Next to corn. and take care of the Frenchman and others sent about that work to try silk grass to jolant abundance of vines and take care of the vignerors sent. . dyes.. &c. "To take care of the Datcli sent to build saw.Iiitroduclory. "Tenants not to be enticed away to take care of those sent about an iron work. that the houses appointed for the reception of new-comers and public storehouses be built. John Berkeley. and send small quantities home. aud to sui:)port the . "To put prentices to trades. commodity. &c. gums and drugs. and not let them forsake their trades for planting tobacco or any such useless . particularly kyne. multitudes to be sent yearly keep cows. "To make salt. "To build saw-mills aud block-houses in every plantaseat tion.. their &c. yet. "To make small quantity of tobacco. plant mulberry trees and make silk.

"To see that the Earl of Pembroke's thirty thousand acres be very good. copies of orders. sent to survey the lands and make a map of the country. . and recommended to tlie councillors to study. but in the Assembly a negsessions and censured. who "That care be taken that there be no engrossing commodity or forestalling the market. and one of to . '•Chief officers that have tenants reprimanded for taking fees.20 is Iidroductory. ative voice. deputies. "Governor and chief as usual. &:c. a surveyor. "Governor and Council . warrants. except in cases that do belong to the marshall. or give authority to execute Council orders. treasurer. next the treasurer. officers not to let out their tenants "The Governor only to summon the Council and sign warrants and execute. appoint proper times for administration of justice. and provide for the entertainment of the Council during their session. the two dei^uties next. "The Governor to have absolute authority to determine and punish all neglects and contempts of authority except the Council. sent to lie among the records. are to be tried at the quarter Governor to have but the casting voice in Council or court. '*Mr William Clayborne. and next the marshal]. but require that the clerks have fees set for j)lanters' jmsses. to be together one whole month about state affairs and lawsuits to record plaints of consequence to keep a register of the acts of quarter sessions and send home copies. and their ]3nnishment for any offences is to serve the colony in public works. &c. "All servants to fare alike in the colony. "If a Governor dies. the major part of Council to choose one of themselves within fourteen days. but if voices be divided the Lieutenant Governor shall have the place.

'great importance. or the more i)art of them. preheminences. You shall in all things to be moved. So help you God and the holy contents of this book. or difficulty. persons. according to your lieart and conscience and shall keep secret ail matters committed and revealed to you concerning the same. before you resolve thereupon. "And lastly." The foiegoing instructions were drawn up by the Council. it by act of parliament or otherwise do as a faithful and true servant and subject ought to do. v/ere intended as the general - in all things. publication shall not be made thereof and of all matters of ' "You ' ' ' . you shall ' ' . The Governor administered the follotving oath to the Council : ' ' ' ' • ' shall swear to be a true and faithful servant unto the king's majesty. not to let ships* stay long. faithfully and truly declare your mind and opinion. as one of his Council for Yirginia. 21 fisli- "To make discoveries along the coast and lind a ery between James River and Cape Cod. all foreign ' ' princes. ' . you shall make his majesty's Privy Coun'cil acquainted therewith. "As ought to raising to set staple commodities. be and generally. the chief officers at the esiablishment examples and to aim of the colony.Introductory. and lawful successors. his heirs. or this 'Council of Virginia. and to freight them with walnut and any less valuable coii^modity. Ireated. You shall to your uttermost bear faith and * ' ' allegiance to the King's majesty. and follow their direction ' ' therein. prelates or potentates whatsoever. and debated in that Council concerning Virginia or any the territoiies of America. and authorities granted unto his majesty ' and annext unto the crowm against . and it appears. or the trades thereof. and shall assist and defend all jurisdictions. and that shall be treated secretly in that Council. betw^een the degrees of thirty-four and forty-five from the equinoctial line northward.

the Indians committed the most 22nd of March. we lind that a long continued and unabating state of hostility was kept up. as the American revolution. laws were enacted in relation to a defense against the savages. of what in interest are the extracts from Hening's Statutes at Large? would place confidence my In return I would ask. this state of peace and tranquility was changed On the into one of devastation. blood and mourning. These bloody massacres produced. directed ''that the 22nd day of March be yearly solemnized as holliday. tents of this book. x\t the legislative session of 1623. bloody massacre on the colonists recorded in the annals This year has been stated by historians of our country. and was remarkable for massacres of the colonists by the Indians. sex or dignity. About one hundred years later the Indians were driven east of the Blue Ridge Mountains. the following year. 1G22. ! In 1G23. character and customs of the early settlers of our country particularly as it relates to their sufferings and difficulties with the Indian tribes. The foregoing extracts are considered sufficient to enable the reader to form some opinion of the spirit. which were executed with the utmost subtility." to commemorate the escape of the colony from entire extiri)ation. who work without it was based . for lo after.22 principles for tlie Introductory. Some may ask. and goes far to prove their origin in our country and the veracity of the con. their origin on Berkeley soil. by statute. hence. and without any regard to age. and evidences an amicable Unfortunately state of feeling towards the natives. and accordingly. on the i^art of the whites. a most deadly and irreconcilable hatred toward the natives. the Colonial General Assembly. and scattered over the surrounding country. Tliey go were entertained that the Indians were disposed to be at peace. ' far to prove tliat liopes government of the colony. in less than one year their hopes were blasted.

and in 1777 the name of Dunmore was altered to Shenandoah. Berkeley and Dunmore were taken from Frederick in 1772. which had previously crossed the mountain and took in considerable part of what is now known as Page County. as the interests of its increasing population demanded. religion. habits. 23 on a reliable foundation % The extracts. the popular branch of Virginia Colonial Legislation was known as "The House of Burgesses. The first court held in this county was in December 1757. a period of nearly thirty years. It included all that territory composing Jeffersod County from 1772 until 1801. At a were session of the legislature. manufactures. of the jiresent day in our country and county. be noticed that Berkeley was among the earliest. to whom its allegiance was due. and many incidents happened on its soil. The county of HamxDshire was next taken from Frederick and Augusta in 1753. The "House of Burgesses." by its enactments from time to time laid off the territory into counties. before the laying off of other counties. The first court of justice was held in this county in 1743.Introductory. MartinSburg . laid off I deem the it a particular and interesting part of this work chapters in to give the dates of the establishment of these counties. and was taken from Spotsylvania in 1734. and was reduced by the laying off of Frederick in 1738. and included all the vast region of country west of the Blue Ridge mountain. Spotsylvania was laid off in 1720. Previous to that time the county of Orange included all the territory west of the mountains. will prove of much interest and enable the reader to form a quaint idea of the origin and introduction of our laws.. Frederick and Augusta about the year 1738. as following It will various ways relate to them. customs. after given a stady and careful consideration. etc. Prior to the Independence of the United States." It enacted its laws under the x)rovincial charter granted by the English government.

He laid off his own land into lots and streets. also in Berkeley County. and in honor of his act the town bears his christian name to the present day. . Middletown. the earliest of the valley. Esq. In the month of October. 1778. Charlestown (then in the county acres. by Adam Stephen. Gerard. 1786. and consisted of one hundred and thirty In October. was laid off in the month of October. 1787. (now called Gerardstown.) in the county of Berkeley.. was laid off in OcThe establishment of these towns are among tober. was established. with one hundred lots laid off by Wm.24 Introductory. Darkesville. 1791. and was laid off by Charles Washington. Jefferson) was established. of Berkeley and now the seat of justice for the county of It consisted of eighty acres. a brother of the illustrious George Washington.

a short distance below the forks. ORIGIX OF THE INDIAN SETTLEMENTS. axes. to wit. etc. Cedar Creek. human skeletons and articles of curious workmanship Indian Uiounds are are constantly being unearthed. their place of residence beino. Stony Creek and Opequon. They were engaged in these wars at the time the valley was Hrst known ])y the white p^^ople. as well as the larger Avater courses. and continued for years after the county was numerously inhabited by white settlers. There are many other places on all our water courses. we find tlie settlement of this valley and present county was commenced in the year 1732. Long and bloody wars were carried on by contending tribes of Indians known as the Delaware and Catawba tribes. yet they were strong in texture. Along these streams are to be found numerous bigns and relics at the present day. tomahawks. The two great branches of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers seem to have been the favorite jtlaces of residence of the Indians. p^ tion of conntry (Berkeley County) various tribes of Indians. scattered over the entire county. In the bank of the river. and it is appears that this entire porwas inhabited by From tbe best evidence ob- no unusuul oc- currence to hear that Indian i^ipes. are being y^t found. Their caps and pots utensils. from which the . This portion of the conntry was inhabited chiefly hy a tribe known as the Tuscarora Indians.. that exhibit evidences of ancient Indian settlements. and though the vv^orkmanship was rude. were made of a mixture of clay and shells. tained from deep researches. on Tuscarora Creek.CHAPTER p|^30M ancient history it I.

It them with great will interest and curiosity. creek derived its name. If those mounds and places of burial had been permitted to remain undisturbed. orials are rapidly disappearing.' Many of them were doubtless the work of ages. It is a fact undeniable that the greater portion of our country has been obtained by the law of force. this was the flat of Heaven. perhajos. in a state of with more rapidity than a people in a state of nature or savage life. Along tliis stream are a number of Indian graves now marked. But. perhaps. increases tion. as a matter of consoling refleccivil life. come when not a trace of But these memand the time. there are some exceptions to this arbitrary rule. However. this unfortunate race of It is in no way wonderful that people reluctantly yielded. lu the creation of this globe God probably intended it should sustain the greatest possible number of his creatures. them will remain. Several respectable individuals of the Quaker society thought it unjust to take possession of these lands.26 Origin of the Indian Settlements. they would have stood as lasting monuments in the history of our country. It was considered by the various tribes a com- . Skeletons and bones of unusual size have been turned up by the x)low. and adopted measures to efi'ect some way of compensating the Indians for their just rights. while many have been plowed down. Upon inquiry no particular tribe could be found that claimed a i)riority over the soil. And as the human familj^. and with all their force resisted the intrusion made upon their rightful and just possessions by peoi)le who were strangers to them from a foreign country. and future generations would have contemplated regret. the law of force has been generally resorted to. It appears to the author that no reflecting man can view so many burying places broken up their bones torn up with the plow— reduced to dust and scattered to the winds without feeling some — — is to be lamented for degree of melancholy another reason. and the weaker compelled to give way to the stronger.

*The people of that day numbered the month. The following is from the original copy : "ViEGi2^iA. As nature hath giv^en them and their forefathers the possession of this continent of America (or this wilderness) they had a material right thereto in justice and equity and no people. . wherefore I take this way of writing to discharge my mind of what lies weighty thereon and ''First.. I desire that you be careful (being far and back inhabitants) to keep a friendly correspondence with the native Indians. or X)urcliasing the same by agreement of parties concerned which I suppose in your case is not yet done. " Jb Friends of the Montlily Meeting at Opequon Dear friends iclio inhabit Shenandoah and Opequon : Having a concern for your welfare and prosperity. etc. and much spent and fatigued with my long journeyings in Virginia and Carolina. both now and hereafter. as woeful experience hath taught in Carolina. and also the prosperity of your children. AT John Ciieagles. and neither claimed authority to sell. which is according to the glorious gospel of our dear and holy Jesus Christ. I had a desire to see you. ought to take away or settle on other men's lands or rights without consent.Origin of the Indian Settlements. written by Thomas Chaulkley to a monthly meeting that was held on Opequon on the 21st of May. To confirm the authenticity of this statement it is deemed proper to publish the following letter. 1738. giving them no occasion of offense. according to the law of nature and justice and our own principle. they being a cruel and merciless enemy. Therefore my counsel and christian advice : . where they think they are Avronged or defrauded of their rights. and "Second. and especially in New England. . but being in years and heavy. "Thirdly. Virginia and Maryland. and is a strong evidence. makes it seem too hard for me to perform a visit in person to you. 21st May.^ 1738. 27 mon hunting ground. .

therefore -out of that agreement. The English going beyond the bounds of their agreement. contrary to our principles and if that were . If you believe yourselves to be within the of William Penn's patent from King Charles the Second. Take example of our worthy and honorable late proprietor. yet if done that will be no consideration with the Indians without a purchase from them. Consider you are in the x>rovince of Virginia. holding what rights you have under that government. bounds "Sixthly. and the Virginians have made an agreement with the natives to go as far as the mountains and no further and you are over and beyond the mountains.28 to Origin of the Indian Settlements. by which you lie open to the insults and incursions of the Southern Indians. who have destroyed many of the inhabitants of Carolina and Virginia. and through his prudent management therein hath been instiumental to plant in i^eace one of the most flourishing provinces in the world. you mj "Fourthly. AVilliam Penn. . that the most reputable to agree with and purchase your lands of the native Indians or inhabitants.) some of the blood of yourselves. which will be hard for you to prove. their wives pains':! I Who would run the risk of the lives of and children for the sparing a little cost and concerned to lay these things before you. "Fifthly. eleven of them were killed by the Indians while we were ti'aveling in Virginia. you being far southward of his line. and (if the providence of the Almighty doth not intervene. except you will go about to convince them by fire and sword. among you do with speed endeavor dear friends. and even now have destroyed more on the like occasion. am under an uncommon exercise of mind. who by his wise and religious care in that relation hath settled a lasting peace and commerce with the natives. that your new and flourishing little settlement may not be laid waste. wives or children be shed or spilt on the ground. is.

near what is now known as Apple-Pie Ridge. new "Seventhly." This good ter. you and your children and having a little eased my mind of that weight and concern (in some measure) that lay upon me. covering the lower portion of the county. 29 done they would ever be implacable enemies and the land could never be enjoyed in peace. . as witness Lancaster County. that you might sit fvery one . however. to notice in this chapter several of the wars that took place in and . man proves. Thus having shown my good will to you and to your new settlement. Historians and records give considerable evidence of X)roof that repeated purchases were made. though that is far within the grant of William Penn's patent from King Charles the Second wherefore you lie open to the insurrections of the Northern as well as Southern Indians and "Lastly. It. C. your real afraid.Origin of the Indian Settlements. lately settled. while records show that nearly all of the upper portion was purchased. under your own shady tree where none might make you and that you might prosper naturally and spiritually. *T. affords matter of curious speculation and interesting reiiection to the inquiring mind. Please to note that in Pennsylvania no settlements are made without aa agreement with the natives. in the love of onr ^6\j Lord Jesus Christ. I at present desist and subscribe myself. Tradition relates that several tracts of land were purchased by Quakers. friend. It is highly probable that the white people might have obtained possession of the soil gradually without so much loss of blood if they had first adopted and adhered to this humane and ju?t policy of purchasing the Indians' lands. through his most excellent let- that Quakers were among our earliest settlers. . and that the Indians were never known to disturb them while residing on the land so purchased. and that they were early disposed to do Justice to the natives of the country.

He replied. . "The Southern Indians Delawares and Catawbas have killed my whole nation." History states that evident signs of the truth of this tradition are yet to be seen that near the place of residence of the Senedos. Tradition relates that these two tribes of Indians exterminated a tribe called the Senedos that resided on the Shenandoah River. war and devastation We have already stated the Indians that inhabited this portion of the country were known as the Delawares and Catawba tribe. is probably one x^rincipal cause of the wars frequently carried on by x)eoi5le in a state of nature. as tradition relates. near this county.'SO Origin of the Indian Settlements. when first seen. and tortured the Catawbas to death with all the wonted barbarity and cruelty peculiar to the savage character. An aged Indian frequently visited the settlers. an Indian mound. particularly among their The glory and releaders. near this county. A party of Delaware Indians. The former. was a much larger and stronger tribe than the latter. "svas IS or 20 feet high. That nations are frequently urged to by the restless and turbulent disi:)osition so common to mankind. and on one occasion informed an old settler. that these "tribes of Indians had killed his whole nation. and asked for something to eat. and at times inflicted the most cruel punishments. with the exception of himself and one youth that this bloody slaughter took place when he (the Indian) was a small boy." From the tradition it is probable the affair took place some time shortly after the middle of the seventeenth century. — — — The Delawares were afterward in constant wars with the Catawbas. of Pennsylvania. we are told. Benjamin Allen. Tradition also relates that an old Indian visited Maj^or AndreAv Keyser's grandfather. nown (falsely so termed) of great achievements in war. . appearing to be much agitated. After refreshing himself he was asked what disturbed him. but is now ploughed down. on the north fork of the Shenandoah River. is a question of little doubt.

and he at once commanded and required all the authorities. to interpose and prohibit a repetition of such acts of baron. A barity and cruelty. near Pennsylvania. both civil and military. were slowly tortured to death. witli a female Catawba prisoner.Or ig hi of ih e India n Settlements. and during their protracted and cruel sufferings their tormentors used the most insulting language. crossed the 3 Potomac near Oldtown. This bloody tragedy soon reached the ears of the Governor of Pennsylvania. This great tribe made the last sacrifice of their Catawba number of i^risoners prisoners. place occurred a very remarkable instance of their sacriThey cruelly murdered their prisoner and moved The next day several of them returned and cut off the soles of her feet in order to prevent her from pursuing and haunting them on the march. . A short distance from this fices. in Maryland. tantalizing and threatening them with the terrible vengeance of their nation as long as they could speak.

The several families settled in the same neighborhood. handed down from one generation to another. Jobn and Isaac Vanmetre next obtained a warrant from Governor Gooch for locating 40. II. . The most authentic information.CHAPTER IpN p^ soiis-in-]aw. FIRST SETTLEMENTS OF THE VALLEY. Tbefirst settlers on this tract numbered about twenty-five. where they could find wood and water most convenient. removed from Pennsylvania. adjoining each other. They . William Duff.000 acres of land. and several others. Tradition relates that a ard. and his George Bowman. making sixteen families in all. Hite settled on the Opequon. \he year 1733. in the year 1730. from its junction with the river Shenandoah to the Alleghanoy ^Mountains.viz . Of the titles to the lands on which Hite settled. man by the name of John How- and his son. for a tract of land in the immediate neighborhood of Shepherdstown. with their families Robert McKay. . the originals are founded on In 1734 Richard Morgan obtained a grant this warrant. Jacob Chrisman and Paul Froman. Joist Hite with his family. sold or transferred part of -their warrant to Joist Hite several of Ilite's and from this warrant emanated grants. Robert Green. Peter Stephens. leads ns to believe that Hite and his partj^ of immigrants were the first settlers west of the Blue Ridge. Peter Stephens and several others settled at Stephensburg and founded the town. cutting their road from York and crossing tlie Cohongoruton"-'' about two miles above Harper's Ferry. with several other tracts in the neighborhood of Stei)hensburg. i^revious to the first settlement of our *Cohoiigoruton is the aucient Indian name of tlie Potomac.

which determined? his lordship to secure it at once in manors. running a considerable distance into the county of Jefferson. Mr. Cedar Creek. However. Notwithstanding the sellish monopoly on the part of Lord Fairfax. The two great branches of the upper forks of the Shenandoah were among our ear. and on the Ohio killed a very large buffalo. and as early as the year 1738 held regular monthly meetings on Opequon. as considerable mention made . to take leases. where the French apprehended them as suspicious characters. pretty numerous settlements were made. At an early period many immigrants settled on Gallon. Along Back Creek. to Ap)ple-Pie Ridge. and stretching his hide over ribs of wood made a kind of boat. numerous tenants were induced. which is said to be the Indian name) also on Lost river.First Settleinents of the Valley. Lord Fairfax. by the great fertility and value of the country. heard of Mr. from whence they crossed over to England. Another survey was granted. which immediately below the above lines. named Ross. They crossed the Alleghaney nionntains.* living in England at the time. by an enterprising Quaker. *Tlie reader should note in the following chapters. and made them jmsoners. 33 explorations and discovered the cliarming Son til Brancli Valley. north of Winchester. The west side of the Shenandoah below the forks were first settled by overlies and slaves. which they skinned. valley. made liest settlements. and sought an interview with him. settle and improve the lands. In iliis frail bark they descended the Ohio and Mississippi to iSTew Orleans. Howard's arrival. at the first settling of the is Lord Fairfax. Surveys were made on a warrant along the Opequon. Numerous immigrants of the Quaker ^irofession removed from Pennsylvania. The greater i:)ortion of the country between North mountain seers and the Shenandoah River. Howard gave him a descrii^tion of the fertility andi immense value of the South Branch. they were discharged. and Opequon. (anciently called Cacaphon.

bear. However. a man by the name of John Yanmetre. The Indians suddenly disapx^eared in the year 1754. and all other kinds of animals.o4 First Stiilevients of tJie Valley. that the Indians and white people resided in the same neighborhood for several years after the first settlement.) He was a kind of wandering Indian trader. in utter abhorrence the Virthey designated as "Long Knife. such as the buffalo. in the larger kinds of gam^». (the ancient Indian name of the South Branch of the Potomac. elk. and that the Indians were friendly and peaceable. whom ^ome years previous to the first settlement of the valley. The country bounded otter. the Catawbas had anticipated fine . and under his command marched to the South for the purpose of invading the Catawbas. were abundant. common to forest countries. fox. from New York. and the settlements were in a flourishing condition. The Indians did not object to the Pennsylvanians settling the country. wild fowl. Valley was one vast prairie. and crossed the Alleghaney mountains. virtuous. others. now the county of Shenandoah. The country. Settlers west of the Alleghaney moved into their midst and invited them to move off. wild-cat. and they soon found Pennsylvanians were little better than . A and became well acquainted Mdth the Delawares. between the Fort and Xorth Mountains was also settled very early. Tradition informs us of the fact. comi)any was formed among them. The settlements through the valle}^ progressed without interruption for about twenty three years. humane and benevolent but fatal experience taught them quite a different lesson. wolf. substantial dwelling houses had been erected. They believed all Penn's men to be honest. panther. beaver. During this period many good. The natives held ginians.. and alTorded the finest possible i^asturage for wild animals. discovered the country ontheWai^patomaka. etc. from the fact of "Williani Penn's treatment toAvard them. deer." and were literally opposed to their settling in the valley.

settled in Yirginia. because they had nothing to make them drunk. remarked : That before their fathers were acquainted with the whites. and the one in possession of it was imnished severely. Isaac Hite once stated.First Settlements of the Valley. Yanmetre returned to New Jersey shortly afterward. "that numerous parties of Indians in passing his grandfather's house on Opequon. ing." and the finest. to secure a part of the South Branch bottom. and in 1744 returned with his family to make a permanent settlement. the forest sui)plying them with food and raiment that before their fathers were acquainted with the white people. they ever migrated to Virginia. they never got drunk. Maj. Isaac Yanmetre. He went back to ISTew Jersey again. In the to Wlien Mr. and about the year 173G or 1737. who was about to migrate. only to find other settlers on his place. He described it as "The Trough. and that but one instance of theft was ever committed. These facts go far to show their high sense of honesty and summary justice. would call. After the chiefs had received information of a theft search was made until the article found. and never committed theft because they had no temptation It was true that when j)arties were out huntto do so. and already much progress could be noted. and found the game of the more successful party hung up. One of his sons. . one of the commissioners for running the boundary line of Indian lands in 1815-16. 35 immense York. the red x)eoi3le needed but little. took his father's advice." The Indians charge the white people with teaching them the knowledge of theft and other vices. tliem and encountered and defeated tliem witli slaugliter. and that little the Great Spirit gave them. body of land he had ever seen. and in 1740 came back. if they needed j)rovision they took it and this vras not stealing it was ' ' . An educated old Cherokee chief in a conversation with Col. Barrett. — . Tanraetre returned if Xew he advised his sons. and one pkrty was unsuccessful. Mr. that meantime a large number had settled in the neighborhood.

and vrith a knowledge of these vices they ux3hold them therefore. Land was the object of these peojile to cross the which invited the greater number mountain for as the saying . hardy and adventurous hunters. upon which Lord Fairfax highly commented at times. tance with them. hogs. with a few Tunkers.36 First Seitlements of iJie Valley. the smoke of which ascends to the Great Spirit as agreateful Now what better is your religion than ours? sacrilice. extinguish all their fires and kindle up a new one. The Hites. which grew abundantly fat in the summer season. cheat and swear. The red people meet once a year. was well founded and conveys a severe rebuke upon those wdio boast of superior advantages of the lights of education and a knowledge of the religion of God. lie. were direct from Germany. From this digression let us again turn our attention to the early settlers. Red x:)eop]e never swore. . and several from Maryland. however. A number. customs and habits of their ancestors. cattle. These immigrants brought with them the They religion. Considerable attention was given to the culture of the pea vine. religion excepted. because they had no words to express an oath. at the feast of new corn. viz: Lutherans. and were very strict in their worship. composed of native Germans or German extraction. New Jersey and New York." To say the least of this untutored old man. cattle and hogs in those days. and depended chietly for support and moneymaking on the sale of skins and furs. In 1763 many of them were giving their time and attention to rearing large herds of horses. etc. constituted three religious sects. Frys. Menonists and Calvanists. we are injured by acquain. Vanmetres and others raised vast stocks of horses. steal. his opinion. Some of them became expert. the law and custom of the tribes. The white people have taught us to get drunk. The majority of our first immigrants were principally from Pennsylvania.

and marking the bark of some one or more of them vrith the initials of tlie name of the x:)erson who made the improvement. The buildings occupied a low situation. Those who wished to make settlements on their favorite tracts of land. however small." or a sound whipping. "it was to be had here for tbe taking up. of any kind. denominated a "tomahawk right. and a pre-emption right to one thousand acres more adjoining. There was." which w-as made by deadening a few^ trees near the head of a spring. 37 then was. adjoining the tract secured by the settlement right. "that everythius: comes to the house down hill. rather than enter into quarrels with those who made them. This right was to take effect it there happened to be so much vacant land. and wlio hapi)ened to be stout veteran fellows. entitled the occupant to four hundred acres of land. AVhen annoyed by the claimants under the tomahaw^k rights." Buikling a cabin and raising a croi3 of grain.First Setihments cf the Valley." . bought u^:* the tomahawk improvements. to be secured by a land office warrant. These rights were often bought and sold. and believed that they were attended with the convenience. took a very different course fiom that of purchasing these rights. at an early period of our settlements. and gave them what was called in those days " a laced jacket. and the tops of the surrounding hills were the boundaries of tbe tracts Our forefathers to which the family mansion belonged. an inferior kind of land title. they deliberately cut a few good hickories. Other improvers of the land with a view to actual settlement. or any part thereof. were fond of farms of this description'.

3||^ who had returned to this neighborhood after the defeat of General Braddock by the French and Indians combined. to attack the fort. is situated about 12 miles from Martinsburii-. After having killed live other Indians and wounding a number. when a fierce and bloody battle was fought. raised a party of twenty men and marched out to meet the savages. and took a Mrs. living in what is now known as Frederick County. and never returned to her family. and blow up the magazine. committing on the white settlers every act of barbarous war. Fortunately. in Mary" . In the spring of the year a pa^'ty of fifty or more Indians. when one Indian was killed and the others broke and ran off. Only two of Smith' s men were killed. Horner and a girl about 13 years of age prisoners. On searching the body of the Frenchman a commission and written instructions were found in his possession to meet another party of about oO Indians at Fort Frederick*. Mrs. crossed the Alleghany Mountains. *rort Frederick land. Capt. THE INDIAN AVMRFARE. Smith killed the captain with his own hand. Previous to the defeat of this party they had committed considerable destruction of the i)roperty of the white settlers. the other jDarty of Indians were encountered low down on the North Branch of the Capon River by Capt. tlie year 1756 this whole frontier was left exposed to the incursions of the Indians and French.leremiah Smith. with a French ca^Dtain at their head.CHAPTER IPpBOUT III. the savages gave way and fled. destroy it. . Joshua Lewis. At the head of Capon River he fell in with them. Horner was the mother of seven or eight children. with a i^arty of* IS men.

Frederick and Shenandoah. and the Indians had possession of the house. The boy went back to the fort and told what had happened but the men had all turned out to bury Kelly. in the counties nov/ Berkeley. Fryatt. She then made a boy beat "to arms" on a drum. in which the neighboring people generally took shelter. near the Big These Indians took a female prisoner on the SiDriug. leaving nobody to defend the fort but the women and children. (The land on which this fort stands is now situated south o£ our town. when . Evans. which was situated three miles south of town. These Indians dispersed into small parties. met and advised her not to go to the house. A boy by the name of Hackney. was seized by the Indians and made a i3risoner. Evans armed herself. a brother to the owner of the fort but being beaten off they went in pursuit of a reinforcement. went to the house. Mr. The Indians became much alarmed at this. to join her and such as were too timid she ordered to run bullets. and went in pursuit of the Indians. ]Mrs.The Indian Warfare. killed a man by the name of Kellj^. at John Strode' s house. and called on all the women. She disregarded the advice of the boy. The Indians returned and fired the house. This massacre occurred about one mile from Gerardstown. : . same day. .) A small party of Indians attacked the dwelling house of a Mr. and carried the work of death and desolation into several neighborhoods. In their absence. The Indians then i^assed on to the present site of Martinsburg. About two miles from the latter place a stockade was built. and owned by a Mr. Sarali Gibbons. Vvdio had firmness enough to aim. as Strode's entire family had gone to the fort. About 18 or 20 of them crossed the North Mountain at Mill's Gap. and several of his family. on his way to the fort. in the county of Berkeley. and known as the John Evans fort. 39 The girl. and after firing Strode's house made a hasty retreat. Evans and his family made their escape to the fort. was a prisoner 8 or 9 years be- fore she returned home.

among were a Mr. in order to murder her. whom and took a number of prisoners. Yanmetre. Mrs. well mounted and armed. and other brothers scattered. The Indians. Colioon and wife. opened a most destructive fire. however. passed on to Opequon. and taking a position between them and their horses. retreated to the fort. Evans is the great-grandmother of our worthy and esti- mable citizen. On the following day another party joined the fort. Cohoon being unable to travel fast enough. The Indians proceeded . heard her screams. James M. The whites sei)arated in two parties. now living a short distance south of town. from thence. and then divided themselves into two parties. but however were discovered by the latter. on the South Branch of the Potomac. Mrs. Neff. Cohoon. a prisoner. After a captivity of three years. left the fort with a view to attack the Indians. party of white to tliey discovered the men just mentioned and fired upon them.ost of the people. the girl spoken of as being made a prisoner. returned to her home. and on the next morning sixteen men. The whites stood their ground with great firmness and *rort Pleasant was a strong stockade Avitli l^lock houses. her husband was forced ahead. in order to watch the fort. intending to close in upon the Indians. ere«t«d on the owned by Isaac Yanmetre. who were alarmed by the barking of a dog. massacred m. The latter finding the Indians too strong for them. and many others of her great-grand children are living at the present day. Mrs.40 The Indian Warfare. and a family of small children. The Indians cautiously moved off between the two parties of white men unobserved. six brothers. and that night as far as the vicinity of Fort Pleasant" with several prisoners. escaped to the fort and informed the inmates of the Indians whereabouts. lands formerly made his escape. At a late hour in the night. who were soon discovered by their camp fires. ]\Ir. Tillitson Evans. and the next morning attacked Neally's fort. no effect.

one was raised upon the shoulders of the other to an opening in the logs some distance above the level ot: Mr. and going to the least exposed side of the house. The Indians then retreated to the housn. Having tied his horse to a bush lie commenced salting his cattle. fence stake in front of the door. He returned vv-ith all sp^ed to the ITe vras killed by the fort and gave notice of <he defeat. of the fort were compelled to were secured by the victors. Williams hid behind a hominy block in a corner. supposing their houses might be revisited with safety. and witnessed the battle. Hearing of the approach of the Indians he repaired with his neighbors to Fort Pleasant for security. rode upon a high lidge. from which he flred at his assailants through the cracks In this vray he of the building. 41 bravery. a distance of nine miles. as opportunity off'^red. The remaining two would not give up their prey. On reaching the creek they s^^parated and Mr. Yanmetre. an old man. Just before this action commenced. who consequently did not observe their manoeuvre. Williams went to his farm alone. Williams. killed Ave out of the s^ven. Mr. and barricading the doors began flring through the windows. with seven others. W. crossed the mountain for that purpose. and a desperate and bloody conflict ensued.. Near about this year a Jilr. instantly taken. retreat. but resolved to proceed more cautiously. Three Indians fell in this conflict and several were seri- ously wounded. mounted his horse. when seven Indians stepped between him and his horse and demanded a surrender. cut in quarters corners of the baiildlng. After remaining here a few days. Seven of the wliites were killed and four wounded. His only answer was a ball from his rifle that laid one of their number low to the ground. Williams resided on Patterson's Creek. The men and their horses Indians in 17o7. and in this way the Indian shot him. Mr. Mr. His body was and hung to the four His head was stuck ui-»on a .The Indian Warfare.

but had three balls shot through his body and fell dead. a j^arty of about 50 Indians and 4 Frenchmen penetrated into the neighborhood of Mill Creek. they forced from the arms of their mothers four infant children. and left them hanging. the neighboring people took refuge in this house.42 The Indian Warfare. novt^ in this county." said his father. Painter attemi^ted to Hy. and set fire to it. They then set fire to a stable. Jacob Fisher. taken captivesi. In the year 1757. The poor little felloAV shuddered. and the Indians then dragged the dead body back to the house. taking with them about 48 prisoners. and advised him to obey. and told his father they intended to burn him. thus cruelly ajid wantonly torturing to deaili the inoffensiv^e dumb animals. IN' ear about the year 1758. After six days' travel they reached their villages west of the Alleghany mountains. divided themselves into small parties. a niimerons body of Indians crossed the Alleghany. While the house was in flam. and. burst into tears. and committing many acts of murder and destruction to property. threw it in^ plundered the house. Painter. containing a parcel of sbenp and calves. with his parents and other who was. shot them in savage sport. A council was held and determined upon to sacrifice their helpless jirisoner. Late in the afternoon they were attacked. They first ordered the boy to collect a quantity of dry wood. George Painter had" erected a large log one. The Indians then made a hasty retreat. On the alarm being given. hung them up in trees. tlien formed a trail of wood around the tree and set it on lire. as usual. This was a pretty thickly settled neighborhood. and among other houses. they cleared and smoothed a ring n round a sapling. a lad 12 or 13 years old. to which they tied him by one hand. Mr. The others surrendered. consuming the body of Mr. hovering about the different forts. "I hope not. When he had collected a sutRcient quantity of wood to answer their purpose. The poor boy was then compelled . with a commodious cellar.

that they might rob and plunder them of their valuable articles. the squaws would keep up the fire. a man was killed while watching the spring. MASSACRE AT FORT NEAI. OF BERKELEY COUNTY. The family were compelled to be witnesses of the heart-rending tragedy. they would pierce the body when he flagged. the whites were growing in strength.LY IX 175G K03IANTIC STORY OF ISABELLA STOCKTOX. whilst his infernal tormentors were drinking. This was continued for several hours. during Gov.The Indian ^Yarfare. Dunmore's reign. 1774. west of Back Creek. Charles J. About the 1st of May. and appeared in the neighborhood of the present site of Martinsburg. At Hedge's fort. Suxii303ed to be Indians they were jDursued and killed. singing. 1S75 :] "There is one incident connecteJ with the early his- . fell and expired with the most excruciating torments. About the year 1758 there were two white men who disguised themselves in the habit of Indians. Their object was to frighten x:>eoi)le to leave their homes. in June. prepared for the of their victim pur^DOse. at the University of West settlers — Virginia. numerous conflicts and bloody battles occurred between the whites and Indians. and then back until he contact with the flame. during which time the savages became beastly drunk. and as they fell prostrate to the ground. and in large numbers commenced war on the savages with marked effect. on the i^resent road from Martinsburg to Bath. With long. heli)less boy. Faulkner. These outrages of the Indians drove many of the white below the Blue Ridge. [Extract from an historical address delivered by the late Hon. and broke up the settlements through this locality. and it was no uncommon thing for scoundrels and rascals to act in this manner. until the i^oor. sharp poles. to 43 liis run around in this ring of fire until lope wound came in him up to the sajDling. and dancing around him with a horrid joy. In the years 1773-74.

by them t. on the 17th of September. She told him that . with his feelings deeply embittered against the Indians and their allies. who was ^ youth of remarkable energy and spirit.) a wealthy Canadian trader.' prove interesting to the fairer portion of my audience. made his escape and returned to his home in Berkeley County. on the Opequon Creelv. and carried them off as ca])tives to the north. that a roving band of Indians surprised that little fort and murdered and scalped all they found in it.e of Jean Baptiste Plata. about one hour before their arrival. Stocktoa. Tlie Indians seized two of these children. The uncle approved his purpose. a girl then ten years of age.44 Tlie Indian Warfare. his uncle his purpose to ask her hand in marriage. At this time there arrived from France a nephew of the trader of the nam. east of the North Mountain. and Isabelki. a young man highly educated and of the noblest and most cliivalric traits of character Living in the same house with Isabella.. in the county of Berkeley. Isabella Stockton.OG. every care on her educaiion and training which the condition of the country then permitted. after a captivity of three years. with his wife. and the young man opened the subject to Isabella. and being touched by the artless manners and prepossessing qualities of tlie child. I spoke of the massacre of Neally . the French. At sixteen years of age she had developed into a girl of extraordinary beauty and attractions. leaving their children at home. It rests upon authentic evidence. It was about daylight. On their return from this bloody work they j)assed the house of Wm. IT. had gone with his wife about two miles distant to perform the last duties to a dying neighbor. a mutual attachment soon sprang up between them. and in about one year he made known tc. a boy of fourteen years. was sokl. tory of the county in wldch I reside which may possibl. bestov\'ed. unoonscious of danger. George. George. who. after being with them something upwards of a month.Fort. who took her to his home near Montreal.

but he lingered long enough in the neighborhood to mature an arrangement with Isabella by which he might effect her escape and both return to Canada. and had been sold to his uncle. — Indians. and if her parents were still alive. .The Indian Warfare. When but ten years of age she had been torn as a captive from her i)arents b}'. not for a moment doubting that they would cordially ratify his union with their daughter He accordingly procured the necessary horses from his uncle. and she did not feel that she could. The images of her dear father and mother had been continually present to her mind from that day to this. His proposal of marriage was rejected he was even ordered to leave the house. the . slie 45 could not disguise from him lier deep attachment to but fehe felt compelled to disclose to him what she had never before breathed to any human being something of her early history. change her relations in life until she had once more revisited her home in Virginia. Her dreams had kept their faces and features as fresh and vivid in her memory as if she had seen them every day. and he delivered her into the embraces of her astonished and delighted parents.the Mm. They arrived safely in the county of Berkeley. then all the animosity of the persecuted settler sprang up in their bosoms. the young Frenchman was engaged to and desired their daughter in marriage. A Frenchman at that day was more hateful to a West Virginia backwoodsman than even a Shawnee Indian. Availing himself of the opportunity when the father and George were absent on a hunt across the Xorth Mountain. for they regarded them as the instigators and fomenters of all the coldblooded murders and barbarities which had drenched their settlements in blood. and they started on their long and perilous journey. For a few days all was gladness and But as soon as it was communicated to them that joy. to ask their consent to the proposed marriage. with satisfaction to herself. The young Frenchman promptly offered to take her to her parents.

Powerful armies of the w^hites were raised. He demanded the return of his sister. where they were detained by a sudden rise in the waters of that river. and have at last succeeded in almost terminatinor Indian existence. but the lovely Isabella. Ten years elapsed before her mind recovered its accustomed tone and vigor. for quite a lengthy period afterward the Indians continued hostile and bitter in their depredations. when the enraged father.46 The Indian Warfare. She refused to go back." However. The day after their dex)arture the father and son returned. when she married a gentleman of the name of Wm. whose temper had not been improved by a three year's servitude among the Indians. and in two minutes the brave and chivalrous Frenchman lay a bleeding corpse in the arms of the agonized Isabella. Here the furious and maddened George. and . The scene that followed was as brief as it was bloody. gave his orders to the fiery and impetuous George to go immediately in pursuit and "to bring Isabella back. overtook the astonished lovers." Meanwhile the fugitives had crossed the Potomac. Her lover interposed. they removed from Berkeley to Morgantown. McC leery. dead or alive. was brought almost a raving maniac to her fa ther" s house. and they had reached the^vest bank of the Susquehanna. in Pennsylvania. they had forded the Juniata. discovering the flight. crushed in all her earthly affections. in the county now called Lycoming. History does not inform us what disx:)Osition was made of the dead body of Jean Baptiste Plata. for he would rather see her a corpse than hear of her marriage with a Frenchman. two lovers started upon their journey northward.

The task of making new establishments in a remote wilderness. as well as ecclesiastical institutions of society. deep and lasting kind. in time of profound peace. is not attended with much difficulty. raiment. and handed down to the rising generation. But when this retrospect of things past and gone is drawn from the rec- CORRECT another. in consequence of their long continued use. food. whose conduct they direct. is sufficiently difficult but when. . give a corresponding cast to the public character of society. The municix)al. . . are obtained only in small sux)plies and with great difficulty. because snpjjlies can be readily obtained from the latter but the settlement of a country very remote from any cultivated region. jDrivations and sufferings. even when received through the dusky medium of history. FURNITURE. and the more so because in the lapse of time the observance of them becomes a matter of conscience. to is always highly interesting. science and civilization. and their progress from one condition or point of wealth. The settlement of a new country in the immediate neighborhood of an old one. . the impressions it makes on the heart are of the most vivid. DIET AND DRESS OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. and detailed view of the origin and ^J^f^ mode of living. and the implements of husbandry. those resulting from an extensive and furious warfare with savages are superadded toil. whether good or bad.CHAPTER ffvr<l IV. in addition to all the unavoidable hardships attendant on this business. ollections and experiences of old and venerable citizens. are then carried to the full extent of the capacity of men . HOUSES. is a very different thing because at the outset.

will appear like a collection of "tales of olden times. spot was selected on a piece of laud for their habita- and a day appointed for commencing tlie work of building their cabin. The Germans were more nniform in the building of their cabins. the Indian war was a Aveigh*y addition. by giving tljem shades of coloring which they did not possess. so that by the time the cabin was a few rounds high. Furniture. A tion. of the Ecirhj Settlers. ings. windows and chimney. On these logs the clapboards were placed and laj)ped over each considerable distance. the neighbors collected for the raising. whose busine^s it was to fell the trees and cut them off at proper lengths a man with his team for hanling them to the place and arranging them and a carpenter. . The following history of the poverty. The roof was formed by making the end logs shorter until a single log formed the comb of the roof. Sncli was tlie wretched condition of to endure tlieni." without any garnish of language to spoil the original portraits. Openings vrere afterward made for the door. In the meantime the boards and puncheons were collected for the floor and roof. and sometimes the foundation laid in the evening the second day was In the morning of the next day allotted for the raising. The materials for the cabin were mostly prepared on the lirst day. the rest of the comjiany furnishing th(-m with the timbers.. The first thing to be done was the election of four corner men. of our foiefathers. which were held in their proper places by logs being placed upon them.48 Houses. if he might be called such. our forefathers in making their settlements here. suffernjanners and customs. the sleepers and floor began to be laid. and to all their difficulties and privation". The fatigue party consisted of choppers. whose business it was to notch and place the logs. whose business it was to search the woods for a proper tree for making clapboards for the roof. &c. and their barn was usually the best build- — — . labors.

ing on the farm. which was often the case. the only forms of bread in use for breakfast and dinner. In the upper floor garners for holding grain were very common. bridles and very frequently the wagon or plow harness were hung up. gourds and hard. which they called "truck i)atches. with permanent benches on one side. on pack-horses. It v/as . The table was generally fixed in one corner of the stove room. in which their saddles. trenchers and noggins. Mush was frequently eaten with sweetened water. plates and spoons. but mostly of "wooden bowls. bear's oil. If the latter were scarce. molasses." and raised a variety of vegetables. Hog and hominy were proverbial for the dish of which they were the component parts. of the Early Settlers. owing to the scarcity of cattle or the want of proper pasture for them.. A piazza was a very common appendage. The iron pots. These articles of furniture corresponded very well with the articles of diet on which they w^ere emi)loyed. Every family cultivated an acre or more. The furniture for the table for several years after the settlement of this locality consisted of a few pewter dishes. at the outset of the settlement of the country. along with the salt and iron. Johnny cake and pone were. diet and dress used in those days may probably prove of interest.Houses^ Furniture. with a large cellar underneath. The natural result of this kind of rural life was to produce a hardy and vigorous race of people. <f-c. knives and forks were brought from the east side of the mountains. the substantial dish of hominy had to supply the i)lace of them. with a fine feather-bed for the covering. 49 Their dwelling houses were seldom raised more than a single story.shelled squashes made up the deficiency. lings of the early settlers. In the above has been given a description of the dweland to make mention of the furniture. At supper milk and mush were the standard dish. or the gravy of fried meat. When milk was not plenty. Their beds were filled with straw or chaff.

and particularly amongst those who were much in the habit of hunting. of the Early Selilers. In the latter years of the Indian war the young men became enamored of the Indian dress. desire a . In those days a w^edding engaged the attention of a whole neighborhood. On these accounts the first impressions of love resulted in marriage. in which will be described also the women's dress For a long time after the first settlement of this locality. Furniiure. naturally. The practice of celebrating the marriage at the house of the bride began at an early She period. A pair of moccasins answered for the feet much libetter than shoes. and were made of dressed deer skin. the dress of the men. and a few of dressed deer -skins. also given the choice to make the selection as to who was should perform the ceremony.. building a cabin. sketch of the dress adopted by the women and the younger minds will more especially desire an idea of the 'weddings of those days. The hunt'iiig skirt was universally worn. sometimes of coarse linen.BD itliis Houses. A description of the ceremony adopted will. prove very interesting. or planning some scout or campaign. and a family establishment cost nothing more than a little labor. with large sleeves and a belt. <f-c. reaching about half way down. race of people who had to meet aEcL breast the various Indian wars and the storms of the revolution. the inhabitants in general married very young. There was no distinction of rank and very little of fortune. resembled partly that of the Indian and the civilized nations. This skirt was generally made of linsey. when it is told that a wedding was almost the only gathering which was not accompanied with the labor of reaping. doubtless. This vras a kind of loose frock. log-rolling. and going on scouts and campaigns. and adopted it almost entirely. tion. On the frontiers. The reader will. and it should seem with great propriety. This is . and both old and young engaged in the frolic with eager anticipa- not to be wondered at.

moccasins. The horses were caparisoned with old saddles. of the Early Settlers.Houses. was often interrupted by the narrowness and obstructions of the horse paths. if any if there were any buckles. and an unexpected discharge of several guns took place. The gentlemen dressed in shoepacks. with a bag or blanket thrown over them— a rope or string as often constituted thegirth as a piece of leather. without a blacksmith or saddler within an equal distance. 51 the morning of the wedding day. and little more was thought or said about it. so as to cover the wedding comi^auy with smoke. Let the reader imagine an assemblage of people. and packsaddles. as they were called. On Ms and linsey hunting shirts. leather breeches. leggins. stockings. elbow. bridles or halters. of the horses. in spite of all that could be done to i^revent it. The march. coarse shoes. The ladies dressed in linsey petticoats and linsey or linen bed-gowns. and buckskin gloves. or ankle hai^pened to be spiained. and sometimes by the ill will of neighbors by felling trees and tying grape vines across the way. in double tile.. and which for certain must take place before dinner. all homemade. some were thrown to the ground . and an assemblage of horses. Sometimes. sometimes by the good. rings. for the purpose of reaching the mansion of his bride by noon. if a wrist. which was the usual time for celebrating the nuptials. . the groom and attendants assembled at the house of his father. the shrieks of the girls. family pieces from parents or grand-parents. buttons or ruffles. Furniture^ etc. they were relics of old times. within an hundred miles. Let the reader imagine the scene that followed this discharge— the sudden spring . handkerchiefs. Another ceremony commonly took place before the party reached their destination When the party were . tailor or mantuamaker. and the chivalric bustle of their partners to save them from falling. without a store. These difficulties were often increased. Sometimes an ambuscade was formed by the wayside. for there were no roads. it was tied with a handherchief.

The ceremony preceded the dinner. which was often the case. the more logs. During the hilarity the newly married couple were not forgotten. The first that reached the door was handed the prize. pork. "Black Betty.52 Houses^ Furniture. and then to each pair in succession. when logs. of the young ladies stole off the bride and put her to bed. of the Early Settlers. . with plenty of cabbage. and returned in triumph announcing his victory over his rival by a shrill whoop. After giving each a dram. bush and deep hollows. when not engaged in the dance. as these obstacles afforded an opportunity for the greater display of intrepidity and horsemanship. and as soon as discovered a deputation of young men in like manner would steal oft' the groom and place him snugly by the side of his bride. bush. the better. The bottle was always filled for the occasion^ and there was no need of judges. was obliged to offer his lap as a seat for one of the girls. After dinner dancing reels or square sets and the next morning. mudholes. potatoes and other vegetables. which was a substantial backwoods feast of beef. in point of danger to the riders and their horses. The dance still continued.. Late in the night one would remind the company that the new couple stood in need of refreshments. . to the rear of the line. two young men would single out to run for the bottle the worse the^ path. were speedily passed by the rival ponies. This would be unnoticed by the hilarious crowd. hill and glen. was nothing to this race for the bottle. etc." which was sent up the ladder. The bottle was given the groom and his attendants at the head of the troop. fowls and sometimes venison and bear meat. The bottle was then called commenced with four handed and generally lasted until About 9 or 10 o'clock a deputation jigs. he placed the bottle in his bosom and took his station in the company. every young man. within about a mile of the bride's house. The start was announced by an Indian yell. which was sure to be accepted. The English fox chase. and when seats happened to be scarce.

. big children were considered of much importance. and this expression was thought to be of a very proper and friendly wish. c&c. Some of my readers may doubt the veracity of this statement. and delighted with the fictions of poetry and the novel romance ? It is a true state of society and manners which are fast vanishing from the memory of man. not being asked to the wedding. "Here's health to the groom. and as a mode of revenge they adopted the plan of cutting off the manes. thumping luck and big children. After these ceremonies several days rest were required before they could return to their ordinary labors. bread. and is vouched for by several very old citizens You may ask why this unpleasant portrait of our forefathers has been presented ? In turn I would ask why are you pleased with the histories of the blood and carnage of battles. not forgetting myself.Ho'uses. took offense. depicted with a view to give the young people of to-day a knowledge of the advantage of civilization. pork and cabbage sufficient to afford a good meal for balf a dozen hungry men. an old history published in 1S33. During the festivity "Black Betty" was called out. and here's to the bride. that in presenting this book to the public. Furniture. It often happened that some neighbors or relations." Being in perpetual hostility Avith the Indians. and in taking a dram they would say. The feasting and dancing often lasted several days. foretops and tails of the horses of the wedding company. I have tried to give the facts as corThis extract has been sketched from rectly as possible. of the Early Settlers. 53 generally accompanied by a quantity of beef. but I would state. and on their return the race for "Black Betty" was the same as before.

Fauquier. Westmoreland. King George. Fairfax. Morgan. Hampshire. It is said that the first grant to the ancestors of Fairfax was only intended to include the territory in the Northern Neck. y/ere to be colonial government of Virginia. under what v^ere then called the King's grants. all granted to tlie ancesthe lands lying be- tween the head. Richmond. but previous to the institution . he returned to England. Hardy. Lord Fairfax V. Shenandoah. Stafford. so as to include the territory composing the present counties of Page. several individuals had obtained grants for large bodies of land west of ihe Blue Ridge. Shenandoah. Jefferson]and Frederick. Culpeper. Hardy. to grant away large quantities of . and instituted his petition in the Court of King's Bench for extending his grant into the Alleghaney mountains. east of the Blue Ridge but after Faixfax discovered that the Potomac river headed in the Alleghaney mountains. Joist Hite and his i^artners had obtained grants for a large body. Loudon. Morgan. Jefferson and Frederick. Hampshire. Berkeley. Berkeley. Page. OF VIRGINIA. from the In the compromise it was expressly stipulated that the holders of lands. Northumberland. Madison. This immense grant included the territory noAv comprising the counties of Lancaster. of Fairfax's suit. King of England.waters of the Rappahannock and Potomac Chesapeake bay. quieted in their right of possession. A compromise took place between Fairfax and the Crown.CHAPTER 1^ to tors of the late NORTHERN NECK H^HARLES II. others took it had upon himself Fairfax. under the pretext that Hite and not complied with the terms of their grants. Prince AVilliam.

and settled at what he called "Greenway-Court. in which his remains were interred. where he kep)t his land office during his life. To the church was attached a large burial ground. ing chapter. This was the begiiming of the controversy.Nortliern JSeck of Virginia. he called his servant to assist him to bed. (as observed in a precedof Fair'fax's heirs. and led to the suit instituted by the latter. alleging that 'the lands claimed by them were within the bounds of the Northern Neck. saying. This high handed proceeding on the part of his Lordship. A few years after he removed to the county of Frederick. all the parties died before the suit was decided. He had. 55 these lands to other individuals. and consequently his property. In the year 17S5 the legislature of Virginia passed an . and in the year 17S6 it was decided. which Hite and his ^Dartners instituted in the year 1736. prior to his death.) and which was paid on issuing the grant. However. To this Fairfax added and required the payment of ten shillings sterling on each fifty acres (what he termed composition money. The immense Fairfax estate has passed out of the hands The lands. The jjlaintiffs re- ceived a large amount of money for the rents and proiits. "It is time for me He never left his bed again until consigned to to die. subject to an annual rent of two shillings sterling per hundred acres. He died in the autumn of 1781." the tomb. which in the aggregate amounted to a very large sum. upon which a large stone building was erected as a j^lace of jniblic worship. very soon after the surrender of Cornwallis. made a donation to the Episcoi^al society of a lot of land." about 12 or 14 miles south-east of the i^resent Winchester. produced a law suit. In the year 1742 he opened his office in the county of Fairfax for granting out land. In the year 1736 Fairfax entered a caveat against Hite and his partners. It is stated that when he heard of the capture of Cornwallis.) were granted by Fairfax in fee simple to his tenants. and a considerable quantity of land.

Fairfax's representatives soon sold out their interest in his private estate in this country. and the late Gen. Esq. the late Kaleigh Colston. among others.000 acres. This profligate manner of granting away lands in immense bodies was unquestionably founded in the most unwise and unjust policy. Chief Justice Marshall. therefore it behooved him to be active.000 acres Patterson's Creek Manor. 9.. He had more at stake and the command of greater funds than any other individual of his day. (in relation to the the following : ^'And he it furilier enacted^ That the landhoklers within the said district of the Northern Neck shall be forever hereafter exonerated and discharged from composition and quitrents. was an attentive officer in the tim. custom or usage to the contrary notwithstanding. highsounding title of "My Lord" is no longer ax)plied to poor. Henry Lee. .e of the Indian wars. appears that Lord Fairfax. — — . It is said that he was remarkable for his eccentricities and singularity of disposition and charact^'. and various otlier tracts of land of iiimense value. any law. and it is believed there is no part of this vast landed estate remaining in the hands of any branch of the Fairfax family. among is Northern Neck. which contained about 150.000 acres South Branch Manor. instead of advancing its interests for a more rapid development. purchased the riglit of Fairfax's legatees who were then in England to what is called the Manor of Leeds. The Indian hostilities retarded the settlement of his large domain.56 act in which. and . the most of which had been leased out for long terms of lives. Nortliern A'ecJc of Virginia.) other provisions. frail It humanity. alas. the disgusting. But. It tended more to tie and bind down the speedy settlement and improvement of the country. 55. Such are the blessings of kingly governments.'This action of the State freed the peoj)le from a vexatious and troublesome taxation. and of course lessened his revenue.

he devised the estate to Gen. It is proper. Marshall. the latter having previously crossed the Blue Ridge and took in a considerable part of what is now the County of Page. before the subject of Lord Fairfax's grant is dismissed. The two counties ot Frederick and Augusta were at the session of laid off the Colonial Legislature in the year 1738. and included all the vast region of country west of the Blue Ridse. Previous to laying off the County of Orange the territory west of the Blue Ridge. Colston and Lee. Previous to that time the County of Orange included all the territory west of the mountains. Denny Martin. Denny Martin. and to take the name of Lord Fairfax. or the greater inherit his vast estate. on condition that he would apply to the Parliament of Britain for an act to authorize him This was done. vras devised to his nephew in England. BERKELEY COT^ITY LAID OFF. (after Denny Lord P'airfax. Philip Martin. B. and the devise and sale of the real estate of the late Col.fourth of the whole of the ]>resent limits of Virginia. devised the estate to two old maiden sisters. The sale of the estate of Lord Fairfax by his legatees in England. All his property. Denny Lord Fairfax. except the small part . T. a compromise took place between them and the State Government. Martin.JS'ortliern JVec/i of Virginia. 57 that insatiable passion for lioardiDg up Englisli never married. the Rev. who sold it to Messrs.) But Messrs. Orange was taken from Spotsylvania in the year 1734. and of course left no cliild to He gold. never marrying. portion of it. who. about one. is the last of the history of the Fairfax interest in the jSTorthern Neck. a territory comprising. Colston and Lee having purchased the estate. like his uncle. never lie bad an marrying and dying without issue. Marshall. to inform the reader that a few years after the war of the revolution an attempt was made to confiscate all that part of his landed estate devised to his nephew.

JacoVHite. James . which doubtless will prove of interest to the reader ''Berkeley County. Adam Stex)hen.58 Noriliern Neclc of Virginia. Robert Stephen. a Commission of the Peace and a Commission of Oyer and Terminer from his excellency Lord Dunmore dated the. and their commission for their appointment is herewith given. who have contributed towards peopling the North. which lay does not appear to have been included in any county. Thomas Swearengen.aforesaid directed to Ralph Wormley. within this short period. has been settled and improved from an entire wilderness. v/ith its millions of people. s. Within the last half century this great portion of country has poured out thousands of emigrants. 1772. East. "Be it remembered that at the house of Edward Beeson. John Briscoe. Hugh Lyle. William Little. Judging from the past. of countless millions of wealth and the abode of freedom. and that the vast region west of the Blue Ridge. the Nineteenth Day of May. It has been already stated that Frederick County was laid off in the year 1738. Thomas Ruther: ford. Samuel Washington. in Spotsylvania. s. both religious and political. what an immense prospect opens itself to our view for the future. Anno Domini 1772. Thus it appears that a little more than one hundred years ago SiDotsylvania was a frontier county. Yan Swearengen. John Heavill. as taken from the original copy now on lile in the Clerk's Office. Berkeley was taken from Frederick in the year 1772. James Hourse. South and West. The country for more than a thousand miles to the west has been. 17th Day of April in the year. The first Sheriff Avas Adam Stej)hen. rescued from a state of natural barbarism. and immigrations still continue. A number of justices were appointed for the county. and is now the seat of the line arts and sciences. who was constituted and appointed by a commission from the Governor for Berkeley County on the 18th day of April.

Robert Stogdon. Philip Pendleton and Alexander White were the first attorneys licensed to practice law in the court of the colony. of a Justice of the County Court in Chancery & of a Justice of Oyer and Terminer. who severally took the same & Repeated & SubCourt Proclaimed^ at a court held for scribed the Test Berkeley County the 19th Day of May. Seaton. TTios. whereupon the said Van Swearengen. Robert Carter Willis. and Thomas Robinson. and. Robert C. Sioearengen. William Little. In those days when courts of law were resorted to as a means of justice. Justices. James Theith. William Morgan. : Van Sioearengen.over the first court docket of this . Esq. having first taken the usual oaths to his Majesty's Person & Government repeated and subscribed the Test taken. William Little. the Oaths of a Justice of the Peace. George Brent. Willis. John Magill. William Morgan. and was ax^pointed by a commission from Thomas Nelson. Robert Stogdon. 1772. Robert Steplien. In lookino. William Drew was the first clerk of the Court. James Gent. then administered the same oaths unto Thomas Swearengen. Present . he the said Van Swearengen. James Seatou. which were administered to him by the said James House & William Little. Alexander White was appointed the first deputy attorney for this coanty under commission of the Attorney General of the colony.Northern NecTc of Virginia. Samuel Washington. James Hourse. George Johnston. James Strode. Samuel Wasliington. and the offender was dealt with in the most strict and hurried manner. & James Seaton. James Hourse. James Strode. Hohert Stogdon. it vv^as to be had at but little trouble. Gentlemen and also Dedimns's for administering Oaths. Robert Carter Willis. 59 Strode. William Morgan. directed to the same Persons or any two of them where produced and read. Robert Stephen.

<30 Northern Keck of Virginia. regardless of nature or humanity. Slavery was then carried out in its true senee. Again. . county the author could surprise the people of the present generation were he to make mention of the most cruel manner in which punishments were inflicted. it is much of a curiosity to see the manner in which the proceedings were conducted.

CHAPTER October.fT. The following is an extract from the law at the time our present city was established : "Whereas it hath been re^Dresented to this present General Assembly that Adam Stephen. iARTINSBURG was establislied in the and was named Martin. Anthony Noble. in lots and streets for a town. and pre- . Esq. Joseph Mitchell. 1778. in the previons whom mention has been made chaiiter as the last holder of the estate of this portion of country prior to its being laid off. B. James Strode. where the Court House flow stands. as by the said plan and survey. etc. hath lately laid off one hundred and thirty acres of land in the county of Berkeley. may more fully appear. tl^at the said one hundred and thirty acres of land laid out into lots and streets. trustees. relation thereunto being had. of after Col. VI.. in relation to fixing the seat of justice for this county and by which the latter lost his life. Esq.. month of MARTINSBURG ESTABLISHED. agreeable to a plan and survey thereof made containing the number of two hundred and sixty-nine lots. in the county of Jefferson. be and the same is hereby vested in James Mc Alister." Tradition relates an animated contest that took place between Sheriff Adam Stephen and Jacob Hite. William Patterson and Philip Pendleton. It may probably prove interesting to the reader : Hite contended for the location thereof on his own land at what is now called Leetown.. Be it enacted. etc. and shall be established a town by the name of Martinsburg.. Robert Carter Willis. Stephen advocated Martinsburg. gentlemen.

who was an intimate friend of and went to Carolina with Hite. called on her and warned her of the intended plot. It was afterward stated that a man by the name of Parish. He would not believe the telligence to her husband. unoffending and helpless wife and children. Hite immediately communicated the inof safety. observing "the Indians were too much attached to him to do him any injury. After they had dispatched Mr. 1779. ship for them and the many services he had rendered Their full purpose was fixed and nothing their nation.62 vailed Martinshurr/ Established. called on Hite and told him they were determined It was in vain that he pleaded his friendto kill him. On the 20th day of August. not quite grown. Mr. and all of his slaves as prisoners. a party of Indians. they took two of his daughters. Hite kept a large store and dealt largely with the Creek and Cherokee tribes. a joint at a time. cutting him to pieces. and instigated the savages to commit the murder. on moti>:3n of Adam upon it . They commenced their barbarous work by the most cruel tortures. when it was fatally too late to escape. satisfied that until Hite became so disgusted and dishe sold out his fine estate and removed to the frontier of South Carolina. grew jealous of the latter's i)opularity with the Indians. could apx)ease them but his blood and that of his innocent. for he had not long settled in that State before the Indians murdered him and several of his family in the most shocking and barbarous manner. Hite." The next morn ing. and while he was thus in the most violent agonies they barbarously murdered his wife and several of her little offspring. They also carried off what plunder they choose. Hite. and advised her to remove with her little children to a place Mrs. however. an Indian squaw who was much attached to Mrs. his wife and several of the children. His removal i)roved fatal. and their booty was considerable. armed and painted in their usual war dress. information. It is said that the evening before this bloody massacre took place.

dated from the expulsion of George. Among the early settlers a number of old commissions A were issued by prominent Governors and Lieutenant Governors of Virginia. Earl of Dunmore. was a rude log house and consisted of one story and a half. Thomas. Wise in 1859. A. to be at least twenty feet long and sixteen feet wide. Stex^lien. The first church built west of the Blue Ridge Mountain is the one standing at the present day on Tuscarora. Sheriff.Martinshurg Estahlislicd. his Majesty's Lieutenant Governor of the colony of A^irginia. tlie plat for 03 Martinsburg was ordered terms to purchasers. the young orator who rebelled against the British Ministry and stirred within the breast of the American people an . in two years from the time of purchase. erected in the middle of the Square.) and located where the present fine structure now stands. and. appointing sheriffs. situated on the land now owned by Mr. as follows ''The purchasers of any of the lots in the above town is to build on the purchased lot a good dwelling house. The building J. solidly constructed of stone and of early date. are yet standing at an age of over one hundred and fifty years. at the north end of the city. (and a very odd looking one at that. with stone or brick chimney to same. The first Court House erected was built of stone." The first court was held in the dwelling house of Edward Beeson. in 1772 to the Governorship o£ Henry A. with the Market House attached to the rear end. with proprietor. The Falling Waters church was the next. There are two x)apers signed by Patrick Henry. number of the buildings. The first jail was a log building. on failure. about two miles from the city. the lot to return to the to be recorded. justices and overseers of the iioor. From their present state there is but little doubt that they will perhaps stand the trials and tribulations of the world for centuries to come. and Vice-Admiral of the same. and presenting an air of defiance to the ravages of time.

James P.) Tillitson Tozewell and James McDowell. who must. Daniels. that I may not be buried in any church or cliurch yard. Henry A. Mohammedans or Jews. Tyler. is the following exof the revolutionary Among — tract copied from the original. from his visible attributes. the early residents were three noted generals war Horatio Gates. who afterward became President. W. This paper bears an impression of the first wax seal of the Virginia Commonwealth. 1776. Preston. Lieutenant Governor Peter V. I recommend my soul to the creator of all worlds and all creatures. whether Christians. James Barbour. John Randolph. Among the signatures of the Governors discernible were the names of Geo. Alexander Stephen and Charles Lee. and on file the County Clerk in the "I desire. who succeeded Harrison as President. Lieutenant Governor Tate.) and Robert Brooks (1799. Among the number are the wel] -known signatures of Jno. Dec. Benjamin Harrison was the signer of two commissions. be indifferent to their modes of worship or creeds from his will. by many of the Virginia pages of American history have been scattered broadcast containing their acts of heroism and traits are revered Many manliness.64 Martuisljurg Estahlished." The next was signed by Thos. Jefferson. independence that led to deeds of valor. and as an example for model simplicity but few after Presidents have ever attained to.) James Wood (1793. most earnestly. and James Monroe. Smith. Beverly Eandolph (1788. As an evidence of the wellknown eccentricity of the former. 9th. whether . Wise. office of : . (Virginia's war Governor. also afterward President. These uere dated "Council Chamber. I have kept so much bad company when living that I do not chuse to continue it when dead. or within a mile of any Presbyterian or Anabaptist meeting-house for. Among the men were statesmen and patriots whose noble people.) also sent commissions. since I have resided in this county. Williamsburg.

It is. MAJOR GENERAL CHARLES LEE. in his own hand. and there to continue till the third Friday in December next then from thence to be taken and hanged by the neck till he is dead. 1783. "Washington. Another extract is taken from the County Court records under date of Noveniber 20th. His remains lie buried upon the ju-emises of the late Hon. It is the opinion of the said Court that the said slave is worth seventy pounds. he says he is guilty. than for the color of his skin. on the south edge of town. and an aspirant for the position of Commanderin-Chief of the army. 65 as a weak mortal can no more be or less absurd answerable for his persuasions. the judgment of the Court that he be remanded back to the goal from whence he came. or not guilty. Lee was at one time a rival of Gen. It was supposed that the other portion was used to a more apj)ropriate purpose. but was advanced no further than the placing of three broad stones." The will was presented to the Berkeley County Court for record April 15th. Each one of these noted Generals was cashiered. and while the latter modestly urged upon Congress to relieve him from the resjionsibility and . Gen. : ." MAJOR GENERAL ALEXANDER STEPHEN. . more . C. J. committed to the goal of this county. 1776 "Proclamation being made for the trial of a negro man belonging to General Horatio Gates.writing. and for breaking open the cellar of the said General Gates and feloniously taking from thence a chest of money and clothes who being brought to the bar and it being demanded of him whether he was guilty of the offense whereAvith he stands charged. Geo.Martins'burg Established. A monument was commenced to his memory. notions or even scepticism in religion. therefore. Alexander Stephen for becoming drunk and neglecting to bring his troops forward to the supjDort of the balance of the army at the battle of Monmouth. Faulkner.

66 Martinali'iirg Esiahlishecl. Upon one occasion. trusting that it would be agreeable.'' when . in which Ms slaves and dogs remained. about ten miles from Martinsburg. which were ardent. This led Gen. Lee to entertain feelings of envy and hatred toward Gen. and in front was a sort of sitting or reception room. Gen. but it is excusable from : the fact that General Lee came from England and had not been a resident of the Commonwealth long enough to become addicted to the habits of the people. the next the dining-room. he would do himself the honor of dining with him on the following day. General Lee 'The County of Berkeobtained the floor and remarked be congratulated.'' the dominion exhibited by this. while your humble servant covered himself with ' : glory and laurels and was cashiered for retreating he should have been advancing. in the summer and fall of 1782. who did Gen. the back room of which was his bed-room. much to the latter' s regret. then the kitchen. after a lengthy sitting and free indulgence in the spirits. and crack jokes. Lee. Lee at this time lived his utmost to dispel them. however. You. the former. sought and failed to obtain it. distinguished yourself by getting drunk Avhen you should have remained sober. appoint some one whom lie imagined could more creditably fill the position. She can claim as citiley is indeed to zens three noted Major Generals of the revolutionary war. Stephen and Lee— were in the habit of frequently meeting at the residence of the latter. by intrigae and with importunity. he found the house closed. drink wine and compare notes of their army experience. and was cashiered for advancing when you should have been retreating. Stephen. Washington. The three heroes— Gates. wrote to him informing him that. with the intention of trying to regain the good will of Gen. and fastened to the front door was this message "No bread or bacon cooked toThere wasn't much of the boasted hospitality of day. Washington at one time. low house. Upon his arrival. in a long.

in 1832. I have directed my attention to the collection of such testimony as the lapse of time and the nature of the inquiry have enabled me to procure touching "the settlement and adjustment of the western boundary of Maryland. selected Mr. It is as follows. 6. 1832. to insert in this work the rejiort in fnll. It was then the late Hon. worked with an untiring zeal and energy. Charles James Faulkner distinguished himself.'' The division line which now — In . J.CHAPTER VII. Nov. 1832. made a most able report on "the settlement and adjustment of the western boundary Maryland. C. in taking up this interesting question. much earnestness. set up a claim to a considerable tract of territory on the north-west I border of Virginia. Faulkner. and made out in pursuance of a joint resolution of the General Assembly of this State. including a part of the Northern Neck. from the original copy of cient interest to every : ''''Report Boundary Sir : of Charles James Faulkner relatwe to the line between Virginia and Maryland : Maetinsburg. FAULKNER ON ADJUSTMENT OF THE BOUNDARY LINE BETWEEN VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND. of the 20th of March last. and on the 6th day of November. execution of a commission addressed to me by your Excellency. on behalf of Virginia." The author deems it of suffiBerkeley citizen. essary testimony. This gentleman. of Maryland. and won the respect and es- 'HE State teem of his Maryland pushed the claim with and the Executive of the State in appointing a commission to collect and embody the neci)eople. REPORT OF HON.

legislative authorities of the two States. would cause an important diminution in the It already diminished territorial area of this State. no matter at which fork it may commence. might well ex- — . Randolph and Preston. separates the two States on the west. We amounting tion of the soil. when the compact made by the Virginia and Maryland Commissioners was solemnly ratified by the . would deprive us of large portions of the counties of Hampshire. which fork of the South Branch she will elect as the new boundary. from and the character of its government resting her claims upon a less substantial basis than a stale and groundless pretension of more than a century's antiquity. commences at a point where the Fairfax stone is ph^nted. This is the boundary by which Virginia has held for near a century it is the line by which she held in 1786. at the head sx)ring of the Potomac River." I have consumed but a very inconsiderable p)ortion of my time in any labor or inquiry of that sort. but the proposed line is to run from one of the forks of the South Branch thence due north to the Pennsylvania terminus. for who indeed. now living. Hardy. could testify to any "facts or circumstances" which occurred nearly a century ago ? And if such indicite the cupidity of a a sec the quality of its population. An effort is now made by the General Assembly of Maryland.' to enlarge her territory by the establishment have not been informed of a different division line.68 Boundary Line. Although my instructions have directed my attention more particularly to the collection and preservation of the evidence of such living witnesses "as might be able to testify to any facts or circumstances in relation to the settlement and adjustment of the western boundary. and runs thence due north to the Penn- sylvania line. and which has heretofore been considered as fixed by positive adjudication and long acquaintance. Pendleton. in all to almost half a million of acres Commonwealth which. It is needless to say that the substitution of the latter line.

have been enabled to draw forth documents and papers whose interest may survive the occasion which redeemed them from sitions as to those ''facts. 78 — 81." The territory Lord Baltimore.) It is plain that the western boundary of this grant was . to was described in the grant as "that region bounded by a line drawn from Watkins's point on Chesapeake Bay to the ocean on the east thence to that part of the estuary of Delaware on the north which lieth under the 40th degree. Maryland granted by Charles I. destruction. xol. pp. where New England thence in a right line by the degree aforeis terminated said. ch. fluence. in the ascertainment of those very " facts and circumstances'' which are now sought to be made again the subjects of discussion and inquiry. with some observations showing the relevancy of the evidence to the question thus presented. In this pursuit I have succeeded far beyond what I had any ground for anticipation and from the almost forgotten rubbish of past years. wliy waste time in taking depo- which the most ample and authentic testimony was faken in 1730. . to the meridian of tlie foundation of the Potomac . viduals were 69 now living. after the most accurate and laborious surveys.'' in proof of . 1632. Ist edition. as the basis of a royal adjudication ? I have consequently deemed it of more importance to procure the original documents Avhere possible. LI. thence following its course by its farther bank to its con{MarshalV s Life of Washington. which resulted.Boundary Line. authentic copies of such papers as would serve to exhibit a connected view of the origin. progress and termination of that controversy with the Crown. if not. 1. To enable your Excellency to form a just concejjtion of the weight and importance of the evidence herewith accompanying this report. . of in June. I beg leave to submit with it a succinct statement of the question in issue between the governments of Virginia and Maryland.

from the point where it cut the 40th degree of north latitude to the fountain of the river and that the extent of the grant depended upon the question. I Whether " fortified by the opinion of eminent lawyers whom they consulted.2^. x>p. likewise shared the fate of their former petition to the privy council. it is presumed. 1606. when it was declared that Lord Baltimore should retain his patent. Stat.12. . : — resort. 4. The present claim of Maryland. at Large." there be any record of this proceeding exhave never been able to learn. and the creation of a new one within its limits.70 Boundary Line. then. and the petitioners their remedy To this remedy they never thought proper to at law. The civil war in England broke out about ten years after. xol. Subsequently to this. the meridian of the fountain of the Potomac. that application. loas utterly void. just invasion which their privileges had undergone. 2. 6 . "which was heard before the privy council (of England) in July. 58 88. must be founded ." and that the planters of Virginia presented a petition against it.) But as the Parliaments of those days were but the obsequious ministers of the Crown." {Graham'' s History. complaining of the un- Graham. and that the grant of 2Iaryland^ as derogatory to them. and who scru^oled not to assure them that the ancient patents of Virginia still remained in force. what stream was the Potomac? So that the question now in controversy grows immediately out of the grant.) And Marshall says that the grant "was the first example of the dismemberment of a colony. and the 2rZ CToarter of Maijy 1609. by the mere act of the Crown . the planters. \st Hen. we are informed by tant. sec. sec. they presented an application to the Parliament. and perhaps the journals of the proceedings of the privy council were destroyed. 1633. The territory granted to Lord Baltimore was undoubtedly within the chartered limits of Virginia {See IH Charter of Ayril.

71 on the sui^position that the stream which we call the Potomac was not . 1. to Lord Culpeper accompanies this report. a grant was to Lord Hopton and others of what is called the JSorthern Keck of A^irginia. The question. I have never been informed which fork of the South Branch she claims as the Potomac (for there is aXorth and a South fork of the South Branch) neither have I been able to learn what is the evidence. If there be anything which depends wholly upon general acceptation which ought and must be settled by prescription it is this question which of these rivers was and is the Potomac The accompanying jDapers. known for many years only as the V/a2?pacomo. For this important geographical fact I . if either. They are both . will refer to the of Virginia 'i I ascertain this fact to the satisfaction of every impartial inqui]»er. some of which are to be seen in the public libraries of Washington and Richmond. bore the name. Virginia. for it was expressly subjected to the Of this jurisdiction of the government of Virginia. but which at the date of the grant to Lord Baltimore was not known at all. numerous early maps of the chartered limits and Maryland. and when known. it is believed. The name is matter of general reputation. marked Xo. loas in fact tlie Potomac intended in the grant to Lord Baltimore. on which she relies to ascertain that the stream which is noio called the South Branch of the Potomac. or the kind of evidence. The earlier patent I believe there is no copy in original charter from James II. In the tvventy-lirst year of Charles II. and confirmed to him by This grant letters patent in the fourth year of James 11. and that the stream now called the South Branch of the Potomac. was ^7ie Potomac intended by Lord Baltimore's grant. carried with it nothing but the right of soil and the incidents of ownership.Boundary Line. which stream was the Potomac is simply a question which of them. which was sold by the other made patentees tj Lord Culpeper.

it had never been made the subject of any very accurate surveys and examinations. in which he solicits their attention to the ambiguity of the Lord proprietor's charter growing out of the fact that there were several streams which might be claimed as the head springs of Potomac River. the course of the said rivers as they are commonly called and known by the inhabitants and description of their parts and Chesapeake Bay." lowed by a petition to the King in council. recited in the colonial statute of 173C. or Upper Potomac. At this time the Potomac had been but little explored. to remove all further doubt upon that question. Code. among which he enumerates the Shenandoah. (1 Hev. and from the difficulties growing out of conflicting grants As boundaries of the Northern from Lord Fairfax and the Crown. the Keck proprietary became a subject which attracted deej:) and earnest attention. cli. in June 1730. and Quiriough alias Potomac rivers. the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia addressed a communication to the Lords commissioners of trade and plantation affairs. The tract of country thereby granted was "all that 89. and although the stream itself above its confluence with the Shenandoah was known as the Cohongoroota. territorj^ in early as 1729.72 ' Boundary Line. In June 1729." entire tract.) and parcel of land lying and being America and bounded by and within the heads of the rivers Tappahannock cdias Rai^pahannock. in consequence of the eagerness with which lands were sought on the Potomac and its tributary streams. and expresses his determination "to refuse the sus^iension of granting of jjatents. agreed to by the house of burgesses of Virginia. nor had it yet been settled by any competent authority which of its several tributaries was entitled to be regarded as the main or pricipal branch of the river. therefore. in . It became important. until the case should be fairly stated and determined according to the genuine conThis was folstruction of the proprietor's charter.

The duty which devolved upon tliem was to ascertain by actual examination and survey. who. . with all the accomrequisite preparation for the survey. preferred his petition to the King in 173H. An order to this effect was accordingly directed l^y the King and . to take depositions and affidavits. on the 26th of September.'' that much inconvenience had resulted to grantees therefrom. Lord Fairfax. to search papers and employ surveyors. among other matters of complaint.carriers. Separate reports were made by the commissioners. for running out. according to the true intent and meaning of his charter. had now succeeded to the proprietorship of the Northern Xeck. praying that his majesty would be pleased to order a commission to issue. To enable them more perfecth' to discharge the important trust confided to them. appointing surveyors. the true fountains of the Eappahannock and Potomac Rivers. and the same number on behalf of Lord Fairfax. 1736. and making every needful and They commenced and survey on the 12tli day of October. which 73 it is set forth. three commissioners were ajipointed on behalf of the Crown. marking and ascertaining the bounds of his patent.Boundary Line. by taking depositions. of the same year on which day they discovered what they marked and reported to be the lirst fountain of the Potomac River. feeling it like wise due to Ids grantees to have the question relieved from all further difficulty. and proceeded to discharge their duties. 1736.h the only daughter of Lord Culpeper. they were authorized to summon persons before them. and praj^ing the adoption of such measures as might lead to its ascertainment to 'the satisfaction of all parties interested. and other necessary attendants. The commissioners convened in Fredericksburg. "that the head springs of the Rappahannock and Potomac are not vet known to any of yonr Majesty's subjects . and finished it on the 14th of December. by his marriage wi. their journey of observation .arkers. which reports. m. chain.

properly speaking. in which they state. "that having examined into the several reports. which is nom called Cohongoroota. on the 21st of December. referred to tlie council for plantation affairs. to its confluence with the Shenandoah there being. no such stream as the North Branch of the Potomac. &c. bearing date the 27th day of September. panying documents. after hearing counsel. that within the words and meaning of the letters patent. granted by King James II. 1745. iirst rises. and the question being concerning that boundary which ought to be drawn from the first head or spring of the river Rappahannock to the lirst head or spring of the river Potomac. This rex)ort of the council for plantation affairs was submitted to the King in council on the 11th of April. from its first fountain. That board. returns. but which is recognized in Virginia. where the Fairfax stone is located. the said boundary ought to begin at the first spring of the South Branch of the river Rappahannock.'''' The Cohongoroota is known to be the stream which the Maryland writers term the North Branch of the Potomac. and that the said boundary be from thence drawn in a straight line northwest to the place in the Alleghany Mountains where thai part of the Potomac River. as likewise of Lord Fairfax. as likewise of Lord Fairfax. 1738. and described on all the maps and surveys which I have ever yet seen. in the fourth year of his reign. papers. directing the appointment of commissioners to run and work the dividing line agreeably to his decision thus made. the committee do agree humbly to report to your Majesty as their opinion. Commissioners were accordingly ap. . as the Potomac River. and having been attended by counsel on behalf of your Majesty. surveys. made a report on the 6th day of April. and fully confirmed by him.74 Boundary Line. and having heard all that they had to oii'er thereuiDon. and further order made.. plans. were. plans and other papers transmitted to them by the commissioners appointed on behalf of the Crown.

away among the records of his Majesty's privy council. Jus. at one session of her General Assembly recognizing the line as now established. &c. sen /?. the ascertainment of the first fountain of tJie Potomac River and which resulted in the establishment of that "fact" by a tribunal of competent jurisdiction. On the 17th of October. among other matters. This ^ . having provided themselves with surveyors. as under the usage of international law would bar an application of the principles of usucaption ^tl^ 'prescription. wlio. A joint report of these proceedings was made by the commissioners to the King.Boundary Line. Grotius. after a lapse of sixteen years. a proceeding which had for its object.carriers. markers. par. lib. 75 pointed. or such a continual claim. Thus terminated. I say acquiesced in.) decision has and all Jurisdiction in all cases relating to boundaries between and proprietary government. chain. from that period to the present time. as the southern point of the western boundary between Maryland and Virginia. accompanied with their field notes which report w^as received and ordered to be filed . {See Yattel. Nat. Wolfus. fluctuating legislation of Maryland upon the subject. now been acquiesced in for near a century the topographical description and sketches of the country have been made to conform to it. 8. {see comjKict of 1785. is by the common law of England exclusively vested in the King and council (1 Ves. the dominion standing it may be a question of boundary between the . commenced their journey on the ISth of September. cap. they planted the Fairfax stone at the s^^ot which had been described and marked by the preceding commissioners as the true head spring of the Potomac River. -p. and which has continued to be regarded. 1746. 251.. session Acts of 1803. 1818 and others. 2.) And notwithprovinces. for it is impossible to regard the varying. 4. 447.) at another authorizing the appointment of commissioners to adjust the boundar3^ as a grave resistance of its conclusions.

Certain it is. it is difficult now to conceive upon what ground he would have excepted to its justice or questioned its validity. Could he have said that the information upon which the decision was founded was imperfect ? Or that the proceed- — . that it no"whei e appears that he ever considered himself aggrieved by the result of that adjustment. without attracting the attention of the government of Maryland a government ever jealous because ever doubtful of the original tenure by which her charter was held. it is nevertheless the law which must now govern and control the legal aspect of the presawt territorial dispute between Virginia and Maryland. as others not parties who may yet be interested in the adjustment. But had Lord Baltimore even considered himself aggrieved by the result of that settlement. that Charles Lord Baltimore. and is presumed to act with entire impartiality and justice in reference to all persons concerned.76 Boundary Line.) Such is the theory and practice of the English Constitution and although it may not accord precisely with our improved conceptions of jnridicial practice. the then proprietor of Maryland. ih. That his government was fully apprised of what was in progress. It does not appear by the accompanying papers. could have extended through a period of sixteen years. and conducted with so much solemnity and notoriety. Crown and a Lord proprietor of a province. deputed an agent to attend ujyon Ms part in the exarni7iaiion and survey of tlie Potomac Mixer.) the King is the only judge. as well as those who are parties to the proceedingbef ore him. but all who were concerned in the purclmse of land in that section of the country. {Vesey. can scarcely admit of a rational doubt. It is possible he conceived his interests sufficiently protected in the aspect which the controversy had then assumed between Lord Fairfax and the Crow^n. (such as that between Lord Fairfax and the Crown. For it is impossible to conceive that a controversy sodeef*!^' affecting not only the interests of Lord Baltimore. .

for although it may be true that the south branch is a longer stream. for BaltitLore held by virtue of an arbitrary act of the second Charles.Boundary Line. one new province was created within the chartered limits of another by the mere act of the Crown f' But the fact is that Charles Lord Baltimore. or scrutinized with a more jealous and anxious vigilance. Could he have shown that some other stream ouglit to have been fixed upon as the true head spring of the Potomac This. p. would he have questioned the authority ol the Crown to settle the boundaries of Lord Fairfax's charter without having previously made him a party to the proceeding^ T have before shown the futility of such an idea. but from all that remains of his views and x^roceedings. loTio lived for six years after the adjustment of this question.) . 1744. 2. never did contest the i)roimety of the boundary as settled by the commissioners.) Lastly. in the "dismemberment" of her territory. This the proceeding of that board % XDreserved. but against the solemn and repeated remonstrances of her government. His grant was manifestly made in violation of the chartered rights of Virginia. Besides. it is believed. prosecuted with more labor. would contradict For never was there tlie an examination conducted with more deliberation. this would have been at once to question the authority under which he held his own grant. {See treaty loitli the'Six Nations of Indians at Lancaster in June. '"for the first time in colonial history. SS. {^See Flint's Geography^ vol.! Was she made a party to that proceeding by which. fully acquiesced in its accuracy and justice. is impossible. Was Virginia consulted '. and carried into effect not only without the acquiescence. it nevertheless wants those more important characteristics which were then consid* ered by the commissioners and have been subsequently regarded by esteemed geographers as essential in distinguishing a tributary from the main branch of a river. ings of still 17 favoritism or fraud conimissioners were characterized by haste.

in 1732. I have not been able to procure a copy of those instructions. are certain instructions from Frederick Lord of Baltimore. no of the proprietor of Maryland. in August 1753. To this circumstance. had by this time doubtless besix years. evidence of dissatisfaction with the boundary as established. sen. p. "His instructions were predicated upon the supposition that the survey might possibly have been made with the Tiiioioledge and concurrence of his predecessor. o3. and after an ineffectual struggle of Lord Baltimore was compelled Avith a bad grace to submit. To enforce submission to that decree. which the researclies of the Maryland writers have enabled them to exhibit. which could extend beyond his life {M^ Maiton' estate. which had been executed by his predecessor and the Penns.78 Boundary The first Line. I am not able to say my utmost researches having failed to furnish me with a copy of them but they were so far satisfactory to his Lordship's legal conceptions. (successor of Charles) to Governor Sharp. in 1750. the Penns filed a bill of reviver in 1754. referring to them. (1 Ves. says. was Lord Fairfax indebted forhis exemption from the further demands For Lord Frederick.. 444 46) What were the made by — — — upon a written compact as to boundaries. as to induce him to resist even the execution of a decree pronounced by Lord Hardwicke. i:)recise limitation of those conveyances the proprietors of Maryland. which were presented by the latter to his council. but a recent historian of Maryland." History of 3Iaryland. and hence he denies the 2yower of the latter to enter into any arrangement as to the houndaries. . and under which Frederick Lord Baltimore denies the power of his predecessor to enter into any arrangement as to the boundaries. ways averse to litigation. which could extend beyond his life estate. in all probability. 'pp. and abide by the arrangement as to the boundaries which had been made by his predecessor. or conclude those in remainder. and an ingenious advocate of her present claim.

ch. and the State of Maryland may have claimed. should have controverted the claim of Lord Baltimore. resting solely upon traditionary information. If Lord Baltimore or Maryland.. she has held. that is by the northern branch.Boundary come satisvlied Line. Frederick Lord Baltimore presented a petition to the king and council. and might even conclude those in remainder.) then held by the same boundary by which we now hold we held do so. being in actual possession. hopeless. the omission to can only be accounted for. Be that as it may. which petition was rejected. If Maryland ever asserted the claim seriously asserted it. I can find nothing concerning it in the archives of Virginia. or it must have been abandoned as . There was no reason why Lord Fairfax. Code. upon the supposition that they know it to be hopeless. and either has been decided against them. ' opinion prevails among some of our most distinguished jurists. and the commonwealth of Virginia constantly to this day has claimed and held by the Cohongoroota. its origin before the com2)act between the tioo states. as hopeless. or at least during it. If there ever was such a proceeding. praying a revision of the adjustment made in 1745. however. The claim must hate had. If they never controverted it. or after a short time abandoned. until ten years subsequent to the compact between Virginia and Maryland in 1785. {See 1 Bev. it is certain that ever since 1745 Lord Fairfax claimed and held. as tlie Potomac and whatever Lord Baltimore or his heirs. I mean it must have been before the revolution. — We . when we all know. or Maryland. by the same boundary. ever controverted the boundary. liis 79 that iha x>oicer of predecessor did not extend beyond liis life estate. An Be that as it may. she was jealous enough of the extended territory of Virginia. 18. that about 1761. . of March 1785. the question must. from September 1753. certain it is that the records of Maryland are silent npon the subject of this i:)retension.

any peculiar name known to and established among the English settlers for it is well known it bore the Indian name of Wappacomo. Now that very name of itself sufRciently evinces that it was regarded as a tributary stream of another river. and that river the Po tomac. . I have diligently inquired whether. . According to that sort of reasoning the Missouri. what ice called and now call the Potomac she then held to what loe call the Potomac. Is it possible to doubt that this is tJie Potomac recognized by the compact ? That compact is now 47 years old. with all the subsequent recognitions of the present boundary by the legislative acts of that State. . which Virginia claims to hold by. of course. being beyond comi:>arison the longer and larger . and the question between the two streams now for the first time presented as an original question of preference what are the facts upon which Maryland would rely to show that any other stream than the one now bearing the name is entitled to be regarded as the main branch of the Potomac X It were idle to say that the south branch is the Potomac because the south branch is a longer or even larger stream than the north branch. and that the river of which the south branch was the tributary. the stream of the now called the south branch Potomac ever had any peculiar name indexjendently of its relation to the Potomac I mean. is the to Boundary Line. above its confluence with the Mississippi. . as the Potomac above the confluence of the Shenandoah was called the Cohongoroota. — — But let us for a moment concede that the decision of the King in council was not absolutely conclusive of the present question let us concede that the long acquiescence of Maryland in that adjustment has not precluded a further discussion of its merits let us even suppose the compact of 1785 thrown out of view. L never could learn that it was known by any other name but that which it yet bears. was regarded as the main stream. the south branch of the Potomac.

rest solely 81 The claim of the south branch. Lieuten- .Boundary Line. presented as explanatory of the accompanying testimony. then. 26. which that prince asserted and maintained. secondary to that of the Potomac —tha^ the south branch lias not the general direction of that riner. lastly. as is wider than that of the south also the river broader than the other. No.eminence which the Cohongoroota has now for near a century so proudly and peacefully enjoyed.) And as they exist in an equal extent. in the grand scale of conformation. so shoald they equally confirm the pre. made on the 27th September. Is the original grant from King James II to Thomas Lord Culpeper. vol. 1. 2. No. in chronological order. lohich it joins nearly at right angles that the — valley of the branch. 2. would upon its greater length. that the and Geography of Western States. Jlissoicri. but W'hich he tells us himself he never would have thought of asserting if his father had not left him an overflowing treasury and a powerful army. No. Copy of a letter from Mayor Gooch. a list of the documents and papers referred to in my x:>receding observations. I will now lay before your excellency.) These considerations have been deemed sufficient to establish the title of "the father of waters" {See History to the name which he has so long borne. stream. With this brief historical' retrospect. And is Potomac course of the river and the direction of the same above and below the junction of the valley are the south branch. in the fourth year of his reign. The claim of Maryland to the territory in question is by no means so reasonable as the claim of the great Frederick of Prussia to Silesia. that it has a larger volume of water tliat the valley of tJce south hrancli is. {See letters accompanying this report. In opposition to this it might be said that the Cohongoroota is more frequently navigable.

5. and John Grymes^ of Brandon. ^the No. agreed >to by the house of burgesses June 30th.. Lieutenant Governor of Virginia.. 1729. with [I full povv^er.82 Boundary Line. Robert Carter. Copy of the commission from Lieutenant Governor Gooch to William Byrd. to appoint three or live.. (not exceeding conjunction with a like number to be named and deputed by the said Lord Fairfax. preferred in 1733. directing William Gooch. 6. and i:)]antations. appointing them commissioners on behalf of his Majesty. It appears by the accompanying report of their proceedings that "his lordship's commissioners delivered to the King's commissioners an attested copy of their commission. Esq. &c. June 29tli. William Fairfax and Charles Carter. marking and ascertaining the bounds of the petitioner's said tract of land. &c. John Roh- inson. of Westover . A copy of an order of his Majesty in his privy council bearing date 29th of November. ant Governor of Virginia. 1733. and his agent. No. and that there had been divers disputes between the Governor and Council in Virginia and the petitioner.. The petition of Thomas Lord Fairfax to his Majesty in council. No. and praying that his Majesty would be pleased to order a commission to issue for running out. 1730. have not been able to meet with a copy of the commission of Lord Fairfax to his commissioners— they were William Beverly. setting forth his •grants from the crown. agreeably to the terms of the patent under which who in the Lord Fairfax claims. are to survey and settle the marks and boundaries of the said district of land. to the lord's commissioners for trade dated at Williamsburg. Petition to the King in council in relation to Northern Neck grants and their boundaries. Esq." which having been found upon examination more . authority.) more commissioners. 3. of Piscataway. touching the boundaries of the petitioner' s said tract of /land.. 4. No.

Boundary Line.
ers of the


restricted in its authoritj^ than that of the commission-

Crown, gave rise to some little difficulty which was subsequently adjusted.] No. 7. Copy of the instructions on behalf of the right honorable Lord Fairfax to his commissioners. No. S. Minutes of the proceedings of the commissioners appointed on the part of his Majesty and the right honorable Thomas Lord Fairfax, from their first meeting at Fredericksburg, September 25th, 173G. No. 9. Original correspondence between the commissioners during the years 1736 and 1737, in reference to the examination and survey of the Potomac River.

No. 10. The original field notes of the survey of the Potomac River, from the mouth of the Shenandoah to the head spring of said Potomac River, by Mr. Benjamin Winslow. No. 11. The original plat of the survey of the Potomac



Original letter from

John Savage, one

of the

surveyors, dated January 17, 1737, stating the grounds up)on which the commissioners had decided in favor of the Cohongoroota over the Wappacomo as the main

branch of the Potomac. The former, he wider and deej^er than the latter.

saj^s, is


No. 13. Letter from Charles Carter, Esq., dated January 20, 1737, exhibiting the result of a comparative examination of the north and south branches of the Potomac. The north branch at its mouth, he says, is twentythree poles wide, the South branch sixteen, &c. No. 14. A printed map of the Northern Neck of Virginia, situate betwixt the rivers Potomac and Rappahannock, drawn in the year 1737, by William Mayo, one of the King's surveyors, according to his actual survey in
the preceding year. No. 15. A printed


of the courses of the rivers in Virginia, as surveyed

Rappahannock and Potomac,


Boun dary L ine.

according to order in 1736 and 1737, (supposed to be by

Lord Fairfax's surveyors.) No. 16. A copy of a separate rej^iort of the commission[I have met with ers appointed on behalf of the Crown. no copy of the separate report of Lord Fairfax's commissioners.]

No. 17. Copy of Lord Fairfax's observations upon and exceptions to the report of the commissioners of tlie Crown. No. 18. Copy of the report and opinion of the right
honorable the lords of the committee of council for plantation affairs, dated 6th April, 1745.

No. 19. The decision of his Majesty in council, made on the 11th of April, 1745, confirming the report of the
council for plantation
affairs, aiul further ordering the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia (o nominate three or more persons (not exceeding five) who, in conjunction with a like number to be named and deputed by Lord Fairfax, are to run and mark out the boundary and dividing line, according to his decision thus made.




original commission from

Thomas Lord

Fairfax to the honorable \Vm. Fairfax, Charles Carter and William Beverly, Esqs., dated 11th of June,

Joshua Fry, Col. Lunsford Lomax and Maj. Peter Hedgeman, were appointed commissioners on the
X)art of

the Crown.]

agreement entered into by the commissioners iDreparatory to their examination of the Potomac River. No. 22. The original journal of the journey of the commissioners, surveyors, &c., from the head spring of the Potomac in 1745. [This is a curious and valuable document, and gives the only authentic narrative now extant of the planting of the Fairfax stone.] No. 23. The joint report of the commissioners ap-


21. Original

Boundary Line.


pointed as well on the part of the Crown as of Lord Fairfax in obedience to his Majesty's order of 11th April,



A manuscript map of
commanded Copy of an
in 1756

Potomac River, executed by


the head spring of the George Mercer of the



act of the General

by Gen. Washington. Assembly

Maryland passed February 19th, 1819, authorizing the appointment of commissioners on the part of that State, to meet such commissioners as may be appointed for the same purpose by the Commonwealth of Virginia to settle and adjust, by mutual compact between the two governments, the western limits of that State and the Commonwealth of Virginia, to commence at the most icestern source of the north branch of the Potomac River, and to run a due north course thence to the Pennsylvania line. No. 26. Letters from intelligent and well informed individuals residing in the country watered by the Potomac and its branches, addressed to' the undersigned, stating important geographical facts bearing upon the present controversy.
referable to

my possion not listed nor head, yet growing out of and illustrating the controversy between Lord Fairfax and the Crown these are also herewith transmitted. There are other documents again not at all connected with ray present duties, which chance has thrown in my way, worthy of preservation in the archives of the State. Such, for example, as the original '' plan of the line between Virginia and, North Carolina, which loas run in the year 1728, in the spring and fall, from the sea to
There are other papers in




Peters' s Creek,

by the Hon.

Wm. Byrd, Wm. Dandridge

Fitzwilliams, Esqrs., commissioners, and Mr. Alex'r Irioine and 3Ir. Wm. Mayo, surveyors, and from Peters'' s CreeJc to Steep RocJc CreeJc, loas continued in the fall of the year, 1749, by Joshua Fry and Peter

and Richard



Boundary Line.

Such documents, should it accord with the views of your excellency, might be deposited with " the Virginia Historical and Philosophical Society," an institution of recent origin, yet founded upon the most expanded views of public utility, and which is seeking by its patriotic appeals to individual liberality, to wrest from the ravages of time the fast- perishing records and memorials of our early history and institutions. With sentiments of regard, I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, Charles. Jas. Faulkner. To John Floyd, Esq., Governor of Virginia. The controversy between the two States pended for some time after Mr. Faulkner's report, and in addition to Col. John B. D. Smith, of Frederick, and John S. Gallaher, Esq., of Jefferson, were appointed commissioners on the part of Virginia.




were prexDared and written over fifteen all of Mr. Faulkner's writings, relate in some manner to Berkeley County. Among the papers, the author found one package marked Mr. "Memorabilia" or things to be remembered. Faulkner x^repared these sketches to accompany the




years ago, and like nearly

"Berkeley Centennial Celebration," but the
was never x^ublished.



He was

General in the army of the United States. a native of England. He was with Braddock at the time of his defeat, 1755, and was shot through the

A Major

He then purchased an

estate in Berkeley County,

Virginia, ^vhere he resided until the



the American war in 1775, when he was appointed by Congress Adjutant General, with the rank of Brigadier General. The success which attended his arms in the capture of Burgoyne in October, 1777, filled America v/ith joy. Congress passed a vote of thanks, and ordered a medal of gold to be presented to him by the President. August ICth, 17S0, he was defeated by Cornwallis at


He was superceded by

1782 restored to his

General Greene, but in After peace, he retired





to his farm, called "Traveler's Rest," in


Berkeley Counwhere he remained till 1790, when he went to reside New York. He died on the 10th of April, 1806, aged

77 years.

in Paisly, Scotland, July 6th, 17G6 emigrated the United States, July 14th, 1794— settled in the County of Berkeley, now in West Virginia, shortly after his arrival, as a weaver. His residence here was marked by great x^overty, and does not seem to have left very pleasant impressions on his mind, if we may judge by the following lines extracted from one of his poems to
Farewell to Virginia— to Berkeley adieu,



like Jacob,

our days have been evil and few,

So few — they seemed

but one lengthened curse,


so bad that the Devil only could have sent worse.

He was


man of unconquerable resolution and


of enthusiastic devotion to natural science.

He had

comiDleted the seventh volume of his great work on ornitholigy before he died, and was engaged, when seized with his last illness, in collecting the materials for the eighth volume. Of the many active men whose biographies are before the public, there is not perliaj)s one


presents such heroic resolution in the pursuit He died August 23, 1813, and was buried in Philadelphia.

of science.



born in the County of Berkeley, ujDon the farm as "Retirement," near Leetown, on the 28th of May, 1792, and was the eldest son of Richard and Anastatia McSherry, who both lived and died on the estate. He was educated at an academy at Fredericktown, Maryland, then at Hagerstown, and lastly at Georgetown College, D. C, where he went through a full course of instruction. He commenced the study of medicine under







Dr. Samuel J. Creamer, a graduate of Edinburg, and a very accomplished pliysician, residing at Cliarl^stown. From thence he went to Philadelphia, and entered the office of Prof. Nathaniel Chapman, of the University of Pennsylvania, at which University he graduated in med Meantime, while attending the lectures, icine in 181C. the war of 1812 broke out, and he joined a company from his native county, and marched, to encounter our British invaders and upon the de^th of the medical officer attached to the command, he was commissioned in his place, and served as a surgeon in the army until the end of the war. Tn 1816, he commenced the itiactice of his profession in Martinsburg, and enjoyed an extensive and

lucrative practice until 1871,

when he withdrew from


He was married in January, 1817, to King, daughter of Mr. George King, Georgetown, whose family were of the early Maryland colonists. He died in Baltimore, at the residence of his son, on the 20th of December, 1873, and his remains were interred in the Catholic cemetery of Martinsburg. No man enjoyed a more enviable reputation than Dr.

Miss Ann

physician he stood in the first rank of and by constant study, kept progress with the advance of medical science. His mild and amiable temper, bland and courageous deportment to all, made him a general favorite. His reading extended beyond the scope of his professional studies, and his familiarity with history and general literature, made him at all times an agreeable companion. He was kind and charitable, and bore throughout life a reputation of unsullied



his profession


JOHN MYERS. Born in the County of Berkeley, about the year 1765, and lived all his life in the mountainous districts of the county. He was a man of striding appearance, about
six feet, four inches in height, with no superfluous flesh, and with a countenance indicating creat natural intelli-





gence and intrepid daring. His wliole life was spent in liunting bears, deer and otlier game of tlie forest. He

was universally known by the name of "Hunter John Myers." The chase was his i^astime and his means of support. His rifle was unerring in its aim, and rarely did a wolf, bear or deer escape him. There was a savage wilderness in his features, which indicated very clearly how little he had mingled in the haunts of civilized life. If he was not the original from which the novelist Cooper painted his celebrated character of Natty Bumppo, or Leather-Stocking, he has by the force of imagination
delineated with extraordinary accuracy the hunter of Berkeley. Myers, like Leather-Stocking, stands half way

between savage and

civilized life a man with all the freshness of nature about him, and whose like is only to be seen at this day, amidst the wild and unbroken

forests of the west.


died about the year 1835.



For nearly half a century this gentleman held the office deputy Sheriff of this county. Each successive senior magistrate as he attained the Sheriffalty, was pleased, as the law then stood, to farm out for a fixed compensation
the discharge of its duties to one so distinguished for his honesty and humanity as Charles D. Stewart. Few men ever passed through so protracted an official service with so little complaint of his conduct. He was prompt in the execution of process, tender, yet firm and decided, and he administered his charities so quietly and silently
that his left

hand scarcely knew what his
died of the cholera in 1854.






in England married Elizabeth Marshall, Chief Justice John Marshall purchased a large estate upon the Potomac River in the County of BerkeHe, ley, upon which he erected a handsome mansion. in conjunction with his brother-in-laws, John and James Marshall, purchased from the devisees of Thomas Lord

Was born

sister of







Fairfax, all their proiorietary rights in the Northern of Virginia. Lord Fairfax being an alien at the

period of our revolution, and the State of Virginia treating him as such, and alien creditors and landlords having acquired rights under the treaty of peace of 17S3, and Jay's treaty of 1764, much perplexity and difficulty existed in this and other counties embraced in the Northern Neck as to their land titles. These difficulties were adjuted by a compromise between those purchasers and the Commonwealth of Virginia, made on the 10th of December, 1796, by which the State confirmed the title of all persons claiming under Fairfax to the lands which had been specifically approi^riated or reserved by Lord Fairfax or his ancestors for his or their use the purchasers relinquishing their title to all the waste and unappropriated lands in the Northern Neck. Under this compromise, patents were issued without controversy for all lands not then covered by patents from Lord Fairfax. Mr. Colston was a man of literary tastes, and of large commercial information, and took an active interest in the cause of religion. On the 13th of June, 1814, he was elected president of a Bible Society then organized in the County of Berkeley, and his address to the public in support of that cause, published in the Martinsburg Gazette, of that period, is a document marked by literary ability and deej^ Christian feeling. He died in 1823, and was buried at Iloneywood, his county seat, in this county. He left a large family of sons and daughters, among whom were Edward Colston, a representative in Congress from this district Mary, a lady of extraordinary beauty and accomplishments, married to John Hanson Thomas, of Maryland, a lawyer of great genius and promise, who died in early life, and Susan, married to Benjamin Watkins Leigh, one of Virginia's distinguished sons.

of Col.

Moses Hunter, was born in Berkeley county..





When quite a young man he was appointed an officer in the United States army, and was assigned to duty on the northern frontier. He was killed on the 11th of November, 1813, near Williamsburg, on the shores of the St. Lawrence, Canada. He was advancing with great intre l^idity upon a formidable column of one of the best appointed detachments of the British Army, under a shower of musketry and grape shot scarcely ever equaled, and was exhorting his men to behave in a cool and determined manner, when he was struck by a canister shot, which in a few minutes terminated his existence.
born in Berekley County. When in his sixteenth year he ran away from home and joined a company of volunteers and served throughout the revolutionary war. He was captured at the battle of Brandy wine on the 11th of September, 1777, and was detained as a prisoner of war until the British army evacuated Philadelphia in the summer of 1778. After his exchange as a prisoner of war, although he had suffered incredible hardships during his captivity, he promptly returned to the army. He bore the rank of ensign during the war, and was appointed Navy Agent at Gasport, Virginia, by President Jefferson, and remained in office during his administration. When the old frigate Constitution was dismantled he purchased the masts, which were used in the portico of the house Avhich he built near Shejdierdstown, and which house, then the property of Edmund I. Lee, who had married his daughter, was, by order of General Hunter, burned during the late civil war. He was a man of vigorous and original mind, with a decided talent for poetical satire, and lines from some of his poems are, after a lai)se of nearly half a century, in the memory of many persons. He died at his residence near Shepherdstown in March, 1818, aged 54 years.


A captain in

ABRAHAM SHEPHERD, the revolutionary war. He volunteered






a private in June, 1775, in the Berkeley County company,

commanded by Hugh Stephenson. He was elected a lieutenant of that company in the place of Lieut. Thomas Hite, who declined the commission, and marched with the company to Boston in July, 1775. At the expiration
of its term of service,

which was one year, he was comrifle

regiment commanded by Col. Hugh Stephenson. He was very energetic in tilling his company, having enlisted out of the old company twenty men to serve for three years, and returning to Berkeley in a short time enlisted seventy- one and marched them to the tield of operations in the north. On the 4th of October, 1776, he arrived with his company at Bergen Point, opposite New York, where he found Col. Rawlings in command of the regiment, Stephenson having in the meantime died. On the 12th of Novenber he was engaged for three successive days in severe skirmishing at King's bridge. On the 16th he was engaged in a severe action with the enemy, in which Col. Rawlings and Maj. William.s were severely wounded and taken from the field, and the command of the regiment devolved npon him. Finding himself overpowered by superior numbers he returned slowly to Fort Washington, about half a mile distant from the scene of action.
missioned the senior captain in a



was ca^^tured and

all in it

made prisoners of war.

Cap. Shepherd remained a iirisoner nntil May, 1778. He then returned to Berkeley County and remained there nntil 1779. In the meantime the fifteen Virginia regiments were, by a resolve of Congress, reduced to eleven, and many of the^officers became supernumerary. Capt. Shepherd called upon Gen. Washington and claimed his right to be in active service as a senior captain in the Virginia line. Gen. Washington regretted the necessity that compelled so many valuable officers to retire as su13ernumeraries, and added that if the country should hereafter want their services they would be notified to join the army. Capt. Shepherd consequently retired





from active service as a supernumerary for the remainder of tlie war. He received a letter from Gen. Wasliington but two months before the General's death, speaking of him as a "valuable officer in the revolutionary war." He never filled any public civil employment, but was an active supporter and liberal contributor to local improvements. He died on the 7th of September, 1822, in the 60th year of his age. PHILIP NADENBOUSCH,

Born in Bedford, Pa., on the 20th of October, 1773, emigrated to Berkeley County on the 4th day of July, 1799. He was commissioned a magistrate in 1807, and was twice com^missioned sheriff of Berkeley County. He was the presiding justice of the county court for more 1863. than twenty years. He died on the nth day of He bore the reputation of an intelligent magistrate and of an upright man. LEVI HENS HAW,
Berkeley County on the 22dday of July, 1769. many years an active magistrate and member of the County Court of Berkeley, and in 1821, 1822, 1830 and 1831, was elected a member of the House of Delegates of Virginia. He was highly respected and esteemed, and died at his residence on Mill Creek in the County of Berkeley on the 9th of September, 1743. JOEL WARD Was born in the County of Berkeley on the 4tli of May, 1781. He was for many years one of the most influenThe grasp tial citizens and magistrates in the county. and power of the intellect were admitted by all who come He was in ]S19, 1820 and 1828 into contact with him. elected to the legislature from this county, and always discharged his public duties with singular fidelity and conscientiousness. He resided near Bunker Hill, on Mill Creek, where he died on the 17th of February, 1837. REV. BERNARD C. WOLFF, D. D. Was born in Martinsburg, Berkeley County about



He was


the year 1795.




the son of George Wolff, Esq., one of our most conscientious and respectable magistrates. When the writer of this sketch first became acquainted with the sou in 1822, he was working at his trade of saddler in Martinsburg, then in the 2Sth year of his age. His intelligence, extensive reading and literary attainments, were the subject of general remark while his frank and fascinating manners, social temperament public and unaffected piety, made him a universal Every enterprise looking to the educational favorite. moral and religious interests of this community found in him an ardent advocate and energetic supporter. It was therefore not a matter of surprise when it became known, that he, then in the 36th year of his age, decided to devote himself to the office of the holy ministry. After several years of preparatory study in the theological seminary of the German Reformed Church at York, Pa., he received a call to the reformed Church at Easton, in that State. In this field he labored for nine years, and in the spring of 1845 was called to take charge of the Third Reformed Church in Baltimore. A vacancy occurring in the theological seminary at Mercersburg, he was elected to fill the vacant position, and in 1854 entered upon his duties as professor of dogmatic and pastoral theology. Owing to declining health, he resigned his professorship in 1864, and removed to Lancaster city. Here he devoted much attention to the interests of FrankAbout two years before he lin and Marshall College. died, he was attacked with paralysis and his active labor on earth ceased. Gradually failing in his physical strength, but with his mental powers still active,, he calmly and peacefully dex)arted this life on the 31st day of October, 1870, while the last rays of an autumn sun was illuminating the western sky with a flood of

He was


Bernardo. Wolff' was no ordinary man. He was the model of a christian gentleman, always kind and cour-





yet lirm and decided in his i)rinciples, and untirwork. His views of the ministry were of the most exalted character, and his conduct and conversations in the life fully corresponded with his conceptions of its divine mission on earth.
ing in



born in York, Pennsylvania, on the 3rd of May, 1761. Sometime during his early boyhood his parents, came to Virginia and settled near the site of Martinsburg, on what is still known as the "Red House Farm." The precise date of his coming is unknown, but there is reason for believing that the settlement was made during the Governorship of Lord Dunmore, and before the establishment of Berkeley County in 1772. David, the youngest son of the family, acquired the rudiments of his education, in a log school house located near the present crossing of Queen and Burke streets, walking the whole Avay from his father's house (about two miles to the northward) through unbroken forests. Of his earlier life the traditions are few and vague and scarcely worth reading. He was for sometime employed as deputy assist mt in the Clerk's office of Berkely County, held by his brother, Moses Hunter, between the years 1735 and 1748. About the year 1787 or '88 he went to England on some business connected with the interests of his family, and after his return about 1792. he married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Philip Pendleton, and sister of the late Philip C. Pendleton. The county Clerkship becoming vacant by the death of his eldest brother, David Hunter, competed for the x^l^ce with Major Henry Bedinger. Bedinger was elected by the vote of the magistrate, but it being apparant that some of the electors had been controlled by improper influences,
the election was contested by Col. Hunter in the courts. After several years of litigation his case was sustained, and he was put in possession of the office in 1803, and held it until his death. About the year ISll while walk"






ing out with some friends on Stephen's Dam, he attempted fell and broke his leg, from the lame for life. Hence the cane


the Walnut Flats, near leap a narrow gulley,

effects of which he was and limp which are re-

membered by all who knew him in his latter days. As the fiow^er of his life passed during the interval


tween the Revolution and the War of 1812, Colonel Hunter was never in the military service and his title w^as jDrobably derived from a commission in the militia, and while he was one of most generally esteemed and influential men in the district, the possession of the resx)onsible and (then) lucrative Clerkship, effectually debarred him from seeking loolitical distinction, then, as now, more honorable than profitable. He was nevertheless, like most of the gentlemen of his circle at that day, a strong Federalist, and when that party rejoiced in the downfall of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1813, he was chosen to preside at a barbecue dinner given in honor of the event by the Federalists of Berkeley and adjacent Counties of VirginThis celebration took place on the ia and Maryland. 16th of September, ISl.S, at Swearengen's Spring on the Potomac River above Shepherdstown, and was cleverly caricatured as "the Cossack Celebration" in some satirical verse written by a gentleman of the opposite party, and well remembered to this day. The motives and justification of the assembly are set forth however, in a document, still extant, bearing evidences of the sincerity and ability of its framers, and well worth perusal at this
day. Colonel Hunter died on the 22nd of March, leaving a large family of sons and daughters, only one of whom it

believed, is

still living.

the traditions of his earlier life, we learn that Colonel Hunter was a person handsome, athletic and graceful, courteous and dignified in manner ; in conversation full of humorous and entertaining anecdotes, the result of travel and observation, rather than reading and






was especially remarkable for his strong sense and keen insight into character, rarely erring in his judgment of men with whom he came in contact yet kindly and generous withal leaving the

impression both in physique and character, of one of the finest types among our early settlers.

MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS SIDNEY JESSUP born in the County of Berkeley, in 1788 and entered the army in 1808 as a second lieutenant of the seventh infantry. So rapid was his promotion, that in 1812 he was brigade major, and acting adjutant general to Brigadier General Hull. In 1813 he was major of the


infantry transferred in 1814 to the 25th infantry lieutenant colonel, for distinguished and meritorious bravery in the battle of Chij^pewa, of the 5th of July, 1814. In November of the same year, he was breveted colonel for gallant conduct and distinguished skill in the battle of Niagara, of the 25th of July, On the reduc1814, in which he was severely wounded.

as brevet

infantry, and

we was retained in the first was lieutenant colonel of the third In 1818 he was appointed adjutant general infantry. with the rank of colonel and the same year, Quartermaster General, with the rank of Brigadier General and was breveted Major General in May, 1828, for ten years meritorious service. He was assigned to the command of the army in the Creek nation, Alabama, in 1836, and
of the


in 1815,

in 1817



succeeded Gen. Call in Florada on the 8th of December, 1836 was wounded in action with the Seminole Indians near Jupiter Inlet on the 24th of January, 1838 and was succeeded by Col. Z. Taylor on the 15th of May 1838 whereupon he returned to the duties of his department, which he managed with distinguished ability. He continued at the head of the Quartermaster's department of the United States, until the period of his death, which occurred on the 10th day of June, 1860. The writer of this sketch, who was himself at one time


. and upon him did the hopes of the old man repose. to gather it. with its extensive orchard of cherries was well known to every boy in Martinsburg and often has many an idle and truant urchin roused the excitable temx)er of the old hermit by pillaging his fruit before it was quite ripe. at least SO years of age. "Cockburn Hill. was born in 1775. gave a striking and picturesque appearance to the old man. In the management of the vast concerns of the Quartermaster's department. He He had two sons. covering his shoulders and reaching far down his back. east of Martinsburg. flowing white hair. dull and stupid Adam and Robert. . he added great administrative ability. Robert Cockburn. It was said. boy . When matured and proper to be eaten. Adam was a Robert the genius of the family. Jessup well. and had an ox3portunity of estimating his valuable services to the country. ROBERT COCKBURN. His long. knew Gen. he evinced great foresight. To his fine military capacity in the field. bear in honorable remembrance the services of the veteran soldier and gentleman whose name and fame will go down to posterity as a portion of the brightest military records. and his snowy beard sweeping to his waist." as it was thcD called. The son of JR. upon him by the Mexican war.Historical Pen Sketches.. 99 Chairman of the committee on military affairs of the House of Representatives. When I first knew the father he was. can only be properly apx^reciated by those who shared in its difficulA grateful country must ever ties and responsibilities. no one could be more generous and liberal than he was in the license granted . that he had been college-bred that he had been educated in the best schools in Scotland and that he had amassed a rich fund of classical lore and historical knowledge. of Cockburn Hill. but the labor developed in managing the details of the campaign in a far distant country.

He The birch and selected the vocation of a schoolmaster. disputatious.100 Historical Pen SketcJies. deemed necessary to an instructor of youth. and brimful of egotism. For e'en tho' vanquished he could argue But it was not in his character of a schoolmaster that he became entitled to be noticed in these humble sketches. No party was deemed complete unless graced by the presence of ''Bob Cockburn. He was self indulgent to his own vices. the ferule were no idle implements in his hands. too. But such a round of dissipation in those days of apple-jack and whisky when no temjierance lecturer had ever been heard of in the land in the course of a few years began to tell on the habits of the frolicsome pedagogue his nose began to blush his eyes became weary and inflamed and he soon fell under the dominion of that tyrant who has never been known to show — — — — — — mercy or comjDassion to his helpless victims. still. cotillion assemblies and corn-husking festivities. . played on the fiddle. told funny stories and extemx)orized verses for the relief of those who were amerced in poetical forfeits. 'TAvas certain Le could write aud cj-pher. for miles around. In arguiug. too. loquacious. but inexoiably severe on the peccadilloes of his pupils. pertness and conceit. a patriot as well as a X)oet at least I am justhinking so from a poem of his which I have seen in an old number of the Martinsburg Gazette and what is the only specimen of his poetical genius which Bob was tified in . terms aud tides presage Aud e'eu. He had all the learning at that period of our educational history. that he could guage. Lauds he could measure." He sang. his capacity for extemporaneous rhyming made him the hero of all apple-butter boilings. He liad an extravagant idea of liis scliolarship and of Ms poetical talents. quilting parties. the parson owned his skill. His gay. the stor}^ rau. frolicsome and social temper his familiarity with all games and pastimes at rural entertaiments. was smarr.

Hill in 1824. . to Alexandria. as his eyes suddenly failed him whilst . He vows his love declares that for years her enin most passionate terms chanting image has wholly absorbed his heart. in the Was born his father in 17SS. in protecting the sacred soil of Virginia from invasion. Portsmoujth and all the towns and cities on the Chesapeake Bay and James River were threatened by a powerful navy and military force of the enemy. Your country droops. what he shall do to assure him of the reward of his long and devoted affection for her. in JOHN R. Stephen Cooke and Catharine Esten. plies to The Tuscarora maiden. one of the gloomiest periods of our last war with Great Britian. COOKE Bermuda. The poem commences by representing a Berkeley youth deeply enamored of a charming girl dwelling on the crystal waters of the Tuscarora. Norfolk. It was written in June. the son of Dr. 101 survived "the wreck of the matter and the crash of worlds. had a x^lace called He came. Two of the finest companies from " old Berkeley " were then at the scene of battle. thence to the vicinity of Leesburg. thus rewish ray favor a patriot If j'ou siucei'ely Then you possess Nor mind to save lier. him in the-spirit of Boadicea." his i:)arents. 1818. encountering the pestilential air of the swamps of Norfolk. and the fire of the enemy. linger liere beliind. pillage and murder." I can only take a short extract from it.Historical lias Pen Sketches. Hear the inspiring shouts of praise — On to glory ! — loud they call you lot I See youthful heroes crowned with bays Their envied may yet befall you. and asks in a delirium of despair. where never He went to college. advance sigliing. with the '"Forest. Robert Cockburn diedonCockburn 49th year of his age.

ethod of arguing is superior to any man at the bar. and who heard all the arguments in the case. elected a member of the Constitutional Convention of Virginia of 1830. and continued his residence there for a period He subsequently removed from of nearly twenty years. Enjoying a high degree of popularity. Philip Pendleton. Upshur. His jDrofessional abilities w^ere In the of the highest order and universally recognized. preparing for He settled in Martinsburg about 1810. the re^Dorter of that trial. Sparhawk. his great and peculiar powers of argumentation were strikingly exhibited. V. Cooke v/as a bold. and then again by "An . He was. His m. He classifies and exIDOunds his facts with great strength and clearness. Fen Sketches. celebrated Randolph will case. He married in Martinsburg a daughter of Col. this county to Winchester. and arranges his authorities and arguments in the most forcible manner. argued in 1836. a very competent judge. Instead of dividing his strength upon the se'parate points. he resisted the appeal s of that character whi ch were frequently made to him. E. thence to Baltimore and thence to Richmond. commenced the was elected to the House where lie In 1814 he from the county. but." followed by "The Convention Question. trenchant and vigorous writer. with great unanimity. political position might with him have been a matpractice of law. of Delegates ter of easy attainment." in 1827. and there exhibited the nerve and ability to grapple with such intellectual giants as Leigh. his whole speech was but one point." Mr. Cooke's effort: "It was a masterly production. Randolph and Tazewell in the discussion of the great question of extended suffrage and equal representation before that body. for the support of which all the other various facts and considerations of the case were brought together in pyra- midal strength and harmony. thus speaks of Mr. His able and elaborate pamphlets xjnblished in 1825 entitled "The Constitution of 1776. earnestly devoted to his i)ro- fession.102 Historical it.

He was remarkable in philiiDi^ie. It might be said of him as AVebster said of Hoffman. Mr. — his clearness was the best I ever . His power of labor was very iincommon. Not a man stirred or left the hall during the two hours that he was speaking. In 1866 he thus spoke of Mr.Historical Pen SketcJies. one was better qualified to judge of his intellectual merits than the late James Marshall. Once accepted." He was very rash in his charities. It was one of the most logical. he attacked him without mercy. invective and eloquent demonstraThe writer of this heard his address in Martinstion. attracted the attention of the whole State to him and largely contributed to the passage of the law organizing the Constitutional Convention of 1829 and 1830. beyond all question. however. unbounded I may say in liberality. and asserted for himself. Cooke Oldened the " great debate" in that body by an unsparing attack upon the then existing constitution of Yirginia. of Winchester. 103 Earnest Apxjeal to the Friends of Reform" in 1828. the position of leader of the friends of reform in a body composed of the ablest men from AVestern Virginia. that his case " once stated. Cooke to a friend " The finest faculty of his mind was his power of rea: No soning case His narrative in a knew. He had the clearest mind I ever saw. The court-room was crowded to excess. he entered into the canvass with his usual and characteristic energy and jDluck. If a witness or any one in a case was acting dishonestly. of which he himself was an active and conspicuous member. He had a very keen appreciation of equity. His address to the people in the several Court Houses of the district were models of lucid statement. morals and manof judgment. w^as already argued. In 1835 he yielded to the importunity of his friends and very reluctantly accepted the AVhig nomination for Congress in this District. I never saw such great labor. perspicuous and powerful arguments that he ever hurled from the hustings. burg. pungent.

music and the dance could always find an opi^ortunity there to gratify their apj^etites for pleasures. He gave it away to everybody and to every object. He was a man of sui3erior intelligence and a farmer by occupation.104 ners. MAGNUS TATE born in Berkeley County in 17G0. He seemed to place no value — upon money. 1809 and 1810. chivalry and generosity. in the 67th year of his age. He was commissioned a magistrate in 1799. His house was the abode of a generous hosj^itality. 1815. composed of the counties of Hardy and Hampshire. 1S54. He was a man of extraordinary suavity and amenity of unvarying sweetness of temper. Historical Pen Sketches. He was twice elected from the county to the House of Delegates of Virginia." Another said that when he died "he did not leave an enemy on the bosom of the spacious earth. and elected to the House of Delegates in 1803." David Holmes Conrad. refers to him as " the model of lofty courtesy. he announced himself a candidate for Congress for the district Was Berkele}^ Jefterson. His address to the freeholders of the district prior to the election is all that now remains of this gentleman to show the temper of the man and . and he was triumphantly elected. in 1797 and 1798. His generosity knew no bounds. He had much of the old Virginia character about him in his tastes and habits. In January. in a letter. He had a great practice. and was characterized by a remarkable patience and benevolence. He was fond of dogs and horses. He died in the city of Richmond in December. and the lovers of whist." This apparent hyperbole is undoubtedly near the truth. and in his younger days a keen fox hunter. In social life he rarely exhibited any feelings of anger. and twice commissioned Sheriff of the county in 1819 and 1820. and if they were wanting on sucli occasions lie conceived a great contempt for the individual and denounced him bitterly and powerfully.

105 the character of his intellect. as it seems to me. It is possible the curious may be disposed to inquire why I have become a candi- date without the sanction of a committee. either upon the AVe give it score of its sentiments or of its ability. and certainly his descendants have no reason to be ashamed of it. To this interrogatory I answer that the recent method of nominating candidates by committee. however highly I may incline to appreciate the practice. Hamjoshire. in the upper parts of the district have not the pleasure of a personal acquaintance. nevertheless. genial with the first princii^les of our government. I will cheerfully submit to when All I desire is fairly ascertained on the day of election. no way preferable to the ancient custom which everyone understands. If. I have been induced to declare myself at this time and in this way by the request of my friends. Hardy and Jefferson : Fellow Citizens :— I offer myself to your consideration as a candidate to represent you in the next Congress of the United States. perhaps.Historical Pen Sketches. to give the people an opportunity of making a selection. it may liable to no rational objection. and all I ask is an unbiased expression of public opinThis manner of proceeding appears perfectly conion. Again. who think with me it is the wish of a majority of the freeholders of the district. and that if I should meet with an opponent he shall receive from me all the politeness and decorum due from one gentle- man with to another. I am pursuaded I shall be exonerated from the charge of egotism and of complimenting myself when To those gentlemen whom I . and consequently can be Here. entire : " To the freeholders of the district composed of the counties of Berkeley. is. Avith all our political institutions. we should be mistaken in this particular. not be improper to premise that I trust my deportment on this occasion will be found fair and manly. however. whatever the result may be.

whether listened to or not. Tate lived almost two and a half miles southwest from Martinsburg. Elisha Boyd and a native of England. nor allured from it by avarice or ambition." He was associated in his legislative labors with such men as Henry Clay. must have his hour. Mr. they are iaformed that I am a farmer. . Barbour. William Lowndes. if . 1S23. Philip P. John Randolph. The rule then was to put on committe duty only the most competent and distinof its leading statesmen. on a farm since purchased by Wm. Citizens of the district. are the most powerful that can operate on the human mind. Gen. as pledges. Henry St. John C.lOG Historical Pen SJtetcJies. native soil . guished. In those days the committees of the House were few and small. Calhoun. an ardent attachment to my many friends and relatives av horn I esteem if a numerous progeny intertwined with if — me. in my estimation. The rule now is to put every member on some committee. or whether written by himself or by a clerk in the departments. and that if honored with their suffrages my circumstances are such that I will neither be driven from the path leading to the prosperity of our country by want or poverty. George Tucker and a host of others. Daniel Webster. in the middle walks of life. all members of that House almost equally distinguished by their geniuses and reputations. which. in Congress. and grind out that hour in a written speech. Father of JOHN BOYD. and venerate every moral perception of my heart if either or all these considerations firmly combined can rivet a man to his country and to liberty these motives. He left a large family of sons and daughters. He died on the 30th of March. when every man no matter how inferior. these inducements. William Gaston. and the active business of the body was left in the hands Not as now. shall be left by . Walker.

Bayley. Shortly after the creation of the County of Berkeley in 1772 he became a candidate for the House Burgess." was born in Sleepy Creek about the year 1747. of tlie earliest settlers in the He acquired Ms County of Berkeland in this county by original grant from Lord Fairfax. . LennBoyd. WILLIAM SMITH. the children were among the earliest emigrants to Kentucky. He was a man of herculean frame of body. He was married about the year 1754. most generally known as "Burgess Billy Smith. dividing the legislative det:)artment into a Senate and House of Dele- . the patents of which are still preserved by his descendants. John. for several years. and his striking resemblance to Gen. to wit Charles. 107 was one ley. He resided near the North Mountain. from which he acquired the soubriquet of " BurAfter the revolutionary war was ended and gess Billy. a native of AVales. in that portion of the colony of Virginia which was subsequently embraced in the County of Berkeley. Sarah Boyd. and some anecdotes are related of his hand to hand conflicts with the Indians. for several years Speaker of the House of Representatives. but in which he was generally victor. of Kentucky. and died in the year 1800. Elijah." the State constitution of 1776 was adopted. feature and general apjDearance would seem to confirm that remark. It is said that Hon. Margaret. Boyd in stature. to Sarah Gryfyth. Munford and Elisha the first born on the 13th of April. born in the following order. and the last on the 6th of Octo. about five miles west of Martinsburg. leaving eight children. survived him some years. without success. Fulton. which demanded all his activity and strength. Rachel. 1769. ber. and continued his candidacy. 1756. William. was one of that stock. dying in 1S06. With the exception of Elisha. He had an insatiable ambition to become a member of the legislature. His widow.Historical Pen SJcetclies. Mary.

" he sought. and died a few years afterward. like the an tiered monarch of the forest. 1827. and when. gates. At the April election in 1830 the aspirations and struggles of a long life were gratified by an election. they reached what was called the Halfway House. and weighing near four hundred pounds. He spent some days in Martinsburg. a sort of tavern kept by Dick Sheckles. fat and unwieldy. He was said to have been the first child born in the Sleepy Creek Valley. He was a man of remarkable astuteness and cunning. deeply impressed with the incapacity of the peoi^le to select competent and proper agents to serve them. When. was Secretary of State under the younger Adams. and a gentleman now residing in our county. they found the old landlord sitting in the shade before his house. no one was ever found smart enough to take advantage of those deficiencies. he was almost driven to bay by the fierce blood-hounds of party under the foul and loathsome cry of "bargain and corruption. a man of enormous proportions. a temporary refuge from this pitiless storm of calumny in a visit to some of his cherished friends in Berkeley County. of kee2:)ing himthis illustrious statesman When . but the adoption of the new constitution in the following August set aside the election and dashed and disappointed the hopes of his life. in July. He decided to pay a brief visit to the Berkeley Springs. lie pressed his claims for election to the House of Delegates from year to year. HENRY CLAY. about 2 o'clock in the day. indulging in his usual habit in the hot days of summer. and although unable to read or write. but still without success. He never afterward had the heart to aspire to the jDlace. and it is needless to say that he was received here with all the enthusiasm due to his exalted genius and patriotism. accompanied him in a carriage.108 Historical Pen Skeiclies. When Morgan was formed into a separate county in 1820 he regularly entered the field every year for a seat in the legislature.

" you are more kingly in your ^proportions than I am. It was here. in this very county by action of the people in primary assembly. Henry Clay. Mr. Mr. I thought he was a great big man like a king " "No. 1824. You me worn almost We contains some facts worthy of remembrance : Maetixsbukg. Clay approached the house his traveling companion presented him to Mr. 1844. The arrival of the carriage did not in the least disturb the unwieldy landlord. Sheckles. 109 by burying liis feet in the earth and piling it up around liis legs nearly as high as his knees. as it see in vant. 1844. take an extract from the letter of invitation. as a candidate for that exalted station. which she is not disposed shall at the present jDeriod be lost sight of or forgotten. To the Hon. spare and erect figure before him. that your name was first — — presented to the people of Virginia. Sheckles. of Kentucky. March 14th." In May. saying " Permit me to introduce I)lacidity of the : to you the present Secretary of State." said Mr. and rising to his feet said " Did you say this was Henry Clay. She looks with a becoming pride to that sagacity which prompted her sons some twenty years ago to seek to give in your person that direction to public sentiment which it is now receiving from the patriotism and sagacity of the whole Union. Clay was invited by a public massmeeting of his friends in this county to visit Martinsburg and to partake of the hospitalities of the county. Va. for which you now stand nominated in the hearts of near two millions of your admiring countrymen. : ! nothing but a broken down public serto a skeleton by State and the calumnies of my enemies. Henry Clay : SiK The County of Berkeley boasts of some historical recollections connected with your fame." With that the old gentleman gazed for a moment at the tall. Clay. of Kentucky ? Why. When Mr.Historical self cool Fen Sketclies. on the 14th of June.. It was here in this county— that the electoral — .

Gentlemen : and obliged by the which you have transmitted to me to visit Berkeley County and partake of its hospitality. which none at that time denied to be due to your patriotism. Still Berkeley by her recorded vote. exalted character and eminent public services. I feel. holding the same general principles of policy with yourself. as she has ever preferred you since and as she prefers you now. and acknowledge with pleasure. May 1st. and also a native of this State. She has with an abiding faith sustained you amidst all the fierce and bitter conflicts of party. my great obli2. She gave you her confidence without reserve in 1824. invitation . ticket was framed and announced.ations to Berkeley. under other circumstances. to meet and exchange I feel greatly flattered. honored. and by the friendly sentiments which accompany it. to all living statesmen. and all sections of this vast country hail you as the hope of this great Republic. D. as the representative of her princiijles in the administration of the national government. C.110 Historical Pen SJieiclies. . connected with the circumstance. 1844. which presents your claim to the suffrages of your native State. The short period which elapsed after the annunciation of that ticket. both of a public and i^rivate . confidently looking forward to the day now reaching its meridian splendor when your name would kindle its just enthusiasm in every patriotic bosom. preferred you then. and she has continued that confidence without change or shadow to the present hour. with gratitude. prevented your receiving that support in this commonwealth. The invitation was declined for the reason set forth in — his reply : Wasiiingto:n-. friendly salutations with my fellow citizens of that county but considerations. for its uniform and ardent attachment and confidence for me and I should be most happy. that your claims were brought in competition with an elder of the Republican party.

So numerous and constant are my occupations and so frequent have been the invitations which I have received. The presidential question was then agitating the public mind. Clay to the nomination. will command the approbation of you. and am still receiving to public assemblages. am friend with great respect. H. I pray you gentlemen to accei)t yourselves to those whom you Your represent I my respectful and tender and grateful acknowledgments. and of those whom you represent. and it had not been determined whether the nominee of the Whig party would be General Taylor or himself. and expressing his individual wishes that he might receive it. County of Berkeley was then going to Washington to argue a case before the Supreme Court of the United Having some days to spare. in Pen Sketclies. spend a short time in this county. embracing several letters in which the old hero of Buena Vista whilst freely conceding the superior party claims of Mr. gentlemen. He spoke with his characteristic frankness and freedom of the pending Presidential canvass made no secret . Clay. nomination of the approaching Whig convention read a correspondence between himself and Gen. require oi me hereafter to avoid attendance upon large assemblages of my fellow citizens and I hope that the determination. Ill my judgment. than I would Avish to be. and obedient servant. in January.Historical nature. when in unrestrained intercourse with his friends. the wonderful power and fascination of his conversation. he determined to States. Z. Clay's second visit to the He was opened to all his friends and there are many now living amongst us who will remember with delight. The private mansion at which he stopped was freely Mr. declares that he . either of his work or of his expectation of receiving the . on that subject. that lam compelled to be much briefer. Taylor. in my replies. to which I have rome. 1848. with a friend.

brilliant it and com- manding minds demagogues who on the alert attract fill Was to the office seeking "available" our conventions. too little of the politician to suit the then cravings of party cupidity ? Is it a position only suited to men of inferior and moderate abilities Are all of our really great men to be hereafter excluded from the enjoyment of its honors ? Was it 'l Was attributable to the secret influences of rival candidates. no agency whatever in having his name X3resented in competition with Mr. patriot and statesman of his day. without regard to merit? Or to find out was it to that cax)rice and ingratitude which so often . of whom the country might indeed be justly proud. He seemed eager to promote universal enjoyment around him. surrounded by many of our citizens. this most prominent orator. orator and statesman. The writer of this has never known Mr. he retired to the library. that it was not his business to interfere with the progress of public sentiment. Clay's.. He encouraged the dance. Clay to be more joyous and cheerful than upon the occasion of this He felt indeed last visit to the County of Berkeley. told amusing anecdotes to the ladies and when in his graver moments. too independent. and there. — . this noblest type of American manhood. that he was in the house of his friends. all felt that they were in the presence of a patriot. that Mr. Clay lost his nomination ? Was it to be ascribed to that natural jealousy which ? great. portrayed the characters of our leading public men and expatiated upon what he deemed the true policy of the Government.112 liad Illsiorical Pen Sketches. yet with modest firmness stated. How was it that this bold and unequalled leader of a great party. and the convention must be left free to make its selection in the best interests of the party and country. and who are ever whom they think the most candidate. I have pondered over the inquiry. could never reach the goal of his lofty andhonorable ambition the Presidency? — he too bold. music caressed the children.

In this visit he was the object of the most friendly and respectful attention. he found many friends of the Washington administration during this visit. withstanding the lead taken by the Representatives of Virginia in opposition to that policy. He thought he derived much benefit from drinking the water also from our pure and fresh mountain air. He stopped at the Globe Hotel. made a visit to Martinsburg ia 1830. and was emphatic in his praise of the soil and scenery of this Valley.MARTIN VAN BUREN. His trip was one simply of recreation. whilst Secretary of State under General Andrew Jackson. The writer of this sketch made a respectful call upon him. FISHER AMES. a citizen because they are tired of hearing everybody styling him "Aristides the Just ?" These are questions which it may be well at some future day l)ossible. at the close of the session of Congress of 1796. j)aid a visit to the warm springs in the County of Berkeley. He was not at that time much of a favorite with our people. Eighth President of the United States. Contrary to his expectations. in the hopes of obtaining some relief from his« increasing debility. being then in feeble health. as much as the measures of govern. In one of his letters from Berkeley he observes "Virginia has been misrepresented to us.Historical Pen Sketches. and to find their solution if . He spoke of the j)leasure which he derived from his excursion. This distinguished orator and statesman. 113 darkens tlie history of Republics. individual ajad public. and relaxation from the unremitting cares of public life. not. of either party. to consider. s . and but little enthusiasm was manifested at his j)resence. then kept by William Kroesen. and spent a pleasant evening in his company. and wliicli causes tliem to banish from their confidence.

the most formidable candidate for the Presidency. In his visit to H. going . Sickness is not wholly useless to me.114 Historical to Fen SJieicJies. He was in the early part of that year." his visit' to Berkeley in 1796 his health continued to decline. beyond all question. of his illness. It has increased the warmth of my affection for my friends. the Berkeley Springs. and less for the s^Dlendid emptiness of imblic station. than yet I have done. with partial and flattering intermissions until death. more for private duties and social enjoyments. WM. if it should be spared. the frame which had so long tottered was about to fall." After an extreme debility of two years. and many good men are here be found friendly to the federal cause. rank among the great statesmen Excepting Daniel Webster. sjjent several days and returning in the summer of 1824. ment have been to them . I know of no public man of the North whose fame rests upon a more indisputable basis of genius and merit. Retainicg always the vigor and serenity of his mind. His speech in the House of Representatives on the British Treaty of 1790 has been regarded as one of the flnest specimens of Congressional eloquence ever uttered in that body and Fisher Ames will ever of this country. — many ]3as sages of it of sur^Dassing brilliancy are remem- bered and quoted to this day. It has taught me to make haste in forming the i3lan of my life. He had withdrawn from the canvass in favor of in Martinsburg. although near a century has elapsed since they were delivered. "I trust I realize the value of those habits of thinking which I have cherished for -some time. He was a striking example of magnanimity and patience under suffering. CRAWFORD. he appeared to make those reWhen speaking flections which became his situation. he observed. With composure and dignity he met the apj)roach of his disso- From lution.

.Historical Pen Slietclies. and was a favorite protege of the distinguised Dr. 1824 tliat being the mode which up to that day had been adopted by the Democratic party to indicate its choice for the — Presidency. — — It was to get relief from this crushing affliction that he visited the Berkeley Springs in the summer of 1824. he was almost without an equal. arrival there. and he fell a victim himself to the fearless . and after his marriage to the daughter of a very wealthy farmer of the county. of extensive reading and a vigorous and forcible writer. He was a man of acute and powerful intellect. Adams and Clay followed by a severe attack of paralysis. for Natchez in 1843. Lewis Marshall of that State. Monroe and was considered in some sense his destined successor. He practiced his profession as a physician for about ten years in Martinsburg. but his excessive devotion to literature and history caused him to become indifferent to the practice of his x^rofession. the yellow fever broke out with fearful mortality. Was born in Kentucky. But the healing waters of those celebrated springs were impoetnt to give the desired relief. He was nominated as sucli by a Congressional caucus on tlie 14tli of February. D. 115 Mr. In literary attainments and in profound historical reHe left here search. with a view there of resuming the Within a month after his XDractice of his profession. M. During his passing visits to Martinsburg he received the warmest sympathies of its citizens. who vied with each other in showing him every attention and respect. THOMAS DAVIS. he receiving but the solid votes of Virginia and Georgia and portions of the votes of IsTew York. he abandoned it altogether and retired to the country. Maryland and Delaware. Jackson. He became a resident and citizen of this county about the year 1820. blasted his prospect of election. But the i^owerful opx^osition of four Democratic competitors Calhoun.

He founded the Martinsburg Library. Mr.. GALLAHER born in Martinsburg. on the Potomac. and served a month. with signal ability." Capt. Va. discliarge of his professional duties. Richard Williams. editor of the Berkeley and Jefferson Intelligencer. Maxwell. he entered the printing office of Mr. Berkeley County. 1845. Messrs. under the tuition of "an excellent Irish gentleman of the olden time. worked a few w^eeks in Baltimore. De1st. 1796. Capt. caiDtured at Alexandria. John Alburtis. After an apprenticeship of five years. in the old stone school house in the north-eastern portion of the town. Mr. Gales and Seaton. . joined the volunteer rifle company of Capt. principally ujDon Nile's Meg isIn August. I)aid a visit to liis The writer of tliis grave in January. was in the military service at Norfolk. 1814. afterwards the Martinsburg Gazette. Mr.' Virginia. G. with a few small field pieces and some riflemen. the model newspaper conducted by those well known gentlemen. On the fourth day of April.116 Hlsiqrlcal Pea Sketches. George W. in the House of Delegates of . worked about a year in the office of the National Intelligencer. the Farmef s Repository. G. Porter undertook. while its editor. which for so many years was supported and cherished in this place and in the important session of 1831 represented this county. to stop the British vessels then descending the river. In the course of this service the company had part in the sharp conflict at the White House Bluff. Humphrey's. being in Charlestown. in which Com. ladened with flour and other stores Was cember On the conclusion of his military service. in charge of ter. G. His only school education was obtained between the ages of five and twelve. 1809. and dropped a tear to the momory of one of the noblest and truest of men. JOHN S. Jas. long the County Surveyor.

which he held for nineteen months. H. John S. and it was deemed no light honor to be a colleague of such Watkins Leigh. when.Historical Pen Sketclies. Mr. Mason. Gallaher and Edward Lucas were chosen. Ill In iMay. after only four days' sickness. Robert. James McDoAvell. W. but he was re-elected by an increased majority. — In 1827 he purchased the Farmef s Repository. a literary paper called TJte Ladies'' Garland. the boundary line between the two States. with his younger brother. appointed Charles James Faulkner. Richard Morris. except in 1833. D. now published by his brother. and merged it with the Free Press. Gallaher. Smith. At the close of his term. at Charlestown. but Maryland did not appoint Commis- . much of the legal talent of the Old Commonwealth was in requisition. W. and John B. in 1832. having given a "State's Right's Vote'' (in the nullification era). this election of delegates was set aside. men as Benjamin Thomas Marshall. 1830. of Jefferson. John S. and removed to Richmond to take chief management of the Ricliviond Compiler. Gallaher. of a malignant fever then prevailing. of Frederick. 1821.) commenced the publication of the Harper's Ferry Free Press. Mr. The amended Constitution of 1829 being adopted. Mr. B. In this first session under the new Constitution. Gallaher was elected a member of the Virginia House of Delegates. also published for four years. etc. Gallaher. N. with the veteran Daniel Morgan as his colleague. a spirited canvass ensued. Gallalier. In the spring of 1830. which displeased some of his ultra "Whig supporters. M. Mr. Gallaher was re-elected for four successive terms. Jas. In the spring of 1835 he declined further legislative service. inconjunction with a like number from Maryland. of Berkelej^. G. and his nephew. (who died in August following. the elder Governor Floyd. Commissioners to settle. now the Virginia Free Press a paper which acquired great popularity. and in October. with slight opposition.

that his military aspirations had been satisfied with the command of a well.400 votes of carrying the State. and secondly. Gallaher s career as a State Senator. that near the close of President Tyler's term. and of the consequent war with Mexico. This district. Mr. in connection with his favorite Free Press. and served two sessions. Faulkner has since had the matter in charge under a new appointment. In 1840 he sold his interest in the WJiig to his partners. in support of Harrison and Tyler. an eminent lawyer. a gentleman of ability and scholarly attainments his predecessor.^as nominated for the Senate by a Whig convention. 1S37. and in the spring of 1842 was again elected to the House of Delegates. In the autumn of 1841 Mr. and has made data. having declined a re-election. that his term of civil service had not expired. In 1844 he v. it may not be out of place to mention. Gallaher purchased a third inE-ichmond Whig. In connection vvitli Mr. Gallaher was again nominated for the Senterest in the — — . Polk a majority of one in the Presidential election. G.118 Historical Pen SA'eicJies. In 1848 Mr. that he offered Mr. gave Mr. Frederick and Clarke.drilled company of riflemen at Harper's Ferry. for two reasons first. much jDrogress in the collection of interesting In January. sioners. John Hampden Pleasants and Alexander Moseley. and was elected in the then Democratic district of Jefferson. in a conversation on the subject of the annexation of Texas. Conrad. and for three years was associated with those eminent journalists. the same year. a command in the army. and nothing was done. This comi^liment was resi3ectfully declined. and published for nine months a popular campaign paper the Yoeman. . so confident was the President of the success of that measure. by a majority of 62 votes. Mr. Gallaher returned to Jefferson. in op^josition to John Bruce. Robert Y. In the contest of that year the Whigs came within 1.

a personal friend of Jefferson Davis. of South Carolina. was defeated by a majority of 22 votes. Gallaher. by President Pierce. and strongly protested against his removal. was successfully put into active operation.Historical ate. and resisted several attempts to rejpeal the act. firmly established and successful until broken up by the disas- trous four years' war. which position he continued to hold until a few months before his death. Pen Sketches. and his remains were conveyed . a period of 32 years. He died at his residence in the city of Washington on the 4th of February 1877. which also destroyed the labors of forty years of his life. as he desired to do. had the proud satschools isfaction of seeing 27 schools. This change was made in opposition to the wishes of many prominent Democratic members of Congress. who had held the position from its creation in 1817. Mr. Mr.n area about 25 miles square. at Washington. accei)ted a i)osition in the office of the Quartermaster General. who were satisfied with the incumbent. Hagner's retirement. when age and disease rendered him unable to discharge its duties. Declining health was the cause of Mr. free for the poor. then Secretary of War. Being prevented by the exigencies of the war from returning to Virginia. and was removed in April 1858. On the 22nd of October 1849. Jefferson County having a. matured by him and carried through both Houses. and the system. 119 and after an active canvass. as Third Auditor of the Treasury. Gallaher was appointed by President Taylor to succeed that eminent accountant Peter Ilagner. Mr. Mr. is particularly well adapted to an experiment with free . and the largest tax payer in the county. to make room for Francis Burt. a wealthy land holder. Gallaher served as Auditor through President Taylor and Fillmore's terms. in his retirement. tlie principal opiDOsition to liim being on account of a school bill for the County of Jefferson. Gallaher. by the aid of the remakable John Yates.

Among my earliest recollections of eminent public men I may cite a discussion at the old Court House in Martinsburg between Alfred H. For a few weeks preceeding the celebration scarcely a day passed that the Chairman of the Committee on Correspondence did not receive some communication from him — referring in that kind istic of whom and genial spirit. but circumstances put it out of his power. D. It is due to him and cannot fail to interest our readers to make some extracts from this correspondence. Dennis McSherry and Lawrence Wilmer among these. Chairman. over the site of which the locomotive now plies its busy wheels. all the reminiscences of his early life. and beneath the soil of his native State. Jacob Myers. County Surveyor. I of grown up young men Fryatt. 1872. It seemed to touch the innermost chords of his heart. Faulkner. in vivid coloring. for the position of State Senator. in the northeastern i:»ortion of Martinsburg.: Dear Sir : I am piroud of my native county and have had frequent occasions to refer to her honored history. Gallaher. C. so characterthose old citizens of the county. Federalist.120 Historical Pen Sketclies. after a lapse of twenty years. James Maxwell's old school house. Martinshurg. Washik^gtoi^t. Robert V. intellectual treat to me. to the Presbyterian churcli in in Edge Cbarlestown and interred Hill cemetery. and Hon. J. loved and resjDected in his younger the man— to days. Powell. Snodgrass. and Henry St. W. in sight of his beloved hills. recollect Tillitson . Va. had a number as students. It was a ricli. he had known. Three of tJiem I met. It would be egotistical in me to recount the ordinary events of my schoolboy days during my attendance under twelve years of age in Capt. The teacher being an ade])t in mathematics. George Tucker. Republican. in the legislature of Virginia. C. June 13. He anxiously desired to be present at the ceremonies of the day. and to wake up. No one took a livelier interest in the ''Berkeley Centennial Celebration" than Mr.

like my old teacher. Willis. Capt. Rob't Wilson." Nor do I forget my appren- days on the old Martinsburg Gazette. Both these gentlemen were afterward eminent members of the national House of Kepresentatives. I remember Capt. I cannot omit a reference to an early friend who kindly stimulated my ambition when struggling with adverse fortune— I mean the late JohnR. strongly impressed on my youtlifal memory as a model of forensic eloquence. "with a heart open to melting charity. eminent at the bar. Capt. Hiram Henshaw. Other fruit) objects of interest abound. of tender years. Capt. often were supplied with and Beeson's meadov/. Maj. Lieuts. Col. Jas. Judge Philip C. (from which urchins tice like myself. Pendleton. John Strother and David Hunter. upon which an Indian tribe of that narne had frequent sanguinary battles with other tribes. on Tuscarora Creek. Cooke. and in the Constitutional Convention of Virginia a gentleman in every sense of the term. and who. This recital may not be but the very suggestion of . 121 a discussion between two courteous and iDolislied gentlemen. one of the most even-temrered gentlemen I ever knew. such as Col. Gregory. William. worth the time to read it. James Mason and others. seemed ever gratified at my success. Lewis B. who were in military service in the war of 1812. Capt. My memory naturally carries me back to the era in which prominent men of Berkeley were in the vigor of life and usefulness.Historical Pen Sketches. Well do I remember the venerable Edward Beeson Beeson's mill. Maxwell. Beeson' s orchard. Elisha Boyd. Maj. Faulkner. the latter of whom was killed in Canada. The tradition on this subject is sustained by the frequent finding of arrow heads and various implements of Indian warfare. Andrew Waggoner. x'>nblished by John Alburtis. Among the regular army ofTicers of 1812 who went to the northern frontier from Berkeley.

He was patriotic and public spirited. James P. Harrison. John Mat. Luke Pentiney. man of strong and vigorous in- disciplined it and improved . Dr. Doll.122 Historical Pen Sketches. Ezekiel Showers. which . Chambers. . Charles D. Just one liundred years ago Yours truly. for over fifty years the faithful deputy sheriff of the county Rev. . the dignified and gentlemanly proprietor of the Globe Hotel Philip Nadenbousch. Somerville. It would be interesting to ascertain how many now survive who trod those hills and valleys and laved in one's birtli-place teeming fields those waters. Erskine. Wolff. John Stewart. Geo. iVlexander Cooper. whose sons vv'orthily represent the name Col. . Dr. thews fice to — but my pen must stop. and his taste in literature was refined and chaste. also a popular magistrate and the Chesterfield of the County Court. Thomas C. and gushing fountains. John S. William Riddle. Geo. long a magistrate. Smith. awakens memories of hills and valleys. John H. J. . W. the preacher and teacher Michael McKewan. Adam Young. : In another letter of the following day he mentions "Ephraim Gaither. such as old Berkeley is blessed with most abundantly. Anthony S. Wm. Conrad Hogmire. Erasmus Stribling. Stewart. George Porterfield. Blondell. Jacob Poisal. Jacob Hamme. Long. Gallaiier. make up the record of columns would not sufmy old friends and ac- quaintances." John S. and liberal in all his views of national and State X)ractical . and discriminating his temper mild. to the highest point of was susceptible. just and generous his habits those of constant and assiduous labor. Gallaher was a tellect. the well remembered postmaster Conrad Roush. Daniel Burkhart. His judgment was sound. Free from his business employments he delighted in history and Belles Letters. S.

The early childhood of Mr. and every thicket concealed an ambuscade. from which. bleeding and dying under the wounds inflicted by the tomahawk and scalping knife.Historical policy. and thereby compelled to labor with her own hands to educate her last and favorite son. in the County of Berkeley. who settled in early life in the valley of Virginia. 123 He was a careful and correct. yet lie his audience. studied law. pithy sentences from him from the stump reached their mark more effectually than more accomplished oratory. we can only take a very short extract : Was " Mr. A striking picture is given in his own eloquent language in a speech delivered by him in the Senate of the United States in February. grateful. and was universally esteemed for his integrity and for his merits and attainments as a self-made man. His father was a native of England. however. I was too young to participate in these dangers and difficulties. but not dasliing liad none of tlie qualities of a always liad at command such a fund of practical good sense. He was kind. Another and another went in the same way. Grundy was passed amid the perils and sufferings of Indian warfare. charitable and whole-souled. 1820. FELIX GRUNDY born on Back Creek. If I am asked to trace my memory back and name the first indescribable impression it received it would be the sight of my eldest brother. I have seen a widowed mother iflundered of her whole property in one single night. and flowing He pnblic speaker. and from affluence and ease reduced to poverty in a moment. on the 11th of September. who now addresses you. and was so familiar with the recognized maxims of human life that a few short. but I can remember when death was in almost every bush. and his sayings were remembered and treasured up by writer. In 1780 he removed to Kentucky." He was educated at Bardstown Academy. . Pen SkeWies. President. 1777.

In 1807 he removed to Nashville. for six or seven member of the legislature of that State. and in the latter year was ajopointed by President Van Buren Attorney General of the United States. MICHAEL ROOXEY AVas born in Ireland. Tenn Dec. His enemies contended that he had been a Corsair in early life. and soon became distinguished at the bar. From 1829 to 1838 he was United States Senator. but this was believed to be an idle slander. From 1811 to 1814 he was a representative in Congress from Tennessee. was afterward. 1840. and he there acquired the reputation of an expert sailor and skilful navigator. in 1840 he resigned this position and was again elected Senator. and during that period gave to the war measures of President Madison against Great Britain such ardent support that he was familiarly know as the "war hawk" of democracy. and became eminent as a lawyer. Whilst a member of the Senate he made a visit to Berkeley County to examine the spot where he had passed his early boyhood.. and purchased a large body of land on Cherry Run in that county. in the British service. as a member years. a of tlie convention for the revising of the consti- tution of Kentucky . storms of winter. He was familiar with the dead languages and thoroughly versed in some of the higher branches of mathematics. He emigrated to the County of Berkeley about forty years x^reviousto his death. He commenced his public career at the age of twenty-two.124 Historical Pen Skeiclies. 19th. Certain it is that he spent some years amidst the perils of the sea. Tenn. But he found nothing but a dilapidated stone chimney to mark the place where had stood the cabin with its clapboard roof which had shielded his childhood from the . In 1805 he was elected one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Kentucky. He was one oC the . He died at Nashville. and was soon after made Chief Justice. his dwelling-house having been built on the western side of that small stream.

made his court at the old Robert Snodgrass tavern. agent. and Cherry Run made the dividing line between it and Berkeley. his slaves. . and died in 18 — . leaving a will emancipating the county. They concluded that this country was quite good enough for any white or black man to live in. His strange and peculiar features and appearance. on Back Creek. a few yards distant from his former residence.Historical Pen Sketclies. and the shar^Dness and point with which he commented upon the law and far^ts as they arose in the progress of the trial. he promptly abandoned his substantial residence in that county and erected a new dwelling house on the Berkeley side of that run. He could emancipate. GEORGE PORTERFIELD Was born in Berkeley County in the year 1740 in early life he was once or twice exposed to the imminent risk of losing his life from the Indians then inhabitating His brother or making incursions into this county. but they declined his generous offer to transport them across the ocean to that fiery continent from Avhich their ancestors had been probably torn more than a century before. But a testator often intends what he cannot accomplish. and took special and peculiar pride in the discharge When the County of of all the duties of that position. but he could not trans- ny of Liberia. Morgan was formed in 1820. They received their emancipation papers with becoming gratitude. with full port without the consent of his freedmen. that he might preserve his domicil in Berkeley and continue his magisterial functions. and his indomitable will and imperious temper. James Faulkner his power to carry his benovelent views into effect. a place of great attraction and resort for the neigborhood He was elected high Sheriff of for many miles around. thus throwing him into the County of Morgan. . providing for their transportation to the colo- and appointing Chas. the ardor with which he entered into the examination of every case before him. 125 most zealous and indefatigable magistrates of the county.

there was not one whose death was so universally lamented. was killed not far from his father's house by a body of In- dians who had the previous day attacked Nealy's fort. presided with unusual dignity. with all the other bequests in her will for charitable purposes. meeting for the organization of the Berkeley County Bible Society. massacred the inmates and took off Mr. preme Court of Appeals of West Virginia.12C Historical Pen SJi etches Charles. She left a will. No person was ever more universally loved and esteemed in this community and of the hundred and eleven estimable persons who fell victims to the cholera pestilence in the fall of 1754. near the Opequon. He was remarkable for the equanimity of his temper and for his invariable courtesy. Among seven other bequests contained in her will was one for the founding of an academy in Martinsburg but this. bequeathing a large portion of her estate to charitable purposes. among the most popular magistrates of the county. was declared by the Su. and which i^roved that she was as graceful in composition as she was brilliant in conver- . to be invalid and thus. an institution which in anticii3ation of this fund. then a youth about twenty years of age. powers. She j)ublished some time before her death a small work composed of original and selected matter. Porterfield was several prisoners on their retreat. and in 1808 and 1810 one of its representatives in the In 1814 he was elected chairman of the legislature. and to do honor to her memory. He died in 1824. He was Sheriff of the county. was incorporated as the Martinsburg Cooper Academy. . brilliant conversational a lady of great intelligence. x-)leasant address and politeness. that gave evidence of high literary taste. Born in Berkeley County . and of great religious fervor and piety. perished under the illiberal policy and stern decree of the court. MARIA COOPER. and Avhen acting as senior justice of the county court.

w^as appointed Eegister of the Land Office. 1801 and 1802 as a delegate from Berkeley County to the Virginia Assem. of an attack of cholera. which soon communicated its effect to the principals of honor settled the duel was averted. and Avas a representative in Congress from this district from 1803 to 1805. brought with him a broad sword. and lived in the house now owned and occupied by D. H.Historical sation. Fen Sketches. hands and continued warm friends the rest of their lives. He was present at the quelling of the whiskey insurrection in Pennsylvania. JAMES STEPHENSON Was born on March 20. all j)oints and the two brave old soldiers shook . who was a small man. boys and girls. a man of gigantic proportions. He was distinguished for his courage as an officer in the last war with Great Britain soon after the struggle he . He raised a large and interesting family of officers and two hundred and fortythree men were badly wounded. 1764. JOHxN MILLER Was born on the Tusoorora Creek in Berkeley county.bly. men were slaughtered by the Miami Inand twenty. He died in August. from 1809 to 1811. as large as an ordinary to place of size mowing scythe. both men of tried and approved courage. Conrad. came to the ground armed with a rapier. Clair in 1791. and was jDromoted to the office of Brigade Inspector. When the seconds were about them in position for the combat the disparity of both the men and of their weapons was so irre- trolable sistably ludicrous that the seconds burst into an unconfit of laughter. 1833. He commanded a com- I)any in the disastrous defeat of General Arthnr St. They were to fight with swords. when thirty-eight officers and five hundred and ninety.three dians. He served in 1800. and again from 1822 to 1825. An anecdote is told of an arranged duel between Major Stephenson and General Darke. in Missouri . 1854. 127 tlie She died in October. Darke. StejDenson.

The following extract taken from an original certificate executed on the 17th of June. 'til he was appointed a lieutenant in a State Regiment.128 Historical Fen Sketclies. Ohio. public trust. 1851. which was not until the end of the war. WILLIAM CREIGHTON. he returned to the county of Berkeley. late Lieutenant Colonel is Was commanding in Virginia Line. Virginia." Subsequent to the w^ar. suffered a long and painful imprisonment after which he continued in the American army and behaved as a brave and distinguished soldier. He w^as the first Secretary of State. for Ohio and was a Delegate in Congress from 1813 to 1817. October 8. . of the county of Berkeley. and holding many j^ositions of . and am well acquainted with Captain John Kerney. 184C. 1778 graduated at Dickenson College when quite young studied law and was admitted to the bar at the age of twenty. JOHN KERxXEY born in Berkeley county. having for many years x>reviously declined all public office. commanded by Col. after which he succeeded to the command of a company in said regiment. now in the possession of the writer of this sketch "I was. in Col. devoted himself to his profession. by William Darke. During his whole service. March 13. . October 29. he merited the esteem of his superior officers. and of his country. held the position of a justice of the peace and : . Missouri. 1791. Virginia he engaged in the American service as first Sergeant to a company in July. and again from 1827 to 1833. and served until it was disbanded. Hugh Stevenson's regiment of infantry . Joseph Crockett. subsequently elected Governor of the State. 1775. and was a Representative in Congress from 1837 to 1843. Born in Berkeley county. Died near Florissant. he was taken prisoner at Fort Washington. in 1798 he settled in Chillicothe. Died at Chillicothe.

against the Seminoles was breveted as captain in August 1842. He was an moved to active journalist for many years. June 1780. was born whilst his father resided in Martinsburg. Florada. of Revolationary . 1841. It has been supposed by some that his distinguished son. 1S41. removed to Portland. ^ . when he sold out to John Alburtis. . nearly ninety years of age. JST. and commissioned 2nd Lieutenant of infantry in the regular army of the United States on the 8th of March. at Pilatlea. 20. by a cannon shot at the siege of Yera Cruz. P. Major Andrew Waggoner. He continued to edit that paper until 1803. where he died. Maine. December 1831. 1806. He finally Boston and died there May 26. WILLIAM ALBURTIS Was born in Martinsburg. JR. but this is an error. When twenty-one years of age he established the first uewsx)a]Der in Martinsburg. which was called the Berlzeley Intelligencer. entered the military academy at West Point in 1818 graduated with great distinction. . March 2nd. 1870. the poet and journalist. Died 26th of November. . 1827 promoted to the rank of first Lieutenant in July 1839. N. left Martinsburg. born in Martinsburg. Maine. P. Orange Creek. commanded in sortie from Fort Brooks. "for gallantry and good conduct in war against the Florida Indians ." was killed 11th of March. STEPHENSON. Son of Major James Stephenson. NATHANIEL WILLIS Was born in Boston.Historical Pen S7ietc7ies.. Willis. JAMES R. first lieutenancy October 1825 commissioned a captain. and commissioned second Lieutenant of infantry in July 1822 jDromated to a 1847. Jan. Willis was born in Portland. until about the year 1S05 he emigrated to Kentucky. . 129 member of tbe County Court. where he established the Eastern Argus. Son of MAJOR ANDREW WAGGONER.

I have no information of his occnpations and employments in early life. was born near Bunker qualities of his nature. he had been among the soldiers. i^roraptly developed themselves. After the war he removed from the County of Berkeley. to take x^ossession of some valuable land on the Ohio River. which had been granted to his father in consideration of his Revolutionary service. ISll. He was on Craney Island. 1779. when the attack upon that Island was made by a combined military iind naval British force. Virginia.moted to a captaincy. All measures for the benefit of his constituents were carried without opposition and almost by acclamation. all the heroic memory. of Va. how gallantly he would have borne himself amidst the storm of battle. He had to an extraordinary degree. from the County of Mason in 1836. the infantry was not called into action. Hill. soon was pro. in Mason County. on the 22nd of June 1813. the confidence of those under Popular in his manners— frank and manhis command. He was elected a member of the House of Delegates of Virginia. to the vicinity of Point Pleasant. and which he had so largely inherited from his gallant father. in the County of Berkeley. He soon became local as great a favorite as among the members of the Legislature. ly in his bearing— decisive in his movemens— with a face beaming with intrepidity and devotion to his country. He first volunteered as a private. had the enemy reached the Island. and then commissioned as a major •of infantry. both by land and witer. in command of a battalion of the 4tli Reg. Infantry. When war was declared in June 1812. all were impressed with the daring courage. and animated by the noble patriotism which he disj^layed on that occasion. hj the United States against Great Britain.130 Historical Pen Sketches. he was the idol of the soldiery. yet. on the 24tli of October. and although from the successful operations of the Artillery in repelling the attack. . No one doubted. He was elected a member of the House of Delegates from this county. in that county.

without his knowledge. No man in the county was more generally loved and respected. by a iire from a detachment of Federal soldiers. all further j^roceedings in his honor. But he promptly put a stop to the intended comi)limentby saying "It is true I was on that Island during the attack but my command was not called into action. he acquired experience in his profession under various commanders in the AVest Indies. 1796. and none whose sudden death was more universally lamented. States as Midshipman February 28th. During his life. he never knew sickness. Va. He died in Berkeley County. Feb. but had resided in this county about eighty years. Charles B. the Coast of Africa and the Pacific Squadron. in England. chiefly Was Youngest son of Dr. U. Waggoner. and he was almost a daily visitor of that interesting and old fashioned Virginia town. stationed in that neighborhood. aged 116. was born in Martinsburg. Harrison and Holland Williams Stull. 1838." After this frank and manly declaration. John S. CHARLES ROBERTS remarkable for his longevity. of the honor and merit which belong to him. 1823. N. He was a native of Oxfordshire. In 1844 he was promoted to the rank . HARRISOxN. as he was passing from the town to his farm. His estate was contiguous to Point Pleasant. were dropi^ed. and I cannot be the instrument of robbing: : .. CAPT.. February Entering the naval service of the United 19th. 17th. 131 being understood that lie was on Graney Island. His son. a resolution was introduced into the body.Historical It Pen SJietclies. Major Faulkner who had supreme command of the artillery. was a member of the recent Constitutional Convention of this State. and now holds an important office in the county. Brazil. to vote him some signal honor for his assumed services in that conflict. The artillery did the w^ork. He was killed on the 30th of March 1863. the county seat of Mason. S. during that battle. NAPOLEON B.

Bailey making the "Oneida his flagshi J). Lieut. Just before daybreak on the 28d of April. Harrison led the advance of the national fleet." attached to the Mississipiw Squadron under Com. 1862. fearing that the presence of the In the meantime Capt. The violence and persistence of the storm was matched by the firmness and skill of the young sailor.132 of Historical Pen Sketches. Baily promptly^ ordered the Oneida to the rear of his division. nevertheless prepared to do his duty with joatriotic resignation. P. Harrison was placed in command of the gun boat "Cayuga. who. who finally brought back his boat and crew unharmed. he was carried out to sea and unable to make land for five or six days. This undistinguished position was a Source of great mortification to her gallant commander. He here took part in the land expedition which rescued General Kearney's command from a desperate position and on another occasion. and under Commodore Stockton. to make the "Cayuga" his flagship. In 1S50 he was on duty at then Washington Observatory and in the year 1S53 promoted to a lieutenancy and served as naval store keeper in the East Indies. the Cayuga being a light armed vessel of only seven guns. Farragut. with their hundred blazing guns. In his dispositions for forcing the passage of the river. and proposed to Lieutenant Harrison. he was distinguished among the younger officers for courage and ability. In 1862 Lieut. during tlie Mexican war. who had volunteered to lead the attack. This unexpected transfer to the van of battle and post of danger was hailed with great delight. stood last in the first division. Japan and on the coast of Africa. the Commodore arranged his fleet in three divisions. and in this iDrogramme. ' Division Commander would obscure his own position. the . Passed Midshipman. objected to Capt. Philiji. S. Passing Forts Jackson and St. Lee. having volunteered to carry an important message to a distant command in an ojDen boat.

and dragging him before Captain Bailey. she attacked the Chalmette Batteries. "Captain. imi:)ressed all who were near him. The commander recommended the lighter punishment and the man was expedited back to life post with a vigorous kick. The remedy was efficacious and the man stuck to his gun afterward doing good service. tremendous engagement. and forced it surrender. she repelled all attacks and destroyed three vessels of the adverse flotilla. Lieutenant Harrison was advanced to the rank of Commander. and won for him the resfject and admiration of the whole service. rams and tire sliips above the forts. During this brief and unequal fight. he said. and when relieved by the advance of the national vessels. The following characteristic anecdote is currrent among his brother officers During the hottest fire he found a gunner skulking seizing the recreant by the collar. with six thousand men." ' : first to last. and there sustained herself for half an hour unsupported.Historical Pen Sketches. He was soon after ordered to the "Mahaska. 'From Captain Bailey. his commission bearing date July 15th. and only six . hull and rigging. here's a fellow skulking shall I shoot him or boot him'i" ted in this : The chivalric courage and by Commander Harrison intelligent coolness exhibi- . she jjassed up the river with forty shot holes in her men wounded. afterwards. In recognition of his conduct in this engagement. 133 "Cayuga" rushed into tlie midst of the enemy's ileet of iron-clads. and persisted until the Hartford came up and the Batteries surrendered. and. Next day. . She next covered the encampment of the Chalmette Regiment with her guns. alone. 1862. I cannot say too much of him. in maneuvering and tighting her among the gun-boats. in his ofiicial report says Lieutanant Commander Harrison showed a masterly ability in steering his vessel past the Forts under a hurricane of shot and shell." of the .

His remains are buried in Oak Hill Cemetery. if not with the bloodthirstiness. able and faithful officer and an honorable. D. Captain Harrison so exposed himself to the storm that he died two days after. New Hampshire. The character of his judicial administration may be inferred from the following extract fi'om one of his opini:)rejudice. amiable and agreeable gentleman. but i^reserved much of the vigor and eccentricity of his mind. He was . Late in tlie same year. and rendered efficient service during McClellan's oi)erations at Harrison's Landing. and in his solicitude for the safety of the vessel. Georgetown." flagship of the North Atlantic Squadron. From here. He was eminently fitted to perform the duties expected of him at that sad i^eriod of our history. He was aslave to i^opular opinions and overbearing in inordinately vain of his judicial position. He was far advanced in when elevated to the bench. BALCH. intoierent in his his conduct. and he leaves behind him the reputation of a gallant. one year later. Judge appointed for the Berkeley circuit after of our late civil war. this year he was commissioned Cajotain. he was ordered to the command of the "Congress. The life first the close LEWIS P. terminating in the evacuation of Charleston. and took an active part in the naval operations on the coast of South Carolina. lie was ivitli the North Atlantic Squadron. On the 2Sth of April. C. W. Alter the peace Commander Harrison had charge of the navy yard at Portsmouth. certainly with all the buffoonery and vindictiveness of a Jeffrey. While at Key West the "Congress" encountered a terrible norther. and soon after ordered to duty at the Annapolis Navy School as Commandant of Midshipmen. where he remained until 1868. and brought his autliority to bear on the unfortunate rebels.134 Historical Pen Sketches. in command of tlie flagsliip "Minnesota. James River fleet.

and was licensed to preach the gospel by the Presbytery of Hanover. in the County . and were followed by highly imi)ortant results. in this section of the country. D. He presided on this circuit from March 1865 to March 1SG6 but even his own i)arty could tolerate him no longer. 17C9. REV. has been preserved by one of our best native artists. he entered HamiDden Sidney College. He graduated at that college in 1788." There was much freshness and originality in the character of his mind. they were marked by great vigor and boldness. July 10th. 135 for putting 'Common fame is iDi'ima facie ground trial for an offense. as a reminiscence of times never to be seen again. An accurate sketch of his personal appearance. In . with the quaint and characteristic opinions to which he gave utterance. HILL. if not monstrosity. WM. AYas born in Virginia on the 3rd of March. Immediately after his license. In January 1800 he left his residence in Berkeley County. offorded a rich fund of entertainment to the usually crowded court room. he settled in Berkeley County.Historical ions ' : Pen SJcetclies. in 1868. a i^erson on of Jefferson. 1790. he may be regarded as the natural outgrowth of the diseased and disjointed period in which he officially flourished it is hoiked. He had already acquired a high reputation as a commanding and effective pulpit orator. and the onus X)roJ)ancli of innocence is on the accused. his bombastic and theatrical airs upon the bench. In 1785. . It is the duty of a magistrate to arrest on such evidence. that the picture may be engraved and perijetuated. and as we have rarely had such a specimen of judicial eccentricity. A keen sense of the ludicrous was irresistably inspired by his appearance. and took charge of the Presbyterian Church in Winchester. D. and though his labors here were j)rosecuted through many discouragements. while his heavy and grotesque figure. Hisstated field of labor was missionary ground. He died at his residence near Leetown.

THOMAS WORTHINGTOxM Was born in the County of Berkeley in 1796 emigrated to Ohio. the distinctness and pungency of his appeals. impressed his audience with the conviction that what he said was truth. Boyd. in Winchester. and elected a representative in Congress from 1819 to 1821. his clear and powerful voice. Virginia.136 Historical Pen Skeiclies. THOMAS VAN SWEARINGEN Was born in Berkeley County. . and the deej) earnestness visible in his counte- nance and manner of delivery. . D. In 1803 he was a member of the State Constitutional Convention. from Ohio. His funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. His power as an extemporaneous preacher was very remarkable. He had not the learning and the close logical reasoning of Rice. A. nor the sj)lendid imagination of Kirkpatrick but there was a combination of excellencies in his preaching which made him a great favorite. H. when he resigned and from 1814 to 1817 he was Governor of Ohio. in the 84th year of his age. He died in 1823 from a fatal bilious fever. landing at . After his retirement from that office. 1816 the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by Dartmouth University. he \yas appointed a member of the first Board of Canal Commissioners in which capacity he served until Lis death. from 1803 to 1807. He was a Senator in Congress. which carried off the most prominent citizens of Shepherdstown. D. and such truth as involved their most vital interest. nor the chaste and flowing style of Speece. He died on the 16th of November 1852. and again from 1810 to 1814. WILLIAM MACKEY Was He born near Belfast in the north of Ireland in 1738. emigrated to this country about 1762. H. His commanding person. the vividness of his conceptions. which occurred 1827. and settled in Ross County in 1798.

General Washington.000 poorly equipped men. Washington made a masterly retreat and few prisoners were taken— none but those who were left severely wounded on the field of battle. could give dignity to any battle. and was one of the most interesting of the early conflicts of the Revolution. he fell. with an inferior force of 13. Knyphausen. On our side there was a loss of 1. Our army was defeated. If the magnitude of the j)rize at stake. this disparity of loss resulting from the superior arms and equipments of the enemy. Green. and the seat of the Continental 'Congress. At of Brandywine. 1777. On the side of the British but 546 killed and wounded. Mackey. The battle was flerce and bloody. the battle men — looking to the capture of Philadelphia. Pa He volunteered in the Revolutionary army in the beginning of the war.000 as captain.Historical Pen Sketcltes. then the capital of the States. Among the wounded was the Marquis de Lafayette.000 killed and wounded. Philadelphia fell into the hands of the en^my. After several months imprisonment. severely Avounded. the number of the troops engaged and the character of the military leaders on both sides. 137 Philadelphia. and thence removing to the Camberland Yalley. from capture. was equally determined to save the city. charging at the head of his company. aided by LordCornwallis and Gen. Sullivan. AVayne. . he was exchanged. was promptly commissioned and continued in service until its close. The battle of Brandj^wine (so called from the small creek near which it occurred) was fought on the 11th of September. Howe. Among those was Capt. Wm. had landed from the British fleet a well discix3lined and admirably equipped army of 18. The hostile armies met near the Brandywine Creek. It grew out of the determination of General Washington to save. when he joined his regiment. Muhlenburg. the city of Philadelphia. General Sir Wm. Stephens and Maxwell. if i^ossible. assisted in his command by Gens. this possessed those elements in an eminent degree.

an institution which has excited so much attention and even hostile discussion in this country. It w^as an association founded by the officers of the American Kevolutionary Army. who had served until the end of the war. He had two children. surviving Major General. Its object was to commemorate the success of the Revolution and to perpetuate sentiments of patriotism. and the memory of hardships experienced in common.138 still Historical suffering Pen SJcetcJies. William Mackey. 1787. After the termination of the Revolutionary war. James Faulkner. his grandson. from liis wounds. and Sarah. He was succeeded by Hamilton and the Pinckneys. His residence was in the house directly opposite the Episcopal Church in Martinsburg. but the general Society meets trienially in New York. and the Society was in all its vigor during the last visit of Gen. benevolence and brotherly love. The original draft of the Constitution was made by General Knox and it is still At the second general meeting of the Society in Washington v/as elected President General. as President and General Henry Knox. As there may not be any future occasion to refer to this Society of the Cincinnatti. Lefayette to the United States. and contiuued in service until liostilities ceased. at Boydville. of which Hamilton Fish is at this time the . married to James Faulkner. after the peace of 1783. in lS24-o. who was then its only extant. Shortly after tinsburg. as Secretary and which may be seen gracing the walls of Chas. and was re-elected trienially during his life. composed exclusively of the officers of that army.he removed to Marwhere he continued to reside until his death. being by his service and piosition to be a member of the Society of the Cincinatti. which bears the honored signatures of George Washington. a brief reference to it may not be uninterentitled esting. It has branches in several of the States. tlie close of the war. he received his diploma as such.

his zeal was unconquerable. and is recorded in the Clerk's office of the County Court of Berkeley. Taylor. Charles James Faulkner. Z. The Martinsburg Gazette. he devises his projDerty generally to his grandson. It admits of honorary membership. 1812. Winheld Scott. Mackey. so natural to his countrymen. Blest with a strong constitution and tilled with that ardor and enthusiasm. until every individual in it. contains the following notice of his death "The deceased was born in Ireland. J.Historical Pen SJ^etclies. By it. in Martinsburg in 1812. thongh no native son of America was ever more attached to the institutions of this country. except himself and one of his subordinates were killed. and his military lands in Ohio. 1810. He entered the contest soon after the commencement of hostilities. H. Revolution is entitled to regular membership. to his grandson. and but few suffered as much. among whom are to be found the names of Benj. William Mackey died and was buried with military honors. S. and continued his useful services in the arduous struggle until our liberty was established. . she having died on the 23 of Oct. The oldest male decendant of any officer of the etc. No one of equal grade rendered greater service to the country. He was one of the few surviving heroes of the Revolution that gave independence to the country. 1812. posted in one of the most important and dangerous situations this post was supported by Capt. Mackey and his brave company. U. Grant. of Friday. His wife preceded him to the grave a few years. He was soon after exchanged. His will bears date the 2Sth of April. to which he became entitled by virtue of his Revolutionary services. but a considerable time elapsed before the severity of his wound enabled him : . the 23rd of October. In this dreadful conflict Capt. Mackey was shot through the breast and made a prisoner. Andrew Jackson. 139 President. At the memorable battle of Brandy wine he had the command of a company. Franklin.

allowing him liberty only to sit down or walk once or twice around it. and laid down on his face. For three hours he endured these excruciating agonies with the utmost fortitude. Dr. he raised a regiment At the comby his own exertions. AVashington. severe trials in ' He was engaged in many other which he was always distinguishecl for his determined courage and usefulness. and return the same way. who obtained for him an ensign's commission. thus describes the death of the brave Col. again to join the army. "He was fifteen feet high. In 1782. McKnigiit. and who was an' eye Crawstripped naked. He was half brother to Col. . and a rope attached to the band around his wrist and fastened to the foot of a post about scene. and often took the lead in parties against the Indians. of the revolution. of Berkeley county. and around which a fire of poles was burning briskly. He was one of the bravest men on the frontier. a fellow prisoner. Hugh Stephenson.140 Historical Pen SJietcltes. he commended his soul to God. across the Ohio. he accepted the command of an expedition to ravage the Wyandott and Moravian Indian towns on the Muskingum. On this expedition he was taken prisoner and put to death by the most excruciating tortures. and made to sit down near a post which had been planted for the purpose. and while the men would apply the burning ends of the poles to his flesh." COL. the squaws threw coals and hot embers upon him. who subsequently witness of the made ford : his escape. He was a captain in Forbs' expedition in 1758. When faint and exhausted. and held the commission of Colonel in the Continental Army. During the French war he distinguished himself by his bravery and good conduct. and was much noticed by Gen. His ears were then cut off. His hands were then pinnioned behind him. who commanded mencement a rifle regiment in 1776. severely beaten with clubs and sticks. WILLIAM CRAWFORD Was born in Berkeley County.

men- . Stephenson's will. Gen. Maj. Maj.Historical Fen Sketclies. Wm. 1775. Esq. 1776. bearing date the ord of March. Stephenson died and was succeeded in the command of the regiment by Col. 141 He was then scalped and burning coals being laid on Ms head and back by one of the squaws. he again rose and attempted to walk. Williams was the senior captain of the regiment. A few days previous . HUGH STEPHENSON. In August. and executed at "Roxbury Canif). 1776. bears date the 20th of July. Of the Eevolutionary Army. Hite resigned his commission and Abraham Shepherd was elected Lieutenant in his place. Rawlings. born in Berkeley county. New England. of New York. Michael Bedinger. His body was thrown into the fire and consumpd into ashes. Rawlings as lieutenant colonel. Col. 1775. he raised a company of volunteers in Berkeley county to serve one year in the Continental Army. Otho H. Scott and Thomas Hite were elected Lieutenants of this company. afterwards Judge of the General Court of Virginia Joseph Swearingen. and he sank into the welcome arms of death. but strength failed him. to which there is a codicil to the departure of this annexed." The v/ili was presented for probate on the 20th of November. Before the expiration of its term of service General Washington recommended to Congress the raising of a rifle regiment. Lieut. now on record in the County Court of Berkeley." COL. Samuel Findlay. Abraham Shepherd and Nathaniel Pendleton. under a resolution of Congress. Among the privates were Robert White. Geo.. William Henshaw. Col. In June 1775. Among the executors appointed by the will is the name of his half brother. Crawford — the bravest of is Indian fighters. company for Boston. 1776. by the unanimous vote The company marched to Boston in of the company. July. whose sad and excruciating death tioned in another part of these sketches. which was accordingly organized by the appointment of Hugh Stephenson as colonel. Henry Bedinger.

in the climate. which occurred w^hile trying a case in Court in Parkersburg. and again from 1851 to 1853. For many years principal of the Martinsburg Academy. he left the county of Berkeley for a more southern In 1807. He was a native of one of the ISTew England States. then a member of the House of Representatives in announcing his death to that body. as a testimonial of his great learning and eminence as a minister. March 2. J. C. 1820. Died in June. but . He was ALAION SORTWELL. Hoge. REV. upwards of thirteen years. He resided in this county for . JOHN MORE Was born in Berkeley county in 1788. He possessed a mind of uncommon vigor. made by Hon. D. June 5th. he was appointed President of Hampden Sidney College. In 1801. in consequence of the failing health of Mrs. Virginia. and richlj^ stored with scientific knowledge. . 69 th year of his age. professional and political character may be seen in the Congressional Glote of the 9th of June. MOSES HOGE. and acquired great popularity as a minister throughout this section of the State. D. 1861. He died on the 5th of July. and practiced in Parkersburg. a member of the Virginia Constitutional Convention. 1804 was a lawyer by profession. He was a llepresentative in Congress from the State of Louisiana from 1841 to 1843. In 1810. A sketch of his private. Born in Berkeley county. Virginia. 1854. and was a representative in Congress from 1853 until his death. the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by the college of New Jersey. Born tlie in Virginia.142 Historical Pen SJieiclies. JOHN FRYATT SNODGRASS. assembled at Richmond in 1850. capable at once of accurate discrimination and profound research. 1854. 1752 in 1787 moved to county of Berkeley. Faulkner. Febrnary 15.

then clerk of Berkeley county. he returned to Martinsburg. At thirteen years of age he was placed in the county clerk's office at Martinsburg. He thereupon resigned his commission in the State comx^any. tlie aud cool headed i^eople. In many respects the temx)er and character Fiery and intractable of the two men were not unlike. For good conduct in the battle. generated the most painful feelings in those around him. Lawrence. he labored under the same deformity in one of his feet that tortured the soul of Lord Byron during his life. was succeeded by Edward Colston. and did ample justice to the youths whose education was entrusted to him. After the war. He died in 1831. JOHN STROTHER. constantly laboring under the suspicion that his club foot was an object of observation. in Berkeley county. was born at Park Forest. and became an inmate of the family of David Hunter. his extreme sensitiveness especially in society. he received a notification of his appointment to a lieutenancy in the 12th infantry. A . where out of twenty-four men present for duty. and was in the command of his company at the battle of Crisler's Field. And yet. but having in the meantime applied for a commission in the regular army. November the ISth. joined his regiment on the Canada frontier. He Avas a profound scholar. vivacity and good humor. Faulkner's artillery company. in his temper. son of Benjamin Strother. he volunteered for the defence of Norfolk. . AVhen war was declared against Great Britain. was engaged under Wilkinson in the unsuccessful enterprise against Montreal participated in the famous passage of the Long saut of the St. in camp near Fredericksburg. when he could forget his deformity. the company lost eight killed and wounded. 143 possessed but few of cliaracteristics of that steady Striking and intellectual in his physiognomy. in 1812. he was replete "with wit. 1792.Historical Pen SketcJies. he was promoted. as second lieutenant in Capt. and afterwards appointed adjutant of the regiment.

1862. and retired from its duties after having been connected with the Berkeley clerkship for forty-live years. Constrained and on betli by the limited income of his office. JOHN S. erected a large hotel at that place. he had some years previously. and continued in that office until by another change in the Constitution it became elective by the people. eldest daughter of David Pendleton. in Annapolis. he was superseded by Harrison Waite. in 1833. and his absent son. where they were interred with masonic and military honors. 1815. In 1829 lie was elected clerk of the County Court of Berkeley made vacant by the death of David Hunter. In 1832 he was appointed by Judge Richard Parker to the Clerkship of the Supreme Court of law and chancery for the county of Berkeley. in the midst of his family. Descended from one of the most respected of the old families of Maryland. His remains were carried to Martinsburg. when a change in the constitution of Virginia making a new election necessary. . HARRISON Was one of the most highly educated and accomplished physicians that up to that day had sought a home in Berkeley county. then serving in the Federal army. was married to ElizaPendleton. He died at the Berkeley Springs on the 16th of January. At the age of thirteen. he was a firm and intrei)id champion of the rights of the Union. he was sent to St. when he declined competing for the office. John's College. brought on by the close confinement to his clerical duties. and asserted his opinion with a courage that commanded the respect of both friends and enemies. opened a boarding house at Berkeley Springs. ilie 8tli of September. he was born on West river. in the recent troubles which agitated the country. Esq. Anne Arundel county in 1790. his last words expressing solicitude for his beloved country. and latterly. and held that office until 1S3:>. The remainder of his business life was devoted to that enterprise. and by ill-health. between 1845 aud 1848.144 Historical Pen Slietchef.

after whom she was named. His patients had unbounded confidence in his skill and judgment and his opinion upon all medical questions soon came to be regarded as oracular. and it rarely happened that one of the opposite . In 1805 he was married to Holland Williams Stull. At the age of twenty he was sent to Europe. Hunters. which he occupied during his life. Holland Williams. ISTewkirks. Colstons. . Stephensons. beyond the limits of Martinsburg. Wevers.extensive with the county. Snodgrasses. Most of its then leading and influential families adhered zealously to the principles of that party. which he sought as a permanent home. with the general recognition of his high attainments in his profession soon introduced him to a profitable practice and as there were no iDhysicians at that time in the county. Orricks. Porterfields. Campbells. the niece of that distinguished patriot and hero of the Revolution. Shearers. At that day what were called the "Federalists" had complete control of the county. &c. His XDleasant and social manners. 145 and there spent six years in completing his elementary. classical and scientific studies. Vanmetres. where he spent four years in the medical and surgical instructions of France and England. He was a Jeffersonian Democrat. purchasing as a residence the property at the northwest corner of King and German streets. Gorrells. frank and manly deportment. General Otho. Boyds. preparing himself for the practice of his profession.Historical Pen Sketches. and regarded as one of the acknowledged leaders and representatives a of ardent He was man sion to his views on all subjects with frankness of that minority party in this county. Tates. Tabbs. There was much exclusiveness in the distribution of patronage. such as the Pendletons. Burns. his practice was soon co. In 1806 he removed with his young bride to Martinsburg. temperament and gave expresand decision. Waggoners.

he qualified under his will. ANDREW H. military and naval victories of that war and its glorions party was Lonored by any The and triumx)hant results ntterly annihilated all opposition that time a more conciliatory spirit was manifested by the ruling party. Elisha Boyd. For some years before his death he was confined to the house by a severe attack of gout.. He was licensed and subsequently visited . as one of his executors. Harrison for a i:)eace. Shortly after entering college he joined the Presbyterian Church and . H. Europe and attended lectures delivered by the celebrated Dr. Upon the death of Maj. D. Second son of Gen. resolved to ptreach the gosi^el. and among the first evidences of that change of policy to the conquering Democracy. he spent two years at New Haven. and graduated with distinction in 1830. was born at Martinsburg. official or political preferment. justified the confidence reposed in him. After graduation in Jefferson College. Federalists wrecked tlieir party by violent oppoThe sition to tlie war of 1812-13 w^ith Great Britain. BOYD. some of whom and the descendants of others are still in this community. He left a large and interesting family of children. Scotland. in the year 1814. Faulkner in 1817. of Dr. D. to IDerfect himself in particular studies completed a regular course of theological education thereafter at Princeton . He accepted the position and for near ten years discharged its duties with intelligence and promptness. He received his academic education at Martinsburg and Middleburg when fourteen years old. upon the bench of the County Court of Berkeley. 1838. he entered the junior class of Jefferson College. under which he suffered until he expired in October. REV. and by his kind. generous and parental attention to the writer of this sketch. . From was the recommendation seat as a justice of the in 1818. Chalmers and Sir AYilliam Hamilton in Edinburg.146 Historical Pen S/ielches.

entered upon his . During his illness the presbytery met in Winchester . to the people of which city. His prominence as a citizen during the late civil war. 147 of Wincliester in charge over the churches of Leesburg and Middleburg in 1838 accepted a call to Harrisonburg in 1840 and to Winchester in 1842. He was called.Historical to preacli tlie gospel Pen SJietches. Boyd was a man of fine intellect. His valuable ministry of three and twenty years at Winchester was terminated after a mournful and protracted illness on the 16th of December. and the County of Frederick. residing within the Confederate limits. discriminating and comprehensive judgment. during all i^arts of his ministry to a number of distinguished churches in the great cities. while in his pro^Der department of didactic and polemic theology. and especially with strong and active reasoning faculties. caused him to be seized as a hostage. and held in retalliation for the arrest of other citizens attached to the cause of the Union. He loved study and ever felt both its necessity and obligation. ecclesiastical history and biblical criticism. Stiles. Joseph C. He never enjoyed a day of perfect health after his restoration to liberty. He bore the illegal and unjustifiable imprisonment consequent upon this seizure with all the patience and fortitude of a Christian minister. Dr. He was endowed with quick and clear perception. few men in the country had made such eminent attainments. preferred to remain in Winchester. On almost every topic of literature and science he discoursed like one who had given exclusive attention to those subjects. a sound. He was a man of extensive and useful information. 1865. of Georgia. perusal. but a fatal blow was given to his health by the rigors of his long imprisonment. but being wholly independent in his jDecuniary circumstances. which was published in x>amphlet form and is worthy of extensive by the Presbytery first . 1837 . he exhibited a strongattachment. A funeral address was pronounced over Ms remains by Rev.

in 1853. and appointed a committee to convey to Dr. In this pursuit he continued actively and successfully for a period of thirty years. integrity and capacity for business." THOMAS MASLIN.148 Historical Pen SkeicJies. He received the distinguished attention with such humble and touching gratitude to his brethren. He . joyfully awaiting his transportation to the opposite shore. and continued to hold that office until the magistry became elective under the constitution of 1850. he was elected a director and made President. menced the mercantile business in that place without capital and relying exclusively upon his oAvn energy. 1808. In ] 861 he was elected by an almost unanimous vote of the people to rej^resent the County of Hardy in the Virginia State Convention. called together by the exigencies of the opening civil war. that on the return of the committee the chairman reported to presbytery that "he had seen Bunyan's Pilgrim on the banks of the river. when he removed to Moorfield. and was made presiding justice of the County Court until the County of Hardy was embraced in the newly created Son of Wm. Boyd their christian salutations and to assure him of their sincere condolence in the painful and protracted trial which he was then enduring. At the early age of fifteen years and with but a very limited education. on the 2Sth day of October. When the Bank of the Valley established a branch at Moorefield. In 1837 he was commissioned a magistrate of Hardy County. In 1871 he was elected by a large majority to represent the counties of Hardy and Grant in the Constitutional Convention of West Virginia. Berkeley County. State of West Virginia. he was placed in a store at Harper's Ferry and continued there and in similar situations until in In 1831 he com1830. was born in Gerardstown. Under that new system he was elected to the same office. and Ann M. Maslin. and in such calm and assured submission to the will of God. and re-elected every year until the bank was closed by the war.

at great expense. Its sup^Dosed altitude from the vertex to the plane of the base may have been from six to nine feet. Faulkner and within the recently enlarged limits of Martinsburg. with abase of twenty feet square. now upon the lands of Charles — the will nor in the detailed account of the executors to throw any light on the subject. The design of the monument is obviously a rectangular pyramid. He possessed much quaint and original humor. was the regular resort of a coterie of visitors during the long evenings in winter. from a distance. and being a bachelor. By whom this structure was erected whether by the executors and legatees of the deceased. are hard silicious mountain stones. is not known. He died at Moorfield on the 21st of September. with none of the cares of a family about him. He died after a short illness. to the regret of all who knew him. after a protracted illness of more than a year. ADAM STEPHEN. Few. under which repose the ashes of this distinguished soldier and patriot. his office. His memory was stored with anecdotes. appeals were ever taken from his decision. For many years one of the most efficient and active magistrates in the County of Berkeley.Historical Pen SA'eicJies. as they are not natives . He was a man of strong mind. in 1SB6. 1878. if any. There is nothing in There is MAJOR GEN. It has now an elevation of a little more than four feet. for all had abounded confidence in his integrity and sense of justice. with clever common sense views of the law. or by the grateful contributions of his countrymen. — JOHNSTON MAGOWN. J. in which he also slept. and kept his office in the frame building attached to the Stewart Hotel. the remains of a monument. The large stones used in its construction some of them twelve feet in length. 149 also filled various otlier offices in that county was treasurer of one turnpike company and President of another. and must have been transported. He resided in Martinsburg.

and stone after stone injured and removed. The of earliest notice is we have of the military movements immediate conneciion with Washington. and one of the most prominent actors in its early civil and judicial history. and since it has been in the possession of its present proprietor since 1339. He emigrated to this x:)ortion of Virginia about 1738. that the French and Indians had taken XDOssession of the northwestern x^ortion of Virginia. . Military History. but being much exposed and unprotected a play spot for the boys the apex was first thrown off. General Stephen' s life and fortunes are intimately idenHe was one of the tified with the County of Berkeley. It is at i)resent within the limits of our city. leaving only what remains of the original structure. and in her soil have his remains been interred. I think a careful examination of the remains will lead to the conclusion (contrary to the present popular belief) that the monument was once finished according to its original design. Historical Pen SJieiclies. and a i)leasure in seeing his memory vindicated from any unjust and unmerited rex^roach cast u^^on it. It was nj)on his land that the city of Martinsburg was located here he lived a long and prosx)erous life. murdering and driving away the setin Adam Stephen. and is believed to have been a native of Pennsylvania. Information reached the colonial authorities at Williamsburg. (now thirty-three years ago) has been protected from further injury. The people of Berkeley. on the Monongahela. therefore. earliest immigrants to this locality he became the owner of large tracts of land in this neighborhood he was one of the most active agents in having the County of Berkeley established.150 of this valley. a few years He after the first settlements were made in this valley. should feel an interest in learning something of his history. — — — . . General Stephen was born about the year 1718. must have derived the most of his land by direct grant from Lord Fairfax.

an experienced English officer. by order of Congress. In 1757 he accompanied Washington in his expedition to Fort Du Quesne. but they were. but Col. the colonial government ordered out a force of 1. Col. The command of this force was tendered to "Washington. where they recovered possession of that territory. the frontier out post of that period. which they subsequently named Fort Pitt. Pen Skeiclies. Joshua Fry. This assembled force started for the frontiers. the command necessarily devolved upon Washington. and there unexx^ectedly encountered a hostile force. same year. Fry having died.000 men 500 of whom were to be raised from this section of the colony — . was appointed Major. met him with his comx3any at Winchester on the 20th of March. In August. On August the 14th. They pursued their difficult and wearisome march through the wilderness until they reached the Great Meadows. but upon terms which allowed them to march out with flying colors and with all the honors of war. to quell the hostilities of the Creek Indians in that section. though not seriously. and Washington became Lieutenant Colonel. 1854. he resumed his comtnand of Fort Cumberland. 1754. the regiment was re-organized with Washington as Colonel. and Stephen. 151 The General Assembly authorized the raising of six companies for the recovery of that territory. but because of his youth he declined it in favor of Col. In the same year he proceeded. Stephen was then placed in command of Fort Cumberland. greatly superior to their own. Stephens as Lieut. 1763. They took shelter in Fort Necessity. and captured Fort DuQuesne. to the South.Historical tiers of that section. and by Washington's order. Stephen had raised a company from the settlers hereabouts. and was wounded. Colonel and Andrew Lewis as Major. in June. In 1755 he was in the memorable battle of theMonongahela. the site of the present city of Pittsburg. usually called Braddock's In 1756 defeat. and were defeated in battle. after a gallant resistance. com^Delled to surrender.

Bancroft thus describes the sad condition of our frontier in June. addressed to Sir William Johnson. They roamed the wilderness. Superintendent of Indian affairs : ''An effectual stop will be jout to these outrages par ticularly as Col. Stephen with a body of 500 men of the Virginia militia. heartily wish Col. is advanced as far as Fort Cumberland and Bedford. which it was the object of the expedition under General Stej^heu to avenge and redress "Nor was its garrisoned stockades only that eucouuthe fury of the savages. by a formidable alliance of Shawnees. highly to the honor of the like number of men under for the defence but x^laces the former in the most despicable light imaginable. to the same person. to and the adjoining the South-western portion of our territory. the command of Col. for ser- and 500 counties. Lewis and protection of the South-west frontiers. in a letter of September the 14th. but of acting offensively agains-t the savages." Again." Mr. to be raised i)laced i^rotect and under the command of Col. and were placed under the command vice on the North-western frontier in Greenbrier . 1763. The object of these expeditions was to repel an attack upon our people. Wynadotts and other Indian tribes. Sir Jeffery Amherst. he says '' The attempts against the Shawnees are certainly very latter . : necessary. Delawares. That public-spirited colony has also sent a large body of the . What a contrast this makes between the Pennsylvanians and Virginians. 1763. acting in alliance with Pontiac. : . with a view not only of covering the frontiers.152 Historical Fen SJcetches. 1763. Stephen success in His chief danger will be his retreat up the river. of Stephen. then in command of all the British forces in America. and I his expedition. thus notices these expeditions in a letter of the 27th of August. Andrew Lewis.

Stephen in command of all the troops in the service of Virginia. now a Brigadier General in the State Militia. he left Col. All further dangers being removed from the frontiers." {vol. That General Stephen at that period enjoyed in a high degree the confidence of Washington is not only obvious from the preceding narrative. The unhappy emigrant knew not if to brave danger or to leave his home and his planted fields for wretchedness and poverty. charged with the protection of our entire Northwestern frontier. commissioned by one of the regiments raised by that State. unable to find so much as a hovel to shelter them from the weather. and their tomahawks struck . but is farther shown by the fact that when. returned in 176S to his home in Berkeley County after fourteen years of almost continuous service in defense of the people and terCol. 153 massacring all wliom they met. They passed the mountains and spread death even to Bedford. and Robt- At the commencement of the revolutionary .) After aiding to quell these hostile Indian movements. alike the laborer in the field or the child in the cradle. and forced to lie scattered in the woods.Ilistor leal Pen Sketches. They struck down more than a hundred traders in the woods. mutilating their bodies. Nearly live hundred families from the frontiers of Virginia fled to AVinchester. Virginia Colonel of in December. page 124. he was required to visit Boston on important public business. bare of every comfort. 1775. 5i7i. war he was. Colonel. in 1756. Stephen returned to the east and was placed in command of Fort Loudon at Winchester. In continuation of the history of his military service we pass for the present over the intervening period of time. our trooi:)s were disbanded and Col. — ritory of Virginia. They prowled around the cabins of the husbandman on the frontier. Stephen. Isaac Reed was at the same time chosen Lieut. scalping every one of them quaffing their gushing life blood.

On November the 4th. promoted to the rank of Major General. The enemy triumphed. On the 4th of September. and on the 9th of February. They say. They thought in view of his long and valuable military services and in view of the farther fact. that his intoxication in no wise contributed to the disasterous befeat of that day. or a milder penalty inflicted. at the battles of Trenton and Princeton in his celebrated retreat of ninety miles through the Jerseys the most critical and disastrous campaign of the war. urging for military and political considerations. 1776. 1777. On the 13th of February. he wrote to the President of Congress. giving entire satisfaction by his bravery and good conduct. have neverthless complained of the harshness and unkindness of the sentence of dismissal.154 Historical Pen SJcetclies^ Lawson Major of this regiment. to the Continental line. Gen. and at the battle of Brandy wine was in 'command of a division as IMajor General. further. it should have been overlooked. was fought the battle of Gerraantown. he was more than usually severe and exacting in this case. — — We now approach the most painful period of the military history of General Stephen. the appointment of Gen. he was appointed by Congress a Brigadier General of the Continental troops. He continued with him in 1777. he was transferred. but which was marked by brilliant stratagems and daring exploits. that as strict a deciplinarian as Washington was. whilst not questioning a fact ascertained by a court of competent jurisdiction. with his regiment. the Marquis de Lafayette. On the 26th of November. 1777. Stephen was charged with " unofficer-like conduct. Gen.*' and the specification was that he was " intoxicated" on that day. for his friend and favorite. 1777. 1776. Washington was defeated. lie was found guilty and dismissed from the army. with a view of creating a vacancy in that high grade of the army. Lafayette to a division of the army. The friends of General Stephen. This authority . Ste^^hen was with Washington in 1776.

and the commander-inchief could take no view nor gain any information of the situation of the whole. and became separated from each other. disconcerted the action. and fell back in defiance of every effort of its officers In its retreat it came upon Stephen's divito rally it. says: "This half hour's delay of nearly one half of the army. sion. being in its turn mistaken Wayne's division. The fog and smoke rendered all objects indistinct at thirty yards distance the different parts of the army knew nothing of the jDosition or movements of each other. The divisions and brigades thus separated from each other. having had a circuit. with to their divisions. . \)^Yt of Stephen' division being arrested by a heavy fire from Chew's house and pausing to return it. . who had been dismissed from the army. or of the division of which he had commanded. personally.Historical Pen Sketches. by the skirmishing upon Chew' s house. make "At this moment a singular panic seized our army. Washington Irving in his ''Life of ferring to the delay of General Washington. could not be reunited." reKnox. and threw it into a panic. during the battle none upon his division except what is satisfactorily exI plained. in this battle. which it mistook for foes. which had pushed the enemy nearly three miles. the account of the Germantown. was alarmed by the approach of a large body of American troops on its left fiank. as given by our best historians to see if our defeat was in any way attributable to the misconduct of General Stephen. and in three days afterwards it was proclaimed in general orders that he was to take command of the division recently under General Stephen. "Green and Stephen. were late in coming into action. 1 55 was given to liim by Congress on the 1st of December. battle of have read with great interest. and I cannot find a single imputation upon his conduct.

to Greene. . in describing that battle. in whom of aU his generals he most confided. infer. utters not a in disparagement of Gen. there is nothing in these accounts to show that his intoxication disqualified him for command.. " Greene should by this time have engaged the British right. Had the forces entrusted to him acted as efficiently as the troops with Washington. "and where was Greene? From some cause. fell under the frown' of the force. wlio may be regarded as one of the most impartial and perhaps one of the most censorious of our historical critics.156 for fled tlie . Thus ended the militarv career of this distinQ:uished . " His (Washington's) plan was to direct the chief attack on the enemy's right." Again. Historical Pen Ske iches. comjDosed of Greene and of Stephen. From all which I the . and flanked by Macdougall's brigade. Bancroft." Again. word which he was to have attacked. for their conduct in this battle not a word of censure is cast upon Gen. the day might have been fatal to Howe's army." Thus Greene and Woodford are censured by the historian. . he reached the British outpost three quarters of an hour later than the troops of Washington then at a very great distance from . that whilst he may have been proved to have been intoxicated on the day oi" battle. or that the country sustained any injury from his improper indulgence in the use of liquor. but nothing was heard from any i:)art of his wing." Again. Stephen. which he never explained. " Greene on that day. he gave the command of his left wing. Irretrievable disorder was the consequence the divisions became mixed and the line was broken. into confusion from enemy thus all fell its own victory. to which the approach was easy and for that purpose." and our army Mr. thickets and strong and numerous post and rail fences. he formed his Avhole wing. Stephen. and thus in line of battle. attempted to advance two miles or more through marshes. ' Commander in-Chief.

1772. Gen. Stephen being withdrawn from the county. Stephen. and two in fighting the enemies of our lib erty and indej)endence. Stephen from military servihe gave his attention to his private affairs. Mr. seems to have been treated with unusual harshness. Stephen. Darke were elected by the voters of Berkeley county to the convention which assembled in Richmond on the 2nd of June of that year to determine whether Virginia would give her consent to ces. Stephen and Gen. written in advance of the war. In 1788 Gen. vindicating the position then being taken by the colonies. I have seen no evidence in his l)revions career. it was only known as the Berkeley Court House. Promx)t arrangements were made for the erection of all the necessary county buildings. and was chielly instrumental in having the county of Berkeley created. So perfectly was this understood that the justices appointed by Lord Dunmore assembled at that point on the 19th of May. In 1778 Martinsburg was by an act of General Assembly laid out on 130 acres of land. that he was habitually addicted to the use in excess of ardent For this one violation of military discipline he sx^irits. until his return in 1777. . in 176S. • Civil History. after a service of 14 years in ligliting the French and Indians. by his services in the Revolutionary army. that would have done honor to the patriotism and public spirit of a Henry or a Jefferson. After the return of Gen. no steps were taken for the establishment of a town. granted for that purpose by Gen. incorporated into his great historical work. by an act of the General xissembly. . Its limits w^ere so arranged as to make the present site of Martinsburg about the centre of the county. Genejcal Stephen was one of the justices so appointed and also at the same time commissioned first High Sheriff of the county.Historical Fen Sketclies. and none in his subsequent life. and there being no town then established. Bancroft. 157 soldier. a letter of Gen. and formed the first court of the county.

Stephen in favor of the adoption of the Constitution may be seen on pages 642. 643 and 644 of Elliot's debates of that convention. Born MOSES T. at the September term. adoption of our present Federal Constitution. of June. at his death. Stephen. was the son of Moses Hunter. The vote . in 1790. It is almost unnecessary to say that the delegation from Berkeley stood by the Constitution in all their votes from the beginning For this alone. was admitted to-record in the date the 5th Winchester District Court. 79 against it. HUNTER. Gen. eloquence and patroitism. and does great credit to his ability. died in Martinsburg in 1791. The speech delivered by Gen. if for nothing to the end of the session. The convention was nearly equally divided on the question of the ratification or rejection of that Constitution. stood 89 for adoption. only be gleaned from the general histories and pubcan A lic records of the country. SStepheu. Madison. and many collateral relatives. In favor of its adoption were such men as Jas. that not a single paper has been jDreserved to throw light sketch of his life upon his long and eventful career. Patrick Henry. and especially But after inquiry I learn his military correspondence.15S tlie Historical Pen Sketcltes. one of the . George Mason and Theodore Bland. Wythe for its rejection were such men as James Monroe. possessed His will. It is difficult to imagine a higher and more important trust that could have been confided to two of her citizens. bearing of a large real and personal estate. Gen. 1791. The speech is so honorable to him that it should be incorpoT-ated into this sketch but it is too long for present publication. we owe them a debt of gratitude. the grand children of his brother Robert. 1791. Edmund Pendleton and Geo. else. John Marshall. musthaveleft many valuable papers in the hands of his executors. He has left many descendants in the States of Virginia and West Virginia.

(an essential inheritance from our English ancestors) were placed. and it was here that the court held its session from May 19. but his tastes at that time being more to literary than to legal pursuits. It stood directly opposite the Court House door about thirty feet from the present curbstone. his brother in law. sey. the property of his father. Moses Hunter. The Clerk's office was at the corner of Queen and John streets. under the lash of the jailor. where the old market house subsequently stood. Where the stocks or whipping post and pillory. both of whites and blacks. It was. I have no means of ascertaining. in England as early as the reign of Henry established III. 159 of the Presi- early clerks of Berkeley. a temporary wooden structure. as I passed to and from old James AnderThe pillory as a x^unishment. I can well remember its dark and menancing outline when I was a boy. When admitted to the bar he took up his residence for a brief period in Martinsburg. dential electors and one Washington.Historical Fen Sketclies. and more than once have I witnessed the writhings and contortions of human flesh. The jail. was located in the public square. 1772. George Tucker. about one mile north of the town. was son's school house. Stephen from the Secretary's office its sessions were removed to Morgan's Spring. until by virtue of a writ obtained by Gen. who cast the vote of Virginia for George He was educated at Princeton. near the present site of Martinsburg. and only abolished during the reign of the j^resent . under Henry St. County. he removed to his line estate called the "Red House" farm. New Jer- The "Red House" was a well-known spot in the annals of Berkeley County. and after completing his collegiate course commenced the study of law in Winchester. near the property of Admiral Boarman. as stated. inherited from his father. at that time one of the most eminent and successful practitioners in Virginia.

Hunter. humor a taste enriched by classical reading and high powers of logical analysis. wit. but in his crabbed and disagreeable moods and they were by no means uncommon his face became as dark as a thunder cloud. morose and offensive. quaint or ludicrous in the voice or deportment of the witnesses. Victoria. and his manners were repellant. which had jurisdiction over some fifteen or twenty counties. spent his money wastefnlly. and if there was anything peculiar. His voice was the most agreeable that I have ever heard at the bar musical from its lowest to its highest tones and was admirably adopted to give effect and emphasis to whatever he said. active and alert on his feet. in June. he determined to return to Martinsburg and enter earnHis circuit estly upon the practice of his profession. He had some of the finest qualities of an orator a rich and poetic fancy. The residence of Mr. that he attained his largest and . held at Winchester. Morgan and Frederick especially the District Court of Chancery. Hunter in the country Avas in no wise profitable to him. It was in Jefferson that he seemed to make his deepest impression upon the popular mind. recollect Mr. he was of medium height and strongly tending to corpulency. pathos or denunciation. he first . most lucrative practice. but for a person of his bulk. His powers of vocal mimicry were extraordinary. 1837. a brilliant imagination. Queen. and his house and furniture having been consumed by fire. sarcasm. . Jefferson. He had no taste for agriculture he lived extravagantly. humor. his tongue was tipped with venom and sarcasm. when in one of his gay and pleasant humors.160 HlstorlGxl Pea Sketches. whether in the department of wit. and there. and his demeanor was marked by courtesy and affability. His countenance. a few years subsequent to its abolition in this State. When I — — — — — . which was in 1825. embraced the counties of Berkeley. beamed with a benevolent expression his eye sparkled with wit and intelligence.

bar. was also among the causes ceWbres in Both plaintiffs and defendants were owners of its day. James Gibson. but were finally compromised to the satisfaction of all parties. Lauck vs. Matthew Ransone. jury andi bystanders. James Parsons. just from college. the writer of this sketch would often saunter to the Court House to hear the able lawyers then practising at this bar. growing out of the same ugly feud. 161 could reproduce them at the bar in a manner to covulse the court room with laughter. John E. and drive the poor plaintiff or defendant out of court amidst the laughter of bench. I heard them both. The case was fought with determined zeal and . Nayler and Elisha Boyd. and all were men Ransone was of large influence and great wealth. large merchant mills near Martinsburg. When a youth.. They were both celebrated causes and removed from Hampshire to this county. and William Vance ts. perspicuous and condensed. Among the counsel engaged were Alfred H. The cases which now dwell most especially in his memory were those of James Parsons vs. Cooke. and was delighted with their delivery. They gave rise to much eloquent speaking. Wm. delivered in 1826 in the old Presbyterian church on King street. charged with deliberately diverting the Tuscarora stream so as to deprive the lower rival mill of its proper supply of water. He was the only lawyer lever saw who could literally "laugh a case" out of His keen sense of the ridiculous Vas such that court. all leading and influential men. now a ruin. and his Masonic oration. Powell. Moses Hunter. classical. The case of Alexander Stephens and Isaac S. and have often since read them with much pleasure. would seize upon every incident in the prgress of a he trial that was capable of being perverted into a source of humor and fun.Historical Pen SketcJies. His style of writing was rich. the best specimens of whichi that I have seen were his 4th of July oration delivered ic/ 1825 and printed in the Martinsburg Gazette of that period. and both cowhiding assaults and batteries.

the verdict set aside and the case sent back clear — with such instructions as precluded versy. The first civil case in which I ever appeared at the bar was an action of ejectment. Cooke's opening was in liis perspicuous narrative. My client was turned out of court. and followed it with one of the most striking and masterly arguments that I ever heard at our bar. courts. vs. where the ruling of the county court. He dwelt with power and effect upon the ungenerous conduct of Hedges in securing his patent in the manner he did. Then comes the tug of war. with costs in both Some idea may be formed of the high powers of Mr. Jonas Hedges." alluding to the wealth. He vehemently assailed the validity of the Hedges' patent for vagueness in its entry and irregularity in its issue. Hunter was my opjionent. of Berkeley. energy and influence of the contestants. obstinacy on both sides. It was in vain that I presented the and indisi^utable law bearing on the subject he carried court and jury by storm. but Hedges held the elder patent. But his triumph was only short lived. when we find the fol- . as an advocate and jurist. Both had patents for the same land. The law was submerged under the flood of his eloquence. commenced his closing argument with the quotation finest style of : "When Greek meets Greek. Hunter. were reversed. Powell and Boyd Hunter IDut forth their strongest powers in the defense. brought by my client. The jury brought in a small verdict for the jjlaintiffs but it was accepted without costs a sort of drawn battle.162 Historical Pen SJceicJies. The case was in the — county court. and upon the noble and primitive virtues of the great Natty Bumppo. I removed the case by writ of supersedeas to the Superior Court. the well known Hunter John Myers. west of the North Mountain. admitting improper evidence and giving wrong instructions. all further contro- Hedges recovered his land. to recover a tract of land on the Meadow Branch.

and when Mr. It gives me pleasure. and as such. its influence was not felt in had then no railroads. But he had an unextinguishable hatred to the Adams family. were both elected to the House of Delegates without opposition. which in the language of Richard M. to just tribute to the first essay in our court of a practitioner. Clay's noble and lofty character. Mr. Federalist. — We . Kentucky and some of the Northern States. and a Jackson man. Democrat. Johnson. Hunter gave him up and joined the cry of that opposition. or telephones few newspapers were taken beyond the county.'' pay this young A high compliment to be embraced in a judicial opin- ion from the pen of Dabney Carr.Historical Pen SkeicJies. Edward Colston. in a written in by Chancellor Carr : the District Court of Chancery. Mr. and I must be permitted to say that I have seldom heard so powerful an argument as that delivered by the ojDening counsel. and outside intelligence reached us slowly through the weekly or semi-weekly lumbering stage coach. 1827. His speech in support of the Kentucky statesman. egraphs." Although the storm of political excitement was raging wildly in the Spring of 1827. had combined to crush the administration for the " original sin of its election. even tho' its acts should prove it as pure as the angels of heaven. Hunter. 1G3 lowing notice of his opinion. in i^assing. Clay in 1824. had given his ardent support to Mr. held at Winchester " These points were maintained with great abilitj^. telthe county of Berkeley. and with the concurrence of all the voters of the county. iii the Berkeley Court House. Clay by his vote and influence made John Quincy Adams Presi- dent in 1825. was much admired at the time. Hunter was a Democrat. An evidence of the total absence of party feeling is found in the fact that in April. and X)resented some of the most cax)tivating views of Mr. delivered first effort at the bar. and Moses T. and a Clay man. in Tennessee.

brilliant and irresistable flashes of wit and humor that marked his professional efforts. in Winchester. He returned to Martinsburg in bad health and died. his captivating conversational powers. and as a young man of talent and high promise. 1829. was cordially welcomed as an im^Dortant accession to the party. New Jersey. who can recall with pleasure the many occasions when they have hung with rapture upon the glowing eloquence. ly. in 1788. a safe place for one having the tastes and propensities of Mr. and he was attacked with a serious. made him a great favorite But Richmond was not at that time in the social circle. with no view to the practice of the profession. He was an ardent Federalist. Jefferson. his w^ealth of anecdote and his pungent satire. Mr. and which proved fatal malady. daugli. He passed through a regular course of legal studies. the people might devolve upon him. in 1806. under which his system became disordered. he was married to* Jane Marshall. At twenty -five years of age he was elected a member of the House of Delegates and when but twenty nine years old. on the 4th of June. He made some speeches wMch gave liim higli reputation— whilst his attic wit. 1814. . Hunter' s career in tlie Legislature opened brilliantbut terminated painfully. at the residence of his brother-in law. In June. Hunter. He relapsed into habits of dissiimtion. elected a member of the United States Congress from the district composed of the counties of Berkeley. in the 39th year of his age.164 Historical Fen Sketches. but to qualify himself for the intelligent discharge of any public duty which in a Republic like this. He graduated wirli distinction at Princeton College. Hampshire and Hardy. powerful argument. EDWARD COLSTON AVas born at Honeywood in the County of Berkeley. There are some now living in this county. after a long and painful illness. Chancellor Tucker. municipal and international. in perfect accord with the predominant sentiment of this county.

Mr. When Mr. General Harrison. Barbour. R." in favor of "the Internal Improvement powers of Congress. in consequence of the increasing age and infirmities of his father. etc. He seems to have participated in all the discussions of that body to have grappled in debate with the foremost intellects. of Fauquier County.Historical Pen S/i etches. The child was buried in the same grave with the mother. Colston was elected to the House of Delegates from . 1817)." upon " the Reduction of the Staff of the Army. 1S15." for relief to the " Surviving Revolutionary soldiers. in giving birth to a child. and to have maintained his opinions with firmness and ability. Although but a young man and a young member. subsequently President Henry Baldwin. but the extent of his information. he found himself associated in his legislative labors with many distinguished men. . and in the 21st year of her age. Charles Fenton Mercer. George Tucker. and his capacity to take a leading XDart in any deliberative assembly. in Virginia and Kentucky. 165 She died ter of Charles Marshal]. The papers of that day are full of tributes to her many virtues and entrancing loveliness. show not only his ability and self reliance. ten months after marriage. M. he took an active and prominent part in the proceedings of that body. After the close of his most creditable service in Congress. among whom were Henry Clay. Johnson." and especially his elaborate speech on the resolution of the Military Committee condemning the conduct of General Jackson. for the execution of Arbutnot and Ambrester in the Seminole war. on the 5th of March. . John Floyd. Mr." upon "the Migration of Slaves. subsequently Vice-President Henry St. Colston took his seat in the 15th Congress (1st Monday of December. Colston found it necessary. to give his attention to the Honeywood estate in this county and also to the extensive landed possessions of his father. His speeches on the "Commutation of soldiers' pay. . PhiliiD P. John Sergeant.

llis intelligence. by the voters of Berkeley. was made to his disappointed ambition by his unanimous election to the House of Delegates. and left a deep impression on the minds of the people of the gross injustice which had been done him by those slanders and which had resulted in his defeat. whether on the Bench or ill ij'zis." No doubt Mr.166 this Historical Pen SketcJies. 1825. gave to all his decisions. lie was defeated by The Martinsburg Ga- zette of the 2Sth of April. He exposed in a concise. Colston was commissioned a magistrate of the County Court in 1818. 1833 and 1834. but the real cause of his defeat was the disorganization and disruption of the party of which he had been so conspicuous a member. a weight and authority accorded to bat few . and was again a candidate In this contest for Congress in 1825. to whom he was married from which marriage has resulted a highly educated and interesting family of sons — and daughters. however. Wm. The Federalists ceased to exist as a National party after the close of the war with Great Britain. Colston address the voters. and whilst that may not have been the direct issue involved. Some amend. his knowledge of law. Whilst in Richmond he formed the acquaintance of Miss Sarah Jane Brockenbrough. his high sense of justice. Armstrong : of Hampshire. Mr. and no one could have taken a more lirely interest in the performance of its important and resp)onsible duties than he did. in 1826. not to be made to share the consequences of its fall. Colston last and heard Mr. eloquent and convincing manner the glaring calumnies that had been industriously circulated against him. Colston was grossly caluminated in that canvass. yet he had been too distinguished in its history. county in 1823 and 1824. in referring to the defeat of Mr. his integrity. the intelligent and ac- "We were present on Monday complished daughter of Judge William Brockenbrough. He was again re-elected in 1827.

Sarah Jane Colston. 167 He was also commissioned High Sheriff Berkeley County and acted as such in 1844 and 1845. Colston was a member of the Episcopal church sincere and practical Christian and an ardent promoter of all institutions and enterprises looking to the advancement of religion. for his kindness and charities and they look up to him as a friend. to his estimable widow.Historical of his bretliren. of Pen SJcetclies. He bore the reputation of a brave and conscientious soldier. Faulkner and his brother-in-law. Mr. and his hosHe pitality free and cordial. . An had intelligent just come from spending two weeks thus speaks to in 1838 gentleman from Eastern Virginia. loved by all his neighbors. His manners are courteous. and appointing her. near jN'orfolk. when the combined military and naval attack was made by the British upon the defences of that important city. Although a Federalist and concurring with his party in opposition to the declaration of war against Great Britain. of Westmoreland County. polite and dignified his conversation highly instructive and interesting. and to the spread of the life saving doctrines of the Redeemer of the world. J. yet when war was declared by the constituted authorities. literature. of Mr. unexpectedly. devising his whole property. "I consider Edward Colston. the finest specimen of a country gentleman whom I have yet met in Virginia. on the 23d of April. 1851. Va executors of — — — . without being oppressive. the Avriter of this sketch. in the Mr. adviser andcoun. He left a will. history and general He is has a noble inheritance and a magnificent library. who at Honey wood. he volunteered as a member of Captain Faulkner s Artillery Company. Colston died suddenly twinkling of an eye from some affection of the heart. soon reached the rank of Lieutenant and was present. Colston. subject to the payment of his debts. his will. Willoughby jN'ewtoD. He is fond of agriculture. Chas.

They arrived in the port of Baltimore in the latter part of 1786. was of English origin. a friend of the family. to discharge forged obligations and unfortunate speculalias He dence. their ancestor having emigrated to Ireland in the reign of William and Mary. JAMES FAULKNER. and the victim of accomplished villains. Colston did not himself cherish the views expressed by this intelligent visitor. Ireland.168 sellor. to accompany him upon his return to America. a charming family and a delightful resineed any man want to ensure his happiness in this world It is deeply to be regretted that Mr. The activity of his mind led him to engage in milling enterprises and speculations. and purchased a fine farm in the then County of Berkeley. and had gone to tlie Island of Jamaica to improve his fortunes. and soon got occupation as the manager of a large sugar plantation. He was a man of energy and enterprise. What more V tions in trade. the sport of fortune. The family. Having been left an orphan by the death of both his parents. 1776. and that " noble inheritance" has thus passed from his widow and children. in the county of Armagh. He was unhax)pily not content with the rich blessings v/hich then surrounded him. He then visited the United States. Richard McSherry had some years before emigrated from that x^art of Ireland. as the name itself sufficiently indicates. he availed himsels of the interval to pay a visit to his old home in . until he succeeded in accumulatiog quite a respectable fortune. He became. he accepted the kind offer of Richard McSherry. near to the present village of Leetown. Son of George and Rebecca Faulkner. in the honesty and unsuspecting integrity of his heart. Not being able to get immediate possession of his purchase. was born on the 2nd of April. He remained there for several years. at the early age of ten years. a few miles from Newry. Historical Pen SJcetclies.

John Morrow. he was married to Sarah Mackey. — in that direction were unsuccessful. in 1797. who then kept a retail store in that town. as esculents for the table. . the tomato and okra. The affair of the Chesapeake had occurred the sensibilities of the nation were deeply aroused by the habitual impressment of our seaman by the contemptuous deportment of England to our repref=entatives. He remained in his service until he was of age.Historical Ireland. But our army was then small there were few vacancies or promotions. . Towards the tain close of Mr. the Secretary of "War. the representatives in Congress from this with Henry Dearborn. and an intense war spirit prevaded the land. an Irishman. and by his determined peace It nevertheless became apparent to all men. Jefferson's administration in 1809. and commenced business on his own account. 169 It was upon his return from this visit. when he purchased the property at the southeastern corner of Burke and Queen streets. Young Faulkner was brought to Martinsburg and placed under the charge of Michael McKewan. the 15th of December. Pen SJietches. and from 1804 until ISOS. district and President Jefferson. unless Great Britain altered her conduct to this county. and by the destruction of our commerce. only daughter of AVilliam Mackey. of On Martinsburg. It is said that Richard McSherry was the first person who intro duced from Jamaica into this country. in endeavoring to gratify his military tastes by procuring a commission in the regular army of the United States. the relations between this country and Great Brihad become very critical. James Stephens. and Hon. Jefferson. that the boy Faulkner accompanied him to America. He was not particularly fond of the mercantile business. and his efforts . . which was alone held in check by the extraordinary influence of Mr. he spent much of his time in correspondence with Hon. 1S03. that policy.

Chas. It will be conceded that no other vounteer company in the State was better terial. or drilled . Pendleton. was composed of more reliable ma- could boast of men more determined to stand by their country in any hour of difficulty or trial. the commander hopes your patriotic and military pride will not be damped by the circumstance that you have not been ordered into actual service. the British. John Mathews. Jacob Snyder. determined to organize a volunteer artillery company in Berkeley County. 1812. lie flatters himself that as there is now every i^robability of a war that you . were John R. volunteered your services to the government. James Faulkner was elected Captain. was hardly anticipated. war would be inevitable It was under these circnmstances that Mr. the fighting was mainly confined to the Canada frontier. aided by the Northwestern Indians under Tecumseh. Cooke. On the ISth of June 1812. Nicholas Orrick. James Shearer. In the Martinsburg Gazette of the 7th of February. .170 wliich Historical Pen SJieiclies. Edward Colston. Faulkner. John Alburtis. xVmong the names familiar to our people who thus volunteered as iDrivates. where notwitstanding some brilliant victories upon our part. war was declared by the During that year and the earlier part of 1813. unable to procure a position in the regular army. Adam Young. Tillotson Fryatt. who enrolled themselves ed.will authorize him to offer your services to march wherever you may be require : He returns his thanks to those patriotic young men not belonging to the company. Robert Wilson 1st Lieutenant and William Long 2nd Lieutenant. Alexander Stephen. inflicted some severe defeats upon our armies. in a year or two. is found the following extract from an address to the artillery company "You have upon two former occasions. and some fifty others. United States against Great Britain. to meet any of the x^robable demands of war. William Campbell. This was promptly accomplished. Jacob Poisal. James Newkirk.

Historical to Pen SketcJies. Feb. Captain Faulkner had been. and it was evident that the cities of Virginia were to receive the blow. 1th. 1812. directed its course toward Hampton Roads. About four miles west of Norfolk and commanding the approach to that city. and taking command of these companies he proceeded with them to the seat of war. Baltimore. Early in June Admiral Warren with a large naval and military force arrived in the Chesapeake Bay the land force being under the command of Gen. He reported to the Governor on the 10th of April. Artillery. there were satisfactory reasons to believe that a formidable military and naval demonstration of the enemy would. if not earlier. in the course of the summer.. . Annapolis and Norfolk were threatened. AmoDg the companies so ordered into service was Captain Wilson's Berkeley Artillery. for the assembling of a considerable x)ortion of the State militia at those points. 171 march with him on a former occasion. The appearance of this formidable force in the Chesapeake Bay created much uneasiness in the more considerable cities situated upon its waters. and to take command of all the artillery companies then assembled at the capital. 1812 Captain 1st M. But the fleet . lay Craney Island. the 22nd inst. Sir Sidney Beckwith. As early as March. This wasthe exposed outpost of our military line —the nearest in . James Faulknek. for such it then was. and Hatters himand others who feel a desire to serve their country in the ranks of its defenders. in Virginia. will come forward and join the parade on Saturday. early in March. Accordingly general orders were issued on the 24th of March. niversary of the birth of the immortal Washington. was thus separated from his company and was ordered by Governor Barbour to report to him at Richmond. be made upon Norfolk and Portsmouth. the anself that they. promoted to the rank of Major of Artillery.

. frontier. . are the following Among "Major Faulkner of the regiment of Artillery will to- morrow take the command cations of Craney Island. It can also be seen in the elaborate report of a Committee of the House of Delegates of Virginia. On the 5th of July Major Faulkner was placed in com- . who were appointed to take testimoney. am battle. and in the recently illustrated history of that war by Benson J. which contains a portrait and autograph signature of Major FaulkI Island. the general orders issued by Major General Taylor. unanimously concurred in by the House. Lossing. contact with the enemy — a position of great importance it as the key to the harbor. and which was indispensa- ble that the enemy should possess before they could reach the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth. and which report. It is sufficient to say the battle of Craney Island was won that it was won exclusively by the artillery engaged in its defence that a force of near 3. Commander-in-Chief. of all the artillery and fortifi- The commander of artillery will direct Capt.000 British soldiers were signally repulsed that the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth were saved and that the results of that battle were hailed throughout the country as a National balm for our defeats on the northwestern est . on the 13th of June. They can be seen ner." On the 22nd of June occurred the battle of Craney not disposed to repeat the details of that in the various histories of the late war with Great Britain. with the resolutions and evidences accompanying it. and to make a thorough examination into the details of that battle. Wilson's company of artillery to some place near the entrenchments in the rear of Fort Norfolk. is thex)roudmonument that coukl be erected to the memory of Major Faulkner.172 Historical Pen Sketches.

with the fatigues and exposures of the service. B. He was an invalid from the close of the war until his death. with his headquarters at Norfolk.writing of the author. by our well directed fire. Taylor. 1817. Had it been before the committee it would have removed all doubt upon one point upon which the com.500 sailors and ma- . w^here a granite to his monument now stands erected memory. Major Faulkner' s official report of that battle was not before the committee. then Commanderin Chief. The committee say " Scarcely had the enemy been driven. that was to whom the credit was due for the successful shot which sunk Admiral Warren's barge. it was not known that any copy of it had been preserved or was in existence. Indeed. Major Faulkner was not a man of robust constitution. when fifty of their largest barges.Historical Pen SkeicJtes. filled with men from the ships supi^osed to contain about 1. He was buried with military and masonic honors in the Norborne cemeterj^. 1813. inclosed in a letter to Col.— When the facts connected with the battle of Craney Island were under examination by the Legislature of Virginia. as the substance of it had been incorporated into the account of the battle as given by Major General Robt. It is deemed unnecessary to publish it in full. ElishaBoyd under date of the 6th of July. which occurred on the 11th of AjDril. from their assailing position on the land. 173 niand of Forts Barbour and Tar and a mile of breastwork extending between the two forts. but rather of delicate physical organization. Since that that time a copy of it has been found.mittee expressly refrained from announcing any opinion . gave a shock to his system from which he never recovered. as in all its prominent facts it is in harmony with the received histories of that battle and in accord wdtli the conclusions of the legislature. Postcript. in the hand. in the 41st year of his age. and the effect of that low-land summer climate.

Historical Pen Skeicli. umn to approacli witliin the range of our artilTliey were advancing towards the island." Again the committee say "Much of the eclat which attached to the guns under the immediate command of however.' moments afterwards the word fire Avas given. Neale. of his Majesty's ship Diadem the other directing its course to some point on the north of the Whilst the barges were api^roaching. continued to advance in the face of this destructive fire until they could no longer maintain themselves under it. in the wake of the afterthwart. Emerson observed to Major Faulkner 'Are they near 'No. Captain island.' replied the commander of enough to lireT In a few artillery. Han. w^ounding several. under the command of Capt. 'let them approach a little nearer. that the enemy were thrown into the greatest confusion.174 rines. with a brass three pounder in her bow. one following the begun channel between the island and the main land. the commanding officer of the division. except the disabled pieces. in colorder. at which moment the Centipede w^as sunk by a shot from one of the guns passing through the boat. in two distinct divisions. the Centipede. a boat upwards of fifty feet in length. led on by Admiral Warren's barge. Whether that result was produced by a shot from the eighteen. At this time. so quick and galling was our fire. severely in the thigh. The barges. resulted from the general impression and belief that it was a shot from the 18-pounder which passed through and sunk the Centipede. Hanchett. and the order was soon after given for a hasty retreat to the ships. when our whole battery. this com: . ' ' chett. rowing twenty-four oars. opened upon the nearest division of boats a brisk and heavy discharge of grape and canister. or one of the six-]30unders. lery. and among them Capt. sir. when the Centipede and the boats immediately following her were observed to change their direction toward the division of barges aiming at the north of the island.

of the Constellation. In June. gave substantial aid and assistance in the defense. Young Bedinger was commissioned as Third Lieutenant in this company. MAJOR HENRY BEDINGER. 1753. October ICth. he volunteered in a company raised in the County of Berkeley. which proved to be the Admiral's barge. Immediately thereafter a rifle regiment was organized.Historical Pen Slietcltes. as brave and determined a set of men as I ever saw. Tliere are strong and confident statements and opinions sustaining either view. deserve the thanks of the country. for Major Faulkner expressly states in his report: "Captafln Emerson and Lieutenant Neale informed me that their guns were pointed and in readiness to bear upon the leading boat. At the expiration of one year. Shubrick. . of the ship Manhattan Lieut. of the Portsmouth Artillery. of which Hugh Stephenson was appointed Colonel and Abraham Shepherd commissioned as senior Captain of one of the companies. Pennsylvania. their term of service having expired.' : . Neale.'. Neale had the desired effect and sunk the barge. Howie and Godwin and Sergeants Young and Butt. 1775. when the second fire of Lieut. Lieuts. for their skill and bravery in repelling so large a force of the enemy. which marched in July of that year to the siege of Boston. with their crews. who. His father emigrated to Berkeley County in 1758. Saunders and Breckenridge." He concludes his report as follows "The officers principally enged in the action were Captain Rook. under the command of Capt. 175 mittee will not undertake to determine. of the frigate Constitution Capt. Lieuts." Had this report been before that body there could have been no doubt announced on this point. this company was disbanded. Emerson. I immediately ordered them to fire. Hugh Stephenson. which will be found in the appendix accompanying this report. and his original commission as such signed by John Hancock. born at Little York. Was .

from the Winchester District Court to Staunton. when he removed Prior to this time he to Martinsburg. 1803. Luther Martin and Walter Jones being of the number. and party spirit then running very high. After having thus endured the rigor of" imprisonment for four years. TIms occurred on the IGth of November. setting aside the election of Major Bedinger and the transfer of the ofiice to his oj^ponent. The venue of the trial of the case was changed by the General Court of Virginia at its November term. in which the ablest counsel in the United States were emj)loyed John Marshall. B. 1799. his competitor for that office. was forced to capitulate. Upon the death of Moses Hunter he was. elected Clerk of the County Court of Berkeley.17G Historical Pen Sketclief. 1777. After three days' severe fighting at King" s Bridge. President of Congress. returning to the army. H. and there entered into the mercantile business. then in the County of Berkeley. framed and hanging in tlie liouseof his grandson. the contest excited deep interest throughout the country. rendered December. and Lieut. Davenport. and. The suit resulted in a judgment. Bedinger was confined as a prisoner on Long Island until the summer of 1781. may be seen. — . and Hunter an ardent and prominent Federalist. near Charlestown. Col. he was exchanged. he was commissioned a Captain in the 4th Virginia Regiment and ordered to Yorktown. then commanded by Colonel Rawlings. Bedinger being a Jeffersonian Republican. had been elected and served one year as a member of the House Delegates of Virginia. David Hunter. but before he reached that point the surrender of Lord Cornwallis and his army had taken At the close of the revolutionary war he returned place. this regiment. The validity of his election as Clerk of the County Court was vigorously contested by Col. This led to protracted litigation. 1798. but subsequently sent back to Winchester. its county seat. in August. to Shepherdstovvn.. Esq. and surrendered themselves as prisoners of war in the capture of Fort Washington.

He was a member of the Society of the Cincinnatti. He was a careful farmer and an enthusiastic cultivator of line fruits. The proper oath of an attorney-at-law was duly administered to him. "Alexander White having produced a commission from the Attorney General of this county. as the record reads. the company. He possessed an extraordinary memory and delighted in his hospitable mansion to dwell upon the incidents of our revolutionary war. 1772. After his amotion from the office of Clerk. regiment. then nearly ninety years of age. He bore the reputation of a patriot and good citizen up to the i)eriod of his death. He could remember. He was a man of marked punctuality and system. under the present Constitution of the United States. they could never have obtained. and a slight evidence of this may be seen in . 177 Hunter. which occurred on the 14th of May. handsomely framed. the same being read. On the same day. he having taken the usual oath. and it was through his retentive' memory that many received that justice from their country which otherwise. rank and service of almost any officer in the Virginia line. 1843.Historical Pen Sketches." live miles south of Martinsburg. May 19th. Philip Pendleton and four others. appointing him deputy attorney for this county. and sworn Deputy King's attorney for this county." Mr. even in very advanced life. White was elected the first member of Congress from this District. Some of the remains of that litigation are to be seen upon the records of our courts as late as 1S30. Was among held in Berkeley county. still adorns the parlor of one of his decendants. ALEXANDER WHITE the earliest of those who presented their licenses and qualified as practitioners of law in this counThis was on the first day that the first court was ty. he removed to his fine estate "Protumna. with great distinctness. from lost and mutilated records. and his diploma as such.

and of ardent patriotism. In 1798 he was commissioned ley county. Shenandoah. the subjects before them — were necessarily numerous. White was re-elected to the 2nd Congress in 1791. Jefferson into power. time no census had been taken of the population of the States. during the imjDortant sessions of 1799 and 1800. Mr. White was dragged from his retirement to represent the county of Berkeley in the House of Delegates of Virginia. making the counties of Berkeley. Generals William Darke and James Wood. Hampshire. important and interesting. and re-elected in February. when the celebrated report and resolutions of Mr. That At that election occurred on the 2nd of February. White was elected in 1789. and as our enlightened statesmen were then laying the foundation of our legislative system. Ohio. Randolph and Frederick the first district. Hardy. although accurate so far as they give the sub•stance of the remarks made a practice that should never have been departed from." Virginia should be entitled to ten members in the House of Rejpresentatives. . As has been already stated Alexander White was the first representative in Congress from this District under the present Constitution of the United States.ability bore the reputation of a man of learning. The Annals of Congress are meager in the debates of that l^eriod. 1789. The General Assembly therefore laid off the State into ten districts.178 Historical Fen SJceidies. as magistrate of Berke- Mr. It was from this district that Mr. and which gave such an impulse to the Revolution which brought Mr. of great Mr. Monongalia. Ovef his two competitors. Madison were the subject of such earnest debate. White took a prominent part in all the debates of that term of Congress. He . that lie was the only member of Congress from Virginia who vras present on the first day of its session. and the Constitution provided "until such enumeration was made. the fact.

in January. He contested Morgan's election before the House. David Holmes. All his views would seem to class him with the Democratic rather than the Federal side of the House. ROBERT RUTHERFORD. General Daniel when Robert Rutherford was returned. It might afford some interest to take a few extracts from these speeches (especially as the re^oorter declares them to be authentic. He w^as re-elected to the 4th Congress in 1795. was then elected and continued in Congress until the District was changed under the apportionment of the census of 1800. participated in the great debate of that period u^Don the "Constitutional Powers of Congress. gave his views at large in oioposition to the jDrovision for carrying the British treaty into effect. He was a candidate for reelection to the 5th Congress but was defeated by General Daniel Morgan. they "having passed the revision . 1794. he delivered quite an elaborate speech on "The Commerce of the United States." and in March. 1776. S. from the District composed of the counties of Berkeley and Frederick. The first election under this apportionment was on the third Monday in March. HON." in reference to treaties and in April. Rutherford does not seem to have participated very actively in the general debates of the House. Virginia became entitled to 19 representatives and the legislature then divided the State into 19 districts making "Berkeley and Frederick" the first District. Mr. Pen SJcetches. but the decision was in favor of the right of Morgan to the seat. which so continued until after the census of 1800. re-elected in 1795. and yet. gress had fixed the 1793.Historical 1791. subsequently Governor of Mississippi und U. 1696. Senator from that State. Of Berkeley was elected to the 3rd Congress in 1793. thus serving four years as a representative in Congress from this District. He was Morgan in 1797 and . 179 After the census of 1790 was completed and Conratio of reiDrsentation.

and tho' senior in point of years. that it need only here be briefly glanced at. but they must be passed by for tlie present. or quite. of living. but these stories may or may not be true and as they touch none of the substantial merits of a man are not worthy of being remembered or repeated. acting in opposition to the recommendations of Washington. he thus refers to their personal relations : on the patriotism of the necessary for me to reply. lest I have had the I may be taken for one uninformed. with him on trying occasions. dignity and unswerving attention. . nor — — deeply imbued with the facts of history. The military history of this distinguished soldier. yet I am independent of the President an unchangeable friendship excepted. nor the lessons of statesmanship). the frugality of his and of his awkwardness in society." stress has-been laid "Much President. I have heard traditionally and seen in jorint many anecdotes of Mr. oftentimes in a subordinate sphere. mode — — GENERAL DANIEL MORGAN Represented this county and district in the 5th Con- gress of the United States that is from 1797 to 1799. Rutherford illustrative of his homely manners. forty years. honor of the President's acquaintance well nigh. the simplicity of his dress. R's. Rutherford by the impression made upon me by his speeches in Congress I would say that he was a man of strong and original mind honest and sincere in all his convictions upright and independent in his bearing. and he has supported every character with I have acted merit.ISO Historical Pen Sketches. Feeling that he was. but not of much mental cultivation. of the Speaker") as illustrative of Mr. views and opinions. has — been so frequently written and is so familiar to the public mind. which makes it — Judging of Mr. sometimes equal. I uniformly looked up to him as a parent my head and my guide. in his public course. yet.

he emigrated to Virginia and obtained employment from farmer Roberts. and returned to his terwards he retired from the army farm. For Soon afthis action Congress voted him a gold medal. In June. and contributed to the capture of Burgoyne. 181 He is mentioned in these sketches only because of his connection with the County of Berkeley. He defeated Tarlton in January. where he lived at the commencement of the Revolutionary War. 1781. or as it is most usually called ''The whiskey Insurrection. He delighted in the management and use of his team. Armed bands of forty and fifty. and was wounded by a bullet through his neck and cheek." He shared in the perils of Braddock's defeat. He was in the expedition against Quebec. defiant and formidable opposition of the Federal government. It was the first open. and even as high as five . and especially in the four counties of Alleghany. No civil process could be executed. The excise. of Berkeley County. after the adoption of our present constitution. Many acts of extreme violence were perpetrated. Much dissatisfaction existed throughout the United States at the imposition of this excise duty. the subriquet of the " old wagoner. in the battle of Cowpens. he was appointed a captain by Congress." is an interesting episode in our early history. and acquired throughout life. Lawlessness universally prevailed.Historical Pen Sketches. tarred and feathered. probably as a wagoner. But it was in Western Pennsylvania. It grew out of an act of Congress imx)osing an internal revenue duty on distilled spirits. Washington. The revenue officers were seized. 1775. At the age of eighteen. taking upwards of 500 x)risoners. that this dissatisfaction broke out in open rebellion. He was born in New Jersey in the year 1737. The profit of his business as a wagoner enabled him to i:)urchase a tract of land in Frederick County. Green and Westmoreland. The houses and barns of those supposed to be friendly to the Government were burnt.

The appearance of this formidable army in the disaffected district under such able. Rutherford. but public business (Congress then being in session) called him to Philadelphia. hundred. as a member of the 5th Congress. it was unanimously concurred in by the House. but no convictions followed. with a body of Virginia militia. Morgan. whom he defeated. General Henry Lee. Morgan was asl)laced in command of the army. It was boldly asserted that the insurgents could bring into the field seven thousand well armed troops. Some of the leaders were indicted for treason.182 Historical Pen Skeiclies. but the committee re^Dorted in favor of Morgan. and Gen. a requisition was made upon the States of Pennsylvania. General Morgan submitted no motion and made no . was left for some time in the disaffected district to see that no further violence Avas attemi:)ted. They rapidly disbanded and dispersed. A proclamation was issued by President Washington. popular and experienced commanders soon brought the insurgents to their senses. This not being obeyed. New Jersey and Virginia for 15. was Gen. calling upon the insurgents to disperse. The election was contested before the House. and as Rutherford did not appear to contest the conclusions of the report. Morgan was elected from the district composed of the counties of Berkeley and Frederick. Washington proceeded toward the scene of strife as far as York. The requisition was promptly comjplied with. His opponent was Robt.000 troops to crush the insurrection. of Virginia. and designed taking command in person. were organized to resist the government. It could not be supposed that such men as President Washington and Secretary Hamilton would tamely submit to see the new Government thus paralyzed and defied in the performance of one of its most important and vital functions. Hamilton left the Treasury Department and remained during the expedition at the headquarters of the commanding general. In 1797 Gen. signed to the command of the Virginia troops.

however much they may differ in opinion from him. and he follow^ed them with the same unfaltering fidelity with which he had followed "Washington in the field of battle. Grray. and felt like a child in the presence of the enlightened statesmen then around him. . He voted for the bill tox3unish "usuriDation of Executive authority.Historical sjpeecli Pen SJcetcJies. DAVID HOLMES. was the son of Col. to the supreme command conferred upon Washington. and if the records of Congress be searched there will be found no name that adhered so loyally to its allegiance to the Federal organization as Daniel Morgan. He was killed in the battle of Born in Winchester. of course. aged 65 years. But if he did not know how to s^^eak. He had able and accomplished leaders in the persons of Harrison. which was acceded to with a bad grace by Adams. 1802. as he hated Hamilton most cordially. and at the close of his term published an address to his constituents vindicating the administration ISTo one doubts that he was an honof the elder Adams. Joseph Holmes. 183 during his term of service. a provisional army was organized in 1798.. in view of a war with France." and against the repeal of the alien and sedition laws. knew his deficiencies in civil life. of Frederick County. est and conscientious politician. President Adams favored the appointment of General Morgan to its command. he knew how to vote with his party. When. Ya. and a brother of Major Andrew Hunter Holmes. to point out to him the path of party duty. so distinguished during the recent war with Great Britain for his talents and high military qualities. Otis and Robert Goodloe Harper. with sensible modesty. uneducated man. He was a rougli. subject. and while he felt perfectly at home on the field of battle. Morgan died in W^inchester on the Gth of July. But General Washington insisted upon that position being given to Hamilton. he.

7th. and a sword voted to his heirs by the General Assembly of Virginia. appointed by President Madison Governor of the territory of Mississippi. in 1820. in consideration' of his gallantry and good conduct. When the district was re-arranged after the census of 1803. It does remark not appear that he ever submitted a motion or made a in either body.184 Historical Pen SkeicJies. thus pass so triumi:)hantly through all the stages of political life. Mackinaw. without any of the advantitious aids of public speaking. in 1809. but resigned before the end of his term of service. with a different constituency. elected a Senator in Congress for six years. on the 4th of x\ugust. Gov. who occasionally presided in this judicial circuit. He was a member of the 5th. 1814. At the close of his service in Congress he was. Gen. 6th. of this county. was elected from the district of Berkeley and Frederick so in the 7th Congress he represented this district. Although twelve consecutive years a member of the House of Representatives. 9th and 10th Congresses. from the same State. He died in Winchester on the 20th of August. Elisha Boyd. Morgan then represented Berkeley and Frederick in that Congress. thus consecutively representing three distinct districts of the State within the twelve years of his service in the House. Also brother to Judge Holmes. In 1799 (6th Congress) Holmes having removed back to Winchester. . and when admitted into the Union as a State he was elected Governor by the people. and brother to Ann Holmes. on the northern frontiers. he represented Frederick and Shenandoah from 1803 to 1809. the records of Congress show nothing but his votes. Holmes was a man of modest and retiring habits. He was subsequently. When elected to the Sth Congress he was a resident of Shenandoah. . Sth. and six in the Senate. And yet there must have been something very remarkable in the intellect and bearing of a man who could. married to Gen. 1832.

Col. guished for their worth.. if any at that time. after whom he was named. GENERAL ELISHA BOYD Was born in the County of Berkeley. James McDowell and many others distinty. William Graham. at the eastern base of the North Mountain. Archibald Alexander. contemplated it as a seat of population. manufactures and trade. confer degrees. Hon.Historical Pen Sketches. expanding in dignity. During that time he attended a small school not far from the present site of Martinsburg. and bore the reputation of marked ability and of great integrity of cliaracter. on the 6th of October. were Dr. 1769. Up to the age of 14 he enjoyed only the limited means of education which the common country schools of that period afforded. . few. it had all the attributes of a college. now residing in this county. Like the great Virginia State University. its gushing springs and valuable water power invited to such a destiny. Our thriving town was then a forest." and then reached its present grand proportions so did this spirited academy. Judge John Coalter. Ya.) in Rockbridge County. In 17S5 he was entered as a student of Liberty Hall Academy. largely patronized throughout the and yielding a rich harvest of patriots and statesAlthough bearing the modest title of an academy. learning and abilit}'. of Princeton. springing from the germ of "Albemarle Academy. John Baker. a most excellent and patriotic institution then under the rectorate of the Rev." and recently— in 1S71— into "Washington and Lee Universisouth. He was tlie uncle of David Holmes Conrad." associated with . . with power to hold land. Amongst those well known in our State who were young Boyd as schoolmates. reputation and imptortance. and whilst its eligible locality." it grew into "Central College. first develop into "Washington College. of Jefferson County Chancellor John Brown. men. (so baptised amidst the revolutionary fires of 1776. 185 but of captivating manners. etc.

and copies of it are carefully preserved hy the family. with William Lamon as his colleague. Boyd was elected to the House of Delegates in 1797. Ann Boyd died on the 20th of July. He had command of the 4th Regiment of Virginia militia in 1814 during the war with Great Britain. Andrew H. after the death of his first wife 1806. and in the Constitutional ConDuring all this time he had probably the vention. Boyd and Mary. which office he continued to fill for forty years. Holmes and Major Andrew Hunter Holmes. 1814. which was printed in pamphlet form. Boyd. For forty years he gave his almost undivided time child. Mr. An eloquent and impressive funeral sermon was i)reached over her remains by the Rev. In 1798 he was chosen by the County Court of Berkeley as its attorney for the State.186 Historical Pen Sketclies. married to Charles J. with Richard Baylor as his colleague. J. married to Some years Ann . married to Humphrey B. He studied law in the office of Col. Hoge. By her he had four children— Ann Rebecca Holmes. 10 the X3ractice of his profession and to attention to his several farms in this county. Pendleton on the 25th of November. Mrs. of Loudon County John E. 1819. He was married in 1795 to Mary. and also in 1796. contains an interesting correspond- . Philip Pendleton. in Holmes. a seat in the House of Delegates and Senate of the State. one of the earliest as well as one of the ablest lawyers that ever qualified for practice in our courts. who was he had one married to Philip C. Joseph Holmes and sister of Gov. largest and most lucrative practice of any lawyer in this section of Virginia. a daughter. The Norfolk Herald. when the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth were threatened by a second attack of the British land and naval forces. he was. the daughter of Major Andrew Waggoner of revolutionary memory. Faulkner. B. daughter of Col. varied at occasional intervals by military service. H. Powell. by whom Sarah Ann Boyd. Rev. 1813.

" To this complimentary letter Col. Boyd the term of service of that regiment was about to expire.Historical Pen SketcJies. with the utmost confidence." They also take pride in declaring that w^hatever military knowledge they have acquired is due to that strictness of military discipline which has uniformly characterized the 4th Regiment since he had the command of it. "And if they ever should again be called into the service of their country. He was an earnest and sincere advocate for a reform of the "Old Constitution" of Virginia. Barbour. to a seat in the Senate of Virginia. He was generally selected as Chairman of the county . Marshall. He was a member of the convention of 1829-30. and by the unanimous vote of the counties of Berkeley. He was commissioned a magistrate of the County of Berkeley. Leigh." "They have at all times felt confident that when the hour of danger arrived that on his patriotism and courage they could. which is also published in the same paper. rely to lead them on in defense of the country. and for placing its government upon a moTe liberal and republican basis. in 1838. He was subsequently elected a brigadier general by the General Assembly of Virginia. Tazwell. In the election which occurred after the adoption of "Amended Constitution" in 1830. 187 ence between the officers of that regiment and Col. of Virginia. which framed the first amended Constitution of Virginia. It bears date the 1st of August. Boyd replied. upon the resignation of his office of the State's attorney. Johnson and many other of the most distinguished men ison. at Camp Peach Orchard. Morgan and Hampshire. it is their wish that they should be placed under his com- when mand. The officers say that they cannot permit the occasion to pass by "without paying to Col. serving in that body with MadMonroe. Giles. he was chosen without opiDOsition. Boyd the tribute of their highest respect and esteem.

this life on the 21st day of Octoand was buried in the family graveyard adjoining Norborne Cemetery. the Federal party. who died on the 16th of N'ovember. of the Westover family. 1841. 1839. Boyd departed ber. about the year 1769. HON. He took an active interest in the educational institu. He was entered as a student of Liberty Hall Academy. and elected Congress from the District of Berkeley. on the Potomac River. He took up his residence in Shepherdstown. Jefferson and Hampshire. meetiDg held here. between the years 1783 and 1789. His power at the bar consis- Gen. . and soon rose to the distinction of an able and accomplished lawyer. . Alexander. He was a man of perfect system and of extraordinary capacity for labor and he commanded universal confidence by his stern and unbending integrity of character. tions of the county tablishing the Martinsburg residence. and had the principal agency in esAcademy. direct and manly appeals to the common sense and intelligence of courts and juries. of Princeton. and in his earnest. and among his fellow students of that period. He was nominated by The Annals of Congi'ess give no report of any speech . JOHN BAKER Vvas born in Berkeley County. were Dr. Va. and of indomitable energy and perserverance. then the most flourishing town in the lower valley..188 Historical Pen Sketches. embracing the term from 1811 to the 12th to 1813.Virginia. He was a man of vigorous mind. his thorough capacity to master details. not far from his He was a third time married and then to Elizabeth Byrd. ted in his unflaging attention to business. and General Boyd of this county. Rockbridge County. and a delegate to the State Reform Convention. leaving no issue.

was usually made at that time of speeches made in the Committee. and voted steadily with his party against a declaration of war against Great Britain. 189 yet tlie Martinsburg Gazette. who died on the ISth of August. 1812. Many of her most prominent citizens fell under the terrible visitation. Baker was an ardent and uncompromising Federalist. 1811. Baker was "A disciple of Washington and true to his principles. publishes some very forcible and eloquent remarks made by him in Committee of the Whole. and all other measures in aid of that belligerent movement. Among the number was Hon. and the trade was increasing." The sentiment announced in honor of Mr. The omission of this speech from the "Annals" is to be explained by the fact. that would give to the farmers of the upper county a choice of markets for their It was staflour between Alexandria and Georgetown. John Baker. after the rising and elaborate defence of their oj)position to the war. asking Congress to make certain improvements near Georgetown. On the 4th of February. Among the toasts of that occasion was the following "The war rashly and unnecessarily begun. he presented a petition from Jefferson County. 1812. an able approval to his course in Congress. in boats. He was one of the 34 members of Congress who published. 1823." In the summer of 1813 Shepherdstown was visited by a violent bilious epidemic. made by him. ted that 300. of January the 24th. gave him a public dinner to express their of Congress. that it was delivered in the Committee of the Whole. Mr.Historical Pen SJcetclies. and no report. : . on the 26th of December. May it be speedily terminated by an honorable peace. The Federalists of Berkeley were much pleased with his votes and on the 12th of August 1812. in favor of pensioning the surviving officers and soldiers of the Revolutionary War. it seems.000 barrels of flour were then annually conveyed to market by the river. scarcely less fatal than the yellow fever.

Stewtion at Jefferson College. The author of this sketch participated in the ceremony. and for some days enjoyed the kind hospitality of that charming and interesting family. In 1803. W. COL. in Martinsburg on the 24th of tind after enjoying the advantages of a collegiate educa- was admitted to the Berkeley Shortly after wads he became the proprietor and editor of the Martinsburg Gazette^ and continued as such until March 1845. an intelligent and highly esteemed farmer of Jefferson county. from 1833 to March.. art. . Hunter. when he was succeeded in the control and management of the paper by James E. in 1831. he was married to Martha Crawford. but a newspaper soon making its appearance in the recently formed County of Jefferson. the father of the distinguished poet. Baker was universally respected for his high attainments as a lawyer for his many virtues as a i^rivate citizen for his courage. the 2nd of August. HUNTER March. P. when its publication altogether ceased. One of his daughters was married to T. he disposed of his interest in the paper to John Alburtis. 1832.. widow and an interesting family Gilmer. its name was changed to the Martinsburg Gazette. Governor of Virginia. It was establised in 1801 by Nathaniel Willis. as first groomsman. Edward P. who at first styled it the Berkeley and Jefferson Intelligencer. 1845 of On . EDMUND P. daughter of Captain John Abell. firmness and consistency as a — — IDolitician. N. of Col. leaving an estimable of children. which name it retained until the opening of our civil war. Esq. and Secretary of the Navy. Mr. It was under the control of John Alburtis from 1803 until 1823. of Washington Evans from 1823 until 1833. Willis and then called the Berkeley Intelligencer. Was born bar. 1809. This may be an appropriate occasion to notice very briefly the history of that venerable journal.190 Historical Pen Sketdies.

It is unneceseary to say that he filled the office for many years. and the justices having been all summoned for the x^nrpose. a continuous and prosperous existence of sixty years. Hunter and David Holmes Conrad. Haupin. Stewart and subsequently of Stewart & Gregg. The contest excited unusual interest and for a time its result was deemed doubtful. P. It then passed into the hands of Charles H. Plis course as a member of that body gave great satisfaction to his constituents. 1839 and 1841. He was an ardent and enthusiastic member of the tia He was and took a deep . Lewis. of the House of Delegates of Virginia. from March 1845 to March 1847. not only with ability.Historical Pen SJceicTies. In May 1832. as it was uniformly marked by dilligent attention to their local interests. When dressed in full military costume it would be difficult to find a more striking realization of im]Dosing manhood than he presented. resigned it county attorney court. He Colonel of the 67th Regiment of Virginia miliinterest in all the details of its organization. a full court was present. 191 James E. but with justice to the State and with judicious clemency to the accused. he attended as a member the memorable in Washington city. at the March when an animated between Edmund The power of appointment was then vested in the county court. Clay appeared before that body and electrified it "Young Men's Convention. and by a faithful expression in their sentiments on all the questions of State and national policy. 1838. boasting." with one of his most eloquent and stirring office of speeches. 1835. and was elected a member enjoyed a high degree of popularity in the county. in 1834. contest took i)lace for the succession. upon Avhich occasion Mr. T. General Boyd having held the for forty years. and lastly under the control of A. But Hunter obtained a majority of the votes and was declared elected.

himself. Among the first of those who perished was the lamented Colonel Edmund P. precipitation. victims to its fury. the Asiatic cholera — that terrible pestilence ''which walketh in darkness. but he poshigh or sessed such a rare combination of excellent qualities. with his open-heartedness and honesty of character. and worthily rose to the highest honors of the craft in Virginia. P.192 Historical Pen Sketclies. Hundreds tied from the place Many families whose wealth and with. exemplary member of revealed religion. . made him always formidable He had something of his father's fondness at the bar. who can well remember the alarm and terror which its unwelcome appearance excited here. He was a fair speaker and a sound and manly reasoner. 1854. The carnage was that of a One hundred and eleven of our citizens fell battle field. a thorough conviction of the truths In September. All his impulses were kind for the want of was a man of sense . Hunter. and these. and wasteth in noonday" struck the affrighted population of Martins- — burg. abandoned their homes for the mountains and cities. 1854. He and of good judgment lucid in his mental perceptions. He was in the latter portion of his life a sincere of the Episcopal Church. but was more particularly observable in the social circle. and and exhib- ited in his conduct. in the 45th year of his age. Hunter was not endowed with any very extraordinary quality of intellect. wiiich occasionally flashed for out in the trial of a case. he was proof against the arts of sophistry and deception in others. Masonic order. There are those amongst us yet. who died on the 7th of September. broad humor and a joke. and capable of expressing his conSuperior to all artifice victions with clearness and force. as more than compensated any particular brilliancy of parts. means ought to have caused them to stand by their friends in their sad affliction. Edmund both moral and intellectual.

and ness.. too. be carefully preserved and cherished by a generation now enjoying the fruits of the toils and privations of the men and women who reared the first cabin homes within the confines of the " Little Mountain now West ! State. He was a stranger to envy. Lewis.'\ In the settlement of the western wilderness. Va. But alas many of them have been lost in oblivion. to what . and all uncliaritableHe was firm and steadfast in liis friendsliip. GENERAL WILLIAM DARKE. \_By Virgil VIR- A. while those known to us. that his friends and brethren of the bar have never ceased to lament the^ day that deprived them of his joyous presence and attractive companionship. hatred." .Historical Pen SJcetches. of Mason City. His liosiDitality was proverbial. "The names of the heroes who flourished before the days of Agamemnon were lost for want of a recording pen. The great Roman lyric poet informs us that. A DISTINGUISHED WEST GINIA IV. of many of those who first planted the standard of civilization within the present confines of West Virginia. extent. Va. his loss must have agonized' i that sacred circle but I can truly say. malice. some who merit enduring monuments. W. speculate. what is Virginia can boast of pioneers whose names are as honored and should occupy as high a place upon the temple of fame as any that appear in the pages of pioneer history. 193 and generous. ever outspoken and candid in the expression of his opinI dare not penetrate the domestic sanctuary and* ions. School Joiirnal." This is true. Then let that which has survived the lapse of a century. What a valuable contribution to the literature of the State would the record of their lives be % But much is irretrievably lost. scarce found a tomb. The sweet remembrance of the Shall flourish just when he sleeps in dust.

. . grew to manhood. Pennsylvania. that does. while to the west of them lay the vast. will not be surprised to learn that it commemorates one of the most distinguished names which appear in frontier annals that of General William Darke. Nature made him a nobleman he was endowed with a herculean frame his manners rough his mind was strong but uncultivated. This familiarity with the story of savage warfare aroused within him a spirit of adventure and daring. In gles fierce and wild. On the bank of Middle Creek. where they reared their cabin home within a few miles of the present site of Shepherdstown. in 1736. and he longed to engage in "strugThe oiDportunity soon came. From infancy he was familiar with " war's dread alarm." spring of 1755. . W. O. stands the little village of Darkesville. when but five years of age. and Robert Harper. Virginia. untrodden American wilderness. now in Jefferson County. young Darke per's Ferry. and his disposition was frank and fearless. Ya. which was made a town "by an act of the Virginia Legislature December 7. Who that now visits the little town or sees dimly marked on the map of the State. in the southern part of Berkeley County. — born near Lancaster. accompanied his j)arents south of the Potomac. "Darkesville P.194 Historical Pen SJietcltes. whose name is preserved in that of HarHere. 1791. consisting of the 44th and 48th Royal Infantry He was and in 1741. among wild solicitudes. General Edward Braddock arrived in the Alexandria. a tributary of Opeqiion River. when Washington had served two years of his first term as President of the United States." stops to enquire why it was so called ? And who. . Here they were on the outmost boundary of civilization. the founder of Shepherdstown. with an army of two thousand men. Their nearest neighbors appear to have been Thomas Shepherd." for throughout his youthful years he had listened to the recital of the bloody drama then being enacted on the frontiers of Virginia and Pennsylvania.

Slowly the splendid pageant moved on the long line of scarlet uniforms contrasting strangely with the verdure of the forest. Many Virginians were among the dead. in the ranks of which were many Valley men. During the next fifteen years. Washington alone was left. — — . as though he had been maneuvering in the fields of Europe. and associated with him in the same daring and noble work.Historical Pen SketcTies. whence Colonel Dunbar marched the regulars back to Philadelphia. and the Virginians returned to their frontier homes. — The march into the wilderness began. 1775. Maryland was joined by a regiment of Virginia Provincials. there to withstand a storm of warfare then raging fiercer than ever before. saw the French and Indians bounding through the forest. then but nineteen years of age. At once a deadly fire was poured in upon the English. ed. Braddock formed the regulars into squares. and at Fort Cumberland— now Cumberland City. This force i^roceeded up tlie Potomac. but a sufficient number were left among whom was William Darke to form a line and cover the retreat of the shattered army back to Fort Cumberland. and of all his aides. It was the evening of the 8th of July. sixty-seven officers and seven hundred privates were either killed or woundBraddock was among the fallen. and once across the stream the order to march was given. Captain Darke was engaged in defending the Virginia frontier against the incursions of the savages. On the next day a crossing was effected. 195 Regiments. at a x)oint ten miles from Fort Duquesne. were many destined to leave . and thus they were shot down in heaps. who returned \i with but little effect. Of the twelve hundred men wdio crossed the Monongahela. but scarcely was the column in motion when Gordon. w^hile strains of martial music filled the air sounds so strange beneath the dark shades of the American forest. when the English columns for the second time reached the Monongahela. one of them being AVilliam Darke. one of the engineers.

Nicholas. Lee. on the 19th of October. Its firmest supporters w^ere the great men who had led the armies of the Republic and achieved its independence. a an impress upon were George tlie age Washington. Pendleton. Among them Andrew Lewis. He. Harrison. Wythe. to ratify that instrument. Madison. Pen SJietclies. Virginia. he witnessed the surrender of Cornwallis' army to the combined forces of America and France. . . At the close of the Revolution. Soon it was seen that while the Articles of Confederation had bound the country together in the time of war. George Rogers Clark. William Clark and name behind and some to leave in whicli tliey lived. Henry. When the storm of revolution came. Monroe. Bland. 1781. The 1788. which has never been surpassed in the annals of the Old Dominion. was composed of some of the most illustrious men of Virginia. Captain Darke hastened to join the patriotic army in which. Grayson and a host of others. because of meritorious service. Mason. he Avas soon promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Colonel Darke.19G Historical tliem. they were not adai)ted to the new order of things and for the purpose of forming "a more perfect union. Washington. together with the greater part of his regiment. returned to his home and engaged in agricultural pursuits until called upon to serve his State in another capacity than that of a soldier. Randolph. shed a lustre on the deliberations of that august body." the Federal Constitution was framed. when he was exchanged and returned to his post in the army. 1780. and was actively engaged during the siege of Yorktown. During the next spring he recruited his regiment (known as the "Hampshire and Berkeley regiment") at the head of which he marched to Tidewater. The names of Marshall. at which place. was taken prisoner at Germantown and detained on board a prisonship until November 1. The convention which assembled in Richmond in June. like his illustrious chieftain.

During the dreadful hours which followed. at that time Henry. November the army encamped near the boundary line between Indiana and Ohio.Historical Pen Sketches. Clair was placed in command. There sat General Adam Stephen. aroused by the military spirit within tired to his him. and General William Darke. as the delegates from Berkeley county. 197 debates display a degree of eloquence and talent. General Arthur St. a tributary of the Wabash. the men executing every order of command. cerunequalled by any gathering of public men in this country. and when the first gave way his regiment received almost the entire shock of battle. and both voted for the ratification of the Federal Constitution. where he continued his agricultural pursuits until the renewal of the Indian war in 1791. at the head of which was the distinguished chief tan Little Turtle. . but which St. Mary's river. and in October of the above named year the march into the wilderness began. At the time of the attack Col. Darke's regiment. on the bank of the St. Both were ardent Federalists. and for live dreadful hours was continued a slaughter unparalleled in the annals of the Hrd of j)resent On forest warfare. occupied the second line. With it came the call to arms and once more General Darke. the founder of Martinsburg. at day break the next morning. Here. entered the army as colonel commanding the Second Virginia Regiment. Descending the Ohio his force reached Fort AVashington — now Cincinnati — where the army was collecting for invasion of the Indian county. it was attacked on all sides by the combined strength of the western tribes. despite the powerful opposition at the head of which was the immortal tainly. Clair believed to be a branch of the Miami of the Lake. From the halls of the convention General Darke re- Berkeley county home. together with two battalions.

19S tie Historical Pen SJietcJtes was the coolest man on that bloody and chaotic field. Clair. Stowed away among the archives in the office of the Secretary of War at Washington. written after the return of the shattered army to Fort Washington. in full uniform and mounted on horseback." is a production in which is told a melancholy tale of sadness and woe. Here a council of war was held and Colonel Darke urged the expediency of an immediate attack. which was then returning to its original position. At length the troops yet alive began a rapid retreat which was covered by Darke's regiment to Fort Jefferson. By this act he drew upon himself the rapid discharge of more than a dozen rifles. deposited there during the administration of that office by General Henry Knox. believing that the savages flushed with victory were unprej)ared for a second contest. a distance of thirty miles. "The Artillerist of Revolution. 1791. he headed three desperate charges against the enemy. Darke. who was then at the rear of the regiment. suddenly wheeling his horse. but he escaped with only a slight flesh wound. and bearing date November 9. a youth of seventeen. In the last charge the ensign of his regiment. which they reached the same night. but he was overruled. striking figure. An Indian. attracted by his rich uniform. Among the killed in this charge was Captain Joseph Darke. Col. In it he speaks at length of the heroic bravery exhibited by his men when hundreds of them were being shot down on the banks of . dashed at the savage and clef his skull with his broadsword. His clothes were cut in many places. was shot through the heart and fell in the rear of the regiment. Possessed of a tall. though forced to leave the body of the ensign to the enemy. and his escape seems to have been almost miraculous. but escaped and joined his regiment. the fc youngest son of the Colonel. It is the official report of General St. in each of which he was a conspicuous mark. sprang up from the grass and rushed forward to scalp him.

and the troops were obliged to give back in their turn. eighty are said to have been from Berkeley county. and of them CaxDtain Greaton was dangerously wounded. that Col. Mary — falling under the fierce fire of an unseen enemy — and then says "Colonel Darke was ordered to make a charge with a : part of the second line and to turn to the left fiank of the enemy. Darke's Virginians made a second charge." From the same sad recital we are. . The men with whom he lived and acted were as fearless and hardy a race as ever braved the perTime has waged a merciless warils of the wilderness. Long years after the mournful story of their fall was rehearsed around the hearthstones in the mountain homes of West Virginia. in which every commissioned oflicer of the regiment) was killed except three. 1801. they soon returned. "We lost uiue hundred men ou the banks of the Mary.Historical Pen SJcetclies. which was to AVest Virginia what the Heroic Age was to Greece." — — Avhich told in plaintive accents how St. told farther on. old soldiers chanted "St. Darke returned to Berke- ley county. The Indians instantly gave way and were driven back three or four hundred yards . and at first promised much success. Thus passed to rest a representative of the Pioneer Age. Of the Virginians who yielded up their lives on that fatal field. Clair's Defeat. now in West Virginia. This was executed with great spirit. 199 the St. having pursued back the toops that were stationed there. when he found a grave near the spot where early in life he had found a home. At this moment they had entered our camp by the left flank. fare uiDon the memorials of the age in which they lived." From Fort Washington Col. but for want of a sufficient number of riflemen to joursue this advantage. which he almost continuously represented in the General Assembly until his death which occurred November 20. and that which has survived should be placed beyond the XDOSsibility of destruction.

CHAPTER jiiilSTORY records no data IX. in the city of Williamsburg. To Ralph Wormley. at which period he kej^t over a hundred at one time. or slaves. 1772. Adam Stephen. pursuant to an Act of Assembly. earlie^^ than the time of Lord Fairfax. made at a General Assembly. and vice-admiral of the same. John Neville. VanSweaiingen. It will be noticed that in several of Fairfax's grants. James Seaton. in the fifth year of his i^resent Majesty's reign. in the same manner as we would handle dumb brutes at the jDresent day. Robert Stephen. William Little. The earliest Court record concerning slavery. gentlemen of the County of Berkeley greeting Whereas. Jacob Hite. Thomas Swearingen. John Briscoe. Hugh Lyle. his majesty's lieutenant and governor general of the colony and dominion of Virginia. Robert Stogdon. when a commission was received by the first justices who were appointed to transact the business The folof the county. dates back to April 17. Robert AVillis and Thomas Robinson.sct. James Strode. William Morgan. James Hourse. by the Governor of the Colony. now on file in the County Clerk's office " Virginia. Earlof Dunmore. begun and liolden at the capitol. that were held in bondage in this county. They were then sold and purchased at that day. for the introduction of Negroes. : John. about the year 1738. and for the more effectual punishing of conspiracies and insurrections of : : . Thomas Rutherford. a number of slaves were included. lowing is taken from the original copy. SLAVERY— MODE AND MANNER OF PUNISHMENT-FREEDOM. entitled an act for amending the act entitled an act directing the trial of slaves committing cajntal crimes. ' . Samuel Washington.

at Williamsburg. or commander-in-chief of this colony. to try. are hereby required and commanded to meet at the court house of the said county. prescribed and set down. respectively. justices. all treasons. as in the said acts of the General Assembly. murders or other offences. the said [the above named j)arties] shall be one.Slavery. and by such ways and methods. or any four or more of you. 201 them. in such manner. condemn and execute. and the seal of the colony. under my hand." . to enquire of and to hear and determine. in such manner. as the said acts of the General Assembly do direct.' the governor. and for the better government of Negroes. you. George the Third. petit treasons. iu the twelfth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord. for the time being. felonies. bond or free. by virtue of the powers and authorities to me given by the said act. as of right ought to be done. or otherwise punish or acquit all slaves committing capital crimes within their county Know ye. or capital crimes whatsoever. that I. when thereunto required by the sheriff of the said county. directed to the justices of each county. to pass judgment as the law directs for the like crimes. from time to time. or to carry into execuGiven tion any judgment by you given on such trial. as aforesaid. are directed. empowering them. by any slave or slaves whatsoever for the better performance whereof. Mulatand Indians. as commander-in-chief of this dominion. whereof any of you. and any such slave or slaves. or misprisons thereof. and on such judgment to award execution. committing any of the offences above mentioned. therefore. for the trial of any slave or slaves. the said [the above named parties] or any four or more of you. 1772. toes . or otherwise to acquit. and upon such evidence. is desired and empowered to issue commissions of Oyer and Terminer. do assign and empower you. Earl of Dun more. DUNMOIIE. the said John. committed or perpetrated within the said county. being found guilty. the 17th day of April.

Peggy. Sam. well laid on. so that they were viewed with indifference by the whole population of the neighborhood as a matter of course. and that the others are not guilty ordered that they be discharged. and told that they should all be worn out on him. Joe. Betty and Peg. Jack. being bound to appear at this court for stealing hogs.202 Slavery. so as to leave his back and shoulders naked. ordered that the sheriff give them thirty-nine lashes on their bare backs. first : offence committed and recorded is as follows Sambo. so that in a little time the whole of . an idea of the treatment toward slaves. are guilty of the said offence. Phil and Will. A convict servant. I had not been long in my new habitation. and applied wifh the utmost rapidity and with his whole muscular strength. each of which sounded like a wagon whip. . Will. and a bundle of hickories thrown down before him. To give the reader. Hannah. in a few seconds lacerated the est to publish the following extract as told : shoulders of the poor miserable sufferer with not less than fifty scourges. and it The "Phil. tied with his arms axtended upwards to the limb of a tree. belonging to Mathew Whiting. if he did not make confession of the crime alleged against him. accused of some trivial offense. at the public whij^ping-post. Anthony. was doomed to the whip. The master then took two of the hickories in his hand. before I witnessed a scene which I shall never forget. Ede. it may prove of inter- by Samuel Kercheval "My residence was in a neighborhood where slaves and convicts were numerous. in this section of country. which he was ordered to look at. Joe. and by forward and backhanded strokes. appeared according to their master's recognizance on hearing the same it is the oi^inion of the Court that the said Jack. negroes. and where tortures inflicted upon them had become the occurrences of almost every day. the property of John Cranes. and a great many more. The operation then began by tucking up the shirt over his head." is .

He put his master "to the trouble of whipping him and he must have a little more. A it the bystanders. During this operation the suffering wretch writhed and groaned as if in the agonies of death. and sides. A jug of rum and water were provided for the occasion. or salted as they called it. which he was to receive was determined should begin the operation was decided by A. When the allotted time had expired the next hand took his turn. and mistress would tell him what It to do. 203 his slioulders Iiad the appearance of a mass of blood. and so on until the appointed number of of lashes Who ." His trousers were then unbuttoned and suffered to fall down about his feet two new hickories were selected from the bundle. called for a drink of rum and water. one not worth naming but this did not save him from further torture." frequently happened that torture was inflicted and convicts in.t the lot or otherwise. When the victim of cruelty was doomed by his master to receive the lash. . several of his neighbors were called on for their assistance. After the trembling wretch was brought forth and tied up. in which he was joined by the company. exhibited nothing but laceration and blood. pretending conclusion of the first course the operator. so applied. and in like manner ended with a drink. in which was humanely concluded "that he had got enough." as they called it." basin of brine and a cloth were ordered to be brought. He was then untied and told to go home. a more protracted manner than that above described.Slavery. A consultation was then held between the master and who had been coolly looking on. A certain time was allowed for the subject of their cruelty " to cool. with which his stripes were wased. They attended at the time and place appointed. and the torture commenced. like his shoulders. great weariness. that in a short time his posteriors. streams of which soon began to flow down his back and He then made a confession of his fault. the " upon slaves number on.

scores on their for wages. 1792. with his hands swollen with the cords. The following is taken from an old court docket of 1792 "At a court held in Berkeley County the 4th day of November. for the examination of Nell. The Prisoner being led to the bar. one flannel petticoat. Another method of jiunishment still more cutioners.204 Slaxsry. said that she was in nowise thereof guilty. one slipp." Wagoners in the neighborhood have been known to fasten the slaves. one white linen sheet. and sometimes half a day. to protracted than this was that of dooming a slave to receive so many lashes during several days in succession. amuse themselves by making the deepest back It with a Jug of rum. and one black lace tippett. each whipping. one white linen handkerchief ruffled. was unbound and suffered to put on his shirt. and the circumstances attending the same. Gentlemen Justices. a Mulatto : woman slave. being called "tickling up the old scabs. returned home from the scene of their labor half drunk. and the further South it penetrated the worse the barbarity. Pkesent John Cook. at the conclusion of which the sufferer. on suspicion of feloniously stealing from Amos Davis one muslin sheet. it is the oj^iinion of the Court that she is guilty of petit larceny onlj^ Therefore it is ordered that the sheriff do take her to the public whipping post and there give her thirty-nine girl's : . and. David Hunter. This operation lasted several hours. lashes were all imposed. on consideration of whose testimony. a large shawl. His exe- whom the operation was rather a frolic than otherwise. and it being demanded of her whether she was guilty of the facts wherewith she stood charged or not guilty. Whereof sundry witnesses were examined." has been stated by several in their writings that through the Shenandoah Yalley slaves were treated with the utmost cruelty. John Kerney and Nicholas Orrick. James Maxwell. except the first.

and a number of small boys formed a brigade. (the present site) and was considerably used. lashes on lier 205 bare back.Slavery. Capt. but is enough the heart sickens at the writing of such cruelties. They then proceeded to rob the hen-nests that were expected to hatch in a short while. and stood between it and the building adjoining. It was composed of an upright piece. a loud yell went up. sweating. then used as the Clerk's office. etc. It was afterwards removed to the East side of the present jail. such as the thumb screw. Hoke says he saw three negroes whipped here. the birch. worthy of note. and occasionally. under the command of Adam Cockburn. . and carried off the contents. now living. in which both male and female were treated with the utmost and most cruel barbarity. The pillory was built above the whipping post. I might here relate many other methods of torture. Hoke. while a smaller one on each side was made for the two arms. about ten feet from the ground and had a small platform. the neck. and a top i)iece laid crosswise. There are several incidents that occurred in our i)resent town." The old dockets show a number of similar cases. of which Capt. it — . Taylor Pi^Der and George Casion and Jim Piper placed in the pillory. Here quite a lively time was had by firing at Casion' s head. Wm. some kind. well laid on. they marched to the pillory and formed in a line in front. is my informant For a long while a whipping post and pillory stood in front of the Court House. somewhat larger. Casion had committed a petit larceny of . and was doomed to the pillory for three or four hours. In those days this was considered big sport. Hannah Henson. when a rotten egg would strike. The day was very rainy. and participated in by nearly all the boys of the neighborhood. and then discharge her. in the sha]3e of a In the top piece was a hole large enough to admit cross. With their hats nearly filled with eggs.

In adherence to this declara- cussion of — . in which the masof his race. in the hands of despots. scourges and fires. As each presidential election went by the issue became more clearly that of slavery or freedom. Those means of destruction. and pronounces an involuntary anathema on the whole The time came. On the other hand.206 I Slavery. insisted that freedom was the normal condition of all the territory of the United States. Many wars. have been the instruments of spreading desolation and misery over the earth." objection. "No. many began to hope for some comj)romise that might preserve the national peace. ter lution and slave changed situations. the Southern States had made the declaration that the election of a President pledged to oppose the extension of slavery would be a violation of their constitutional rights and a moral invasion of the slave States. its merits increased in bitterness. and their extensive use in all ages. in the hands of the After the foreign war conducted by the United States (which ended February 2. while leaving to each State the right to order and control its own domestic institutions. The issue of that eventful contest snatchof ed the scepter from the hands of the monarch. From the bloodstained pages of history. As the country grew rapidly in wealth and population. bastiles. tortures. gibbets. and deemed the abolition of slavery expedient. one now turns with disgust and horror. and as years went by the dis- people. are regarded as indices of the depravity and ferocity of man. where it ought to be. asked the Captain whether the authorities made any to which he replied. prisons. 1848. and I wouldn't doubt but what the authorities put the boys up to it. and placed it. In 1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected President by the Republican Party on a platform which.) the slavery question was considerably agitated. however. crosses. The American Revowas the commencement of a new era in the history the world.

in December.000. The war continued until April. thus insuring protection to the freed slaves and giv- ing to the federal courts enlarged jurisdiction in the matIn the following June the Fourteenth Amendment ter. 207 tion. Arkansas. whereby equal civil rights were guaranteed to all. and her example was followed by Mississippi. Shortly after. Our county is largely inhabited by them.800. During this conflict the negro. At the present day this race of people is represented in almost every trade and j)rofession throughout the country. in the conduct of which nearly 1.Slavery. was passed. In April. Vice-President Johnson became President. Wilkes Booth.000.) hostilities were opiened by the Confederates and a severe conflict ensued. abolishing slavery within the United States and places subject to their jurisdiction was duly ratified and proclaimed. Texas. On the 1st of January.000 Union soldiers had been enlisted and a debt of $2. irrespective of race or color. among whom are to be found energy and enterprise. Numbers have fallen and shed their blood upon the battle plain with a courage that far surpassed many of the white soldiers. They have built and ably sui)port churches and schools . 1865. 1865. (with all due respect to liis race) took his stand. Tennessee and North Carolina. 1860. in April. The Thirteenth Amend- ment to the Constitution. and no sooner had the order "to arms" been given than he had taken up in defense of the Union. Georgia. Some own considerable property and are well to do. D. and the work of political reconstruction was begun. President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. who was after his A few weeks hunted down and killed a few days later. Florida. 1866. Virginia. (April following. the Civil Rights Bill was passed by Congress over the President's veto. inauguration for the second President Lincoln was assassinated at Washington. Louisiana. terra. by J. C. 1863.000 was incurred. Alabama. South Carolina seceded from the Union.

208 of tlieir own. wliicli Slavery. . and deserve mucli credit for the manner in they have prospered nnder such marked disad- vantages.

which form so imiDortant apart of the country's history. The pages of the country's history. First. Summer of that year. It occurred in the erick County. About eighty of the volunteer soldiers from Berkeley. the illustrious Colonel who built Fourt Loudon in the fall of that year. while their depredations lasted. but . Fred&| ^ISTORY A terrible conflict with the Indians followed. WAR OF THE REBELLION— BERKELEY COUNTY'S SITUATION. for nearly one hundred and thirty years past. have been embellished and brightened by the heroic deeds of many of Berkeley's patriotic sons. a full representation of Berkeley's gallant sons shared in the dearly bought victory over the Indian allies of the British Government. the French and Indian war broke out. INTRODUCTORY REJIAEKS. indicates that the old County of Berkeley was well represented in the different wars. in the year 1755. continuing to serve their country against the frequent attacks of the cruel savages. Clair's defeat by the Indians. at Point Pleasant. and these intrepid men took a gallant part. and was virtually the first battle of the Revolutionary War. In 1774. before this county was formed. were killed in St. who aided materially in the cause. and established himself at Winchester. who enlisted and served during the long.CHAPTER LATE X. They afterwards served under George Washington. during the Revolutionary War. The names of many of her gallant sons. under Colonel Drake. and the citizens of this section shared in the disastrous defeat of General Braddock. are not mentioned in history. dark days of that struggle. two years after the county was formed.

810 Its War of th e JRehelUon. in the troops which gained one of the most brilliant victories of this war at the . pages record their deeds. who. and southward in the valley. 1861. A number of tliem arose to highest distinction in tlie army. in thtf war with Mexico. and emulating their noble example.1)25ttle of Craney Island. a full representation volunteered who were veiling to take up . character of the questions at issue were deemed to be too grave and important to be regarded with indifference by m any citizen. The minds in 1861. Virginia x)assed the ordinance of secession at Richmond. Credit must be ^iren those who. 1813. In 1844-45. June 22. On the 17th day of April. took up arms. and The little leniency was shown them by either party. Tliey were again called upon in the War of 1812. the valorous deeds of Berkeley and Jefferson County men are an important matter of llie — history. and the county was represented by about 200 men. eannot be given to those who sundered the tender ties that bound them to the homes of their nativity or adoption. friend stood opi)Ose£l to friend upon many a hard-fought and Moody battle-field on the soils of Berkeley and Jefferson Counties. or exercised their best talents Too much credit In advocating the cause of the State. They were looked upon with susijicion." brother encountered brother. and from principles which their best judgment declared to be ifgliteous. of the grandsons of sj^irit Berkeley were pervaded by the same which animated the heroes of 1776 and 1812. were the ones to suffer most in the sacrifice of property during the war. ^' Greek met Greek. after a calm deliberation. sacrificed or endangered all their property interests. The adoption of a neutrality was attempted by some. and devoted their lives to the defense of the Union from a high sense of loyalty to the General Government. and the people of the State weire called upon to take a decided stand upon one sife other in this important issue. jDerhaps.

These men. and did not i3ause to consider whether the quondam friend. being located at the northern portal of the Shenandoah Valley that bloody arena where so many tremendous conflicts occurred. came there " through error. met each other in battle. Details of the marching and counter marching of armies. and their frequent engagements. conscience. and no attempt will be made to record them here in full. GOING TO WAR. and. (on the turnpike. through a lofty devotion to principle. From the front porch of a house at Fairview. weakness or chance.War of the Rebellion. to follow where their duty called them. perversity. in deadly array against him. Men equal in intelligence and courage. "A Virginian. had espoused." as he boyhood. honesty of pur^Dose and stubborn determination. and notably so here. as it was very general along the border. against his native State.) can be had a beautiful and comprehensive The following reflections of leaves the home of his . to take up arms in defense of his country. if need be. can be read in many a well-written work. sacrifice their lives in defense of the i:»rinciples wliich they had adoi^ted. as heroes. This state of affairs was not by any means confined to Berkeley and Jefferson Counties. whose forefathers had fought side by side for the independence of their country during the Eevolutionary War only differing. These heroic men enlisted on both sides. but echo the sad thoughts entertained by thousands of others. which are incident to this locality. abandoned their homes and cut asunder the closest ties of kindred and friendshij). 211 arms. who. Berkeley and Jefferson Counties saw much of the war. perhaps. in the circumstances and influences which had educated them into a decided opinion upon the great questions then at issue." but duty of the hour which governed them was to do or die for the ca^^se which they . but an account of some of the — interesting occurrences will be given.

Martinsbnrg. each house. and Shepherdstown are distinctly visible. recalled some friendly face." . I was an exile indeed poor. had occupied Harper' s Ferry. rolled a fathomless gulf of blood and fire. which ox^i^ress one whose individuality is too heavily taxed. I had asked no man's counsel. confided my conclusions to one alone. maturity. and that "each field. Charlestown and Winchester can be distinguished.212 ^^ar of the Rebellion.weariness. while the sites of Harper's Ferry. neighbor to whom I might turn for countenance or nor counsel in those hours of soul. some genial hour of past delight. weakness or chance. On this side I found none nearer to me than the acquaintances of yesterday. who in the Shenandoah. after burning the railroad bridge and other property at that place. weary and Yet I had taken my course after calm and dispirited. That fair valley was now the land of mine and my country's enemies among them I could see whole squadrons of my kindred and former friends the kindly and generous companions of the olden times. extending as far up as the Massanutten Mountain. conscience. General command of the Confederate Army of . but strangers to the heart. Johnston. It mattered little to me now how they came to be there— through error. marching together as champions of a common I felt the weight of cause. — . — FIRST APPEARANCE OF "GRLM VISAGED WAR" IN MARTINSBURG. I had lived. The towns of Williamsport. retreated to On the 13th of June. side I was alone. The Potomac that flowed between us now. 1861. On this There was neither friend nor kinsman. each clump of trees. my position. opulent in friendchildhood to ships and social sympathy. above Front Royal and Strasburg. from ful sport. and full deliberation. perversity. Upon this azure map the whole circuit of the late campaign could be satisfactorily traced. An old resident living near by stated to the author that he often visited this spot. some youthThere. view of tlie Slienaudoali Valley.

for Virginia General McClellan was also on his way. and the saddening efliect upon the minds of the large concourse of people who witnessed the destruction was a lasting After the burning of the bridge. and on to the straight road to Winchester was accompanied with great At the same time the machinery of the raildifiiculty. Thirty-two horses were required to each engine. It is a remarkable fact that this . and were hauled a distance of twenty-two miles. to aid Stewart's cavalry in destroying what they valley. and thus check the advance of these opposing armies. road shops was taken. ing to i)revent their running these engines to Winchester. erected in Martinsburg by the company as compliment to the city. General (afterward "Stonewall") Jackson (in anticipation of the arrival of the Federal troops) was sent. vras at that time des- The citizens who witnessed it will never forget the first appearance in the city of the terrible reality of the war which followed. by one. through the streets of the city. and used in the arsenals at the South during the war. through Western Virginia. en route through Maryland. over the Martinsburg and Winchester turnpike to the latter place. these same engines had their wheels furnished with broad iron tires. Some time afterward. via Harper's Ferry and the Winchester and Potomac Railroad. fire. with his brigade.^Var vf the Rebellion. the troops. this. from Pennsylvania. to accomplish this feat. partially destroyed thirty-five large locomotives that stood in the yards west of the bridge. What was known as the an esx^ecial "Colonnade Bridge. toward the . about eight o'clock." a beauti- ful structure. This was a sad error on the part of the Confederates. where they were put in repair and used. by the Confederates. At this time. and the task of getting them up the hills. The bridge was fired one calm and beautiful evening. with his army. for there was nothtroyed. General Patterson was advancing. to the neighborhood of Martinsburg. could of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stock. 213 Winciiester.

fell back toward Falling Waters. 1861. Patterwhere it remained thence to Charlestown. but an order from General Scott directed him to continue demonstrations in front of AVinchester. which was granted. by the main pike. joining the main army under Johnston. amid demonstrations of joy and welcome on the i)art of the great majority of her A detachment of troops was sent forward to citizens. An order which had been issued to Patterson to advance to Winchester and give battle to the Confederates under Johnston. when Jackson continued his retreat. where they remained in position until the 23rd. the former renewed a previous application to transfer his army to Leesburg. when they marched to Harper's Ferry. which was expected to occur on the 16th. the time of the three months men having expired. at the same time. the whole column marched into Martinsburg. and Jackson. ARRIVAL OF PATTERSON'S TROOPS IN THE CITY. vras countermanded. they returned home. i:)roceeded to Bunker Hill. On the morning of the 3rd of July. and Jackson was encountered in a position where he had formed his men in line of battle. and on the 9th of July. and. many of them to reson' s army . and one of the Confederates was killed. macliinery and all the locomotives but one were regained by tlie company after tlie close of the war. along which the former were advancing. a few miles north of Martinsburg. towards Martinsburg. and advanced. over the main road leading from Martinsburg to that village. Patterson and his troops forded the Potomac at Williamsport. two days .214 War of ilie Rebellion. On the loth. a company of Patterson's infantry encountered a small force of cavalry near a school house. On the 2nd of July. reconnoitre. In the afternoon. making that his base of operations. which lasted about an hour. with four guns directly across the turnpike. where a skirmish ensued. A sharp encounter here ensued. the balance retreating. at Winchester. until after the battle of Manassas.

enlist for the war. and. One of the participants iu the last sad rite says "We buried them. of the defeat at Bull Run was One received. many serving as privates in the ranks. The slaughter . The brothers (Holmes and Tucker Conrad) were the sons of an old and esteemed citizen — a lawyer of rare ability Holmes Conrad. Those who had deceived themselves. together in one tomb : ••By the strnggliug moonbeam's Iniruing I" mist}' liyht Our lanterus dimly "This circumstance is worthy of mention. — afterward i)ublished in the National Intelligencer. AFTER THE BATTLE OF MANASSAS. Previous to Virginia's act of secession. His two sons. Conrad had taken an active part in favor of adherence to the Union. both quite young. as the name was a beloved one in our country. although we lost many noble ones. It 215 so disheartening to the was on the 23rd. In the first ebullition of their zeal. that the news^ Union Cause. bright and promising than these. Mr. and nearly the first news which reached him concerning them was the intelligence of their death. which had great influence.Wai. with their cousin. the elite of the Virginia youth had rushed to the field. Esq. and was citizens. of the saddest nights of the war. now began to realize the true character of the contest that was opening. or had been deluded by others into the belief that the dismemberment of the nation would be accomplished without bloodshed. and made a most eloquent and stirring speech in the Court House. none more fair. on both sides. and side by side. Harrison. to many of the was soon after the first battle of Manassas. left their home without the knowledge of their father." A great awe seemed to have quelled the spirits of the people at this time. at almost the same moment. Captain Peyton R. Two brothers and a cousin fell in that fight.of the Rebellion.

D. horror and monrning veiled the joy 25tli of of victory for a season. troops to destroy them by burning the wagons. commsiand other mili- tary stores and supplies. For some time afterward. This celebrated retreat occurred on Sunday a day that seemed destined as a season Early in the morning. you do look worsted. in his "Personal Recollections of the war." THE MARTINSBURG HOME GUARDS. m. the General and his staff arrived. the skill of the dyer was called into requisition. to obliterate the tell-tale material blue. General. On the May. H. In many an aristrocratic mansion. and his retreat. had been living on short rations. In due time. ordnance. occurred Banks' disastrous defeat by Jackson. tilled with absconding negroes. Strother. no doubt. GENERAL BANKS' RETREAT.216 at War of the Rebellion. quartermaster." contributed to Ilarpef s Mordlily^ of these — : . Looking into a mirror (the first glimpse. Those who witnessed the rush of the panic-stricken troops through Berkeley and Jefferson counties will never forget it. It was one of the most disgraceful scenes of the war. who. and hardtack became a popular article of diet. upon this class than any other. 1862. via the Martinsburg and Winchester turnpike. cavalrymen made their appearance in squads of two or three. (Porte Crayon). Manassas fell heavier. at Winchester. four-horse wagons. and with a scant supply of blankets and IS'otwithstanding the efforts of the retreatingclothing. proportionately. carrying pontoons. on account of the difficulty of obtaining them. swept through the streets at a full gallop. medical. were scattered all along the route. many supplies fell into the hands of those who no doubt badly needed them.. which he had caught of himself for several days) Banks remarked "Well. loaded with sary. went into the parlor. Hundreds of wagons. greatly to the delight of many. and about 11 o'clock a. of excitement in this section. to the Potomac. and dismounting at the principal hotel in town.

Business was almost entirely suspended in Martinsburg during the first years of the war. 217 lias the following to say. and along the border every man seemed to supx^ose he had the right to constitute himself a si)ecial constable. there w^ere camps of either Union or Confederate . who followed in apparent acquiescence. and continued his journey northward. From the commencement of the war to the close. with whose business he was unacquainted. a harmless and well-meaning citizen of the Home Guard. and the length of time the town was occupied by soldiers. to arrest and cross question every other man he met. for lack of the necessa- which were hard to obtain. for the purpose of police duty and : watching over the general welfare of the community. regarding this quasi." EFFECT OF THE WAR ON THE CITY. considering the fighting that was done here. people cannot keep quiet. It was shrewdly suggested that the peace of the lonely village might have been better preserved if everybody went quietly to bed and minded their own business. They kept their headquarters at the Court House. even in view of their own safety. quietly drew a pistol and blew the citizen's brains out. the citizens had formed a volunteer Home Guard. and was heard of no more.War of the RehelUon. arrested a stranger who was riding Dismountinto town from the direction of Winchester. One night. Considerable damage was done to buildings. sat up of nights. in times of revolutionary excitement. It abdicated. as was his wont. and everybody they found prowling about. and his hands in his pockets. The stranger. This shot also terminated the volunteer labors of the Home Guards. But. arrested each other. that was organized in the sjDring of 'Gl "Not to fall behind the times. Ganoe led lounging along with his musket under his arm. but not as much as would naturally be supposed. Dick Ganoe. then mounted. the way to the Court House. ing his prisoner.military band. and at times a ries of life. great deal of distress prevailed.

and at the same time cover themselves with glory and obtain great isted at this time. however.218 War of the Rebellion. A tempt. Quite a remarkable occurrence haj)pened upon this occasion. A great many Union or Confederate short experience with these enthusiastic reformers. led the officers in authority. and at noon they were driven out by the cavalry under General Kilpatrick the latter was in turn dislodged in the evening. The court house was continually occupied by troops. Pendleton. upon both sides. and many valuable papers are missing from the office of the Clerk of the County Court.) numbering about 3. and the investigation of cases reported to them. as they retreated southward. . penetrated the cone of the roof of his grand time. and it soldiers in the town. This unwarranted act has caused endless trouble. and forced to retreat across the Potomac at Shepherdstown. Fourteen volumes of records of court proceedings and deeds.000 cavalry. Every churcli and public building was used as barracks. hospital or stable. It frequently occurred that a change of occupants would occur in the city several times in one day. came into tovv^n. or spies. exwho found excellent opportunities to gratify some petty spite against a neighbor. fighting all the way a distance of ten miles. It was planted on the eminence which is now occupied by Green Hill Cemetery. as the case might be. — . self-appointed detectives. The only piece of artillery that Kilpatrick had with him was commanded by the grandson of the late Philip C. and numerous is others are badly mutilated. and the first shot that was aimed by the young man at the Confederates. then one of the oldest and most respected citizens of the town. to treat them with deserved concredit for patriotism either in the cause. At one "Hampton's Brigade" (then' under command of General "Jeb" Stuart. doubtful if the effects of it can ever be remedied. during which time valuable papers and records were ruthlessly destroyed.

§3. On the evening of February 13 th. caught fire Through the carelessness of the occupants. when wounded. arrived in the city. where it refather's liouse. Hicks. and officiated for all parties for whom his services were required. witliout. WOUxVDED AND DEAD. who bless the good citizens of Martinsburg for their unselfish acts of kindness at this The honored dead of the contending armies lie time. CARE OF THE SICK. was shown to those of the Confederate army. THE BLACK HORSE CAVALRY. Many of the churches were occupied in this way in many instances. sublime service of the Episcopal church. The citizens were as loyal as any situated near the border. After the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg. mained until several years after the war. buried in the city cemeteries. There are many of them living to-day. doing any material damage.500. 21& however. At one time. it The renowned Black Horse Cavalry figured frequently . and was burned to the ground. One of them penetrated the walls of the Catholic Church. before it was removed. the rector of Trinity church was the only minister in town. Captain G. or those of that descent. of the Ninth Virginia Infantry. sick and suffering. 1863. as escort of a government train from Winchester. The German Evangelical Church was composed of Germans. and as faithfully nursed. as many of them could have been in their own homes. many of whomv/erein the United States service. AV. and quartered in the church building owned by this society valued at . and Union soldiers were as kindly treated. Martins burg became one grand hospital. their interiors were comi)letely destroyed.War of the Rebellion. and large numbers were committed to their last resting place with the beautiful. and the same kindness. during the frequent skirmishes that hapi^ened about the town. The citizens had many shells left with them as mementos. without exj^loding.

Jackson was accompanied by this cavalry in his expedition to Williamsport. at which point were being collected the volunteer comxmnies of the State. They continued in the service during the entire mand was Henry K. but figured prominently in Berkeley. VirThe first service which the comginia. war. happenings. West Virginia. After remaining there for several da^'s on picket duty they were ordered on similar service to Berlin Bridge. and became renowned for their exploits. of the " Mountain Rangers. Martinsburg and Harper's Ferry. 1861.) orders were received by Lieutenant Robert Randolph. Wise. and soon afterward were selected as the body-guard of General Joseph E. even to the last moment. The day before the ordinance of secession w^as passed by Virginia (April 16th. The different companies organized in this county. that an attempt would be made to rescue Brown." to assemble their respective commands and proceed at once to Harper's Ferry for the purpose of capturing the stores and munitions of war stored there. Johnston. but in nowise pertaining to a Berkeley organization. and by Captain Turner Asliby. prisoners to the place of execution. commanding the Black Horse Cavalry. Considerable time and labor has been given to deep researches concerning our military organizations during the late war. while the rest of the command w^as employed in keeping the streets clear. . 1859. They took a prominent part in the battle of Manassas. etc. Among the names included are mostly those vrho enlisted at the time of organization.. June 18th. to insure the execution of John Brown and his A detachment of this company escorted the associates. Their organization was commenced in Fauquier County. with the names of the participants. ordered to perform was to report to Governor at Charlestown. The above mentioned cavalry was organized in Fauquier County. are given below. for it was feared. A number of our men enlisted in other companies.220 War of the Rebellion. duriug the war in Berkeley and Jefferson counties.

Moorefield. This regiment was organized by the consolidating of a number of companies that had already seen much service.) Stevenson Dei)ot. Bowers. Albert Teets. Peter Tabler. mainly from Martinsbnrg and Berkeley County. Here it began its summer campaign under Sheridan. Brown's Gap (two tights. Second Lieutenant. The history of the regiment is written upon every page that records the contiicts and victories of the Middle Military Division. Hagerstown. Wm. Newton. Edmond Wagely. Second Corporal. Bunker Hill (third. 1863. Martinsburg (second. and thence were transported to Martinsburg. Winchester (second. Second Sergeant. : First Sergeant. i)articipating in all its battles and skirmishes. Jas. Seventh Sergeant. Third Sergeant.) Fisher's Hill. Eighth Sergeant. Miller. Martinsburg. of the RehelUon. Kneedler. Winchester. 221 THIRD REGIMENT. Sixth Sergeant.) Milford (two fights. Levi F. ners are: Carter's farm. through all of which it followed him. Mount Jackson. Loy. Fifth Sergeant. WEST VIRGINIA CAVALRY —BERKELEY COUNTY. Welshaus.MPAXY C.'] The members of this company were enlisted in the United States service. Levi J. John Falkenstein. Bunker Hill. at Charlestown. Clendening.) Bucklestown. West Virginia. Edward N.) Bunker Hill (second. Sylvester Eidgway. Fourth Sergeant.War CO. W. Its story cansimple list of not be more eloquently told than in the Among the names upon its banbattles it has fought. Adam Wolf. Hancock. "^United States Army. in December. First Corporal. From there they marched to Parkersburg. Michael Ferrel.) Front Royal and Mount Jackson (second. John E. . First Lieutenant.) The enlistments were as follows Captain.

James B. John W.of the lieliellion. Butt. Levi. Stoneking. Myers. S tatter. Fizer. George. Wm. Morgan. David. Wm. Shrout. Bartlilow. John W. Muri^hy. Bugler. Lazzel. A. . Reynolds. William. Murray. Wm. Colbert. Butt. Fleming. Ross. PRIVATES. Robert. Jesse. Myer. Andrew J. Cockran. John W. Eighth Corporal. Jos. John. CliarlesC. Stansburry. Edgar C. Kiser. John. Robert. Alex. Horner. Deets. Elijah. Wm. Elijah. Fifth Corporal. Morgan. W. Ulysses Davis. James. Kline. George. Hiram. Lewis S. Jacob. Myers. Morgan. Ridenour. John W. Piles. Smith. Jenkins. George. Hower. Allison. John H. Hart. John. Homer. R. Jacob H. Racey. Edmund. Ramsburg. Elijah. Bricker. William. Colbert. George L. Eri. James W. John T Frushour. Charles. William Deets. Alfred Porter. Clarkson. Fourth Corporal. Price. Myers. Jas. John. Isaiah. Ridenour. Gardener. William.222 Wa?. Samuel E. Cockran. Lamaster. Miller. F. Kiser. Fravel]. John. Anderson. Benj. Jolin A. Crowe. H. Long. Third Corporal. Lamaster. Franklin Spencer. C. Theodore. Murphy. H. James. David Kiser. William. G. Anderson. Stafford. Samuel. Novington. Bugler. Seventh Corporal. Sixth Corporal. Cross. Hays. Burcli. Isaac. James O. Edmund.

AV. Light. Jerry.. Shaffer. John E. 7. killed in action May 10. killed in action Nov. Kines. St. to First Lieutenant. Thomas J. 1864. Awman. Clias. Taylor. George W. 1862. Gilaspie. AlonzoH. 1863. Balser. Thomas. Andrew J. Hickman. W. Hoffman.. Joseph A. W. " . Elislia. 223 Vanansdal. James S. Middleton. Isaac J. McKinney. Myers. Green. Pullin. Teets. Perry. Rude. Joshua. Thomas EESIG]N"ED. Taylor. James. Stahl. Epiiriam. H. Street. Johnson. William. of tlie Rebellion. Jonathan. Beuj. Barthlow. DESERTED. David. Benson. Welsh. Samuel H.. Lemuel. James M. Perry.War Stoker. William. died Oct. David. Patrick P. Clair. 1864. Smith. Enoch. Benjamin. Moses. Fitzpatrick. Mock. DISCHARGED. William B. James S. Roby. to Major. Jacob. Seymour B. Morgan. TRANSFERRED. E. 1862. AVise. July 29. Shaffer. George W. Enos. Samuel. Statler. Wister. Moses. S.. Deen. Thomas. David S. Alex. Strawson. CASUALTIES. Barnes. Curry.. Alexander PROMOTED. Mercer. Woodward. Ticlmal. James P. killed in action April 24. 9. Shaw. 1863. Taylor. Mathias B. " Aug. Hart. Marshall. Welsh. Yolgarmott. Conger. Wade. 24. Pressman. Butler. Dill}^ John R. K. William J.

. Clias. From here they again returned to Hancock. they fell back to Maryland Heights. 1863. and upon their arrival they learned that the Confederates were robbing the store of A. 1864. died October 9. Ezra. and organized at Williamsport. Witt. Osborne U. under command of Col. From Baltimore they were transferred to Harper' s Ferry. 1862. 7. Md. FIRST REGIMENT. David D. COMPANY B. killed in action May 10. 1862. where they arrived on the 5th day of February. thence back to . 19. From here they proceeded to Kernstown. killed in action Aug. 4. where they had several skirmishes. wounding two men and capturing a horse. 7. Joliii V/ar of the Jlehellion. 1864. Siler. Slater. 7. thence back to Williamsport. McQuilken.224 Pitclier. on the 23d of May. Ward Lemon.. Aug. Teets. " " '' " ^' '' Oct. from whence they were ordered to Hancock... May 17th. Piles. where it first entered service They next re to guard a wagon train to Martinsburg. A number of the company were detailed and crossed the river. Upon crossing the river they were attacked by Ashby's Cavalry.'] This organization was mustered in under Col. 1864. Three days afterward they were transferred to the 3d Maryland Regiment. Yolio. W. Henry M.. From Hancock they were ordered to Orleans Road. died Nov. entirely of Berkeley County citizens. At the time of its organization it was composed 1861. Md. turned to the former place. VIRGINIA VOLUNTEERS- BERKELEY COUNTY. when Lieutenant Hancock was wounded. thence to Falling Waters. The next order received was to proceed to Dam No. W. 11. Pitclier. and from here to Baltimore. The company was • uniformed at Williamsport. at Hard Scrabble. 1864. John. killed in action Aug. 18d4. and after a skirmish on Bolivar Heights. [ TJnUecl States Army. thence to Shaffer's Mill on the river. thence to Cedar Creek. Philip.

As far as the roll can be ascertained from surviving members. Josex)h Kerns. Shortly after these battles the company was divided one half serving under Grant. Three Days Fight at Gettysburg. : — until the surrender at AxDpomattox. Ya. Bender. J. Fourtli Sergeant. Third Sergeant. D. E. Frisky. many Berkeley County was most ably represented. James Fayman. John Lowman. M. Fredericksburg. The company was them ordered to Little Warrington. of til e Rebell ion. Antietam. The entire company had bravely participated in all the imx^ortant tights thronghout the war. First Corporal. J. Robt. H. Second Corporal. Second Lieutenant. it is given as follows Ca2ytain. Lowery. Harman. Winchester. and others. Jno. Jno. Chancellorsville. Burriss. Weaver. Ashkettle. Raccoon Ford. Fourtli Corporal. Adams. Wm. Third Corporal. PRIVATES. and took up arms against friend or foe. Smith. Pompeii. and history records many valorous deeds of this company. Bishop. Like those of the centending enemy. Lewis Cleary. . 225 At the latter place Captain Joseph Kerns and Lieutenant James Fayman tendered tlieir resignation. Second Sergeant. First Sergeant. Batch. First Lieutenant. Among the i^rincipal battles fought upon its banners are Cedar Mountain. though their names are not mentioned. and of her noble and heroic sons have died upon the field in the defense of their country.Wa r AVarrington. Ya. and the other half under Sherman. they believed their principles to be just. Harry Strausbaugh. Jerome E. Fifth Corporal. Thompson. C. Robert Lowery. Benj. J.

John. Wm. Samuel. A. Bateman. G. James. Unger. John. Clevinger. killed. and stood guard at Charlestown during the . Ebaugh. Johnson. It was this company was organized October Hist. Grindes. Martin. Henlane. F." [^Confederate States Army. Samuel. A. John. Arthur. Henry. John. Davis. Israel. Perkins. Killgore. Benj. Jno. composed almost entirely of Berkeley men. David. Jones. Thomas. Yanmetre. Shirk. hung. Dickeiiiofli. C. Cann. R. jDitman. Mathews. Espenhine. Geo. Harker. Dailey. Jno. C. killed. P. MuriDhy. Ingram. Brown. killed. Esq. Denis. John. 'I Under the supervision of J. James. Sadler. Isaac. Christopher. Thompson. Hipper. Jphnson. R. Coyle. Smith. Isaac. Wm. Edward. John. Joseph. Gagle. War of tlie Rebellion. Lui^man.. C. iS^adenboush.226 Ball. Colbert. killed. B. Fahey. Goodman. Sisco. Korcross. Claspey. Denan.. COMPANY " D. Davis. Joseph. C. Patrick. Giser. Lowery.. Finigan. John. Israel. Henry. Frank. Daniel. E.. Brown raid. Joseph. 1859. Hewitt. James. John. who volunteered their services in defence of what they deemed a This company acted on duty during the just cause. Lowery. John. Prescit. John. Q. Ingless. Robert. Sisco. killed. A. Grace. C. killed. Lincoln. C. Harman. Potter. R." SECOND REGIMENT VIRGINIA INFANTRY— "BERKELEY BORDER GUARDS.

July 21st. A. PRIVATES. 1861. . Welsh. and with the assistance of surviving members. 1862. Kline. July 21st. Maj. Third Corporal. Thos. Peyton R. W. on the 16th of March. 1862. First Corporal. Bentz. gives it at the time of organization. First Lieutenant." and ably represented its county. Ryneal. Tliird Sergeant. Second Sergeant. W. Fowler. First Sergeant. 1861. B. Austin. Third Lieutenant. A. March 23rd. 4th.. Like all the different companies. Hunter. Nadenbousch. promoted Adjutant-General. to report at Harper' s Ferry on the night of April. battle Manassas. August. promoted Cajitain. S. Second Lieutenant.War of the Rebellion. wounded at second promoted Colonel Sept. — Second Corporal. Fourth Sergeant. Cunningham. Among its ranks were Berkeley's most gallant and heroic sons. wounded at first battle Manassas. July 21st. Wm. Conrad. killed at first battle Manassas. Dugan. Robt. L. promoted Sergeant. First Sergeant. Israel Robinson. 1861. 1861. Aug. wounded at first battle Manassas. : — 17th. Fifth Sergeant. H. P. as follows Cax>tain. S. J. 227 hanging of Brown's men. 1861. wounded at battle of Kernstown. E. resigned to take his command in 67th Virginia Militia Regiment. Armstrong. the author has been unable to obtain the roll accurately. It participated in all the important battles fought by the famous "Stonewall Brigade. Hoffman. Wm. killed at first battle of Manassas. E. 1861. It was first ordered into service by the Governor of Virginia. Jno. Jno. Harrison. 1860. July 21st. S. T. Holmes E. 1862. Q. C. Albin.

Fisher. Albin.. Bell. Drebbing. killed at second battle Manassas. James. 27tli. Brady. B. Joseph. D. j)romoted Sergeant Aug. Dalgarn. Alfred. M. ^ ' Englebright. B. A. Aug. Tucker. Dielfenderfer. Chevalley. killed at first battle Manassas. V.228 War of tlie Rebellion. Coi^enliaver. Boyd. T. P. 1861. H. Peter. . 1861. Fisher. Dugan. July 21st. J. C. 3rd. Cline. wounded by accident in camp. R. 1S62.. July 21st. Wm. 1863. May . first Bucliannon. Wm.. July 21st. November Carlysle. David A. 1861. slightly wounded. 1862. James. Blake. Earson. Barnett. June 28th. Jno. Jas. Thos. John L. M.. 1861. 27tli. Day. Wm. Bales. A. L. Caskey. W. promoted Corporal August 4tli. Jas.. Ephraim G. Dandrigde.. S. R.. Jas. E. Adam S. killed at battle Mine Run. 1861. S. Conrad. 4th. Cage. A. Custer. killed at battle Chancellorsville. . wounded at first battle Manassas. Brocies. James.. Chambers. wounded at battle Manassas. 1861. Doll. Jno. Chambers. R.

229 Fryatt. Koiner. Huff. Hedges. promoted Corporal. Joseph. July at battle 21st. battle Manassas. 1861. August 4th. 1863. Wilderness. killed at Manassas. killed. March John S. Hunter. George H. James L. Kernstown. 23d. 1862. Homrich. G. Harrison. Griffin. 23d. Joy. . Hodges. 1861. ISGl.. Hollis. T. killed at battle of Gettysburg. Joseph. Walter. 1861. Michael. Halem. Hollis. Owen T.War Fravel. T. L. Kearfott. Patrick. Wm. June 27th. Wm. of tlie Rebellion. Thomas. 1862.. Hambleton. Jas. N. Lewis. wounded at battles of Payne's Farm. Gardner. Kearns. Hollis.. Kearfott. John T. at battle of first Harman. Benj. wounded at second battle Manassas. deserted.. and Seven Days' Fight around Richmond. July 1861. 1862. promoted Sergeant.. August 4th. July 21st. wounded Cold Harbour. M. M. Harley. J. Hill. William P. wounded at battle Cold Harbour. June 27th. August 27th. Kilmer. Larkins. C. John — wounded at Helferstay. \Y. Geo. Jarvus.. K. Glass. wounded Harrison. P. J. F.

Charles. at first battle Manassas. John H. Muhlenburg. wounded at first battle Manassas. 1862. 1862. killed at second battle Manassas. July 21st. James W. Meachem. Phillips. Scheig. . A. George. 1861. Marikle. wounded at first battle Manassas. Richard. wounded at 21st. John B. Trip. McGeary. July 21st. T. June Moody. William H. Thomas. wounded at first battle Manassas. 1861. John R.. Richard.. Oden.. Henry C. Mclntire. Charles. 1862. W.230 Lesliorn. August 27tli. Rust. 1861. August 27th. John F. first battle Manassas. 5th. McMullen. killed Leathers.. wounded at first battle Manassas. William. deserted. Light. MeCleary. William. May 3d. Thomas T. Miller. Joseph S. Marikle. 1861. 1861. Maupin. Simmons. July discharged Dec. PilDer. August 27th. 1861. Marikle. Lewis. Parker. Matthews. McWhorter. TTar of tlie Rebellion. John P.. killed at second battle Manassas. at battle Chancellorsville. Lewis. July 21st. Joseph. wounded at second battle Manassas. Archibald. William. James W. 1861.. Nicholson. wounded July 21st. July 21st. 1862. Painter. Jonathan. 30th. 1861 ..

Albert. wounded by accident 28th. D. Charles. George. Charles Shober. died of disease.. of the Rebellion. Wm. Thrush. Smeltzer. wounded at first battle Manassas. killed at second battle Manassas. B. Wollf. Tabler. W. Staub. George. John. George F. G. Hooper. wounded. deserted July oth. AVebster. H. 1862. R. P. Vorhees. John M. A. John. Smith. Sherrer. August 27th. Geo. Weaver. T. Hoffman. Lewis Lewis fired the shot at a Federal scout on the famous Fisher's Hill. June Weaver. ilUSICIAlNS. Sndditli.War Sailes. Au- Saville. Steward. C. E. While Jackson was retreating from Winchester. Smith. . Samuel Hutchinson. William. where one of the most important battles was fought. 1862. John. by first direction of Capt. Suiter. R. 1861. Siler. Weaver. July 21st. Assistant Drum Major E. Titlow. . gust 27th. Drum Major. in camp. Joseph. Hayden. killed at second battle Manassas. Charles. A. John F.. C. 231 Staub. R. 1861. Whitson. 1861. W.

Drewey's Bluff. Geo. 1861. June. 1865. promoted Captain and chief Stewart's Horse Artillery. E. 1861. Yfi. G. Lieutenant. Jos. D. Second Battle Mannassas. G. Fredericksburg. Dr. Witherow. via. second battle Cold Harbor. and there report for duty. to prepare his battery for the march and proceed early the next morning. 1862 wounded at battle of Sharpsburg. Chancellorsville.. Surgeon. First Lieutenant. James S. J. Brown promoted Captain. 1861. of Virginia. E. to Harper's Ferry. Seigeof Knoxville. Boonsboro' Gap. April 9th. History records many heroic and valorous deeds of this comj^any. which participated in the most severe strngles during the war. Sharpsburg. {Confederate States Army. Alburtis received orders from Governor John Letcher.'] This company was organized in November of 1859. Cold Harbor. The first section of this battery was stationed at Charlestown during the execution of John Brown. cavalry. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On the evening of the 18th of April. Murphy. J. Siege of Petersburg. . Newman. transferred to : : .232 War "B. The company surrendered with the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House.. Seven Pines. instructor. COMPANY WISE ARTILLERY— BERKELEY COUNTY. immediately after John Brown's raid upon Harper's Ferry. Spottsylvania Court House. and was named in honor of Governor Henry A. Tliird Lieutenant. Wise. Wilderness. Bugler." of tlie Rebellion. Alburtis. resigned 1861. H. The enlisments were as follows Caytain. 1862. resigned in 1861. seven days' fight around Richmond. Tenn. Sherrer. Pelham. Malvern Hill. Frazier Farm. Five Forks. Savage Station. of Virginia. — . Capt. Chattanooga. Second Lieutenant. C. Gettysburg. as placed among the names upon its banners are battle of Manassas. January. Its simple list of battles fought. Williamsburg.

Charles. 233 Ensign. 1862 transferred to cavalry. transferred. John S. 5th. Blakeney. ] . May 1st. promoted Quarter master Sergeant. wounded at Seven Days' Fight Around Richmond. January.. Jolm R. Harry. June. — geant. Fourth Sergeant. promoted Sergeant. Second Corporal. 1863 wounded April tenant. 1862. June. Wm. wounded in front of Bermuda Hundred. Samuel. Harry. John Maxwell. — . 1865. 1863. 1862. Fourth Corporal. 1365. x^romoted First Ser. 862. Fifth Corporal. Edward. Auld. Oliver King. January. July 3d^ PRIVATES. R. Armpriest. June. 1861. May 3d. " Third Sergeant. November. Frank Smith. promoted First Lieutenant for gallantry upon the field of battle. J. Robert Lowery. May.War of ill e Rehdlion. 1862. wounded at United States Ford. John Hines. promoted First Sergeant. 1863. Robinson. Sixth Corporal. ral. Beard. June 27th. promoted Second Lieutenant. 1861 . promoted Third Sergeant. Third Corporal. O'Neal. Blakeney. Blanchfield. First Sergeant. John H. Alburtis. Bell. First Corporal. 1861. Barney Stewart. John. transferred. promoted First CorpoJune. Geo. Boyer. " Second Sergeant. Weddell. Joseph Lantz. wounded at battle of Antietam. 1862.—killed at battle of Gettysburg. transferred. Couchman. i>romoted Second promoted Second LieuSergeant. 1861. John A. Fifth Sergeant. February. 1862. Henry Wentz.

1861. Cyrus. discharged. discharged. Patrick. Cox. Bowers. Chambers. — transferred. Wm. June 27tli. James. Robert. Frazier. killed at Seven Days' Fight 1862. discharged. discharged. Kearns. Kisner. — i^romoted Captain. Samuel. Edward. transferred to Cavalry. Wm. Cunningham.234 Britton. June. Christopher. promoted 3d Lieutenant. Iradella. June. B. and died. 1862. Faulkner. John. Helan. discharged. discharged. Johnson. » Gruber. War of the RebelUon. killed at Cold Harbor. E. Charles. David. Hedges. Jolin.. Wm. Fiske. Around Richmond. James. Israel. 1864. Thornton. discharged. Wm. wounded Seven Days' Figlit Around Richniond. G. wounded and died. James. Hess. killed. at Chancellorsville. Harley. James. Thos. transferred. Wash.. Gilbert. Conway. . wounded at battle of Sjoottsylvauia Court House. Kisner. 1864. dischargecl. Clarke. Fultz. Feaman. wounded at first battle of Manas. April 29th. 1861. Boyd. April. discharged... 1863. T. discharged. . Herndon. Causemenia. June 28thj Kearns. July. Keyes.. Aaron Hill. 18G4. Hazard. Thomas. 1862. Commiskey. J.. W. Helferstay. James. sas. discharged. S.

• Pendleton. Reed. M. Palmer. A. 1862. Wm. 1S62. Thomas. Seibert. A. Sullivan. Joseph. Robinson. Michael. discharged. Reed. Patrick. Murray. promoted 1st Sergeant. Mulligan. Samuel. Strayer. Benj. John. Moore. Lowery. B. Myers. P. F. Lowman. Lowery. discharged. Patrick. Ridenour. Martin. Kearney. Mooney. Landers. Franklin. Sisco.War of the Rebellion. Shea. killed. June 27th. P. Christian. Markel. Lucas. Moore. J. Wm. . Charles. 235 Lucas.. McLaughlin. P. J. Nolan d. discharged. C. Peter. Rose. 1862. Schultz. Benj. Patrick. discharged. Wm. John. Edward. James. Lucas. P. January. Reardon. J.. John. Wra. promoted Commissary Sergeant. O. John. Mahoney. promoted Corporal. Prior. January.. Sisco. Lantz.. 1862. at Seven Days' Fight Around Richmond. promoted Corporal. Ryneal. Andrew M. Edgar.

18G2. Tabler. its part was well played. . 1S63.. killed at Knoxville. Wann.. Adolplius. VIRGINIA CAVALRY- BERKELEY COUNTY. T. Young. Five Forks. Berkeley was ably represented by this command. Edward. .'] About the year 1860 this company was organized. . B. C. Petersburg. Composed of loyal and intelligent men. — Wert.. H. Eobt. COMPANY "B. 1861. Walker. After this they Avere engaged with the Confederate troops in the various long and bloody battles fought.. Vogel. V^'ar of the Rebellion. of whose number. with John Blair Hoge as Captain. transferred to cavalry. and took an important part in the battles of the late civil strife. promoted Corporal. 1862. Upon its banner are to be found the names of the largest and most importaant battles fought. Thomas.236 Suter. Sclieig. Martin. Whitehurst. promoted 1st Lieutenant. John. Strainey. M. Titlow. G. January. Wilderness Fredericksburg Second Battle of Manassas Antietam Gettysburg Spotsylvania Court House. was the battle of Manassas." FIRST REGIMENT. E. T. discharged. P.. . Walker. Wollett. John. Westphall. and others. many have strewn the battle-Field with blood and life in de: . Among the number are Battle of Seven Pines. which occurred July 21st. . discharged. Chas. Robl. John. (or seven days fight around Richmond). Tate. W. The first conflict for which they were ordered out. James. {Confederate States Army. Teun.

wounded at Tom's Brook. Boley. Cushwa.. Chapman. Robert P. Second Corporal. Cunningham. James N. 1864. Robert H. discharged.. Light. J. promoted as Fourth Sergeant. Buchannon. C. wounded at Rood's Hill. Carper. 1865. Hammond. Charles Weller. Breathed.. May 9. Seibert. transferred. Benj. promoted as 2d Sergeant. E. F. 1862. 1864. Archibald. First Corporal. James W. 1864. 1863. wonnded at SiDottsylvania. C. May 12th. E. T. Stewart. With the army of Northern Virginia. Noll. October 9. killed at Yellow Tavern. TJiird Corporal. May 1864. 23. N. Thos. K. wounded at Gettysburg. first First Lieutenant. Richard H. 1864. — Third Sergeant. John W. discharged. promoted as 2d Lieutenant. First Sergeant. jDromoted as Captain. wounded at Slatersville.. 8. Wm. wounded at Mt. November Bowers. and at — — Rood's Hill. . Boyd. wounded at Front Royal. promoted as Captain and Major of the Stuart Horse Artillery. August 21. G. John B. July 1. Aquila Janney. October 10. November 23. July 4. Catrow. April 9th. Wm. transferred. Olivet.. R. Second Sergeant. Second Lieutenant. promoted as Lieutenant. James W. they surrendered at Appomattox. Auld. 1864. detailed in Quartermaster's Department.War of the Rebellion. Bryarly. Geo. John — Burkhart.— killed at Martinsburg. Jacob A. 1864. Armstrong. PRIVATES.. 237 fense of their just i3rinciples. The enlistments at the time of organization are as follows Caiytain. W. promoted as Third Corporal.

wounded at Yellow Tavern. Cushwa.. 1864. 1863. wounded at at Kennon's Landing. November 23. 1864. Jefferson. Olivet. 1864. D.. Kearfott. Gageby. of the Rebellion. House. John S. Kilmer. David. W. Kearfott. transferred. Kilmer. at Spottsylvania. George. Concilia an. discharged. May 9. May Frieze. Daniel. Kilmer. bugler discliarged. Marshall. B. Charles. Manning. P.. W.. Dennis. 1864. October 10. Cushwa. promoted as Gladden. J. Lyle. wounded at Raccoon Ford. Cusliwa. 1st Sergeant. promoted as 3d Sergeant. 1864. Joseph. November wounded 23. killed at Rood's Hill. W. W. . Lemen. — wounded 9. wounded May 9. H. Medical Sergeant. May 11. at Slatersville. Geo.. 1864. A. . L. at Eood's Hill. D. wounded Mount Kilmer.. Cunningham. Seibert Frieze. Marshall..238 War J. 5. died from disease. Cushen. killed at Winchester. Janney. David. October 13. James. John N.!1863. wounded at Gettysburg. G. H. R. at Spottsylvania. E. David. 1864. R. — wounded Mason. James A.. Daniel. George. William M.. September 19. June 1864. 1862. L. M. July 4.. Combs. promoted as 1st Corporal. H. Cunningliam. Thomas.

1864. Myers. D. 1864. 1861. wounded at Manassas. Wendel. D.. May. Murphy. Oct. July 21. Oct. Payne. wounded at. Trip. John B. May 11. wounded at Anandale. Tabb. Sept. E. Second Corporal. 23. 19. 1864. David.. George E. Silver. 19. promoted as 4tli Corporal. 1865. wounded May Shepherd. H. James. H. Silver. Small. Geo. Payne. Eli. S. Rainer. P. Abraham. promoted at Spottsylvania. wounded at Yellow Tavern. Thomas. wounded at Rood's Hill. discharged. 19. 10.. Strode.. Seibert. McKee. Aug. killed at Buckland Mills. Mayberry. MoDg. wounded at Manasses. E. 1861. 239 W. J. and at Cedar Creek. of the Rebellion. as 9. killed at Rood's Hill. R. Roush. Sept. O.. Murphy. transferred. Seibert. Seibert. J. Showers. Roberts. 1864. 1863. wounded at Mount Olivet. William. F. Cedar Creek. 28. Charles. JohnH. 1864. Martin L. discharged. David. James B. Roberts. Miller. . 1864. February. wounded at Winchester. 1864. William Strayer. Henry. W. 1864. Richard. Stump. Roberts. Frank. Nov. "Wendel. 1861. W.War McClary. at Spottsylvania. Small. Geo. George. October — discharged. Jacob. Thatcher. July 21. Daniel. Seibert.. Payne.

C. and Lieutenant Colston succeeded to the captaincy and brought the company to a high degree of proficiency. April. immediately after the John Brown raid. The following is a roll of the company. killed at Slatersville. very shortly resigned. was its first Captain. Weaver. a graduate of the Virginia Military Institute. killed at the first battle of Manassas. Cap- company. in the town of Hedgesville and vicinity. Col. Virginia Regiment. David Manor.— promoted Captain. i^romoted to Lieut. First Sergeant. Weaver. 1863. VIRGINIA INFANTRYBERKELEY COUNTY. Wm. wounded at Kernstown. 23d. promoted to First Lieutenant. When the war cloud burst. 1863. 1862. which formed a part of the famous 'Stonewall Brigade. Ax)ril. obtained from surviving members thereof Captain^ Raleigh T. B. 1862. 1861. with his Company "E" was assigned ' ' ' ing itself bravely in every fight. May.. promoted Second Lieutenant. T. May 9.. Charles. wounded at Fredericksburg. It contained within its ranks some of Berkeley's bravest sons. Nadenbousch. in 1863. 15th. always beartain Colston was ordered to report. Esq.240 War of tJie Rebellion. as near as can be gotten at this late day. in 1862. Colston. and killed at the battle of Mine : Run. Dec. was First Lieutenant. Colston. March 23rd. First Lieutenant. Nadenbousch having had no military training. Capt. {Confederate States Army. COMPANY 'E. Hull. Colston. at to the 2nd Harper's Ferry. John T. Nov. — — Second Sergeant. and participated in all the battles in which that gallant corps was engaged. wounded at Chancellorsville. July 21st.' second REGIMENT.— to Col. 1862. 1862. George.Va. 1862.'] This company was organized in the fall of 1859. M. and R. when the Southern people became imXDressed with the idea that their institutions were menaced by northern fanatics. — .

Light. James. W. . July Manor. Dallas. Geo. killed at Chancellorsville. killed at Fisher's Hill.. detailed on signal service. Johnson. Hunter. killed at first battle of Manassas. W. W. Myers. Guinn.^ J. killed. James V. Miller. Hill. Fiery. Jenkins. 15th. James. Isaac N. 1862. April. John W. 241 Clias. Abraham.. Eversole. Eversole. E. wounded at Port Republic. j)romoted First Lieutenant. H. 21st.— promoted Orderly Sergeant. wounded. wounded *it Chancellorsville. William. Newton. April. Hull. Bane. wounded at second battle of Manassas. Dugan. battle of Manassas. Merchant. W. Dec. wounded at Chancellorsville. Blamer. David.. Keisecker.. wounded at first 1861. Jacob H. 1864... Asa. Fourth Sergeant. killed at Fredericksburg. John A. W. 1862. wounded at Cedar Mountain. Harvey A. Emanuel. John L. S... killed at Chancellorsville. Wm. Eversole. John. Hull. of the BeielUon. Merchant.. Basore. Isaac. W. Jeremiah. Geo. — wounded at Fredericksburg..War Third Sergeant. PRIVATES. Keyser. Miller. Cromwell L. lost arm at Seven Pines. Hunter. Charles. Brown. Lanham. July 21st. Geo. John 1862. wounded at Kernstown. 1861. Couchman. Newton. Criswell. James L. Lingamfelter. Haines.

John. Geor<. i^romoted 3d Lieutenant. John W. Sperow.242 War of ilie JRehellion. George. 1862. They chester. Pryor. 'Sharff. wounded on several occasions. Geo. Harrison. W. Jacob. Turner. Wilson. princix)ally of* Berkeley County men. 1862. where it remained until about February 24th. Small. They were then ordered to Middletown. Here . Porterfield. and afterward fell back up the valley. Nicholas. killed at Kernstown. afterwards White serving on picket duty several days at Millwood and Post. and from the latter x)lace a detachment of fourteen men were sent to Fort Republic to guard the bridge and prepare it for burning. killed. John.. Rockwell. 1863. Riddle. COMPANY SEVENTEENTH BATALLION. From here they proceeded to and around Win1862. Milton. at Mar"A. O'Connor. Stuckey. March 23d. and acted on x)icket duty along the border. Porterfield. killed. with a number from the surrounding counties. John M. Small. William.. Valerius. 'Snodgrass. William. Jr. wounded at battle of Wilderness. Triggs. This company was organized in October. 1SG2.e W.— at Monocacv in 1864. It was first stationed at Martinsburg. 1861. Porterfield. killed at Kernstown. Alexander. March 23d. killed at second Manassas. VIRGINIA CAVALRY—BERKELEY COUNTY.. wounded at Kernstown. Stuckey. next went to Strausburg and Woodstock. Samuel A. Harrisonburg and Two Bridges. Sperow. Michael Pike. March 23d. Weddell.. Reuben. killed." tinsburg. 1862. Frank. Perregory.

killed at Buckner s Station. John J.. May 23d. First Lieutenant^ George Wells. at Darkesville. killed. The following officers. killed. Charles. Kensel. etc." It has been an impossibility to obtain its roll of members full and correct. with a part of the company acting on picket duty at Front Royal.War of the Rehellion. 1862. Carney. Myers. PRIVATES. Bets. James. . with as can best be ascertained Captain^ G. W. of Baltimore. 243 they engaged in two very severe fights. 1862. Y. This company participated in all the important battles fought during the late civil strife. Leech. Sid. Gore. at Cross Keys and Lewis' Bottoms. from whence they fell back with Jackson. of Baltimore. From here they went down the valley in rear of Jackson's army and fought at Winchester on the 24th of May of that year. They again returned to the border and remained about three days. Murray. wounded . who then crossed the Blue Ridge and went into Virginia. which occurred on the 11th and 12th of May. It was known during those days as the "Wild Cat Company. Sept. Thad. is a list of Berkeley County men. 17th. Second Lieutenant. Chax)mau. J. Butler. as the author has been unable to gain any other information than that given by several survivors of the company. John. Anthony. Md. and many of Berekeley's brave and heroic sons have fell within its ranks in defense of what they deemed a just and worthy cause.. Hedges. Brittner. Albain. . Blondel.

wounded. Seckman. John A. hours. J. killed at Mt. Joseph. promoted Lieutenant. in the robings of glory. THE BLUE AND THE GRAY. Whence tlie fleets of iron have fled. the Blue Under the willow. J. the Gray. L. This Company left Martinsburg with about 50 members. . II. Harvey A. killed at Warrington Springs. . " From the silence of sorrowful The desolate mourners go.. Turner. Waiting the judgment day . with several from Maryland. 1863. In the dusk of eternity meet Under the sod and the dew. S. Where the Ijlades of the grave-grass quiver. Patterson.. ' ' By the How of the inland river. All. B. Morgan. Michael. Sayles. .. Wa?' of tlie Rebellion. Waiting the judgment day .. William. Teack. Frederick and Jefferson Counties. and was composed of men from Berkeley. Ronk. T. promoted Captain. Benj. Under the one. . Frank. Lovingly laden with flowers. the Blue Under the other. Mingle. Jackson. Those in the gloom of defeat.244 Miller. Saderfield. III. Asleep are the ranks of the dead Under the sod and the dew. Strode. with the battle-blood gory. John. McNemar. " There. Seibert. Wilson. the Gray. — Under the laurel. I.

the Blue Under the lilies.— So. the Blue. Wet with the rain. the Gray. with an equal splendor. impartially tender. No braver battle was won Under the sod and the dew. Waiting the judgment dajUnder the blossoms. for the Gray. Wet with the rain. On forest and field of grain. The generous deed was done In the storm of the years that are fading. the Blue. but not with upbraiding. ' No more shall the war-cry sever. Waiting the judgment day. . ' On the blossoms blooming for all. Sadlj-. the Gray. . So. — Under the sod and the dew. 245 Alike for the friend and the foe — Under the sod and the dew. . Or the winding rivers be red They banish our anger forever. "Waiting the judgment day Under the roses. for the Blu:e Tears and love. The morning sun-rays fall. — Under the garlands. Waiting the judgment day Broidered with gold. • when the summer calleth. Waiting the judgment day Love and tears. VI. IV. the Blue Mellowed with gold. V. VII. the Gray. . When they laurel the graves of our dead Under the sod and the dew. . . With a touch.War of the Rebellion. Under the sod and the dew. "With an equal murmur falleth The cooling drip of the rain. the Gray.




HISTORICAL REMINISCENCE OF MARTINSBURG. and finally off at one blow. and copyrighted accordstill \_Written especially for the author of this work. He would exhibit the effect of a terrible struggle which left him maimed for life. Among them was one Peter Cook. All rights reserved. ~\ I^^URING my decrepid. BY JOirX ing to law. in their native dress and natural ferociousness of character. and went to get his arms. getting the tomahawk. who had been in St.CHAPTER XI. WITH STATEMENTS COVERING MANY EVENTS OCCURRING SINCE THE CLOSE OF THE LATE CIVIL WAR. as well as personal struggle in border warfare. "\V. FROM THE YEAR 1832 TO THE YEAR 1861. often entertain company at the personal experience of the times through which they had passed also. Clair's defeat in Ohio Territory. early cliilclliood days there were old. who would relating and in many cases. many yet who had been engaged in the Indian wars. Many thrilling instances of escape. leaving only the little toe. he Iniiied it in the top of the Indian's head. when the Indian arose with tomahawk and cleft his foot He had a severe struggle. a week that more or less Indians. hotel. came through . He shot an Indian who feigned death. CURTIS. by . would be related in which the There seldom passed parties were personally engaged. ^i§ many Revolutionary heroes. and was one of only 123 that reached the white settlement from the defeat. His right foot was cut off diagonallj^ up to the instep of the foot.

and a procession and barebcue was held late in the evening. and tomaliawk. — . . It and fix and will at that period to claim and was in my fourth year. The bit of 12* cent i^iece. destroying it for all future use. which was then the office. town. 25 cent piece. and had lasting impression political character. Three at once commenced shooting at coin. with knife hanging to a band of undressed deer hide around their waist. and the American silver dollar. with an ordinary size ham. The Indians generally x)assing through our valley were from Kentucky and Tennessee. it was theirs upon missing. Upon returning nothing was left except the bone of the ham. When a child the whipping j^ost occupied ground directly in front of your present. and the Hispanola of Pillar. The Mexican Pillar or Spanish. them heavily with powder. and also old Court House door. The first event to make a itself upon my mind was of a show the devices resorted to hold party fealty. A new tween the Clerk's jail one was afterward erected in the space beand next house east. One Christmas morning it was found blown to Parties had bored holes in the stock and charged pieces. and the other came in and asked for food. were all Spanish coin. A full large loaf of bread. copj^er half and one cent pieces. my home ocratic at a large hotel. They would be fully equipped witli bow and arrows. and were enormous eaters. Our silver coin at that time "was the Picayune. On one occasion four arrived and stopped at the hotel.250 Reminiscence. they would throw on the ground the same coin. ten. were used as American coin. I have no early recollection of seeing the American five. was placed before him. During the congressional canvass of 1832 General Jackson was President. the headquarters of the Dem- and Republican parties. or 6i cent i)iece. twenty-five and fifty cent pieces until after passing uj^ to full youth. and he was left to help himself. They would often shoot at coin placed in a split stick if hitting.

This device was to show the all over it. in fact was hung the and at every vibration of the tree the delightful tingling money sound would strike upon the ear. Upon each twig. where the i^resent Lambert saloon is. now known as . called the Claycomb House. a hotel with different jDroxDrietors. The other prietor.Jleminiscence. Avith possibly 800 and could not have exceeded 1. excejDt King and Queen. Myers. American silver dollar.sized village.000 inhabitants. one to Winand one to the Warm Springs. the iDrinciple business streets. one to Shepherdstown. branch. and every meeting of the county was held there. they being then as now. coin in the country. Hagerstown. (proprietor un. on Queen street the Gardner House. hotels were the Globe. and fixed upon it was a good. which had absorbed and held in its vaults nearly.sized hickory tree in full leaf and foliage. beautifally caparisoned. streets It was not for many years that any other had names. On the street was a wagon drawn by six horses. Each day four stages arrived and departed one to chester. The old town up to the year 1837 was what might be called a good. and adjoining property now owned by E. Kraesen. on Queen street also the Kelley House. which is now the Eagle Hotel. x^rooccupying the site on King street opposite your St. My entire boyhood days were spent at this hotel. directly opposite the home of Dr. ruinous to all commercial pursuits and crippling the Government very seriously in its Treasury Department. Clair Hotel. if not all. limb. and up to almost middle life it was the headquarters of the Democracy. Esq. owned by Peter Gardner. tied by blue ribbons. an eccentric good old German. Wm. as far up as Grantham Hall east. known) located on your present Martin street. Old Tammany or Billmire's Hotel was situated on the southwest corner of King and your present Ger- man streets. 251 and the Democracy addressed from a stand in front of the hotel. Herring. Democrats' hostility to the then Federalists' financial system and United States Bank..

watch repairing. etc. Dutch ovens. Every hotel tried to secure tlie custom. cooperage. and sold the flour as needed at home. now Kilmer and Bender' s mills. of which the Gibbs were proprietors. At the site of the present Fitz mill was where flax-seed was ground and oil extracted for sale. and it was very evenly divided. except the old tenplate All our cooking was done in stew pans with long handles. Berkeley Springs. All traffic and trade Avas carred on by wagons and teams. stoves and knew nothing about them. Blacksmithing. . whisky and fruit were scattered around. and many manufactories had wagons on the road selling an oil mill. now owned by Geo. busy i^eople. east of town. .252 Reminiscence. frying pans. tinning. although occasionally I could hear among the drivers of teams nbout the horse railway from Baltimore to ElliThe manufacture of wools was carried on cott's Mills. etc. and superintended by John Keys. brass foundry and copper kettle making were carried on extensively. on an . Each farmer had his own grain ground for toll. saddle and harness making. M. the principle one being Flaggs'. Flour was largely manufactured and shipped. now Hannis' the Tabb and Ilibbard mills on Tuscarora.. or else hauled it to Baltimore markets. wagon-making. . one Distillers for of whom. tailoring. groceiies. The Stevens mill. is now living at Keyser. Bowers the Ransom mill. It occupied the present locality of or abour your pumphouse for water works also a large foundry on same locality. white-smithing or lock making. Philip. their articles of trade. who raised a large family. were all large grinders. No such tilings as a railroad was thought of in our every-day life. furniture manufacturing. shoe making. The mode of x)reparation of food by cooking was of an We had no entire different character than at present. largely at a factory belonging to the Gibbs family. spitts. house carpentry. bringing back for the merchants dry goods. west of town. Our fathers and mothers were an active.

and fastened securely to a stake planted deeply in the ground. In these baskets the bread was again raised for baking. and possibly its owner some compensation. chimney wliere Our bread was baked in ovens specially built for such purposes. and afterwards turned upon a large paddle used in placing it in the oven. skid and jump. Much drinking was done. One to three at a time turned on the animal. ran the fox. enjoying skating. shooting in holes being much in vogue in winter large pond of water was near town.Hemimscence. Hop. persons usually buying liquor by the pint or half pint. and on everything betting was prevalent. hide and seek. . They would try the metal and ferocity of a class of tierce bull dogs. ring and corner ball. known as the Waite lot. sending up hot air paper balloons. The sports of the day were of similar character to the present. and generally came out with a crisp. Boys and at A — . Much betting was engaged in as to the merits of the There was also a w^eekly chicken or cock different dogs. and manj^ other games were indulged The older boys took much delight in flying large in. open LeartL. closely knit together by hickory withs. using full 253 live coals from the cord wood had been burnt down. In preparation for baking. would have a large. and which ever dog took a nose hold and threw the bull. etc. where many days of sport in skating were enjoyed. where they balls. received the reward of champion. mumbly meg. throwing fire The men would get up bull baits. tierce bull tied by the horns with a cable rope. certain seasons played marbles in \"arious games. kites. and drinking it at a table from little tin jDlayed town. batch was set in large doughtrays over night and worked out in the morning into loaves. and was fit for the stomach of an epicure. each of which was placed in a bread-basket made of straw. main fought somewhere in town. wrestling and jumping. where it rested upon the heated floor. nice crust. They also passed much time in pitching quaits.

John Byers. killing this war of 1834. On the hill near the Catholic and Episcox^al cemeteries was a stone building called the accademy. in the then territory of . My first day at school was under the present church site. Maxwell taught for years in in the extreme. The school accommodations of the times were limited. Hill. In the building now occupied by the priest. This was tlie general custom up to 1S37. a Mrs. M. and R. The Presidential campaign of 1836. Avlien drinking at the bar by glasses became customary. succeeded by a Mr. Joseph Painter. He was succeeded by a Mr. Jacob Swartz. who continued a long time as tutor. Johnson. who by his filthy habit of profuse tobacco spitting on the floor. No liquor was sold except at regular licensed hotels. was disrespectfully called by the scholars "Old Peal Garlic. Old Capt. that stable room for not less than three horses and beds and they were then for nine men. In ihe basement of the Lutheran Church different jDersons taught. with Martin Yan Buren for President. This embraLittle taught exclusively. Caney and others whose names have passed from memory. E. a female school. and possibly others will join me in his praise. both as to morals as well as the secular knowledge he gave us. Avhich I will enumerate when I reach that year. Young. with Henry Clay as the ^Johnson was called old Tecumseh. the teacher being a Mr. licensed as ordinary'' s. not as hotels or inns. owe him a deep and mighty debt for his loving known by care over us.for Yice-President. were on the premises . ced all the schools of the town." He was better that than his own name. I think your good citizens. Bascom. until after the year 1840. in charge of the Catholic Church. caps called jiggers. from Shepherdstown. then taught by a Mr. and no license granted except upon condition. J. as Democratic candidates.254 lieminiscence. having the repiitation of great Indian Chief in the Indian Indiana. a house on your present Burke Street. and many of my age then going to him.

my prietors for the years 1838 remained there for several years. of to everything. was present also many soldiers from Cumberland. known afterward as Everett House. The Democrats being successful in the election of Van Buren and Johnson. and at that l^le of time the Lafayette Guards. They proved to be the Surveying corps. and a grand ball was held at the old Tammany House. and many others with whose names I was once familiar. John and Mike Billmire. They removed their camp to the ground now occupied by IMr. The Whig measure was Tariff for Protection. among whom were a Mr. was improved and converted into a hotel. The military spirit of the peoMartinsburg was always good. The Democratic measure was the recharter of the old U. A large camp. everything remained quiet politically. passed without much excitement. Under superior drill and beautifully uniformed. W. was a crack company. Shipley. In 1S37 the old town was moved wonderfully. or Tariff for Eevenue. which they accepted. Harrison. locating the route of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. This house became headquarters in town for Civil Engineers when from camp. with incidental protection a Democratic policy. 255 Whig candidate. J. John S. al- though the great questions of the day being as is now. advocated by Henry Clay. and which uncles. suddenly appeared on level ground beyond the present Green Hill Cemetery. S. above the Fitz mills. became ^voand 1839. . It gave new life and impetus The house. On the 22d of February. belongTheir ing to a comx^any called the Continentals. as against the Sub-Treasury system. and his immediate officer in charge. 1839.. Latrobe as principal. under command of Cai:)t. but have now pjassed from memory. Bank. to which my uncles were caterers. a Mr. having 37 canvas tents. with a large majority in the lower House and Senate. the citizens of the town tendered an honor to the Civil Engineers. Bishop.Beminiscence. Md.

and taking all in all. large buckles. with the entrance on the corner. It was abandoned when I first knew" it. Inside it was weatherboarded to the apex of the roof. in order not fully. They made a beautiful appearance. services being conducted in the Dutch language. which was destroyed by soldiers during an early period of our late civil strife. There was on the corner of John street and the graveyard an old log building. and just big enough for him to stand in without a seat. and its location was at the entrance to their present cemetery. Church had a stone building on East John street. and is now occupied as a residence. lery in which was a large X)ipe organ. fifteen feet high. The quaintest high back pews were placed diagonally across the church. . at least when E. which had been occupied in common by the Lutheran and German Keformed denominations. The churches of the town from 1832 to 1840 remained unchanged. the ball was a grand occasion. the lot being still unoccupied. and above w^as a small belfry. The German Reformed worshipped in this church for a number of years. dress consisted of navy blue clotli. and low slippers. The M. something like an Indian moccasin. The Catholics had a stone church located near the centre of their present]cemetery. It was capped by a box that came above the waist of an ordinary sized man. I cannot recall where they worshiped until the present church was erected. The Presbyterians had a church on King street. which was near 1850— although I knew the . it if was reached by 17 steps. many of yellow tanned deer skin short knee breeches with white hose attached by . as ascending spirally from the corner of the chancel.256 Rem in Iscen ce. with buff facing on tlie breast buff vest. that church was erected it was so stated. The bell used here is said to be the one now in use on the German Eeformed church. Protestant Episcopal church had an abandoned church structure of stone. from which he delivered his sermon. Above the entrance was a galto face a iDulpit nearly.



pastors in cliarge of Parish, a Mr. Johnson and Tallifaro,
after which came Rev. Mr. Chishohu, who volunteered and nobly entered in company with the then Catholic
Priest, Rev.

Mr. Plnnkett, as nurses for afflicted yellow fever patients in Norfolk and Portsmouth, both of whom died in discharge of christian duty and charity. The

Lutheran Church has always occux')ied the present site on corner of Queen and Martin Streets, much imi^roved from its original structure, which was very plain andl

During the j^ears 1S3S, '39 and '40, business began to expand and stretch away from the centre of the town.
All the stores, dry goods, groceries,

had been on the now Grantham corner, also Wilson and Boreman property, up to the business house now occupied by Frank Doll & Co., and were confined within that limit. Railroad contractors began to come in, and established stores in order to supply their employees, selling and trading with the public just as the regular established merchants. In 1832 we had but one

Commodore Boreman' s house, with Grantham Hall corner was occupied by Thos. C. Smith Wilson corner, by John K. Wilson and William Anderson Continental corner, by Isaac Locke; oiiposite corner, now Sheriff's office, by Alex. Robinson Frank Evans tobacco store, by Daniel Burkhart and Geo. Doll store house of C. Thumel, by Wm. Long & Sons Frank Doll & Go's stand, by a Mr.
store, located in



as proprietor.






Hogmire. The corner of the then Faulkner projDerty, now occupied by the People's National Bank, was used by Robt. Rush, a son-in-law of Daniel Burkhart. Jacob

Hamme and James Stevens did

business in the old Baker Their trade Avas general merchandise, groceries, hardware, queensware, and whatever people w^anted. No one branch was confined to itself as is now often the It is a noted fact, often spoken of in my presence case.

as true, that every


merchant doing business under the

old regime and system failed.

In the fall of 1838 Wm. Lucas, father of Hon. I). B. Lucas, was the Democratic candidate for Congress. His opponent was a Col. Barton, of Frederick County, the Whig candidate. Mr. Lucas was elected, the district being 'overwhelmingly Democratic, embracing, if my memory is not at fault, the counties of Jefferson, Clarke, Page, Warren, Frederick, Berkeley, Morgan, Hampshire and Hardy. The system of voting was tiva xoce, or open spoken ballot. The right of suffrage was only given to land owners and other projDerty qualification. A land owner could vote in each county where his name was entered in the Land Book if he could reach a voting place within three days, for which time the polls were kept open. This system continued up to the year 1851 and 1852, at which time the new Constitution was adopted, that extended the right of suffrage to every white man 21 years of age and over, not disqualified by pauperism The elections were confined exor mental incapacity. clusively to Presidential, Congressional, State Senate and Legislature. All county officers were appointed by the Governor of State. Berkeley County was one of the reliable old Federalist and Whig counties of the State,

and Democracy was frowned upon with apparent contempt. Under the old regime of restricted suffrage all the wealthy and leading citizens seemed to belong to that party. General Boyd, whom I just remember, Col. Ed. Colston, Mpses Hunter, Col. E. P. Hunter, Judge Philip Pendleton, Capt. Van Doren, Col, R. V. Snodgrass, Col. Jacob Myers, Benjamin Comeqy, Wm. T, Snodgrass,

Samuel Henshaw, William Cunningham, Andrew McCleary, Dr. Allen Hammond, Hon. C. J. Faulkner, Tillitson Fryatt, Barton Campbell, Jacob Weaver and many others were leading, wealthy citizens, and each one an ardent Federalist and Whig. On the other side ardent Jackson Democrats were such men as Col. Robinson,




Barney, George, Jacob and David Seibert, Moses S. and Lewis Grantham, lame Mike Seibert, Dr. John Hedges, Dr. John S.. Harrison, Dr. Thos. S. Page, Dr. Chas. Magill, John and Jacob Painter, Alex, and Geo. NeAvcomer, Abraham Williamson, Geo. and William Sperow, Rev. John Light, Jacob, John and Daniel Lefever, Samuel and Hezekiah Hedges, Peter Gardner, John and Michael Billmire, and many others.



The Democrats never failed having a candidate in the but invariably met with defeat in county elections For the State Senate the District was for Legislature. always reliably Democratic, as was also the case for ConThe Presidential election of 1840, M. Van gress. Buren, Democratic candidate, with W. H. Harrison and John Tyler as candidates of the Whig party, was the most exciting and strongest contest and furor that this

county has possibly ever passed through. General Harrison was a noted successful Indian warrior, and very popular as the Governor of Northwest Territority. He lived in a plain log cabin on the prairies of Indiana, and gave full, free entertainment to whomever called. His customary drink was hard cider, handed in a common gourd cup. His cabin was covered with coon skins. This gave the Whig party the opportunity to build log cabins on a wagon the interior holding in large casks his favorite drink, with live coons confined by chains on the roof or wherever they could get a foothold. The Democrats tried to bring the canvass within the province of principles and discussion of political questions, but w^ere overthrown by the public furor and excitement of honoring a good old soldier who had spent the flower of his life in dangerous p)ublic service on the frontier. They could not be drawn from giving him the deserved honor. He was a Whig President without policy or chart, and only lived one month. When dying he was succeeded by John Tyler, the elected Vice-President, who had, all his previous life, been recognized as a Dem-



in forming liis cabiDaniel Webster, Secretary of net, with tlie exception of State, that his selection should be of the conservative Democratic element. He was cursed by the Whigs, but ardently supported by Democrats.



was no surprise wlien

The year 1841 was uneventful, except the fact that process of grade and bridge building on the railroad was in progress, with a large number of employes, most genFrom, about Vanclevesville, on the East, to North Mountain, west of toAvn, the employes were all from Ireland. Beyond that to near Sleepy Creek, they were German— growing out of the fact that contractors were Irish at one place and German at the A Mr. Win. O'Neal had the contract East of other. town, from Green Hill Cemetery to about one mile East Immediately through the town a of Opequon Creek.
erally of a foreign element.

Mr. Eads was contractor, and beyond Dry Run, West, a German by name of Rotterman, was contractor. I knew them all personally, as they were boarders at my home. On St. Patrick's day of this year, an old gentleman by name of Gallaher, was honored by the jokers of the town in having a "paddy" hung upon a tree in front of his residence. He took it in as a good joke, and carefully taking it down, gave it to us school boys that were present, provided we would carry it upon a board as a bier and he would walk as chief mourner on the street to the Everett House, which we did. The "x^^^^^j" was left
there in the care of a colored man for future use. On the night of the 31st, "paddy" was removed to Tuscarora Creek, at foot of John street, carefully placed in the

water with one foot showing boot sole near the to]3, and the balance of the body seen under water, which to every appearance was a drowned man. Wm. Reed, on his way He immediately reto the factory, made the discovery. ported the fact to the Coroner, Mr. Anthony Chambers, who summoned a jury of inquest, and to the disturbance Citizens of the town hastened to of many a breakfast.

f^hastly sight.


The jury was i)laced solemnly on each side of the bridge, and parties detailed to bring the body out for view before them. One seized hold of the floating leg, when off came the boot, exposing the straw filling of the "paddy." At this moment arose the cry loud and long, "April fool." It would be impossible to
describe the angry, vengeful excitement of the coroner, jury and citizens, who had been so fearfully fooled.

In the month of December of this year, 1S41, the trial of a colored man name John, charged with the murder of a white man named Colbert, who lived near the mouth

Opequon Creek, occurred before the County Court.

Jacob Weaver was Chief Magistrate, with four Associate Justices, and the full bench were present. He was convicted and sentenced to be hung time fixed in February, of 1842. It was the only public execution that had taken place since about 1S30, of which event I only have a traditionary knowledge. Three colored men were charged and convicted of highway robbery, and were executed by hanging on the Winchester road near town. They claimed innocence, and xjredicted that it would be attested by a fearful storm before the people disx)ersed from the ground. It seemed to be a well established fact that such storm did occur - of wind, rain and hail, which was very destructive to growing corn, and also grain crops, The sympathy of the x">ublic was much just harvested. excited in behalf of this poor colored man John, and great efforts were made for his reprieve, but without avail. ime arrived for execution, and an immense crowd assembled to witness it. He was placed upon his coffin in an open barred ladder wagon at the jail door, and was guarded by the Lafayette Guards, squad walking in close double file on either side. Immediatelj'" following were the sheriff and Deputies C. D. Stewart, D. C. Burns and Cornelius Comeqy, with Rev. Charles Martin, of the Lutheran Church, his spiritual adviser. The column commenced moving, John, singing in a quiet, plaintive-


toucliicg tone the


hymn "When I can read my title clear mansions in the skies, I'll bid farewell to every fear and wipe my v/eeping eyes," which he kept up until the gallows was reached. The place was just beyond Norborne Hall, or Cumberland Valley Depot, in a deep ravine surrounded by rising rocky ground. I witnessed his ascent to the platform and farewell with the minister, and immediately hastened away. The rope broke and a fearful cry arose from the lookers on. John was helped up and again ascended to the platform, from which he was soon suspended. He was buried beneath the gallows, from where his remains were removed and dissected by the physicians of the tov/n, in an old abandoned brew house on Spring alley, near Liberty Spring. He was skinned and his hide tanned by a colored man named Wm. Piper, who gave to a friend of mine a strij;) of the hide that I have often seen used in sharpening a razor. Nothing unusual, that I can recall, occurred this

year, 1842.

As usual and according to law, in the month of May each year, the militia met for field evolution and marching, and to answer to the call of their name from the record of the regiment, as a member of the militia of the State. It was preceded by four days drill of officers, Captain and Lieutenants, with Major, Adjutant, Colonel and other officers. Sometimes the General of Division would be present. General Carson, of Winchester, is the only live militia general that I had ever seen. Our Colonels of Regiment C9, during my early days, were E. P. Hunter, R. V. Snodgrass, and last, Jacob Sencindiver, who was in command on last general muster in May 1861. During the years 1842 nnd '43, rail-laying began and passed beyond the town. One of the most wild and excited times, occurred on general muster day, in one of these two years. The regiment had just been formed in marching order, when suddenly, and for the lirst time, the iDiercing whistle of a steam engine broke upon the



ear. Regiment, officers and men broke ranks, and running pell-mell, ^Yere soon on the kill beyond tke mill now owned by Geo. M. Bowers, waiting with anxiety the arrival of this monster. There was no more mustering, and the day was given up to general drinking, carousing,




In 1843 I became fully identified with the business of the town, entering the store of R. P. Bryarly & Co. The other merchants were G. and C. W. Doll, John H. Likens, Mevorel Locke, D. S. White, Hamme & Stevens,

Boyd, John Jamison, Washington Kroesen and drug stores, Wm. Dorsey, W. H. Hezeltine, and Adam Young. We had no clothing stores. Cloths and cassimeres were manufactured into clothing by regular tailors, who were Hiram Bowen, Hugh McKee, Pat. Cunningham, Ezekiel Showers, AVm, Billmire and John and Wm. Hoke, each of whom emjiloyed journeymen vath many apprentices. One confectionery and cake stand was kept by George Raenhal. During this year one freight train with a passenger car arrived in the early morning, and returning East in the afternoon. The depot was a small shed roof building, occupying site of stone wall on your present xDlatform, and Mr. John JamiAt or about this time Archibald son was the agent. Oden opened his house as a hotel, where the present St. Clair stands, and it became the leading hotel of the town. Wm. L. Boak occupied the Everett House as an hotel. The market house for the town occupied a space in front of King Street Hall, which was then the M. E. church. It was a rough stone structure, with roof reaching very near the ground, and open lattice wood- work for the front standing square on Queen street on a line with Commodore Boreman's residence. There was space all round for market wagons. A good joke was x^layed oil by the bad boys of the town upon two eccentric characJim and Dad were the ters named Gano, father and son. only names I ever heard for them. They attended marpossibly others





ket often, and would drive their wagon beliind the market house, and there leave it for the morning. On this occasion they were loaded with buckwheat flour. The boys unloaded the wagon, detached the wheels, taking it



upon the roof and there replacing


in perfect

running order, carried up the buckwheat, reloaded it and The opening of market was from 2 to 3 o'clock A. left.

M. On this particular morning it was dark, rainy and a heavy fog i^revailing. The wagon being missed an alarm was raised, and ofRceis of the town employed to find the
stolen property, without avail.

When daylight came,lo,

and behold

on the roof of the building was found the Ever after, stolen property intact with nothing missed. however. Dad and Jim took good care to drive their Another good and surpiis Yv'agon into the hotel yard. ing joke was perj^etrated sometime previous to this. A Mr. Wm. Thompson had running at large, and very tame, a small jackass. The boys got hold of him one Saturday night, took him uj) in the Court House, and from the floor of the gallery raised him by block and tackle into the steeple, and placing his head out of a window just below the hall, secured him and left. He was a great animal for braying and gave always a very hideous soun'd. On Sabbath morning, the people on their way to church, were greeted by him looking out of the steeple window. Mr. Thompson and the town authorities ofl'ered large rewards to discover who committed this offence, however, without success. Nothing that I can recall of moment occurred during this year.

In 1844 came on the Presidential election. The DemJames K. Polk for President and George M. Dallas for Vice-President. The Whig party Henry Clay and Theodore Frelinghuysen. The contest was carried on fairly and honorably, with each advocating clear and distint principles much animated, but no furor and excitement. The question of admission of Texas as a State being advocated by the Democrats and bitterly
ocrats presented



opposed by tlie "Wliigs, seemed to be the leading qnesIt is my imtioD, and gave success to tlie Democracy. pression that before Polk took his seat, on March 4th, 1845, Texas was admitted hj action of the Senate and lower House, and approved by President John Tyler.
Early in 1845 John C. Fremont raised a company of volunteers for the purpose of exi^loring the Rocky Mountains. Among the number was a native of our county, Henry Vincenheller, a millwright by trade, which identified us with the grand undertaking and claimed our inNo one ever appeared terest with its success or failure. Many of the volunteers to know what became of him. perished before Freemont was heard from, as the conqueror of California in part. There was great activity in raising recruits for the army, and many of our youngmen enlisted, only two of whose names I can recall Samuel Caskey and John Myers. During the fall months the question of war with Me.xico was constantly before us, finally reaching a climax by the call of the Govern-


for volunteers.

In the




and drum passed through tbe


December daily morning

and evening each day, company. Capt. E. G.
Harrison, a Mr.

face appearing in the Alburtis, Daniel Poisal, Otho


Gray, William Sherrard, Samuel K.

Stucky, John and Jim Bear, John Gallaher, John Ott, a young Blondell and John Jamison were among the first. After several weeks a company of 46 men was formed, of which Dr. John H. Hunter and Wm. Keefe were part. Col. Hamptrammeck, of Shepherdstown, Hon. C.J. Faulkner and others spoke at a public meeting, and it was not
a great while until a company was fully formed and left for Fortress Monroe, the place of rendezvous for Virginia volunteers. One came back, not x^assiog examination from loss of one eye.
tioned, died at the fort.

One, the young Blondel menthe others, I believe, returned after peace was declared without injury in any way, except Lieutenant Gray, of whom no information


as to

was ever given


The war

closing, the

country v/as prosperous and The year 1849 arrived, at which time came wonderful reports of gold discoveries in California. Nearly every one seemed disposed to strike out for the wealth said to lay on the surface of the ground, only waiting to be picked up and brought into use, Many of our young men joined companies and left, very few of whom have ever returned, and many have perished from disease, want, and neglect to provide and equip themselves for such a trip through the wilds of the Rocky Mountains, which previous to Fremonts's exploration was termed the Great American Desert. From the year 1844 up to the year 1849, I occupied the position of Deputy Postmaster under John H. Likens, and the position gave me wonderful ojiportunity to know the pteople of both town and county. In the Presidential year of election, 1848, the Democrats presented Lewis Cass for President name for Vice-President not remembered. The whig party presented the grand old warrier. General Taylor, with Millard Fillmore for "Vice-President. Owing to dissension in New York, M. Van Buren was run on a local state question to some extent, and brought up for the first time the question of Free Soil on Free Territory, James Birney also as against the Extension of Slavery. ran as an avowed slavery Abolition candidate the result being the defeat of Cass and success of Taylor the slavery question entering largely into the contest nationally Taylor lived but a for the first time in my knowledge. short time and was succeeded by Millard Fillmore, Vice-

largely extended in territory.


President, who was a good man conservative and national in his recommendations and acts, but not popular

with the extremists of the south. There was wonderful agitation and excitement, and almost war, which was averted only by a compromise measure offered by Henry Clay, but which opened up a question called the Missouri Compromise, and again in a few years opened up the

full agitation of the slavery


South was kept in a continuous condition of excitement, by the strong and vicious talk of war for the protection of slavery. The rights of the South and their violation by the North, was a constant theme of discussion, both public and private. There was no peace or quietness to be found in any community south of the Potomac Iliver.

In the year 1S51, a convention for constitutional change was called for and held. The delegates from our district elected, were Dr. Dennis Murphey, Hon. Andrew Hunter, Hon. C. J. Faulkner and one other, whose name I forget. The constitution was presented before the people and approved by i3opular vote, which extended the right of suffrage to every white man not disqualified by mental incapacity or pauperism. This gave Berkeley County a large Democratic majority for the first tinie in its history, except on two occasions by dissension among the Whigs, during the years 1846, '47 and '48 growing out of arbitrary action by the County Court against the protest of many Justices, who resided outside of town. The bridge crossing on South Queen street was washed out by a great flood. The County Court, without summoning a full bench, appointed a committee to rebuild, also to place under contract, Avhich was greatly opi)Osed. However, the contract was given to Wm. Lester, and a large debt created against the county. At a full bench of Justices, the bonds of the county were issued upon This gave lise to the cry a very small majority vote

"Court House Clique, "a lid many positiveWhigsdetermin ed to defeat thenn in any nominations they might present
for Legislature.


E. Stewart,

now Judge



County, ran as an independent candidate as against Whig nominees, and was elected, I believe. At the next Legislative election, Dr. A. C. Hammond was an independent Whig, who joined with Lewis Grantham, Democratic nominee, and they were elected, defeating Col. E. P. Hunter and Col. Edward Colston, AVhig nominees.


Rem in iscen ce.
election for county officers,

under the new constitu tion, came off in May, 1852. Jacob Van Doren, Jr., Whig, was elected Sheriff E. G. Alburtis, County Clerk, and Israel Kobinson, Circuit Court Clerk, Democrats, which party was generally successful for all officers in the county and for State Legislatur<^, all through my early boyhood days. The County Clerks office and records were kept in a small stone house, east of the present jail. About the year 1848, the county erected the brick house on public square, now owned and occupied by Dr. W. D, Burkhart as a residence and store, which was used for County and Circuit Clerks' office until after the new Court House was erected. The clerks. Circuit Court, Col. John Strother, under appointment for years; and Harrison AYaite, County Clerk, after whose death Capt. Jacob Van Doren became successor, held offices until ne\Vly elected officers' terms commenced.



The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, about the year 1849, commenced the foundation for an engine ho use and machine shops, and made Martinsburg a first-class station. "Washington Kroesen erected a log store house directly opposite the present depot, facing the railroad with switch coming U13 to platform of house. He did a large grocery business, and commenced the erection of the stone building, formerly the Railroad Co's. depot and freight house, which was occupied first by W. H. Cronise & Co. They did a rushing business, but soon failed, and John H. Likens, my employer, was engaged in business therein, I being his chief clerk and salesman. At this time the Martinsburg and Potomac turnpike was put under contract— M. C. Kyne and P. J. Mussetter, contractors for first 5 miles Henry Haines, 2 miles Charles Downs, 4 miles and Jeremiah Sullivan, remainder to the river. Daniel Burkhart was President, and John H. Likens, Secretary, the records and books being kejit by myself as his clerk. Messrs. Kyne and Mussetter threw up the contract, which Burkhart and Likens took up and finish;



Rem ill iscence.


Then I became time keeper and i^aymaster to the employes. The State subscription was three-fifths, and personal subscription two-fifths. Collections from the State were secured by approval of report by members of the State Board of Improvement, and upon their requisition the money was drawn from the old Valley Bank in Winchester. The members of the Board were a Mr. Pendleton, of Clarke Co., and Gen'l Carson, of Frederick Co., and it invariably devolved upon me, in person, to visit and secure their names and order for payment of money from the bank thus becoming closely identified with this, the first turnpike road in the county. The Winchester pike was commenced a few years later.

The town then began to expand. J. W. Boyd purchased the vacant land on the south side of East Burke street, and subdividing in lots, they were soon owned
and improved by buildings. The first, just beyond the bridge, was purchased by Jeremiah Smith, an old railroad employe. On the opposite side J. W. Hooper purchased, and immediately erected a building and ten-pin alley, which was the first drinking saloon that I can re-

He also erected a brick dwelling beyond. A Mr. Chevally purchased a large body of land, and commenced a vegetable and fruit garden. A Mr. Lohr erected a large brick house, which stood alone for several years on the present High street. Benj. R. Boyd erected the stone building east of the railroad, on Queen street, and C. M. Shaffer the stone store house, now occupied by C. M. Shaffer & Son. Daniel Burkhart erected the small brick houses on the south side of the street. The only house between the railroad and Daniel Burkhart' s old residence was a small wooden structure, owned and occupied by Mrs. Kane and family, mother of Bishop Kane. A Mr. Strine came, and purchasing from Mr, Burkhart, imj)rovement by building immediately commenced. This The old mill, then a grist I think was after 1S50 or 1851. corn mill, consisted of about one-story, 16x20 feet, and or

The streams joined a short distance below. leading DemoThe subject came up. The hill from town was very rough and rocky. if not all. and many. as an independent union candidate for Congress. tlie present Fitz mill site witli a saw. having been our representative for several previous terms. spriDg. John H. Faulkner be urged to run as an independent candidate. for nominations of congressional candidates.) yet was in town every week. an arch was left open in the side of it so as to give access to the spring. A committee was informally appointed. and when the bridge was built. cold water. or nearly all. on which was a fine large spring of clear. Democrat® were greatly divided in sentiment. Henry Bedinger. Springs. and before the hour of the next morning a circular was posted announcing Mr. Lucas sought the nomination in his stead. and contest Circuit Court being in session in the spring of 1852. expressed their determination not to vote for Bedinger. relations with the town ceased. Some one suggested that Mr. in his young . John Blair Hoge. through which the occupied street ran. Likens erected the large stone building on the south side About this period my direct business of the railroad. and again reelected as a full-fledged Democrat for the next term. I moved to Bedington. Where which I suppose is still to be found there. shallow water. and Bedinger succeeded in securing the nomination.mill oppoThe water way from each ran on either side of a site. and in that conference it was determined if he would give to them certain pledges regarding his vote for speaker they would vote for him. and formed a wide. was bitterly opposed. crats of the county.270 lieminiscence. F. and the means of crossing was a narrow log on either side of this tongue of land. and Wm. more or (Sulphur less. tongue of land. About this period Hon. on which was the the railroad crosses Tuscarora was a spring. At the dinner table of old Tammany were all. He was elected.

used as a school-house by a Mr. V. Previous to this election in the fall. Depot. family by the name of Crowl. There. there arose in Philadelphia a party naming themselves the "American Party. citizens would be asked to take a walk. and an epidemic for safety. About the year 1853 the cholera visited Hari)er's Ferry. L. I then became familiar with their mode of securing adherents. Wise was elected Governor with the entire Democratic ticket. towards dark. Many citizens left violent in form. The Presidential election approaching. the Democrats presented for President Franklin hostility to the Catholic Church. moved part of the family the old gentleman. Henry A. and would find themselves generally introduced into a long. if disposed. "Wise was nominated for Governor by the Democrats. Pierce.Bemin iscen ce. The national conventions having met.'' who announced themselves as hostile to the vote coupling with that denying them the right to vote or hold office. wife and three daughters. AV. Hon. owning a farm in the vicinity of Gerardstown. of foreigners— naturalized citizens R. took unequivocal positions as a Democrat. Personally. Whigs nominated General Winfield Scott — During the month of February. Webster. as one would pass on the street. The for President Vice-President not remembered. During the evening. 271 manhood. and Hon. The administration proved very popular with both North and South. A — . he would notice a large number of small threecornered pieces of paper with the word Sam written thereon. known publicly as the American Party. When the exposure came by a withdrawal of a number of Democrats. King. I was solicited time and again to take the walk. they would join the Darklantern Knownothing Organization. and located on Raleigh street. one story stone building. Scott carrying only three or four States. for and Vice-President Wm. near C. In the fall Pierce and King were elected with almost unanimity. Goggin by the Whigs election occurring in May.

On the Monday previous. drove up in front of the day Same one. except at one door on Burke street. evening the son returning. the Ferry hired a horse and bnggy from George Swimley. It was a very popular On one Sunhotel and filled with permanent boarders. Miss Kate Homrich and Thos. when Mr. — Coming into Martinsburg in the early morning for market. brouglit the disease with them.272 Rem in iscen ce. proceeded to his own bed-room. The alarm ceased. Geo. and all died. the same greeting met me from the house in the rear of the Lutheran Church. Immediately the guests began to leave. carrying him in. proprietor of the Everett Honse. Turner died. His house was closed for three days by the to^'u authorities. Swimley coming forward. Raenhal had died from cholera. From thistiftie forward . found him in in many A lapsed state of cholera. be- They sides son coming from the neighborhood. let the consequences be what they might. Proceeding up Queen the same sounds of agony came from a house o]3posite the present Valley House. He exhibited the true charity of the good Samaritan. The alarm was raised. what is termed a colupon going to him. I heard proceeding from the house on corner of Race and Queen streets. hotel. Swimley came to the head of the steps and announced that all might leave that he would care for the sick man. in the latter x^art of June or early in July. thank God for such unselfish Christian characters as he. yet. and he was deservedly more popular than before. Being at my old home. 1854. where he i)laced him in bed and sent for physicians. and although his manners were unrefined and his habits possibly would not meet the approval of many. Turning the corner of Martin Street. at the end of which it was announced the young man was getting well. but remained sitting in the buggy. the most piercing screams. I found that nine persons were dead from cholera. took the man in his arras and. by nine o'clock. and Mr. and upon going down town. I learned that Mrs.

being very ill. L. Railroad agent.. an engineer in the*.^ Mr. .Reminiscence. In the month November. '54 and ""^^. during which time the railroad company built a fine brick hotel on North Queen street opposite Bishop's store. David H. The first body buried in Green Hill Cemetery was that of Mrs. Jacobs. except for rapid progress in business and population. It again broke out in violence about the middle of September. A lawyer from this fatal disease. Geo. Conrad. if necesrary. 273 the town was ia a fearf al condition. and the street In 1858. They removed and located the passenger and freight business at that point. until toward the latter part of August when it abated. also died of the town. and w^as conducted by Henry Staub for several years. organized a re-lief or nurse body of volunteers. my connection with tilled to its present level. town and county business by being elected teller of the Bank of Berkeley. solicited me to take charge of the Railroad ticket It of and freight ofhce X:)resent freight depot being on him temporarily. Washington Kroesen built a brick hotel. '5G and '57 were uneventful. Sam'l Fitz j)^^rchased from Daniel Burkhart the old oil mill. wiio would agree togive two nights a week. in waiting upon thesick and seeing the dead properly jjreparedfor the grave. During the years 1858. which I did the North Queen street. and began improvement by sinking Tuscarora and building the present grand mill in j^art. as at present. and continued with less effects until some time in November. gave me an opportunity for gathering much knowledge of the business affairs of the county an(i . B. The years 1855. about where house stands. Raenhal or Horace Woodward. who proved an important aid to physicians. which became a passenger eating house. tion being at foot of Martin street. and the x^assenger and ticket stafor . and his foundry and machine shops the creek being spanned by the bridge. fatal railroad service. where it remained until the property was burnt in early part of civil war. more or less deaths occurring every day.

Ropji. James McWhorter. at Bunker Hill. and were calling for aid to It was announced caj)ture and discover what it meant. . assembled it was announced that Harper's Ferry Armory had been captured. which only occurred in case fire was preCitizens began hastily to collect. Instead of which. the morning of the 9th of October. In a short time CaT)t. who would arm themselves with such weapons as they could. that a train of cars would be ready to proceed there. E. was seen to hastily enter the Court House. By 11 o'clock they were ready. an old Mexican war veteran. a citizen. E. our Dep. . Boyd mill. were large shippers as also the Newcomer mill. H. G. and as they vailing. George Murphy. During and i^receding tliis period. now Hannis mill and the Bower s mill.. our Prosecuting Attorney. in town. Riddle. west of town the Geo. who had been driven into the small engine house. G. Esq. . . 1859. accompanied by a large On number yard at this side of the Ferry. D. D. and going to the depot. and other officers appointed. was selected to command. was wounded through the calf of his leg J. Daniel Burkhart had a small distillery on Dry Run. carrying volunteers. G. surrounding countr}'. from x^ossibly 1S4S. N. of unarmed citizens. they jDressed forward until they came under fire from Brown's men. and there remain for farther orders. Flagg. and F. . Hammond. took the train. and citizens of the town were being shot down upon the streets. flour was manufactured and shipped Alfred to Eastern markets in very large quantities. and soon the bell was x>ealing forth a rapid and excited sound. Flngg distilled liquor at his place east of town. which p)roceeded to the Ferry. Our men were stoj^ped and ordered to enter the Armory west end. and some one from the J. X. Rees. east of tovrn. on the Opequon the Hibbard and Tabb mills. Alburtis. where the present large Hannis distillery now stands. in impetuosity. from which the Marines under General Lee captured them. McClure. and Thos. W.274 lieminiscence.

275 off. At about came back. I removed from town to the residence of my mother in-law. From this day forward. on the lookout for further forays by such wicked fanatics as John Brown and his gang. had his right eye shot out. always near sundoAvn. however. they vv-ould have succeeded in caiDturing the invaders before the marines arrived. He was generally supxwsed to be insane. with negro and white men as It was remembered with alarm that for months abettors. until the final close of the w^as a negro insurrection civil strife by surrender of General Lee. it C o'clock in the evening. from this tion was ever j)aid him. wdiich only increased the excitement and alarm. although disturbed. as an aider of the Brown gang. Hence he has alday ways been coupled. was shot through the hand and George Richardson. still continued unobstructed. The business of the town. 1SG5. Scouts and military organizations w^ere going fo and returning from different points along the Potomac every day. His plug silk hat was adorned with a feather from a turkey's tail.Reminiscence. marching as if under military orders. the stomach George Wollett. and a. assistant in the service. a uty Sheriil. a raih^oad watchman. It was always claimed. a deaf and dumb strange negro man had appeared in peculiar dress upon the streets of the town. and no attenIt is certain. Personally. our wounded boys say that They and the citizens could only commenced. in my mind. that if they had been properly supported. on the Potomac River. During the night it was announced that the marines had captured them. Daily we w^ere reports of a startling character being stated of a large or- . No one could describe the excitement prevailing. under military surveilance and control. and that old John Brown. forward he was never seen again. band of red flannel round the body of the hat. was the leader. liad the point of liis hip shot young . in April. man in the railway service was shot through . known as a Kansas Free State Fighter. going to and from town each day and familiar with what was occurring.

by the Southern men. was The Presidential election of ISGO coming on. as called. Our yearly General Regimental parade coming on in month of May. It almost brought on personal rioting . 1861. who had been stationed there as guards. being an ardent supporter of the Government as against secession. ganization of rescuers of Brown. all the — machinery for arms and manufacture were removed. some said to Richmond. From this time forward. In the early months of the year 18G1. Personally. which largely absorbed the Whig element South. under the name of Republican having absorbed the Whig party North. indeed. Harper's Ferry was the scene of many exciting circumstances. Douglass before the people. a period of unrest and disquietude. DemoSte- cratic dissension placed John C. Shortly after this the Armory proper was dismantled. In a few days it developed. why it had been done by the concentration of military forces. jail. resulting as — known The already inflamed in the selection of Lincoln. and excited people of all parties flew almost at once into an attitude of war in the South. occasioned wonderful excitement. representing as stated. The then lately organized party. It had been distroyed by orders from state authority. The election came off. presenting John Bell. selected Abraham Lincoln as their candidate the Union Party. discarding the stars and stripes of the country.270 Reminiscence. TliQ officers determined to march under the State Flag. who carried and marched under the grand old Stars and Stripes. we were startled with news of the burning of Government j)roperty at Harper's Ferry. I joined with others in securing a large j)art of the Regiment. in order to defeat its capture of arms and ordinance stored in the Armory. and their ra2)id movement to Washington. who was in Jefferson It County were coming in on ns at any hoar. Breckenridge and phen A. the war department. in defiance of orders from the officers. others to North Carolina. by the officers and soldeirs.

now J. his company also returning to Harper's Ferry. It mand of Capt. was put under arrest and removed. assault on the military I ever witnessed in town. and finally some one threw a stone. sentiment. but before reaching them. scouting along the Potomac River. and under orders they burnt the bridge. Hoge. ready to shoot. and finally the crowd dispersed. and every afternoon would drill in the square. — . E. Many in the comX^any brought their guns to shoulder. B. receive an unexpected lick or knock-down whenever opportunity occurred in the hotels of the town. 277 at and ligliting. largely in sympathy with the Union sentiment Capt. under comand they proved good fellows. and employes of the Railroad Company. no collision ever came up. B. Letcher was ordered to burn the Railroad bride crossing Opequon Creek. under the command of J. they had dispersed and were mounting steps The crowd hooted and howled to their headquarters. The military formed as usual in time. One Saturday afternoon it was noticed that many persons. He refused to obey orders. and members of the company would. Letcher . and camped in the county. This gave occasion for officers in command at Harper's Ferry to send a military company here to keep down the Union probable was the Rockbridge Guards. On the Court House pavement commenced loud and vociferous comments upon their ajopearance and drill. The crowd made a break toward them. In their stead the Clarke County Greys were sent up. citizens. in front of the Col.Reminiscence. facing the crowd. They had headquarters in Grantham Hall building. Wilson residence. Stewart. individually. but the soldiers kept within their quarThis was the ters. and if arms had been command. striking a gun in the hands of a member of the company. This incensed Union men very much. it is much blood would have been shed. for some time. They were seldom in a body in the town hence. came next. only A Regiment of cavalry. collected on the Court House pavement.

From this time forW'ard to 1872. I was in charge of Harper's Ferry agency. and found Wm. Still continuing my trips daily. was under my view. bonds. I was only a casual visitor to the town. just where the road turns off to the Falling Waters church. Holding a j)3. to and from town. being conducted to Col. Small. I i:)assed tlirongh cavalry camp tliey being in tlie orcliard ot' morning and evening John C. 1861. When w^e recovered our surprise the Confederates had retired. attending my bank duties. The Confederate' s were in battle array on the hill between Mr. all its funds. Shortly after it opened. then in force on the Maryland side of the river my residence being in sight of the river and my sentiments being hostile to the South. I know but little of the history . In January 1864. and we supforces.278 Rem in iscence. Md.. on Martinsbnrg and Williamsport pike. books. Stew^art's tent. or of having such disposition. Stewart. being placed in the hands of a committee for safe keeping. in company with John Marshall and Henry Myers. appealed in my behalf. On the 2nd day of July. the Bank closed up its business. Hoge being iDresent. I offered simply innocence of having conveyed information. between General Jackson and Patterson's near Falling from Col. I became identified with the railroad service. Hill's residence. Unexpectedly we found ourselves captured by the 4th Wisconsin Regiment. and was every week a visitor to your tov/n in transaction of business for the company vvith the military authorities hence. located at Cumberland. In 1863. I was met with the charge of being dangerous in conveying news to the enemy. who were flanking to the south side of the burning barn. who lived at Bedington. and I was released with a more far reaching pass than I had before. I was surprised one evening upon arrival at picket i)ost by arrest. — of the town fight after 1861. . Porterfield' s barn burning. a dense smoke appearing. etc. The . we passed out to see what was on fire.

Being buried with military honors. a ball through his head was seen lying on the pike. are generally uniform. in the early part of February. winter and summer. about noon. becoming fiercely cold. falling rapidly . nnder the left ear. about an old revolution iry veteran was His remains were taken to a graveyard in the country. appeared a large blood blister. continued their retreat to and beyond Martinsburg. one of whom had the most singular appearance I have ever seen. His body was i^aralyzed. 279 l)osecl. The wounded Federals were placed in ambulances and went back to Maryland. Porterfield's residence was found five severely wounded Federals. past year. but it was from 1836 on to 1840 one summer it was uniformly cold. At the house John Gonter three wounded Federals were found. It commenced snowing on Friday. I cannot recall the year. 1SS7. sup- i:)osed to be a Confederate by his dress. buried. The dead Confederate was buried in of the field back of Porterfield's barn. with frost occurring more or less in each sum^mer the middle of July. possibly at the old Baptist Church. near the Newcomer mill anyhow it was out that way. At Mr. I distinctly recollect the fact that whilst the salute over the grave was being fired. the boys of the town naturally would be present. being a noted year for fierce blizzards and wonderful snow storms in various i)arts of our country. The seasons. but just rubbing against the skin. month — during which. but there have been excejptions. The surgeon said it was caused by abrasion— a small sized six-pound canon ball having passed between the ear and shoulder. The . On our way to liave a hearing one dead man with. not striking.Reminiscence. in our latitude. and was a member of the 4tli Wisconsin regiment. it commenced snowing and continued until the ground was covered fully three inches. and under an apple tree was a dead man. and on his neck. calls my attention to a wonderful snow storm which we had in 1842. His head lay perfectly level on the right shoulder.

Riley. A gentleman by the name of Yincenheller. afterward Bishop of Diocese of W.280 lieminiscence. I fell too far near the edge. Weizer Martin. I could not rise. In 1856 there were great snow falls. caught me by the clothing and threw me into this drift headforemost. Presbyterian Revs. Lutheran C. sustaining a wounded right shoulder by striking on the ground. as he was fond of the sport and had a fine team to make amends for his act. Chisholm. This was the most severe snow storm we may have ever had in the valley. Douglas. on the southeast corner of Shaffer's property. Catholic — Rev. The resident ministers as far as I can recall. W. Va. Johnson. Baptist Revs. Berry and A. "Winter Krauth. Revs. Plunkett. No fences could be seen in any direction. were blocked up. Penick and others. Jr. and he becoming alarmed. a large drift was standing which reached the roof of the house. Protestant Episcopal Revs. Moorehead and many others. — — — — . had to take a snow bath through the drift in order to reThis accident gave me the pleasure of a daily lieve me. O'Brien and Talty. Hodges. Sunday and Monday and in the afternoon of Monday. Dulin. . German Reformed Revs. Herndon.. were of the : town from 1828 to 1861. Krauth. Martin. C. Mercer. and continiiiDg all day Saturday. P. and in front of my home. Robt. Watts. Sprecher Seip. Unfortunately. Talifaria. sleigh ride all over the county. Wheelan. C. seizing me. AVm. Hopkins. and in many places in the woods the lower limbs of the trees were hid under the snow. also country roads. and would take me with him. . a fierce driving wind came on. Davis. March. — Medtart Schaffer. Sprigg and others. Goheen. a Mr.. Peyton Harrison. Coffin. Methodist Episcopal Revs. and the railroads. still snowing. but no such continuous storm as that of 1842. — . Sr.. S. Daniel Bragonier both these churches vrere united usually w^ith Shepherdstown. John Boggs. On Tuesday morning the entire country was blocked up. Schonucker Fenk Kopp 18C1.

Page and E.) occupied the X)resent building known as Norborne Hall. P. I was boarding at the corner of Spring and King streets. Pendleton. : 281 Among the professional men were Physicians Drs. of Jefferson County. how does this thing woik. Snodgrass. J. of the Virginia Repiihlican. Hollingsworlli. which finally resulted in the Court buying the present farm and buildings on Tuscarora. The old Court House occupied earliest It did not come Queen street. James E. telegrai)h office that The first we had town was in a frame buildicg. B. and Richard Parker. any- . C. but left a space fully thirty feet. says: of our aged men. Hunter. Richard McSherry. W. and the enormous profits made in supplying the house. Blair Hoge. Edmond Pendleton. and was the best store stand From my in part the locality of the present one. Norman Miller and Andrew Kennedy. Hunter. (now called the poorhouse. Faulkner. and Jr. Sr. John S. Stewart and Norman Miller. II. and supplies were furnished by J. Lawyers— D. G. Col. Jesse upon one occasion. Editors— Washington Evans. Dennis Murphy. I think this was about the year 1850. Bellinger. Boyd. S. J. sat two Hayden and Adam Schoppert. P. — — days the parish. D.. Thos. Charles Magill. iff's oflice It occupied the space now about in \vhere Sher- stands. Adam "Jesse. P. the line coming direct up King street and diverging from the railroad at the Bower's mill. E. to the corner of in town. The corner was occupied by a frame building with brick back dwelling house. Kownsler. James ]\Ioon was the keeper.Iteininiscence. and Samuel Alhurtis and Major Israel Robinson. At one time there was quite a political scandal in regard to the improper use of inmates. Dentists— John Little and W. F. Wm. E. Douglass. E. of Gazette. of Frederick County. A Mr. occupying the corner of Grantham Hall. Withrow. Frank Thomas. Conrad. Judges of Circuit Court J. R. Harrison. and opposite on the jail steps.

usually visiting the various bar-rooms until full.) ." replied Jesse. tives at old His home for a long time was with my relaTammany. "I seen Joe."' '•How's that. and it was just like any the end other letter. diEvery day Adam rectly opposite Green Hill Cemetery. We knowledge Personally. anyhow. '* it is a d— d puzzler. His habits for a long time were very disHowever.'orked sx)lendidjy. my son." Without -solving the problem of the telegraph they closed their conversation. and you cant see it." says Adam. was in town.'' ' \Yell. Alexander Grimes. get a telegraph from Harper's Ferry. When it gets to it comes out. Adam. sipated. and he would then perambulate the streets. it is a liquid and flows Jesse replied inside the wire. making fun for everybody. grading and macadamizing of King and Queen streets was done with his assistance. (If seen he will verify this statement. had many eccentric characters about town. Much of the filling. He owned and lived on the property now owned by E. telling her he would only drink from that The bottle. of him and character. I only have a vague his habits. Herring. and purchasing a pint of liquor he took it to his sister Polly. v. \ how have been watching nothing has ^rone over it yet/' I : it for the hist hour and •• Why. and amongst others was one Adam Cockburn. and that she should refuse to give it to him.Zvlany a pleasant hour have I passed with my boy friends in playing ball on the familiar Cockburn Hill. and I exjDect they were not the only ones who were puzzled over the same matter. The community yet has in it a rex)resentative of the long He has always been a peculiar ago. he made uj) his mind to quit drinking. and from that day to the presl^lan ent I have never known him to be under the influence of He has liquor.2S2 Reminiscence. and I believe a fraud. His place was long used as a resort for the boys of the town» as a play ground.

by holding the tape line for her husband. Finally Aleck agreed to cut the wood for the They used in common chips. and the lawyer told him his fee was five dollars all right. do you think that would suit Aleck. engaged in watch and clock repairing at the We had a . James Hutchinson. He retained the i)roperty. where Lambert's saloon now is. jDracticed. and chips and throwing them down. and would every now and then say. Aleck gained very good but </ccentric character. in passing the garden of the lawyer. I recall an occurrence betAveen himself and one of our jDromiuent lawyers. the owner of which wished to dispossess him. Another good and sharp practice occurred between Aleck and a Jew. who did that kind of work.reet. but would not agree on the price demanded. He was invited to come in. When Pfeiffer discovered the fraud he sued Aleck. receiving and acting upon it. (as he is called." The lawyer said " yes. Commencing. and he apj^lied to this lawyer for advice. as an old gardener. and the lawyer would thank him. and the lawyer taking him around. "Well. and quick to take advantage in a bargain.) would give his opinion. The Jew had a cord of wood to be cut for stove use. "I believe I owe you five dollars for your advice about the house. They occupied the sam. Some weeks after." The lawyer honoring it as a good joke. and he applied to Aleck. showed him what he wished to do. into stove wood. he found the wife assisting in measuring off beds. so you are in debt to me live. but was surl)rised to hear Aleck say.'' and looked expectantly at the prospective coming fee. but his bargain was such that it. After j)assing some rime Aleck says. ' 283 always been noted for sharp repartee. by the name of Pfeiffer. He was occupying a house.Reminiscence. immediately paid him the difference. he would cut two-thirds of the stick into chips and the remainder — :. Aleck had his children picking up the the cellar.e house on Queen g. which Pfeiffer agreed to. my fee for garden advice is ten dollars.

self. iov saving his family.ack chucked. The track was laid as far as the bridge at the foot of Green Hill Cemetery. muttering as he jjassed. single boarder took his seat and helped himAfter awhile Mr. and a truck was standing on the tr. After some time the old gentleman came in sight in his usual run. having struck a rising grade. He jilaced upon the table a good-sized roast pig. lie never walked on the street. what a liar " The first railroading that I ever saw occurred v. "Save me one. upon going to the room. Smith. and vras very grateful. desiring one of the wonderful straps. but was invariably in a run. I mentioned and no one ever a better prepared or moi'e plentiful suppl}^ upon a whom was a grand caterer to his guests. Flagg's Mill. The old gentleman or son could neither stop the car. and mother children soon passed Brown Calvin and myself being near out of sight. left. " Oh. present Hyde stand. and reaching the crowd took the "one more. and himself and eldest son pushed it." Mr. apparently to Calvin and raj^self. quickened his run. the razor strap man. was surprised to see none of the pig left. H. started in his usual running gait." Looking down he noticed seven baskets full. It ^ot aAvay from them. jJaced his Avife and j'ounger children upon it.folloAved the car and found that it had come to a halt near Opequon. — '. in and the ." he called Smith seeing him and hearing what he said yelled out.'ith himself and family. A noted cliaracter. G. on his way to church on Opequon. " Only one more left. After passing a short distance a down grade commenced. The old gentleman. set table. On a court occasion his country guests were detained on account of a German boarder whom he would not delay. and Mr.284 Ilemmiscence. Catching the words "only a few more out. /.. visited our town. H. and left at once. the old hotel keeper before." ! Peter Gardner. and the boarder. or \et keep up with it. and his cry was always '• only a few more left Avho takes the next " He sold at auction on the street.

Shaffer. all improved but still recognized as of old. brick . Cunningham. old Harrison. near town. Many a skull and bone of a dead Indian have I seen j)loughed up. . Hunter may recall this. . It was a very great x)leasure during my young days to visit in the surrounding country. Poisal. was a long one story building used as a bark shed for Divinney's Tannery. once dismissed Very few of the old landmarks of my boyhood days are left around or in the town. Reed." Mr. and long owned by James Brown. Lamberts saloon. opposite Market House Long property. Dunn property. Tuscarora was noted as a line fishing stream. were fishing and inlaying. On the opposite side was a general stone quarry for the town. said. when in tumbling he struck the handle and drew it out. 285 little tlie a deexj German accent. Hannis mill. now Herrings property. as I think he was one of the com^^any. John H. Snodgrass. The Burkhart property. on Queen street.liemhilscence. Bowers mill. Boyd's store. and the only tomahawk I ever recollect of handling was one found by a young boy named Alex. "Have you any more at hogs? Hikes 'em. Thnmel. On . G. jail. . formerly Claycomb Hotel Eagle Hotel. Campbell. Gerard and Bowers' mill and dwelling. in Young's. boarder as unprotitable. Shaffer. Wolff. where the Riddle and Show^ers properties are now situated. Water street. Gregory. are all improved considerably. On King street the Diffenderfer. now Shaffer Locke. Seaman. Many a line sucker and eel have I seen and caught therefrom. now Young Alburtis. now owned by C. Your Dr. Boreman prop- McSherry. Stewart. Somerville. and the evidence of a great Indian battle having been fought there v/as very clear. Conrad. Swartz. Pendleton and Harrison Waite. on the V7in- We . formerly Lutheran Church Blondel dwelling. store-house adjoining Continental Hotel erty. but some are recognizable as they were in the thirties. Above the Hannis mill was called Ransom's Bottom. Rouscb. old stone house corner opposite jail.

They had hitched to one engine from twenty to twenty-four horses. the Cushwas. old Jacob and George Seibert. from Burke The rebels destroyed street to beyond the Bowers mill. all of whom would welcome you cordially and entertain you royally. Snodgrass. cliester road. around and in Martiusburg. a driver being provided for each four. old Jimmy Beard and Jolin Jamison. As a matter to satisfy my curiosity. the families of Martin Ronscli. and destruction of it in their frenzy of insanity civil the war. Kilmers. They succeeded in getting them through. Barley Tabb. to get some engines to Winchester. the rails removed and At one point I found a rail wound around a ties burnt. Hospitality and good fellowship was the order of the times. wound it round and round. "Wellers and Walters families. ers would loan each other money without passing anything more than their vv'ord on such a day it should be returned. I rode from Tabb' s crossing to road crossing just above town. and very seldom a failure of promise would occur. Hugh Campbell. The . property during Quite railroad fixed up and pera number of engines were mitted to run off into the street below. but it must have been a difficult The destruction of railroad proi^erty was immense job. Many of our people of the present day do not recollect the beautiful stone pillowed bridge that occupied the ground now iilled with solid stone structure.286 Reminiscence. which was obstructed for a long time. On Tuscarora road the Kearneys. and then tree four times. the Mong family. They had heated the centre. and in that si:)ace counted over four hundred cars destroyed by lire. There has always been an idea that there was more real honesty and integrity at that period It is a noted fact that farmof our history than since. Ilibbards. Janneys. Rebels wishing hauled them by horse-power over the road. taking hold of ends. One of the most unusual The siglits was witnessed in our town during the war.

and was to cient organization with water every night.. from the town authorities. opposite the late J. was burnt. station tlie 287 and hotel buildings at bead of Queen street. were destroyed and dismantled. The subject of fires is one that. so tliati became very familiar with the whole subject. M. Next came the destruction of the Globe Hotel. and all effort was directed toward saving the surrounding i)roperty. were burned. It was never thought possible to save a house. one of which hung out at the door. then occupied as a telegraph station and located on site of Grantham Hall. The most •darming hre that I can recall was the burning of four houses on King street. duty as an employe at Cumberland of the Company. gives your people very little uneasiness. belonging to country people. Each family was furnished with two leather buckets. It was about noon that alarm was given. after which the corner house. M. which commenced between 12 and 1 o'clock. now vacant lot. in the cabinet-maker's shop of Andrew Bowman. The first fire that I recall was the burning of a laig'e stable belonging to the Globe Hotel. and our water supply was from cisterns on i^nblic streets — one at Court House. Wolff residence. from your present effi- and water supply. When I was a boy we had a hand engine. was burned completely up. also filled up. but the wrecked and ruined condiIt afterwards became my tion was seen by me often. and engine and machine shops. and occurred late at night. and occupying site of your present public school in third ward. It was my misfortune to be absent from town when this was done. P.Reminiscence. the other kept conveniThis was the instruction had no Mayor and Council then. one at Lutheran Church corner. where water Avorks now stands. to see that material for rebuilding the track and bridges was sent forward. one at Presbyterian Church on King street. and quite a number of horses. that I can recall. be filled ently inside. We . After this the factory at lower end of town.

Shingles were on fire and sparks innumerable were settling everywhere. frequently patronized by Sunday School pic-nics. which belonged to Conrad Rousch. The wind was blowiEg almost a liurricane from the West. . At the is still road leaving the pike at lime kiln. which X)lies town. tried to throw supply hose out of the cistern. one in front of the Janney property on King street.288 Reminiscence. He was vexed about the loss. until he was relieved after great efforts. was also burnt. and it was but a few moments until tlie entire row of houses was In a blaze. one at the Schoppert corner. In doing so he slipped and passed into the cistern feet foremost. S. was burnt one night in the month of February. north end of town. on South side of street. Mead brought into use the cement and concrete cistern. belonging to Capt. The Kelley Hotel on Martin street. Strother's house. and large supwere hauled daily from the various springs around It was between 1S4S and 1S60 that the system of cisterns was introduced. a doubt very large weatherboard building. Many persons had wells upon their own premises. B. Messrs. in order to save them. and coming to the church corner. Berry. It became necessary for from ten to fifteen persons to be upon each house. and in a short time. fully twenty house-roofs were on fire. The condition of country around the town has changed wonderfully. when it was so cold the water froze in the hose and disabled the engine. and N. of our old town was from public on the corner of One was in front of Lambert's sa- loon. I if your old town has ever experienced a more exThe buildings burnt were very old citing time from fire. Just above the Hannis Mill. where the Cumberland Valley bridge crosses the B. much in use by builders. Col. C. and one at John Shaffer's residence. one Burke and German streets. and dilapidated. but being a large man he was caught about the hips and there held. on site now occupied by H. there was a nice grove of woodland. Gardner. The water supply wells on the streets.

Just back of the Jamison.Reminiscence. after fatigued marching and late in the afternoon. woods commencecl. where the Lyle's. used as a crowbar. in barbecue style. lard. When fully roasted or broiled. woodland commenced and continued without break above the Big Spring. for one more old-fashioned fourth of July cele- bration." . belonging to the Tate and Snodgrass families. Then a good deal of cleared land. and I w^ill therefore try to describe the manner of preparation of the food. and generally new potatoes and beans "Oh. except one field. and along side would be a large pot filled with liquid butter. a body of woodland commenced and continued to the mountain with very few. would be prepared for the feast.. 289 & 0. coming up to his yard. This was spanned with bars of iron. no one ever tasted sweeter food. Henshaw's. As one side became partially done. etc. and other large farmers lived with much land cleared and cultivated. however. which w^ould be a^Dplied by a mop to the cooking meat. J. The entire carcass of a number of sheei3 and hogs. It generally came. Then came in a body of woodland on the west side of the Winchester road. R. which extended almost without a creak until Apple Pie Ridge was reached.. and sometimes the full carcass of a steer. Out near the present residence of A. if any breaks. just beyond toll-gate. where almost every celebration of the 4th of July was held. a heavy piece of woodland occupied the ground. the other would be turned to the fire by heavy pieces of wood. if any of the new generation are familiar with the system of a barbecue. On Tuscarora road. R. late Bentz farm. Thomas was a grand grove. and yoa could keep in woodland without break until you reached Hedgesville. deep pit was A dug and filled with such fuel as would burn down to a bed of live coals. hence was — always ai^preciated. on which was laid the carcass for broiling. But few. The meat was always accompanied with good bread. Immediately in rear of Gen'l Boyd's residence.

Small's. James Griswell. Sanakers. Jacob Light. In enumerating the old farmer citizens of the county. David and IMartin. Gladdens. Gunningham. Andrew McCleary. Throckmortons. They were true and honorable in life. Hill. Jas. Henry River. Dr. Pitzers. L. Geo. Henry Myers. Joseph linger and others of a pleasing disposition. Josiali and Hiram Hedges. Henshaws. Gunningham. and whose representatives are still in your county. Elliott Tabb. Chistj-'s. O. Daniels. Rev. Gasper Weaver. Lame Mike Seibert. Mike Gouchman and other noble men of the olden time. Jacob Lingamfelter. Rev. Campbells. Wm. C. H. Harrison. viz the Billmire family. Gouchman. Henry Haines. Em-' . on the lower or Jefferson line. Comeqy. L. Tabler. Sam'l and Ben. "of the old and again on Tuscarora and Dry Run. Peter Growl. Meyers. Dan'l B. Noll's. Willonbey Lemon. Hamilton Light. Conrad. Tabler. Ghrist. Jacob and Aaron Myers. James Turner. among whom were the Chenowiths. and Henry Small. yet I take i^leasure in naming some whom I did know. Jacob Lafevre. McDonalds. Gross. Dubles. Tablers. whom it gives me pleasure to recall. and Jas. Ben. Thatchstock" er's. William and Benj. John Hedges. No more clever class of people could be found than many in and around Arden. Andy Mclntire. Robinson. Seibert. Josiah Harlan. Groves. — merts. Reynolds. On Williamsportroad lived J. F. Thomas. Lyles. W. Tabbs. Gonrad Robbins. John. Walters. Solomon. have given a few names of farmers in the immediate It was my good fortune to be•come well and familiarly acquainted with jDersons who vicinity of Martinsburg. Sencindivers. Morrison. many of whom have passed on to eternity only one or two now^ living. and Bro. Walkers. Bayarlys.^90 I Ueriiiniscence. Porterfields and a host of others. Porterfield. John Light. I was not so well acquainted. and are still respected in death. Millers. Daniel Lamaster. Gush was. all — : . Wilson. O. and S. lived at a distance. Mike Seibert. J. Irelands. Ghrist. Wm. Along the mountain range were A.

Janifer Hudgel. R. true men. where nine unfortunates were held. McQuilken. so as to control their votes on election day. Reminiscence. B. a professed Democrat. Jacob Price. Wm. Mr. Vorhees and Magruders. I was present at the break-up of one crop. and Alex. and at some j^eriod of my life transacted business with the larger number. Rush. Lemon. Leigh. Jacob Basore. having only seven majority. Wm. It was discovered. Vanmetre. Warner Emerson. oft' came in May. E. Joseph Criswell. Jack. I kDew them all personally. A contest v/as held be- fore the County Court. calling for another election in July. AV. of . Adam Small. Robt. Ed. Lewis B. It was a very animated canvass. Jacob and ^Vra. and the result very close. W. and every active Democrat was on the alert to expose and thwart their viiliany. C. steeped men with whiskey and cooped them up in out-of-the-way places. In the Northern end of the county were Jacob and Daniel Ropp. Sperow. Newcomer. under the new The Democrats nominated Barnet Cushwa for Sherift'. which was In the meantime. ran independent. Southworth and others whom I cannot just now recall. Dr. and their descendants can claim the respect which is always due an honorable and true life. and for the first time in our county's history. Willis. Drs. G. They have left representatives in almost every case. Robinson. Peier Light. Hitzer.. A. near Whiting's Neck. Harley. and they decided that no one was elected. A. The second Constitution. 1854. B. Wm. who is yet one of your townsmen. whom were good. I. William Wilson. S. John Horner. or the Know-Nothing held. H. and by the next morning were over the mountain near Shanghai. Van Doren. C. became very active in behalf of Newcomer. where they were comfortably cared for in a farmer's . Poland and Amos Williamson. Col. party. >S'am. and Tlios. They were taken out. George and John Holliday. and successful in life Maj. Wm. 291 . a retired army officer James Mason. election for county officers. Colston. Hammond and Jacob French.

Preparing ourselves with pistols. H. F. Mrs. Mrs. W. — . R. Many of us young men determined to find out the mystery. and his efficiency secured Democratic rule in the county up to the beginning of the civil war. J. S. Jno. while others on either side of the street kept pace quietly in his rear. Wm. J. Some placed themselves directly in its rear. E. school facilities John Sellars. H. as it turned the corner toward King street. we stationed ourselves on the corner of Burke and German streets. Jas. Turner. AV. east of B. located where Hon. Wilkens. and being nine in company. This election was also contested. About this time the town became wonderfully excited by a ghost. Grantham were engaged in business. T. Stine. Love completed an old blacksmith shop. After 1852 it became apj^arent that Martinsburg was a town of importance and prosperity. and N. Phelps. He proved to be one of the most efficient officers we ever had before. R. which walked the street all night rattling a chain. and voted there the Democratic ticket as they all wished to do. R. and Ezra Herring. E. Harrison. Conrad & Son. & 0. Business began to expand largely G. F. J. Shipley. Pendleton. Vanarsdale & Gosnell. Baker and Bro. W. but cholera intervened and court adjourned without action. M. Armstrong and Miss — Chisholm taught schools. except one who wished to vote for Cushwa and the other portion of the ticket opposite. Flick's house now stands. After a hard fight Cushwa was elected by 67 majority. dividing each in companies of three. Staub. H. White. and hosts of others The town also improved in fell. Robert. It was only one story in height. Cushwa the office. Wm. Hughes & Baker. Mason & Smith. Gardner. W. SafW. Page. loaded alone with powder. and Thos. F. and taught therein. When about half .292 Reminiscence. S. D. house. and it is supposed would have been annulled. Before it convened again the law gave Mr. We soon heard the chain approaching. D. Rev. opened a wholesale grocery in the Shaffer room.

. but failed to find his ghostship. also wild turkeys by the dozen. in front of the shop located where Flick's residence now. A representative of his family still lives at Meadow Branch at least he was there a few years ago. John and William. also on the i3roperty of the late Hon. Wm. a wonderfully rich deposit of ore. J. It was. yet it afterward came out fully. B. George W. evidence that the native ore exists somewhere in the vicinity of his residence. We It was my good fortune to know many of the older Mountain. Samuel and Michael Stuckey Peter Keys and his brother Philip. He also had a secret which I have no doubt died with him. There was a noted hunter who was given the name of Wolff Myers. near Arden. our two chums looking carefully among a lot of wagons. 29 H way to King. leaving only two of the crowd to all followed and soon found continue the chase. stands. C. Mrs. Barney. and it is a strong citizens West of the . About fifteen years ago I personally gave attention to the mineral interests of our county. bear and other wild meat. at each of whose residences I have been hospitably entertained in the regular old Virginia style. Chenowith. and Israel Robinson Jacob. and among the number I recall that noble old gentleman. the three in the centre of the street. There is. who has two sons.Reminiscence. .. on the property of the late J. Jones and Miss McKeever. plovrs. and Henry G. . No one could ever get his secret from him. and one of those in the street fell. The latter was . and is a grandson of Thomas Myers. etc. . yet in your midst also Lewis and Moses Grantham Robert K. fired The ghost commenced running. their pistols. however. Time and again have I seen him sell to the stores native lead. at south end of town. Faulkner. Kitchen. M. W. and the party came near being our representative in the pen at Richmond. and almost every week during the winter he would be in town with venison. He lived at Meadow Branch. his last appearance in that character. which he would smelt and bring in in square blocks. .

These places at that time were very private and retired. on King street. R. Frazier and back of your present planing mill. and to the small boys a place called the "slip. now Hannis' mill. often proving successful. directly opposite the railroad shops.. The family resided in the property on Queen street adjoining Commodore Boreman's residence.. erected the stone bridge crossing the Tuscarora. E. with a partner by the name of Scott. well cultivated farms. . below the cemetery. and I have witnessed some terribly exciting scenes there in efforts to rescue those in danger. The larger boys and young men frequently went to the Opequon. and the father and family went to the old Presbyterian Church. &. developed and worked for a short period. a horseman arrived and informed the father that Huo-h was drowned. . and laying undeveloped almost every source of — wealth which sport in man may demand. of zinc. who. About noon. it being an open common." just above the residence of Mr. as the congregation was dispersing. I recall the drowning of a young man by the name of Hugh McGackey. but in several instances the reverse.294 Reminiscence. on the Shepherdstown road. The father was a contractor. O. and in concluding my reminiscence I could do no better than to encourage greater honorable efforts for full development of the grand old county rich in good lands. Hugh went off on Sunday morning with other boys of the town. The places of resort near town were at the old oil mill dam. and found to contain not only a rich deposit of iron ore. It was a very dangerous place for bathers. crossing at Vanmetie's. but with it a This is an interest that your peofair per cent." possibly a mile or more above the county bridge. at a place called the " turn hole. ple should endeavor to develop. No residences were around the entire space from John Fitz's residence to Ransom's. on B. now Fitz's mill the Bowers dam. In the past years Martinsburg boys would have their swimming during the summer season.

to rise. in a bar-room. they should raise the right hand. went Wm. gin and rum. At the x)resent time. boy as I was. the reformed drunkard in a plain. just turning into full manhood. have never seen sucli agony as tlie mother and fainted and were carried a]3parently dead to their home. showing their honesty. He also said they called themselves Washingtonians. not one would do so and yet there are more to-day. everybody cess. all the congregation followIn a short time his body was brought in. In 1842. sister exhibited. but allowed to drink every kind of wine. He was a bright young man. Several did so. who knew they were drunkards. However.Rem in Iscence. than there were then. twelve men just like himself had pledged each other to quit drinking and go out through the entire land. which ing. They was certainly a solemn occasion. more difficult to sober up than even with heavier drinks. brandy. square. and if any one wished to give their experience. as I could see the effects of wine not quite so quick but equally potent. and stated that in Baltimore. This being a period of much excitement on the temperance question. He called upon any one present. and I then learned for the first time that there was a society pledged to refrain from drinking whiskey. .. exhorting their fellow men to do the same. Dorsey was made chairman of the meeting. A very large — . and a very large number rose ux). I laughed at the idea. and when once under wine influence. and especially inviting those who drank to exIt being a new thing under the sun. if you would ask in a large assembly for any one to rise and acknowledge they were drunkards. My knowledge of the business was such that. and very popular in the community. especially among young men. I 295 father. an announcement was made that a reformed drunkard from Baltimore would address the jpublic in the Presbyterian Church. told his life experience. unvarnished manner. I purpose giving my knowledge of the first temperance organization which existed.

and I I am proud to say.296 Reminiscence. and at once began to beg for a drink. and for three days he remained in his shop. I expect had more real fun and sport in him than any one I ever knew about our town. In called my . He usually had a number of companions with him. etc. tliat j)roved faithful." After a little hesitation. The subject of prohibition had frequently been advocated under the old State before the war. all pledge. generally "Tebeaus. Mike. and although of a very quiet manner. and I know • for your good. Often at night has the old town been enlivened from some of the surrounding hills by his delightful music. My uncle took him to the kitchen and gave him a good meal. Mike took the pledge. flute." was a young man and associated with the circle of females and males. says it is : "No. The Washingtonians were succeeded by the "Sons of Temperance. young childhood. and then come with me. tlie number signed nearly case. you want to quit. young men and women who were familiar with my relatives. He was a sj^lendid performer on almost any character of musical instrument. He came in with a frightened look upon his face. and for years after this man was true to his obligation. My uncle? although engaged in the trade and continuing in it for years. his meals being carried to him by members of his family. accompanied by the claironet. recollect one j)articular He was terribly given uj) to the habit. that you will not drink liquor of any kind. and at one time it was thought would be embodied in the Constitution of 1851 and '52. with plenty of good. Blondel. and had the reputation of being the finest i^erformer on the bugle that could be found. For many years he was the leader and trainer of our bands. Now jiledge me right here again. sometimes from the bugle." They did a great deal of good in reforming and keeping men from intemperance. John H. On the fourth day he came out and made for the back yard of my uncle's house." and the " Boys' Cadets of Temperance. strong coffee.

I had occasion to see them frequentlj^ The shop occupied by him. and for several hours held him aloft out of the water in her raised arms until she was rescued by a vessel. Schoppertandher song or hymn. walked out into the sea until the water touched her chin. in the tin and brass foundry business.Reminiscence." " Capt. still carries on the tin business. in order to save herself and him from death. and that his mother. . It was a joyful meeting to both."' " The coon hunt. 297 Many of your older citizens will recall with pleasure tlie amusing and laughable stories he would relate. called Easy Jake Joseph Hoffman the Roberts family. The vessel that rescued Mrs. occupying the same corner now having upon it the fine brick building. — . in which the son of John H. was a small wooden structure. all of whom moved to Missouri years ago. It was a pleasure to meet him in a comj)any. . the upper Opequon region. In enumeration of worthy and good citizens I entirely forgot a section of the county. and wherever found he was sure to be a source of much amusement. and she. late that his mother and father were in San Domingo when the terrible Negro Insurrection arose. with black dogs of old man Stuckey . that possessed some grand men. William. knowing her husband had relatives there. There was also Jacob Vanmetre. Boyd . . neither knowing the other was living. . Isaac Franklin Joshua. among which were " Old Mrs. He was a good and worthy citizen. Among the residents were Samuel Miller. Husband and wife were separated.'' and many others that I cannot recall. Joseph Gorrell." accompanied by the violin " Snuif -taking. They moved to Martinsburg and during my younger days. Daniel and John Burns. sneezing and pipeing voice of conversation . Blondel sailed for Philadelphia. called to see them and found her husband safe. Boley. filling his position of life with honor and credit I have frequently heard him reto himself and family. Joseph and John Burns. Benj. . John Burns. Foley's visit and dinner at the residence of Gen'l E.

Morgan Vancleve and others. were entirely different from the present. The system of lights at night was carried on extenvery doubtful whether one charcoal kiln is now burnt in the county in a year.— worthy gentlemen. in which a candle was burnt. if any of the younger generation could define and give the meaning of the word sconce. John P. but a very dangerous one as it was more liable to explode than the present kerosene so much in use. The mode of making charcoal is not fully understood. which gave a bright and beautiful light. When it was opened . and whose posterity in many cases still citizens are of your county. t Edward all Kearfott. It would be closed up after the kiln was fully fired. which gradually sank almost to a level. It is erally made a mound from six to eight feet high. Most generally charcoal was used. except by blacksmiths. In some of the wealthier families they burned sperm oil The churches were often lighted by side wall in lamps. In the stores and hotels the walls would be hung with sconces. Every family used the candle on a candlestick. At one thne hundreds of them could be found in what was termed the Pine Hilis. and in fact coal w^as not much in use. A piece of cotton cloth would be cut about two inches wide. with only one vent hole to give draft to fire. doubled together. and Josiali Abram Williamsou. in sconces. and lard put in a small cup made of iron with a sharp prong. F. Between 1840 and 1850 etherial oil was introduced. Abram Deck.298 Reminiscence. We knew nothing about gas. It genin charcoal tar The trade and sively in our pine regions. usually of the chimney jam. hence I can only give the fact that logs of medium size would be placed in a pit in the ground and covered over with earth. and kept constantly covered with earth until the smoke ceased to rise. . made of tin. which would be put in a crack. It was a singular thing lights of candles. and in many families nothing but the small grease lam j) was used.

. A kiln generally yielded from 500 to 800 bushels of coal. the wood looked when stirred it broke up into lumps possibly three or four inches. 299 to be solid.Reminiscence. but and occasionally sprinkled with water.

in untold loss and misfortune. the president informed the employes that a preamble and resolutions had been adopted to the effect that all officers and operatives of the road receiving sums in excess of one dollar /^er diem would be reduced ten per cent. by means of an official circular. and having considerable influence with the Secretary of War. would involve the nation from the Atlantic to the Paciiic and from Pennsylvania to Texas. XII. All along the line tramps. He surrounded liimself with capable assistants. and displayed splendid executive ability during the civil war. fully restored the credit of the corporation and extended the road until it became one of the largest and most prominent lines in the country. At a meeting convened on the 11th of July. tlie beginning of trouble Baltimore & Ohio Railway began about the 16 th of April. R. A storm was impending which. '77. a business man of acquired reputation. was made president of the company in 1856.CHAPTER THE B.. in a short while. secured the most i^roli table contract that. R. John W. Garrett proved to be the right man in the right place. However. Every man engaged upon the main line and branches east of the Ohio River was embraced in this ^^HE incidents bearing npon ^^ witli tlie . its dividends small. before it could be controlled. Garrett. STRIKES AT MARTiNSBURG. and after the 16tli of the same month the change would take effect. & O. communists and turbulent organizations liad given rise to much dissension among the railroad employes. Mr. which came on shortly afterward. about the month of July clouds began to hover about the president's head. 1877. and the road in a very poor condition. He found its stock quoted low.

by the Erie and New York Central roads. R. for such necessities as trainmen were compelled to have. which was on account of general depression of business interests over the country. Their belief was that whatever — . supposed that the low wages movement was undoubtedly canvassed along the great trunk lines and decided upon by representatives of various roads directly after the close of Vanderbilt's freight war in the spring. The Trainmen's Union was in full blast all along the line. the Baltimore and Ohio road was nearly the last to take action in this matter. During the month of May the Pennsylvania road put it in force. 301 and the roads was stated in the notice that action in this direction would be postponed until after their competitors had made similar retrenchments. was accepted by the employes. and in both cases they were duly informed beforehand of the changes to be made. a real strike began. Persons superior to those of the ordinary observer. It — once decided to strike. to take effect July 1st. The workingmen claimed that their grievances were unbearable that the treatment received at the hands of merchants and boarding-house keepers along the route. The earnings of all railways were unavoidably and seriously affected. As asserted in its circular. A change had to be made in fact the call for it was imperative. They declared their intention that they could not and would not stand any reduction from their wages. hoping that business would revive in a short while and a decrease of expenses be avoided. and the principal reason brought about the action taken. & 0. They were disappointed In this. and several days before the rule was to be enforced a number of the firemen at rule. and the reduction of ten per This was followed cent. Strikes.The B. and taking advantage of affairs. was inordinately rash. including the trans-Oliio division leased by the company. B. by means of information. which had been effectively instituted previously by a traveling delegation from the Pennsylvania road.

upon learning of the strike. B. Vice-President King. they began to nurse a hatred and antagonism against the company and general public. & O. Knowing that a stoppage would lead to heavy losses. the day that the reduction of wages on the B. and the movements of the Brotherhood of Engineers and the Trainmen's Union. the Trainmen's Union assisted in starting the important movement all along the line. With the consent of this organization. pronounced it untimely. Strikes. the strike was simply suicidal on the i^art of those engaged in it. and many were led to believe that they would take no part in the strike. rather than be dictated to and cause a reinstatement of the former rates of wages. and when the demands of the strikers were made known. but owing to competition were unable to get sufficient to the westward to load its cars. On account of this. and business falling off where an accession had been calculated upon— the results of competition and unproductive extensions of line. was ordered to take effect. was now passing through the darkest days of all its financial stringency "was staring it in the experience. The officials stated that a A reduction had to be made for the curtailment of expenses. like others. 1877. they promptly refused them.302 The B. This caused a large reduction of the hands employed. extravagant prices were charged. & 0. yet they preferred to let the road stand idle. face. and second Vice-President Keyser. Extortion pressed them on every side. Meetings were held by the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers advicegiven and received. B. and for their heavy demands at the scanty stores at the stations. and coupled with comxDulsory credit purchase from month to month. ill-advised. and created much torn off. rents high. On the 16th of July. R. made in affairs could not make tliem much worse Their earnings were low. President Garrett. discontent. the strike was — . and fated to meet no great success. P. At this time the road carried a moderate amount eastward. The road.

and sauntered leisurely around. that after a certain hour no person should move an engine under penalty of death. The fireman also stated that he thought no more trains would be allowed to move from this point in either direction. as the entire crew had struck and no one could be found to take the vacant places. while the managers hastened to make good their usual trips and secure men to take the places of the strikers. on the night of July 16th. and it was no unusual occurrence for employes to congregate there. An explanation of these mysterious gatherings was. 303 commenced mitted. li. they met with only partial — success. in a short while. when the men collected in groups at the depot. Near the dispatcher's office could always be found a number of locomotives on the tracks. a large number of train hands left Baltimore. and run into the round- communistic ideas. in attempting to carry out their morning. in our city and the first actual violence comHere occurred the first important incidents of the great strikes of '77. in our happy neighborhood. But at this time it was noticed that something more than ordinary was transpiring. the 16th of July. Notice had been given ihe crews of all trains. On Monday . which had rested and quietude since the war. that the combination of railroad men imbued their hands in blood and met It was in peace their first loss of life. and in a short while people began to collect from all directions to see what was going on. In a short while the engines were detached from the trains. The news soon sjoread. R. waiting to see if their services would be called for. along the tracks and other localities. The policemen put in their appearances. or about to transpire.train was compelled to stop there. Strikes. However. by the strikers. the machine-shops.The B. made very plain. began to concentrate at Martinsburg. the switch-stands. Engineers on the road were paralyzed. and with those coming in from the West. when a fireman notified the dispatcher that a cattle. & 0.

using mild and temperate language.cast over the country. and the policemen iDromptly put in their appearance. derided. The Mayor was hooted He at. was stirred with interest. R. held a conference with the railroad officials. but eventually they were stopped. the fires already fiercely burning. holding back with all their strength. and would not allow by a new set of men. reduction of trainmen's wages. while the mail trains trains were allowed to pass. and. But the mob. were sent for. willing to do all in his power. and their madness and vio- The Mayor. failed to impress the strikers with any of his mild-mannered notions. and could not make them understand that it would be best to run their locomotives to their destiIn fact. his speech only served to add fuel to nations. by this time. The increased crowd of spectators. proceeded to speak to the strikers. and backed by a trio of municipal guardians. & 0. and the news spread until it reached every citizen.304 house. The B. Captain A. Shutt. he ordered his policemen to arrest the ringFrantic efforts to obey were made by the powerless policemen. The freight were kept on a stand-still. It was taken up by the press and soon their places to be tilled scattered broad. while the strikers laughed in their faces. and advised them to return to their work and trust to the fairness of the comXoany in the settlement of their grievances. until the company withdrew the ten per cent. Strikes. Mayor Shutt. following the general rule. who lence had only been increased. and his good counsel turned to ridicule. — — . hopeless task. giving it up as a leaders. The Mayor's appeals were equally fruitless the men refused to work and the engineers found an excuse for refusal by saying they dare not enter their cabs. in any direction. Wlieii questioned by the officials concerning their action. They intended to refrain from work. the strikers replied that no more trains would be run over that road. P. R. had reached that point where reason ceased to be a virtue. The firemen and trackmen would not allow others to take Fitheir places.

the Berkeley Light Infantry. among whom were many railroaders. B. and a number lodged at the hotels. of Baltimore. depot and round-houses were all deserted by midnight. . except by a number of Union men who were left to guard the tracks and see that no trains were allowed to pass that point. to aid and protect the civil authorities. dated at Wheeling. was brought to the After carefully surveying the condition of affairs. Through the promptness of the Governor. and asked if his instructions extended any further than merely protecting the peace if so. prepared for active duty. and asking him to provide some method to abandon violent measures and allow trains to move in safety. & 0. Faulkner was informed would not allow trains from Martinsburg.The B. 305 nally the Mayor and policemen withdrew from the scene. about midnight. in no wise difficult of comprehension. The call was promptly responded to by the militia. Meanwhile the Colonel issued orders for an immediate telegraj)h. Faulkner. to call out his command. stating that the strikers to move either east or west — assemblage of the militia command. The strangers from Baltimore were j)rovided for by their fellow-strikers. and returned answer by and his operations. M. Sharj). The machine shops. J. Thos. a telegram was sent to Col. Strilces. and to make due report to the executive office of the existing state of spot. stating the facts as here given.. at their armory. ordering him if necessary. C. who prepared a telegram and at once disl^atched to Governor Mathews. and after midnight Capt. he desired an answer in full. leaving the situation at the imdisiDuted command of the strikers. at Martinsburg. about 12:30 A. B. which was affairs of the Governor's wishes Col. General Master of Transportation. I?. July 17th. a full report of his investigation was telegraphed to the principal office. The matter was duly considered by the Baltimore officials. The telegraph manager communicated the information of the strike to President Garrett and Vice-President King.

Mayor Shutt and x^olice. advising him if x)ossible. mand. men who are V : prevent any interference by rioters with the men at work. his command of militia. and colored. knowing plainly what his duty was. JR. Sharj). Faulkner received another message from Governor Mathews. StriJtes. Faulkner. to avoid using force. In a short while Col. If this is willing to run their trains. and also prevent the obstruction of the trains. A number of the militia. At the conclusion of the message the Governor stated "I rely upon you to : act discreetly and firmly. as well as niimerons citizens." Mr. discussing the unusual state of affairs. asked Governor Mathews by telegraph " Must : I protect and see In a short that they are permitted to go east and west while the Governor answered "I am informed that the rioters constitute a combination so strong that the civil authorities are powerless to enforce the lavv-. lixed upon 5 o^ clock as the hour for moving trains on Tuesday morning. to be present and see that the strikers did not interfere. felt a deep and hearty sympathy with the men engaged in the strike. and v. Col. A request was then made of Col. The city has . County Sheriff and posse. and see that the laws were duly executed.'itli the Trainmen's Union. Faulkner. could be seen gathered on the corners in knots. the marching of uniformed men on the streets bearing arms." Upon receiving this communication. Col. and secured an engineer and fireman. and wondering what the morrow would bring forth. who agreed to take the stock-train through to its destination. Faulkner at once repaired to the armory to take charge of his comso. accompanied by the excitement of the strike. B. and at the same time give all necessary aid to the civil authorities. caused such a restlessness that there was but little sleep visited the ej'elids of the Groups of persons. before retiring from the scene. if properly protected. The known orders for the gathering of militia. & ijossibly connected 0. Master of Transportation.306 The B. white citizens on that eventful night.

They congregated about the basement doors of the present depot. in the early dawn of the day. French. However. A consultation was held with Capt. and at once instructed Capt. and concentrated a formidable force near the company's buildings. Harrison. after which a locomotive was fired up and attached to a cattle. "SV. and bring about an amicable adjustment of the prevailing troubles. and in a short while the streets were flocked. Sharp to make the attempt until his efforts were crowned with success. A number of employes were . & 0. which x^robably saved their lives.train. but finally left. the men remained with the train for a short time. The consequent sounding of the shrill steam whistle. the strikers belonging to the city. who swept down upon them and ordered the non-striking men to hold hard or they would be The throttle was promptly shut and the engine killed. but was prevented by the strikers guard from the round-house. Sharp and the remaining local force of the road.The B. startled the excited inhabitants of the city. At about sunrise the attempt was made to set the driving wheels once more in motion. H. by agreement. Master Mechanic of the company. and reinforced by those from Baltimore and the West. M. all anxious Among the citizens were to learn what was going on. arrived here from Cumberland. separated from the others. It seemed as though the railroad men. expecting to rush it through. with Mr. Mr. and gathered in small squads over the surrounding ground. and with an engineer and fireman they were ready to start matters anew. Up to this time the militia and town officials had not made their appearance. the Mechanic. StriJces. The president and officers of the company were informed of the circumstances. At about live o'cloclv the next morning. conversed with them and endeavored Master by every means in his power to influence their minds peaceably. brought to a stand-still. 307 never experienced such a sensation since the close of the war. B. Harrison.

well disposed towards Harrison. The crowd then gathered nigh. and no further damage was done. The enemies were ignorant of this. & 0. after exof heart. to watch the proceedings.ilitia filed dow^n the depot. and reported that the rioters would not change their decision in regard to stopping all and if anything. Mr. The engineer and fireman had escaped. In to be the cause of the reduction in wages. Meantime the crowd of spectators and array of strikers continued to increase. of iron will. lieved truth. and presently the gleaming arms and accoutrements of the Berkeley Light Infantry were seen advancing towards the headed by Col. but exhibited no change Harrison finally returned to Sharp. bemob swarmed upon the foot. in almost a solid mass. leaving the cars on the track no nearer their destination than before. Sharp was a cool. Loud hurrahs and shouts of welcome went u^ as the m. Strikes. determined man. and in favor of restoring the pay to its original amount. fore the him The engine had not moved a single length of rail. and upon receiving this information. driving the newlyengaged men from their positions. over the coal in the tender and thence into the cab. By this time their numbers had increased several hundred. B. four hours later than the appointed time. and again Sharj) was defeated. he was bitterly opposed to the cutting-down system. At about 9 o'cjock. B. the sound of fife and drum was heard. and befreight trains. strikers had accused Sharp of being at the bottom of the rough treatment to which they were subjected. The locomotive was uncoupled from the train and run into the round-house.board. Faulkner. their resolution had become more firm than ever.308 The B. concluded that no favorable or peaceful solution The of the surrounding difficulties would be reached. hausting his arguments. they cast scowling glances upon him and were greatly enraged. of which he informed the company as before. and when they saw him walk up to a locomotive -ind order the engineer forward to his destination at all hazards.' .

where they mounted the engine. They only laughed at him. Faulkner then proceeded to address the mob. & steep steps and 0. StriJces. The engineer and firemen had again been discovered and brought to the spot. which had already been fired up. They were closely followed by their wives and children. In a courteous. and proceeded in the direction of the distillery. Their progress was slow and snail-like. The engine was then moved out. of their families. when the third experiment was made for starting with the trainmen guarded. With musket in hand. li. firm and impressive manner. The train was made up about 10 o'clock. Col. who threw their arms around their husbands necks. frantically embracing and urging them to refrain from the perBut they tore themselves from the grasj) ilous attempt. it was attached to a cattle train on the siding. his attention was attracted by the position of the switch ball. Squads of the militia had been arranged and several placed on the engine. and on either side of the train. A switch led this track upon the main road. and as the train steadily and slowly drew near the switch. owing to the pressure of the close forward ranks of the strikers. At the suggestion of Mayor Shutt. and if possible stay further violence. Poisal knew the train would be thrown off the right track. he warned them of the result if they interfered any further. he immediately jumped where . bayonets fixed and guns loaded. and another cheer went np. and squads of militia were placed on the engine. John Poisal.The B. with soldiers on either side. 309 marched to the round-house unoi^posed. and started on a swift pace to the round-house. a militiaman was sitting on the cow-catcher. which. At this moment the rioters rose to white heat. Unless some change was made. as though they would accept none other than brute force to obtain their rights. The isngine was moved in the direction of the distillery. and if they touched the engine it would be at their own peril. R. it seems had been tampered with by the strikers.

and left the locality. At this onslaught the mob pressed closer on the soldiers. . under these circumstances would not attempt to kill their relatives and Col. if 'Tm I militia. In a short while the strikers again had things all their own way. one in the arm and the other penetrating the thigh.310 The B. Before Poisal could change the switch." replied Poisal. R. which was followed by the explosion of several small arms. Sharp. & 0. Just as he was in the act of reversing it. that his however brave and trustworthy. and both balls lodged in Vandergriff' s body. to the ground. while the other flew wide of its mark. friends. and fired two shots in rapid succession upon him. Upon receiving the shot. and ran to tlie switch. mortally wounded. Poisal and Vandergriff were taken to their homes. completely overpowering the militia. children. By this time the fireman and engineer had escaped from the train. StriJces. and more j^eaceably disposed citizens. One of the bullets plowed a jagged furrow on the side of Poisal' s forehead. Vandergriff had drawn a small pocket-jDistol from his belt. his He at once rejiorted to Cai)t. Faulkner fully a^Dpreciated in a minute. and the excitement was more intense than ever. stating that men were powerless and many in sympathy with the and that he would have to march them back to They were then ordered home. a striking fireman. Poisal quickly raised his gun. The sound of fire-arms drew larger crowds from the city. the armory. R. as he firmly grasped the iron. while a lively scattering was made among the woman. yelled out "Don't you touch that switch!" not going to see the train run on a siding can prevent it. He fell. just above the ear. Another soldier near by fired at the same time. William Yandergriff.. and medical aid XDrocured. and the road strikers. but no injury done. and with a steady aim fired on Vandergriff. who had tampered it and was standing near to see the result.

StriJces. The Governor. He also stated that he could furnish a comi:)any from Wheeling. Faulkner telegraphed the Governor that it was impossible for him to do anything further. the press. 811 caiDrices of the infuriated blocked up with trains of loaded cars. His desire was to perform his duty and enforce the law without shedding blood. in response. and in a few days the torch of communism was burning brightly throughout the whole country. the confusion ceased. coupled and returned to the round-house. After the militia had left the scene. The actual number of strikers was estimated to be upwards of seventy-five or eighty. whose Injury was slight. Poisal. and the railroaders retired to their former posiThe locomotive. Faulk- ner became disgusted with the part he had been forced to take in the riots. and the peace preserved. The best nurses and physicians the country afforded attended him. being railroad men. However. suffering terrible agony. Information was at once furnished Governor Mathews of the proceedings and results. and if credit was given them. and on the Sunday following was buried in Green Hill Cemetery. one would suj)pose that civil "war surely reigned in Martinsburg. Col. and therefore run no risk of his commands being disobeyed. as before. appearing as well and hearty as The story of this incident was s]3read abroad by usual. The press greatly exaggerated this strike.The B. He had given his men no orders to tire. . & left 0. Later on Col. subject to the and angry mob. by whatever means was necessary to accomplish it. but were backed by many citizens and other working classes. R. and that a number of his command. For several days afterward Vandergrifl: lay upon his bed. on the 28th of July he breathed his last. and everything iDOSsible was done for his recovery. would not respond. R. made his appearance on the street in a few days. but met with no success. dispatched that law-abiding citizens must be protected. was untion at the shops.

and other points were kept posted by the strickers concerning their doings. who would be used tion of the law. S. under command of Col. the Mathews Light Guard arrived from AVheeling. JR. B. Artillery. Grafton. H. Sharp. but remained quiet and apj)arently content with the work they had done. The Trainmen' s Union at Baltimore. Col. Mantz and shipped over the Cumberland Valley and Western Maryland roads. and a conference was held between Attorney-General White. telegraphed President Hayes. On the 18th of July Governor Mathews. and after explain ing the situation. Delaplaine. at the urgent request of Mr. July 18th. He admonished all good citizens in the United States and . During this time the rioters made no further demonstration. and no action was taken by them with the strikers.. ISTo freight operations were started until Brevet Major. The AYheeling Light Infantry had charge of the town for several days. & 0. The strikers visited the railroad shops to stop. In the mean- time the mail trains were allowed to pass unmolested either way. Wm. Faulkner's appeal to the The mob had erty from full possession of all the railroad prop- Monday night until the succeeding Wednesday morning. arrived with two hundred men armed as infantry. French. Garret.General W. encamped at the Court House and railroad. Finally the cars loaded with cattle were arranged for by Mr. previous to this. Strikes. and no sooner had they reached the town than quiet and order reigned supreme. work and ordered the laborers then at which they refused to do. Keyser. Second Vice-President. Pittsburgh. and others. his proclama• ^ tion. asked for United States troops.312 The B. as it was deemed best to await reinforcements. in tlie supx)ression of riot also rioters. President Hays issued. At about 7:30 o'clock. Cumberland. and directed it to the citizens of West Virginia. on the evening of the 18th of July. and and execuspoke very highly of Col. Colonel of the Fourth U.

B. accompanied by the great seal of the United States. of the 19th day of July. This permanently settled affairs at Martinsburg. abetting or taking part in such unlawful proceedings. against aiding. & within 0. and orders given them to disperse and retire peaceably to their respective abodes on or before 12 o'clock meridian. . Acting Secretary of State. Steward. as they could not fight the Government of the United States. Strikes. B. A. and the rioters had to retire. fit bore the signatures of President Hayes and F. 313 its territory of jurisdiction. countenancing.The B. warning was given those engaged in or con- A nected with said domestic violence and obstruction of the laws.

as calmly as the sun goes down after a stormy day. FKAiSTK A. His mother died before he could 'fAD Shakespeare liis . shot down in the Revolution. who perished from service in the war of 1812. " Time. He began life in an humble way. He grew to manhood. a close. One whose life has been full of strange It is now sloping to vicissitudes and bustling activities. ORPHAN— A FIGHT FOR AN BUKR IN 1884. with no kith nor kin on this broad continent. hath. I." normal inspiration wheu he penned these lines I And is it true that good deeds live to spur succeeding generations to emulation and success \ It is the general judgment of the world that notable acts survive forever. C. and to old age. WKITTEX BY COL. These scraps. as soon as done. and of a father. are good deeds Forgot. When eight years of age he was left an orphan. For Oblivion's sake. Of such a one I write. J. my Lord. LIFE OF THE LATE HON.andburnishedbythe]apse oftime. A -wallet at his back. and in which he now lives. FAULKNER— THE STORY OF A LIFE FULL OF BUSTLING ACTIVI- EDUCATION — DEBATE WITH TOM MARSHALL—ENTERS PUBLIC LIFE IN 1832— GOES TO CONGRESS IN 1852— A DIPLOMAT AND A PRISONER OF STATE— THE REWARD OF INDUSTRY. past. in the little town in which he was born.are brighter when picked vc^ from the dust of years. His home to-day is almost within the shadow of the grave of a grandfather.CHAPTER TIES—LEFT AN XIII. -svhereiu he puts alms.

a major of artillery. J. . Therefore. B15 hardly understand the value of a mother's care. his native county. when a child. when impelled by vague. He got his start in life by untiring industry and close ax)plication he early trained his mind to methodical effort. XDractically The decade beginning in 1830 was filled with imporand with its opening year ]\Ir. and was filled with a soldier's ambition. to make his own way.Faulkner. nor has he ever been noted for that quality as a man. and a less fortunate one. in Winchester. at the famous law school of Chancellor Tucker. that has made him a name and fame as a successful man." He was reared by strangers. and whatever he has been or is. with no other capital than the sturdy qualities inherited from good ScotchIrish stock on both sides of the family tree. he chiefly gained for himself. he was admitted to the bar. He had little more than attained his majority when he took a leading position at the bar. and his father was buried before he could comprehend the meaning of the word " orphan. and in much less than the usual time of probation and reading. tant history. The Constitutional Convention of that year had com- . and a soldier's honhomie. he died poor.Life of the late Hon. The village doctor gave him a home. Perhaps it was best for him that his lot was cast in rough places. yet strong ambitions. C. he early began the study of law. He was a soldier. His father's advice and influence might have given his character a different bent. While others slept he worked. Faulkner began his public life. Like many of the youth of the country. and in the politics of . by as hard a struggle with the world as a man ever made. more than any single quality of his nature. and that he had to make the journey of life alone. but he himself learned the valuable lessons of industry and self-reliance that have stood him so well in hand through all his busy years. and it has been a tireless energy. and left his son. He was never accounted a brilliant boy.

The famous Tom Marshall. A great crowd gathered to hear the debate. and Mr. An ExNTERING PUBLIC LIFE. of Kentucky. State. believing it ^an improvement on the old. There he had engendered an intense dislike for Watkins Leigh. There was a strong feeling for and against it. on a visit to his relations. l^leted its work and the people of Virginia were to decide whether the Constitution of 1830. Marshall carried the visions should be discussed before the people. and it was thought best by those who favored it that a great public public meeting should be called." By the time the canvass came on. The nullification schemes of Calhoun were being hatched . by his industry. Each young man appeared at his best. He had been living a year or more in Berkeley County. When he returned to Martinsburg he took open ground against the instrument and assailed it as " Watkins Leigh's Constitution. C. Faulkner had taken a position in its favor. he had aroused a good deal of feeling in relation to its provisions. secured for the Constitution a large majority at the polls of Berkeley County. when the people were to decide for or against it. largely the work of Watkins Leigh. crowd by his Mdt and eloquence . J. gave ample evidence of those great powers of mind and tongue that afterwards made him so famous. the Colstons. was one of its most bitter opponents. but Mr. the county town.316 Life of tlie late Hon. It was the first public discussion of Mr. Marshall. Marshall. The discussion lasted for several hours. but Mr. Faulkner. as well as the first of Mr. important decade in our national history began with the adoi^tion of the new Constitution of Virginia. at that early day. and it was arranged that he and Tom Marshall should present its merits or demerits ^to the people at a meeting in Martinsburg. Faulkner. II. Faulkner. was to be the fundamental law of the . at which its pro- Mr. and had gone to Richmond during the sessions of the Constitutional Convention.

Andrew Jackson was IDUshing tricky Martin Yan Buren for the Presidency. With those men Mr. Faulkner took a leading position. President Jackson liad just issued famous "proclamation which boldly asserted the supremacy of the Government of the United States over the government of any State. The north had liberated its bondsmen u^Don the same princij)le. J. too. He supported this proi)osition which was widely circulated and was severely condemned by the radical slave-holding element. and in many sections of the State the idea was received with decided favor. Faulkner took his place in the Virginia House of Delegates. He was then only a boy in age and appearance. The Virginia Legislature of that pieriod was composed of men. greatly shock public opinion in Virginia at the time. Clay was then engaging the i^ublic attention with his scheme of protection then. coupled with the courage to proclaim them. The in a speech of great power. in its first year. free after July 1st. looking at the then condition of Virginia and seeing in the temper of the X)olitical factions the seeds of a contest u^Don the slavery question. 1840. who in their day and in the great era following. It did not. he submitted to the Legislature and advocated a proposition for the abolition of slavery upon Xh^ i:)Ost natl principle. It was amidst these striking events and upon the threshold of the Presidential election of 1832 that Mr. HIT and in 1832. And there was then such imminent danger of armed resistance to the Federal authority that Congress placed in the hands of the President the jDower of military coercion. left their imj^rint on the annals of their time. FauTlcner. .Life of the late Hon. when Mr. Taking heed of the differences between Jackson and Calhoun." called to liis first liis public position. and at once gave evidence of his power to originate ideas. and sitting upon the aspirations of Calhoun with the whole power of his administration. but a man in mind. C. and by the provisions of his pro^DOsition all children of slave yjarents were to be born . Faulkner was of force. however.

tled the controversy between Maryland and Virginia. and after a commissioner on behalf of Virginia. J." llrst legislative experience in declining a third election was appointed 1833. It was extensively read throughout the country. and circulated it widely as evidence of the growing sentiment in the South against slavery. to examine and re- Mr. "but for this impertinent and illegal intermeddling of Northern fanatics. forcible and positive. Faulkner a copy. I have often heard Mr. gradual or otherwise. Faulkner. William Lloyd Garrison printed that speech in full in the Liberator. Once a year for many years after it was delivered. to make it an issue the following year. Faulkner's re^Dort w'as extensive and conclusive it set. Faulkner was not confined to the South alone. bine all elements together in resistance. Min- . to the attempted legislative encroachment upon the established institution of the South. Mr. when he was a candidate for reelection.318 Life of the late Hon. giving to the old mother of States a clear title to large proportions of the present counties of Hampshire. Comment upon this speech and action of Mr. emancipation would have become the predominant sentiment of Virginia. however. C. Faulkner finished his port on the disputed question of the boundary line between Maryland and Virginia the controversy embraced all of that rich section of country lying between the north and south branches of the Potomac River. Faulkner say. slave-holding element undertook.. and would have worked out its results without ruin and bloodshed. . amused himself by sending Mr. but he w^as returned ui^on that issue by what was practically a unanimous vote. The opening of the year 1833 witnessed the beginning of the abolition crusade. and it seemed to destroy all the sentiment there ever was in the South in favor of emanIt had the effect to comcipation.

J. when Congress had delegated to the President the power of coercion." Mr. and request that he be given passage as Virginia's representative. Faulkner at once transmitted anofiicial an- nouncement of the success of his application to the Presiand at the same time wrote a letter to governor Floyd. he continued. Faulkner to go to Europe to obtain data from the original records in relation to the boundary line. were. Tazewell. Floyd sent dent. Hardy. explain his proposed visit to England. *The report here mentioned will l)e found on page G7. now lying in the Potomac. and pressing their theory of State Rights. in a government ship. and ideas of the limited powers of the National government. but I cannot helj) thinking that it is an apt illustration of the absurdity of the doctrine of State Rights. and as soon as he stated the object of his visit. for this jjurpose. then in the Senate. in a purely State matter? I will grant the request with pleasure.* Mr. bitterly denouncing Jackson's nullification proclamation. 319 eral." but. about to sail for England." giving his conversation with the President. which he marked "private and confidential. Faulkner first met Andrew Jackson while engaged upon this famous report. then Governor of Virginia. but having no funds to pay the expenses of the voyage. I will grant you passage in the shij) : Delaware. (J. Faulkner. The interview was characterIt was in that nullification era istic and interesting.Life of the late Hon. "Old Hickory" replied "Certainly. for wliicli Maryland was contending. . should ask a service of this kind from it. Governor Floyd had asked Mr. John Floyd. sir. with his peculiar notions of States Rights. Faulkner visited the President. and he had used it to crush South Carolina' secession proclivities. "doesen't it strike you as a little strange that Governor Floyd. as Governor and Senator Tazewell declare them. Mr. Grant Pendleton and Randolph. although still members of the party. he requested him to call upon the President. and Mr.

Boyd. He devoted himself with great zeal to the practice of his profession. after the completion of the report on the boundary. Mr. Floyd returned the letter to Mr.320 Life of ilie late Hon. Faulkner from going to Europe on the vessel. upon Jackson and his adminisMr. Faulkner. and years after Governor Floyd thanked him. . This ambition for a place in history was in perfect keeping with his character. with the request that he strike out the words "private and confidential. Faulkner was married to the daughter of Gen. for saving them from the premature open quarrel with "Old Hickory" which they had resolved ujion having. This . an old and distinguished Virginian. Faulkner refused. and bo^ore he again appeared in public life he had acquired a fortune wiiich has enabled him to live independently ever since. and his rej^ort on the boundary question was made Avithout consulting the archives of the mother country. partially for relief from the exactions of legal work. as did Tazewell. he again turned to politics. and in a short time took a leading place at the bar of Virginia. upon the floor of the United States Senate. untiring energy that he had brought to bear upon every task he had undertaken. For the next fifteen years jDolitics commanded little part of his time and attention. and partly because he was ambitious to leave something behind him besides money because he believed that an ambition for public service was a laudable one after a man had acquired a competency. who for many years had taken an active X3art in her public affairs. from his childhood up. Having acquired this independence. The circumstances. Faulkner. which was in those days one of the strongest in the Union. C. tration. III. J." that Tazewell might make it the basis of an attack for both of them. and together they became greatly incensed. His cases were many and his fees large. however kept Mr. to Tazewell. QUITS POLITICS FOR THE LAW. In 1S33. and he devoted himself to it with the same earnest.

Faulkner was prominent and successful. of slave property. tions of life. from the beginning of that session. a man winssuccf'ssby the efforts which he makes to deserve it. very quality. In 1841. But it was not only in the discussion and consideration of this grave question. cease to take an active inIn 1843 he was an earnest advoterest in public affairs. and many other public acts. was chiefly devoted to the practice of the law. it was his avowed purpose. In the raising of troops from Virginia. he responded a second time to the call of his" and was elected to the State Senate of Virginia. Finding. that the office made too great demand upon his time. Faulkner was again elected to the House of Delegates of Virginia. C. and by the Legislature transmitted to the Senators and Representatives and became the famous Fugitive Slave Law passed by Congress. but all these. Indeed. he resigned. During this session he was chairman of the special committee of the Virginia Legislature charged with the investigation of the whole fugitive slave and it would have been unnatural if he had not.Life of the late Hon. to do all in his power to bring the whole moral force of the State of Virginia to demand from Congress. in being elected to the Legislature. however. as in business. he took a leading part. for service in Mexico. In the revision of the code of State laws. however. which was the chief work of that Legislature. in 1850. . Daring that session he introduced into the Legislature a bill which was passed. J. a law for the protection fellov/ citizens. that Mr. and in 1846. in the spring of 1842 he did not. cate of the annexation of Texas. were merely incidents in a life which. . 321 wliicli x^eople applaud in most of the relahas been belittled and derided by many not broad enough in mental grasp to comprehend the fact that in politics. been a central figure in a Legislature of strong men. His service in this question. during this period. however. Faulkner was prominent. Faulkner. Mr. Mr. In 1348. was one of the earliest and warmest supporters of the Mexican war.

IN THE REFORMED CONV'ENTION OF 1S50. He paid little attention. and when the reform Constitutional Convention of 1850 assembled. as to every thinking man. that the Virginia Constitution. her out of her proper representation and had defrauded by establishing a mixed basis of population and property.322 Life of tlie liis late Hon. Faulkner was prominent in its sessions. there were no practical means j)resented of striking at the root of the evil until the reform convention of 1850 was called. Legislature. however. But while these contests vexed the public mind in the East. of 1830. and Mr. Mr. to the abstract or theoretical questions which arose. The j)roceedings of this convention were very important. It 1841 his opposition to the unjust attitude of the majority to\vards the section of which he was a native was such that he presented a proposition to reraove the capital from Richmond to some jDoint in the Shenandoah Valley. the years after his entrance into public life was memoDuring all it had been apparent to him. and never ceased while he had a voice in that body. in the distribution of public improvements. was not sufficient to meet the demands of a rapidly advancing civilization. Eastern Virginia had always borne heavily ui)on the western portion of the State in taxation. IV. FaidJmer. because they served to call attention to the hardships endured by Western Virginia. it found Mr. Faulkner's contest against these unjust discriminations began vi^hen he first entered the Legislature. vrhich alone could give the Eastern slave holding section of the State the power to control the policy of the entire State. no matter what might be . J. and work in a previous term rable for himself and fruitful to tlie State. This was the first occasion during his public life that an opportunity had been afforded him to combat the yiersistent discriminations of the government of Virginia against that portion of the state which lay west of the Blue Ridge. Faulkner one of its members. C.

wise. had been sent to deal •with the important issues to be decided by that assemblage.Life of the late Hon. The importance of these issues had been recognized by all sections of the State. whether slave or othertion of the State. C. and strong men from the East. but reserved all Lis influence and energy for a bold advocacy of the rights and interTo this. J. John Minor Botts and George W. . Summers were a few of the great men in that convention. Mr. Faulkner bore the brunt of that task. Faulkner. his native section. . and deciding the question under consideration in consonance with Mr. Mason. while Mr. ests of Western Virginia. In his advocacy of this measure his speech was able he commanded the close attention of the convention during the two days which were occupied by its delivery. as \Vell as the debate upon representation. as well as the AVest. Wise. Faulkner's views. AVise was the champion of Eastern Virginia ideas and interests on the subject of taxation. interesting and important. gave to Western Virginia that position in the Councils of States to which she was The debate in relation to taxation was equally entitled. and in the debate uj^on that question he ran counter to all the leading men rex3resenting the eastern sec- This was especially the fact in his course upon the question of representation it was to his great honor that at that early day he was the steadfast and eloquent champion of basing representation ux)on voters and not upon chattels that he demanded rep)resentation should be wholly upon the free whites and not in part upon j^roperty. 323 their seeming importance. . Faulkner stood in the same relation to Western Virginia. Henry A. Faulkner's most significant battle in that body was upon the basis of representation. taxation and the basis of representation were far more important matters than any other questions before that body. It made a profound impression. Mr. John Y. The debate between these two leaders of diverse inter- and exhaustive . Governor Henry A.

Mr. of Georgia. This may be said to have been the opening of the division in the South upon the question of union or disunion. Faulkner's speech in favor of the abolition of slavery in 1832 were printed in red letters and posted everywhere in the district. Ben Hill. but they could not dejDend upon the help of the other Southern States. Faulkner for a seat in the national Mr. and especially to his native section of the Old Dominion. and liis position was sustained. The South. was a candidate for Congress in the district in which Mr. especially in the South. The compromise measures of Mr. was a candidate the same year in his State on the same x)latform. Clay of 1850 changed the political affiliation of many men. Faulkner. Faulkner broadened into the domain of national politics. The planting States. With that unwearydistrict of several hundred . and every j)ossible effort was made to array public opinion against him on account of the first conspicuous act of his political life. Witli this eminent service to Ms State. Mr. and he made w^ar opponent. was dissatisfied with the terms of the compromise the North with relation to the Fugitive Slave Law clause. with South Carolina in the lead. with a majority in the to the knife against his in his favor. The first contest of Mr. and hence there was no open revolt. Faulkner lived. cident of . J. the regular Democratic candidate. C. were ready then to secede. He took the position of South Carolina on the compromise measure of 1850 as his platform. equally with the North. Beddinger was legislature was a memorable one. and the South because of the feeling that too much had been conceded to the anti-slave power. In 1851 Henry Beddinger. of Jefferson County. Faulkner was brought out as an indepedent candidate against him. been preserved and was regarded as a leading intlie convention. Faulkner was one of those who drifted to the side of the Union in the ensuing division. in behalf of the Union cause and against further sectional agitation. Mr. Extracts from Mr.324 ests lias L)fe of the late Hon.

Faulkner. which. left the Whig Party and joined his political fortunes with Democracy.Life of tlie late Hon. and several other "Whig Representatives in Congress from the South. an exhaustive review of the issues wh'ch had disrupted the Whig party. from a Democratic standpoint. C. of Georgia. in declaring that as General Scott was the candidate of the Free Soil wing of the Whig Party. of the charge that the Democracy. was opposed to the compromise measures. Mr. When he took his seat in Congress the old parties were undergoing rapid disintegration. Mr. Faulkner. the noted Congressional jDrinter. holding a public discussion with his opponent at least once in every county of the district.000 copies of Mr. was entitled " The Compromise The Presidency Political Parties. with those other great Southern leaders. — — : . and a complete refutation. and was made a campaign document by the Democratic party. Faulkner. 1852. IN CONGRESS. To refute this charge Mr. This speech at once attracted public attention. lSo2. John C. but where the Union sentiment was at tliat time ronsed into fervid action.'' It was a great effort. and in July. says "I printed for the National Democratic Committee 93. Faulkner prepared and delivered a speech in Congress. Pierce for the Presidency. In the heated discussion of the hour the Whigparty charged the Democracy with opposition to the compromise measures of 1850. He was elected to Congress by a good majority in a district which was largely Democratic. joined Alexander H. August 2. Stephens and Robert Toombs. Rives. J. in a letter written in December. in an address to the people of the country. 1852. as an organization. Thus Mr. Faulkner. they could not supjDort him for the Presidency. 325 ing industry and zeal wliicli have always been characteristic of Mr. in the printed edition. he entered into this light and made an active canvass. It was also a splendid effort in behalf of Mr. opposed to the compromises of 1850. V.

and was. and he returned there to combat them. FaidJiiier. The speech was printed at other offices. as well as when engrossed in the cares of public life. which was intended to be. Faulkrable campaign of that year. as it was known of him that he was the most ceaseless of workers. he gave close aj^plication to his private affairs and the interests of his clients. Although I have been engaged in the printing business here twenty odd years. have procured paper in time. Naturally there are many others in Congress and upon the stump worthy of equal commendation. and his only recreations during his public life were at intervals to take x^art in those social reunions where he could enjoy contact with the best minds of the nation.ajority. C." Avere printed more than 125. and in a series of speeches justified his course. without reference to the place of education. as did his speech in favor of opening the way to promotion in the army to merit.32C Life of the late Hon. fact is that The ner of his political afhliations naturally created him new adversaries at home. but I do not knov7 how large the editions were. It was also true of him that at home. He was made chairman of the Military Committee of the House at the beginning of his second term. For four successive terms he was elected to Congress over popular candidates. and had a leading place on other important committees. and as early in the service he had attained. Faulkner's si^eech. I do not rerollect to have printed so many cojDies of any other speech. a blow at the military oligarchy which has its origin at West Point. made in Congress before the close of I would have printed more if I could its last session. lie took the stump. and it Vv^as the text for every stump orator for the Democracy during the memoThis change of Mr. This fixed his position definitely in the Democratic party. . His eulogy upon Henry Clay attracted great attention. carrying his district for Pierce by a handsome m. so to the end he maintained a leading position in the national legislature. J.000 copies of the speech and distributed.

never have been and never exj^ect to be. was the Minister of the United States in France. " I am not. Mr. John Y. of Virginia. Floyd as the preference of the State for a Cabinet x^osition. For the consi)icuous services he had rendered the party he was chosen Chairman of the Democratic Congressional Committee for the conduct of the Presidential campaign. Mr. C. who was a personal friend. in 1S56. Mason. It was a trite saying in the little town in which he lived that the light was never oat in that office until after each new day was born. however. after the most ample exx3erience. When the Know-Nothing craze was at its height Mr. rather than disturb an old friend . in recommending John B. Buchanan as the nominee of that body. secret iDolitical association. Buchanan to the Presidency. broad enough to embrace all the vast interests of liberty and humanity. The new President. but apart from his house. He was with a majority of the Virginia delegation in his preference for Mr. 827 was near. in the language of Mr. a member of any oath-bound. and strong enough to uphold in its firm and conservative grasp the Constitution of my country and the Union of these States. I claim communion with but one political organition and that is the great National Democratic Party of this country — a party that has shown itself. tendered the distinguished Virginian the hardly less inferior position of Minister to France.Life of tJci late Ron. Wise." His law office that office — Mr. Faulkner made a memorable canvass in Virginia in conjunction with Henry A. Faulkner was in Congress. and had been his workshop for more than half a century. Faulkner followed this struggle against the intolerance of Kn-jw-Xothingism by attending the jSTational Democratic Convention in Cincinnati. But Mr. J. Faulkner in Congress. Faulkner therefore declined the mission. and Hon. the key-note of which was the declaration. Faulkner would have been made Secretary of War upon the accession of Mr. But for the action of the Electoral College of Virginia. Faulkiitr.

between the two countries. Faulkner were presented. IMason having died. but when. despite the strenuous opposition of M. those of Mr. C. Faulkner at the French Court exceedingly delicate. . he presJred the issue upon that sovereign to a conclusion in harmony with the wishes and demands of the United States. The symi^athies of Napoleon. Faulkner was nominated and confirmed as our new Minister to France. During his term of service at the French Court. during the pendency of the canvass of 1859. or omit to do. VI. Mr. until the armed conflict between the North and South in this country becameimminent.. J. liis place. MINISTER TO FRANCE. His services as a diplomat were useful to his country and honorable to himself it was through his efforts that the right of expatriation was first admitted by the government of France. there were no great overshadowing questions. excejDt the one to which allusion has been made. in 1S6C. As a citizen of the South. Thouvenal. For this he received the thanks of the President in his annual message to Congress. whatever he might do. and repaired at once to his new post of duty. the French Minister for Foreign Affairs. or fear of military espionage The great bulk of Mr. were early enlisted upon the side of the South.328 in Life of tlte late Hon. was sure to meet with misrepresentation at "Wash. the Senate called for the correspondence of that Department upon the great question of the claims of European governments* to exact military service from naturalized citizens of the United States. it is v/ell known. and this fact naturally made the position of Mr. and in this wa}" the general public was for the first time made aware that in less than a month after his presentation at the Court of Napoleon III. and naturalized citizens of the United States given the right to visit the land of their birth without molestation. Faulkner. Mr. Faulkner's dispatches while a foreign minister have never been given to the public by the State Department.

Life of the late Hon. would protect him from detraction persions upon his loyalty to his country and fidelity to his olTicial trust. while country he represented. Faulkner's service as a diplomat but it was always creditable. he had been disloyal to the United States. and was at times in favor of Mr.of making words persuasive. and had the rare qualit}'. hut received tlie thanks of the government for his services. however. in which he took occasion to deny in strong . however meritorious a^id conspicumalignant asous. was a quiet and eccentric man. equafitted for such a career. Faulkner's . it is not singular that he was able to walk in the paths of diplomacy without danger or difficulty. He showed this attribute early in life. and while of strong convictions. Faulkner. ble temperament. terms that either in his official or private capacity. were carried from Paris to AVashington. 329 ington. that in a period so stormy. He was exceedingly critical. Faulkner not infrequently softened the asperities of A political warfare and won enemies to his support village. J. Besides the power of presenting his points strongly. Faulkner took notice of them in a letter to Mr. at other periods he opposed hiai. wliich good story is told of him in his native illustrates this point. his services. knowing how to hold them in check. a conspicuous personage in the business circles of Martinsburg. either to himself i^ersonally or the . In one closely contested election he severely criticised some of Mr. and these became so frequent and i")ersistent that soon after the inauguration of President Lincoln. Old Daniel Burkhardt. In his many contests in a district that might oftentimes be called turbulent. Seward. C. for in all his mental characteristics he was eminently A man of great self-poise. But lie was so circumspect in his conduct tliat he was not only held blameless. Mr. It is unnecessary to present in derail the leading acts in Mr. he could put them adroitly. FauRntr. It was not to be expected. Mr. Secretary of State.

Mr. This incident not only illustrated the persuasive power of Mr. and he will explain toyour satisfaction the matter of which you comi^lain. refused to discuss these matters with M. from the first. Just before his departure M." Mr. Faulkner. political acts. you ought not to be against Mr. that there was not even a pretence that he had been unfaithful in his conduct. the friendship of those who had been personally or politically inimical to him. and the good wishes of the many American citizens with whom he had been brought into personal or official relations.330 Life of the late Hon. Faulkner. of New Jersey. He. Faulkner said that he did not. but made the explanation of which the latter was in fear. Faulkner. J. but it also allowed his extraordinary gift in gaining and ever afterwards retaining. Faulkner. who had been appointed as his successor by President Lincoln. of his way. He left France with the respect of the government to which he had been accredited. L. growing out of the anomolons conearly in 1801. but added that he felt compelled to decline to discuss the policy of his government." ''Of course he will. Burkhardt to escape him. "He never did anything in his life he could not explain to the That is the reason I keep out satisfaction of anybody. Thouvenal asked him if he believed his government would use coercion to preserve the autonomy of the Union. Why don't you see him. Wm. C. Faulkner was relieved of his diplomatic duties by Hon. Dayton. however. Dayton was then on his . and thus gained his support. To this Mr. Thouvenal. as Mr. and never but once expressed an unofficial opinion as to the action of the government toward the seceding States. when one of that gentleman's friends said to hini " Mr. He had so conducted himself in his delicate relations to the French government. Biirkliardt. did not xoermit Mr." was the prompt reply. dition of affairs in his own country.

occasion Mr. now in rebellion against the authority of the Government. "When Mr. State Treasurer of Pennsylvania. to pay his respects to the President and Secretary Seward. and. Faulkner did not meet the had ceased Confederate Commissioners until two months after he to be Minister. : . He demanded of the Secretary of War. He settled all his accounts. 331 with definite instructions from Washington upon that and cognate matters. on the Derby race course in England. who. It is needless to say that these were all fabrications. Yancey never intimated to Mr. to meet the expenses of other missions besides his own. was taken and thrown into prison. He received the follov/ing reply "You are held as a distinguished citizen of Virginia. While in France he had been entrusted with a large contingent fund. VII. After Mr. and even to the Emperor himself. way to France. Yancey and other Confederate diplomatic commissioners having been received by Mr. presented to the French Minister of Foreign Affairs. and settle his account with the Government. some American newspapers contained long accounts of Mr. by On that accident. for Mr. Faulkner. C. Faulkner the nature of his mission abroad. to know upon what charge he had been arrested and detained. and left France. Faulkner returned to the United States the war had been for some time in ]3rogress.Life of the late Hon. Faulkner. received the balance due him from the Government. and the relation of the Confederate States to the European Powers was never the subject of discussion between them. and then. He went direct to Washington. when be was arrested and thrown into prison. was about to leave for his home in Martinsburg. while searching for the dead body of a friend on the battle-field of Bull Run. and having made his final visit to the State Department. by the people of your State. J. as a hostage for James McGraw. A PRISONf:R OF STATE. Faulkner returned to the United States.

and fully contradicted the story that he had been arrested because of infidelity to his trust while Minister to France. Faulkner should be granted a parole of : . Gen. in his annual message. had been set at liberty and was at home. but would make his arrest a ground of arraignment before the civilized world. you sliall never be McGraw and his party are set at The and are safe. After being confined in Washington for a month he was transferred to Fort Lafayette. in Boston harbor. Secretary of War." characteristic ans^. saying "You are no longer in my custodj\ Yon have been transferred to the Secretary of State. at Richmond.332 so help Life of Vie late Hon. Soon after this occurred he was lemoved to Fort Warren. Simon Cameron. and had been confined without any charge having been made against him. biU Jeff Davis. He then addressed a note to Gen." prisoner. Faulkner. He refused to accept his liberty upon those terms. McGraw should be again safe within the Federal lines. Tt was proposed to exchange Mr. Cameron settled the question inthe mind of Mr. After considerable parleying it was finally decided that IMr. of New ITork. Faulkner for Mr. Cameron promptly rei)lied. and that he would submit to no conditions for his release. Ely.. for the reason that he had been guilty of no offence. Ya. SSoon after this he learned that Mr. relieved nnlil Jaraes liberty me God. Faulkner's offence against the State was that he had refused to take the oath of allegiance. of Pennsylvania. Mr. J. as a political " Simox Ca:m:ekox.ver from Gen. Secretary of War. McGraw. requesting a fulfillment of the promise to release him. began to j-jress the Government to secure his release. Ely. While he was in confinement there Mr. Faulkner. C. Secretary of War. While imprisoned there he was offered his liberty upon the condition of taking the oath of allegiance to the United States. declared he would make no exchange for Mr. " SiMOX Camerox. a Congressman who liad been captured while a spectator at the battle of Ball Run. when Mr. Faulkner.

Davis. Colonel. course of x)eople. and an The officer apiDeared to carry this comm. Martinsburg. Ely for Mr. the South will be unsuccessful. Ely." : . appointed his chief of staff. David Hunter. as showing the relative position of the two men at that period. Davis did not. take kindly to Mr. if possible. by Lieut. Stonewall Jackson. with the rank. Gen. He wrote all of the official reports of that distinguished soldier. His arrival in Richmond caused gieat exceitement he was greeted by the Governor. Mayor of the city and a large con. I cannot help thinking. he having received a letter from General Stonewall Jackson. an exchange between himself and Mr. by Gen." Mr. He was accordingly. during the war. Faulkner said "Mr. who invited him to become a member of his staff.Life of the late Hon. are at the outset of a protracted Davis replied. to go to Riciiniond and effect. "that we and desperate it conflict. and called upon to make a public adHis interview with Jefferson Davis dress. at any subsequent period. and Mr. which he did. near which he lived. around which clustered the associations of a century. but remained there but a few days. Finally.and into effect. Lieut. His old home. "I agree with you sir. Mr. effect of . O. During the conversation Mr. and although his two sons were in the Confederate army. I fear we are just beginning a long and bloody Avar a struggle in which." This decided difference of opinion did not have the making the interview altogether j)leasant. Faulkner. 333 thirty days. Ms property "was not seriously injured. Avhich have always been regarded as models of military literature. but with great reluctance. While he was absent from his home. and when that had been accomplished the latter retired to his home in Berkeley County. but I do not agree with you that will be an unsuccess- ful one. J. Davis consented to the exchange of Mr. Faulkner. was alternately in possession of the Federal and Confederate forces. was ordered to be burned. Faulkner. was interesting.

where Lee surrendered to Grant. Mr. w^as to request Mr. at once took strong grounds in favor of the new State of Virginia. The State of West Virginia had been created out of the Old Dominion when Mr. which the war had wrought. of which at this time there can be but a faint idea. Faulkner to return home. and he sent Col. Faulkner. Lincoln having jirevented the conference which the President had intended to have with Mr. VIII. the opinion of the latter on the subject of reconstruction. after the close of hostilities. no less than the constitutional. but of civil war. At that time this section of the country. Faulkner. almost more than any other along the border. Faulkner' v/ho had resided there during all the war. Faulkner near Appomattox. would bave been given due consideration. standing of the new State was often Noth withstanding the great changes called in question. One of Lincoln. J. was disturbed by the receding waves of civil war. C. but even of practicing his profession as a lawyer. Faulkner. returned to his home in Berkeley County. which had become one of absorbing interest at the close of the war. for that xJ^i"Pose. The close of the war found Mr. Faulkner. and the legal. when. There were new men at the helm.334 liouse Life cf the late Hon. regarding the sei3aration as irreversible. which was the offspring. was saved by a telegraphic order from Abraham to whom an appeal was made by Mrs. Mr. not of revoHe held. AFTER THE WAR. and he found himself not only debarred from the inherrent right of citizenship. and with the spirit of lution. Faulkner returned to his home. The sting of war had left its rankling in the statutes of the new State. Lee. and the bitter animosities of the hour. American . and a new order of things in general. no doubt. the untimely and tragical death oF Mr. Ward Lamon with a message to him. Lincoln after the surrender of Gen. the first acts of Mr.

but he was made Minister to England before the case came on for argument. had been ended by the sv. 1S71. and is yet known. Faulkner was a member of the Constitutional Convention of West Virginia. Johnson's place. C. 385 propliecy upon Mid. at the request of the delegation from those counties. Faulkner showed his fidelity to the western section by taking positive grounds in favor of the right of West Virginia to these counties. Virginia instituted her suit in the Supreme Court of the United States. freed from the unjust discriminations of the dominant section east of the Blue Ridge. in February. The argument of Mr.Life of the Jate Hon. claiming that they were not legally attached to the new State Mr. 1872. The case was argued before the Supreme Court of the United States. and Gov. and where were all his inand political. when . as the Old Dominion. and they were awarded to her by the decision of the Court. Faulkner was an exhaustive i^resentation of the equity of the claim of West Virginia to the two counties. Faulkner.'^ord severing the section west of the Blue Ridge from what was then called. engaged Mr. The contest had commenced State where he in 1S32. In January. that time would soften the asperities of the armed conflict. and that West Virginia. Of these the most significant and important was his stand in favor of the two rich counties of Jefferson and Berkeley acts being attached ginia sued for to West Virginia. for the overthrow of the unjust discriminations against the section of the had been born. terests. which framed the present fundamental law of created. J. Reverdy Johnson was retained as the leading counsel for West Virginia. The old State of Vir- them as a part of her domain. Mr. business It is needless to describe in detail his many public from lS6o to 1872 in behalf of the New State. Boreman. and Hon. would speedily become one of the most ilourishiDg commonwealths in the sisterhood of States. social. Faulkner to take Mr.

and there so common as hardly to attract attention. but even its rather faded exterior gave evidence of . HOW A LADY SAVED HER HOME FROM THE . who was in command of the Union forces in the Shenandoah Valley during the eventful years of 1863-64. As his term was drawing to a close he declined a re-election. at a subsequent period. TORCH. Hunter. he secured a plurality of the Democratic votes in caucus. lie was. 'Madam. mentioned as a candidate for Governor. You will have one hour to leave it you will be permitted to take nothing away except the wearing apparel of yourself and daughters. for the purx^ose of becoming a candidate for United States Senator. and took a leading posi- tion in the debates on all important questions." Thus spoke General Martindale. He was chairman of the he Judiciary Committee on Revision. C. an officer of the First New York Cavalry. FaulTcneT. but was again defeated by a combination of hostile interests. who was at that time serving as a staff officer to General David S. the two most imporIt is needless to say that he was one tant in the body. It was odd it was almost rude in its architec' . I am ordered to burn this house to the ground. In June of the same year his political disabilities were removed by special act of Congress. by . The house was one of those quaint ancestral mansions seen nowhere but in the South.436 majority. ture. of the leaders in the debates and work of that body. but was defeated in the Legislature by a combination of the Republicans with a number of Democrats in favor of his opponent. J. This was the first even quasi-political office had held since the war. in a district until that time doubtful. in the Legislature. Life of the late Hon.336 the State. and then withdrew from public life. and in the fall of 1874 he was elected to the House of Representatives. IX. He served on the important committees of Foreign Relations and Education and labor. 3. and in the contest f(^r that position wdiich followed.

which were to become more valuable with the lapse of time. wholesome memories. She had little time to do anything to save her house little chance that anything she might do would be successful. both literary and artistic. Faulkner. and besides the great array of valuable books it contained many manuscripts even then of great worth. President of the United States. . waiting for the apiDointed time to apply the torch. therefore. In its historical treasures it was especially rich. and if they had known would not have been greatly concerned. had been the home of the lady addressed. was instantly flashed to Washington. The distracted lady could only wait and each moment of that hour seemed to her laden with the anxiety of a century. But she was not a woman to sit down and wait for misfortune to overwhelm her. The moments came and went with exasperating speed the old clock in the hall seemed to count the minutes . J. . that to her the words of the officer which doomed her home to the torch were freighted with no common sorrow. 337 the wealth of hosiDitality. Meanwhile the officer and his soldiers lounged uxDon the beautiful lawn that stretched out before the old mansion to the main road.Life of tJie late Hon. and the fateful message . This house filled with treasures and crowded with sacred memories. They were only obeying orders and had so little liking for their work that they would be glad of some excuse for not doing it. To her every room nay. every corner and part of every room —was — iDeopled by happy. and accumulations of rare work. A messenger galloped to the town. forgiving Abraham Lincoln. and of her progenitors for generations. sympathetic. They knew nothing of what the Mistress of the mansion had done. and she did what many others did in these distressful days she made by telegraph an appeal to the patient. C. It is not strange. fully a quarter of a mile away. But she determined to make an effort to save her home.

as of a horseman flying to her to catch the first glimpse relief. . J. the messenger sprang from his horse and an instant more rushed up the broad graveled path to the house. window." Abraham Lincoln. C. which commanded a view of the if road leading to the town. She tore it open. Suddenly the clatter of the horse's hoofs in full gallop was heard down the road. The lady sprang to her feet with an expression of mingled hope and fear upon her The soldiers hardly noticed the rax^id approach of face. (Signed) The lady handed the telegram to Captain Grey Martin dale. tlie past witli malignant and unusual speed. Turning to his men he gave the orders which put them in their saddles. for they could not be aware that the incident had any interest for them. but the lady herself seemed She sat to take at a no notice of what was going on about her. in retaliation for the burning of the Governor Bradford's house in Maryland by the Confederate forces. FaulJcner. He handed her the telegram. but it had the potency of a kingly command.338 into Life of the late Hon. The servants were hastily packing trunks with the few articles to be spared I'rom the iiames. the courier. Hunter for the burning of the residences of three prominent citizens of the Shenandoah Valley. but their talk was becoming more subdued and their dislike for the task before them was becoming more apparent. It said " The property of Charles James Faulkner is exempt from the order of General David S. the soldiers still lounged listlessly under the shade trees. The messenger came into plain view and the lady saw that he was waving a letter In in his hand as he urged his horse to greater speed. The three quarters had gone the lady still strained her eyes at the window. It was a brief message of only a few words. and in a moment more he and his small . He read it and raised his cap in salutation. The lady met him at the door.

Mr. formerly a member of Congress. Ely hit upon the plan of exchanging him for Faulkner. near Shepherdstown. and by their importunities finally gained the consent of the Government at Washington to their scheme. was one of those oldtime soldiers who believed that war was not a holiday pastime. He was successful. clattering down the dusty road toward . Faulkner was to be released upon parole. who issued these orders. Boteler. Thus was the painful duty of Captain Martindale accomplished. He found his consanguinity to the Union commander was no protection for his property. J. Alexander R. and when he appeared on the scene which has been sketched in the above lines the officer and his command had just come from the burning of other residences of other prominent Virginians. and who for a time before the Avar had defeated Mr. who had been one of the many who had gone down from Washington to see the rebellion crushed at Bull Run. along the Potomac river. and went to Richmond to effect the desired exchange. At that time the rebels held as a prisoner Mr. General David S. Faulkner. C. . to burn houses had not been confined to this single home. There seemed to be some of the irony of fate in these occurrences of the war. Finally the friends of Mr. Faulkner in one of the most desperate and The orders closely contested Congressional elections which had ever taken place in that section Another house burned was that of Andrew Hunter.fate to tread. They saw another sort of spectacle and Ely was captured. a member of Congress from New York. 339 command were their camp. Thus was her home saved thus did AbraLincoln add another to the many acts of kindness ham with which he illumed and softened the rugged road of civil war w^hich it w^as his hard. Mr. a member of the Confederate Congress and a cousin of General Hunter. Among the homes which had been first burned were those of Hon. Hunter. Ely. Ely was restored to his home.Life of the late Hon. and the rebels clung to him as a prize of great value.

and their interview was interesting and pleasant to both. It is queer how time softens the asperities of this life and brings together those who were far separated by the circumstance of war. and was released and sent within tbe Confederate lines. Both w^ere far advanced in years.340 Life of lie tlie late Hon. J. 1st. FauJTcner. After the close of the war he returned to his home near Martinsburg. 1SS4. upon the staiJ of sj)ent. Soon after the war Mr. There was one more incident. the one having passed four score years. however. Soon after his return he began to take an active interest in the pubthe new State of West Virginia. which was that portion of the Old Dominion which had always enlisted his heartiest sympathies and best efforts. and wTote most of the orders and reports of that officer which received such general praise as models of military literature. Faulkner had broken the bread of reconciliation since the war. It was . After a short stay in Richmond. where he has ever since continued to live. The old mile-j)osts that tell the story of that conflict are fast falling and crumbling into decay. where his arrival had caused great excitement. Faulkner and Mr. Magraw. Martinsburg. although the lines of their fates had so crossed each other at a stirring period. Nov. General Stonewall Jackson. but w^here is there one that furnishes more good thoiights and facts than the one in that old house that Grey Martindale was ordered to burn. C. Boydville. met for the first time. near Appomattox. The history of one is full of interest. at fifty minutes past six o'clock Saturday morning. Faulkner retired to the home of his daughter. Mr. the other fast approaching that advanced age. where most of his time during the continuance of the rebellion was He served for a time. The death of LABORS OVER. lic affairs of It is worthy of being added that General Cameron and Mr. Charles James Faulkner occurred LIFE'S at his residence.

and many were the words of consolation and sympathy returned to the bereaved family. Thos. Pierce. surrounded by all the members of his family. Mrs. and Superintendent Boyd. Bocock. M. The body of the venerable Chas. around which had gathered by this time more than two thousand people. Boyd. F. Powell. Rufus Smith. J. after which Rev. The services of his funeral took place on Monday following and were largely attended. Mrs. cross and inscrijotion of Father made of roses and rare flowers were placed upon the casket cover. Nearly a hundred of the Masonic fraternity. James E. S. Love. to solemn music to the residence. E. Capt. Dr. Kennedy. Faulkner. S. Mr. Booker. 841 physicians that he would have passed away several days before but for a restless energy which ever stirred within him. Norris. W. James Faulkner and families his six daughters. There were i^resent at his death his two sons. H. James Faulkner lay in the parlor in a handsome casket. Mrs. Hon. Dr. Bocock. Norris. Pierce. Joel AY. H. . Boyd. T. attorneys P. Campbell. and a large number of others. Esq. \ . H. Mrs. S. Love and family. John E. P. Thos. Mrs. . the hour of his funeral.. Gallaher. decked with wreaths of beautiful flowers floral crown.Life of the late Hon. B. Miss Boiling Flood and Miss was dead the sad news was sent over the wires to his friends around. of the Cumberland Valley Railroad Mr. S." prayer was offered by Rev. C. But his end was come and. Among the prominent men present were Judge W. Hon. Judge Richard Parker. Jno. Pitt. of which order he was a member. turned out. Faulkner . Holmes Boyd. Flood and Mrs. Jas. and headed by the City Band marched at 3 o'clock. W. Boyd and Judge Chas. McSherry also Dr. and which he in iDarticular summoned up in the last hours of his life. F. President. After all had viewed in procession the honored remains. As soon as he . Ella Bocock. Hon. he drew his last breath and passed peacefully away. P. of the Free Press J. S. Clark. Mrs. the belief of liis J. W. the Presbyterian choir sang " Rock of ages cleft for me.

the bar and officers of the Court. Woods. C. E. Jacob Miller. A. J. and statesman. P. After the sermon the funeral cortege marched to the Episcopal Cemetery. Hunter. thirteen grandchildren only three absent the near relatives of the deceased. Abell the ushers. W. Col. Hughes. Holland followed with prayer. A. and D. H. two sons. Pitzer. Janney. Thomas. A. R. Nadenbousch. Shaffer. Grantham. L. S. C. N. Messrs. one who was successful as a jurist. C /. led by the City Band. the City Council and corporation officers and over two thousand citizens. Faulkner. S. Kilmer. Matthaei. M.342 Life of the late Hon. Gettinger and J. Blackburn Hughes." by Rev. PShowers. Doll. Rev. C. Thatcher. J. — diplomatist. L. F. politician. and his deeds be recorded on the pages of the world's history. Wni. Woods tribute of — Father. Andrews. Swartz. The services at the grave were conducted by the Masons with beautiful and impressive ceremony such as is usual on occasions of Masonic burial. J. who followed bearing floral . Walker. and reading of hymn " Nearer my God to Thee. Baker. Doll. M. Stuart W. C. Hedges. J. the remains carried by the pall bearers. D. W. M. Simpson. the immediate members of the family. whose life will him. live after . C. W. J. J. Never perhaps in the history of Martinsburg were there so many people gathered together to pay their last tribute of respect to the honored remains of a venerable citizen. C. G. C. Q. a tribute to his memory. delivered a funeral oration on the late deceased. which was sung by choir and benediction by Rev. followed by nearly 100 members of the Masonic fraternity under the auspices of Equality Lodge. six daughters. G. H. W. Grandfather and Rest with cross and crown. next to the lawn. Casper Stump. J.

XIV. CHAPTER IpT m lias been stated in a former chapter that the Tuscarora Church. I seated On . at the present day our entire county is supplied with well regulated and disciplined churches of nearly every sect. April 3d. removed from New England. was the first place "where the gospel was publicly preached and divine service performed west of the Blue Ridge Mountain. the North Mountain and Opequon. The Baptists were not among the earlist emigrants but in the years 1742 or 1743. the first founded this side of the Blue Ride. The Baptists were the next to establish a public worshi]^. 1 mounted a bicycle and wended my way in the direction of the old Presbyterian Church. which was done about the year 1764. with a few Scotch and English families. that have sown their seed broad-cast and been the means of establishing religion throughout the county TUSCARORA CHURCH— THE OLDEST WEST OF THE BLUE RIDGE MOUNTAINS. a preacher of this sect. Mr. and under the care of Rev. This was and still remains a Presbyterian edifice. removed from Pennsylvania and settled along Back Creek. and and settled in the vicinity of what is now called Gerards- town. with several others. situa ted on Tuscarora. about two miles from the city. 1888. a bright Tuesday morning. formed a Baptist Church on the Opequon. Among the early settlers a number of Irish Presbyterians. From this date other denominations sx^rang up. about fourteen families of that persuasion migrated from New Jersey . John Gerard. THE CHURCHES— ORGANIZATION AND PRESENT CONDITION. Stearns. The following sketches are given of our churches.

through which it has stood the test of time the wintry blasts and the rainbeat of bygone days.344 The ChiircTics. the budding of trees around. Truly. Sitting beneath a small birch tree." Interrupted by the warbling notes of the bird overhead. myself on a bench near by. Then I would pause. I directed my attention to the stone steps in front. turned my gaze heavenward. and the old shingled roof. upon looking at the wood w^ork. betT^^een the stone. I thought of His blessed word on high "Surely their good works do follow them. and the warble of the robin overhead. which plainly show that by their use they were not over-estimated by the workmen. whether the early settlers that erected this grand old building. I began to wonder. ever gave thought to the fact that their good works and deeds would be handed down to rising generations for centuries to come. and with its little throat swelled it seemed to say. the chirp of the sparrow. as if in a dream.chuck. But then my — dream was interrupted and awakened by the peck of the wood. and one can readily imagine that the erection of buildings in those days consisted of hard labor. Next. then looked around me over the beautiful landsca^De of improved and cultivated soil. the neat dwellings and then glancing at a marble slab before me. that happiness in His sight is the Goddess of all nature I — : divine. the sod beneath spirouting up. it was a grand sight with the briglit shining sun above. on which every trace of mortar. I looked up at it. seemed to speak of the years. and carefully scanned the small stone building of one story. when compared with the workman ship of the i3resent day. presents rather a rude appearance. the weather-beaten doors. yea a century or more. stirred now and then by a fresh breeze and sending forth a fragrant odor. with poor tools to work with. which. to announce the coming of spring. and beginning to don its coat of green all of which seemed to teach a soul-comforting — — — — .

Virginia. . lesson: 345 "A great and loving Father.The CIlurches. Wilson. creator of lieaven hath endowed us with these blessings of naAnd then upon reading a slab before me. : — traced the letters in order to make them out. almost rotted and decayed. and it is to be supposed that at an early day these tombs were enclosed by a fence. until the letters can hardly be found.ith moss. endeared to both God and mankind." "According to the manner in which again reminded thou hast lived. *rjive the life if U would die the cil death of the righteous. and began to note some of which I thought might prove interesting to the reader. on which were these words "Died March 24th. a faithful minister of the Gospel of Christ 26 years. Among them were John Chenowith.of Rev. Hugh Yance. who wanted to know my business at this lone spot. The stone has been washed by the storms. Louis F. died October Sth. in his 04th year Our Taithful pastor for 37 years. rustic and covered v. 1873. I became interested in the names and dates of the slabs. : . so shalt thou be judged." Nearby stood a number of wooden slabs. with the tombs of the dead. and found myself confronting the tomb of Rev. With a small stick I cleaned it as best could be done. It read thus: "Under this marble rests the bodj. and propped up at each end by small foundations. many loved ones. After satisfying him with my object and reason. as four snags of posts are still standing. of perhaps. and I began to wander amongst the tombs. He that hath endowed us with all these blessings. Born in the year 1736. Died in the year 1791. and with a pen- and earth. This stone is erected to preserve and perpetuate the Memory of this AYorthy Man by his affectionate friends in Berkeley County. at the judgment bar of God." This aroused a deep sense of feeling within me. and at such a time. he walked off and again I was left alone." Here I was interrupted and awakened from my reverie by an inquirer. I noticed particularly an old slab. I raised my eyes. save my God. I was ture.

1846. There was a large marble tomb with the Holy Bible engraved upon it. aged 79 years also her son Alexander who died April 29th. . aged 60 years Margaret Brighton. aged 84 years. . Snodgrass and wife. A. a number of persons were buried. . who died January 20th. I returned to the church and took my seat in a side door. 1834. 1836. died 1786. . 1790. or washed by the storms until the letters are invisible. . and others broken and decayed and — .. 1797. 1794. 1825. In places the grave has been entirely lost by the growth of the monster oak. old blue lime stone marked: "Here lies the body of Hugh Lyle. . died July 26th. A number of graves were marked with small rocks and wooden slabs and there was nothing to designate the name of the dead or date of death. did 1836. and bore the name of Hugh Lyle. aged 47 years Margaret Herd. 1786. I am informed. some of which have fallen down. Some of the slabs were rustic and almost entirely covered by moss. aged 63 years Thomas Miller. aged 34 years Robert Brighton. . and the name of Sarah Ireland." Another was an old sand stone. and the walls fast going to ruin. . — — After strolling around to my heart's content. In a large stone vault were contained Wm. died February 27th. aged 53 years Emily Marker. who departed this life April 14th. aged 51 years the next was an 1S54. died April 28tli. died September 20th. 1800. The date of his death was May 13th. died September 10th. .. died 1838. . Slauter. aged 27 years David Miller. but nothing remains to give information as to who they were. at an age of 9 years. aged 64 years James Chenowitli. died Sej)tember 15th. Near the center stands a large brick enclosure the wooden roof entirely rotted away. I looked over the profile of stones and slabs. 1857. The Churches. the letters almost washed away. . aged 42 years.346 1842. Beneath this. D. aged 21 years Margaret Hull. 1797. Jr. died August 31st. died November 30tli. aged 52 years Robert Lyle. aged 57 years Wm. . aged 76 years. . at an age of 61 years and his wife died in 1852.

Amongst the dates will be found some who were born nearly two centuries ago. The circuit over which he had charge embraced the counties He acted in the of Berkeley. July 19th. but no However. might be sleeping under this sod. and fine marble stones are taking the place of the old slabs. Interments are still made in the old graveyard. given up for lost. I feel trace could be found to identify them. On tombs in which their bodies lie.The Churches. . perched nearby.. o'er tlie tombs of the dead. The present pastor is the Rev. confident that those mentioned will prove of interest and value to the reader. another very old edifice. ST. and have been buried on this sjDot nearly a century. H. the stillness seemed Man is mortal — his life a day. to saj'. of Hedgesville. The first regular pastor was Rev. perhaps. who also has charge of the Falling Waters church. who took charge of a Lutheran congregation in Winchester. Christian Streit. There were others. 1785. This sketch was written by the author of this book especially for the history of the old graveyard. Gilmore. J. When lo. Va. whether the present generation knew who and which of their foreparents might be buried here or whether many. At this moment the sweet notes of a little bird. one of the oldest congregations in the Valley of Virginia. It was founded and formed here in 1775 by German emigrants from Pennsylvania and Maryland. . The church is still used for public worship by the Presbyterian denomination. Jefferson and Frederick. and still remains in This is the archives of the church. And thought their spirits. thrilled my I soul looked arouud. 347 then pondered long in meditation. and has a small membership. In 17S2 a church record for the exclusive use of the Lutheran congregation was obtained. doubtless older. Were looking down with earnest eye. from overhead. JOHN'S LUTHERAN CHURCH.

Rev. 1852. at an age of 54 years. to 1868 Rev. October Here an interruption was made by 21st. 1804. John Kackler became pastor December 1st. 1858. Wm. Edwin Dorsey. Succeeding Rev. : .. Heilig. the second resident pastor. The congregation vvas next supplied by Rev. Jacob Medtart. W. Kopp. . up to tlie time of his death. J. and the first pastor who resided was Rev. 1847. Joseph A. April 1st. to 1852 Rev. to 1847 to 1846 Rev. ministering until 1790. and their terms. who entered upon his pastorate in 1827. B. from March 1st. to 1837 Rev. . . November 23d. 1866. R. which occurred February 10th. November 25 th. P. Rev. 1848. F. 1790. Reuben A. 1802. C. Streit. S. J. Samuel' Spreecher. to 1843 Rev. Fink. March 29th. . C. 13th. who took charge of the congregation December 12th. Rev. May 29th. John P. 1855. Schmucker. Jazinsky for about one year. August 9th. Charles Martin. 1817. which position he filled successfully until 1835. the late war. November 8th. 1843. to 1857 Rev. 1881. and was succeeded by Rev. to 1848. and the pastorate duties again resumed by Rev. Young. and continued until 1819.348 The Churclies. M. November 23rd. to 1860 Rev. to July 24th. L. Rev. tol855. to 1861. John Winter. He was the originator of the first known constitution or form of government for the congregation. 1881. 1837 to 1842 Rev. resigning in 1827. Krauth took charge in the au- tumn of 1819 and served six years. Feb. . capacity of Bishop or overseer of the Lutheran Interest in these sections. Seiss. 1860. 1869. May 21st. Reuben Wiser. The following is the list of pastors as they succeeded each other. Krauth. Holland. P. . M. in which position he served until 1800. His successor was Rev. C. to 1842. . Ravenack. here. when he resigned. D. Jr. . when after an absence of two years he returned and served it from November 3d. Rev. Caller. . Charles Martin. and who was succeeded by Rev. April 1st. 1835. the present pastor. to the present date Rev. which was signed hj 103 members. December 1st. 1845.

as many have some relative or friend buried there. Geo. Elders H. The following is a list of the Deacons and Elders Deacons— G. and as a citizen the respect of the people. . is Rev. Y.B. The old graveyard is an object of deep and tender interest to this city and much of the surrounding country. The : — first cup of which there is any knowledge. K. K. but afterward purchased by the congregations on the 20th of March. This jjroject. Hill.00. and the mysterious inscription " P.059." In 1815 a subscription was taken up in the two churches amounting to 83. and the Sunday School numbers over 275 scholars. has successfully officiated as Sunday School Superintendent. Mason. H. had never been carried out Later on the present : . he has won their friendship and esteem. Knapp. and have since been used as a graveyard. The present membership of the church is over 300. 1786. Knapx^. for a number of years. and then completed as a house of God for religious worship. Whitson. Geo. being built entirely of logs. C. for the purpose of building a new church fo*r their joint use. Cline. S. Geo.The Churches. It was constructed for a tavern by Jacob Shortel. M^ Tlie first church edifice was ttie joint property of the Lutheran and Reformed congregations. D. R. is still in existence. A. in religion. and the plastering lathes were fastened by grooves cut into the logs. P. A. which was used by the congregation in the ministration of the Holy Communion. and was located on the corner of Church and John streets. the i^resent pastor. At that time nails were too expensive. Holland. Jas. In his intercourse V7ith his members and brethren. a zealous and earnest worker in the cause of religion. M. N. for some cause. D. the bellows of which was worked by ropes and weighted down by stones. Mr. Small. Geo. Walters and M. The two lots lying between King and John streets were also purchased at the same time for the same owner. Small and Geo. Deatrick. A pipe organ was afterward purchased. bearing the date 1791.

Rev. reorganized for active work with Rev. A. . In the spring of 1SG9. 1884. and a large bell placed* in the tower. In 1884 the church was remodeled. and nothing worthy of note occurred in its history but preaching was held at intervals in the Geraian Reformed and Lutheran Churches. as . by the pasAt this time the church was tor. The lirst Baptist Church of Martinsburg was originally organized in 1858. of Middleburg. and was dedicated June lOtl]. with a view of building a church edifice. Haynes. and an edifice erected at a cost of S3.000. jireached in the stone academy that stood near the Episcopal CemIn 1859 the lot on West King street. was purchased from Jacob Sclioppert. and the church very much injured. Penick. Culler. until the building was under roof. Abram Reck officiating. AV. 1869. the lecture room was completed. 1870. 786. M. W. S. 24th. with impressive services. The cost of this improvement amounted to $10. In the month of May. R. Rev. but soon after the late war between the States came on. and other clergymen assisting the pastor. Rev. 1832. by Rev. S. The corner stone was laid Aug. present building now stands. L. and extensive and important changes made. The work was then continued without interruption. J. with ten members. was bought. C. FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. and but little was accomplished until after the close of the war. The corner stone was laid July 12th. for nearly two years. 50. where the etery. During the late war the congregations were considerably scattered. Rev. and delivered an appropriate and eloquent address. the former pastor. W. was present. The church was improved again in 1854. Rev. ground was broken and work commenced for the erection of a church building. Penick. with imposing Masonic ceremonies. During this time the society had a mere nominal existence. and the first sermon was preached in the new house of worshi]_D on the third Sunday of that month. Holland. and. Jones was chosen pastor.350 site The Ghurclies. J.

Robertson. E. of Richmond.. He was succeeded by Rev. both the interior and exterior of the building have been greatly improved. and has the esteem and love of He is an excellent preacher. The building was completed in March. was §7. The following names compose the deacons of the church B. Rogers was shortly afterward tendered a Rev. and educated ability. Rev. P. Murray. of an intelligent mind. continuing until November 17th. succeeded the former and entered upon his pastorate with the church October 18th. D. S. S.) church. when he resigned and was Rev. at a cost of over 8500. the Sunday School was permanently established. B. Kearfott.364. Rev. 1S70. formerly of Yirginia. A.. T. A. 351 M. During the fall of 1881.. with an appropriate sermon by Rev. 1876. Jos. (W. . of Buchanan. On since been paid off. Pearl. which he accepted. B. who entered upon his mission work in September. The total cost of the building. Since the advent of the latter pastor the church has been constantly increasing. Sr. 1st. 1874. Ya. Kearfott as the second Sunday in June. R.50 was taken up The entire indebtedness has at the dedication services. who has still charge of the church. Y". Y^est. Emmert is the Sunday School Superintendent. Rev. F. Rogers.Tlie Churches. Van Cleve and Joseph B. D. Rev. Nov. Grove. : Fiery.43. 1886. J. P. succeeded by Rev. E. Samuel Aler. H. 1875. L. Rogers was call to Missouri.. in May. 1874. including furniture. courteous and affable gentleman. F. W. then succeeded by Rev. and is doing a grand and noble work. deacons. Pitt served the church until 1886. 1S74. for which a collection of 8656. Pitt. M. W. pastor. his entire pastoral charge. 1883. W. of Baltimore. F. and the entire front changed. Penick served the church as pastor from 1869 to July 1st. etc. J. OO.. of Grafton. Va. Ya. when he resigned and returned to his former people. and on the 29th day of that month it was dedicated. and W. P.. Robertson is a kind. Williams.

and founded by Morgan Morgan— the first Episcopal Church erected in the valley. was consecrated by E.. and in 1S35. and estab lished by law in 177S. This reduced the latter. measures were taken to erect another in the town. Buck and : : . was commenced. Esq. and it contained but the three churches. for eight years or more before its completion. of Virginia. TRINITY (EPISCOPAL) CHURCH. Present and assisting. on Thursday. The old church that stood in the Cemetery became unsafe for use. capacity is lie lias filled for five years. There was no stated place of worship in the town. a zealous churchman. The first Episcopal Church in Martinsbnrg was built about the close of the war. probably three churches. 1843. The cliurcli at- membership 200. The original parish contained these three churches. The following memorandum is taken from the old church record "Trinity Church. Chisholm. The lot was donated. the following of the clergy Revs. August 10th. It was built at the entrance to Norborne Cemetery.352 wliicli The ChurcJies. Rev. (now Shepherd stown) and built by Van Swearingen. Martinsbnrg. a chaiDel was erected at Hedgesville. and about 1838 or 1839. and the average Sunday School tendance 112. on West King street. AND NORBORNE PARISH. Bishop of Virginia. A short time before the parish By was formed. which was laid out by Adam Stephen. one was built at Mill Creek. About the year 1740. which was taken from Berkeley. the present edifice. Upon the formation of Jefferson County in 1801. an Act of Assembly. William Meade. that territory was cut off from Norborne Parish. Alexander Jones and J. or Bunker Hill. The original parish included all the territory now embraced by the counties of Jefferson and Berkeley. this parish and county were taken from Frederick. James A. The other was erected in Mecklenburg.t. and contained within the limits. and was erected by Philip Pendleton. and Revs. in the year 1769.

Rev. He was also an author of marked ability. cration read . and running through three editions of a history of the Reformation. church papers published in the valley. While in Martinsburg he contributed largely to the CliristiarC s Magazine and LaymarC s 21agazine. of Maryland. and in 1SG5 it was found necessary to renovate it before it could be used for divine worship. of which there is any knowledge. was held in the Martinsburg Church by Bishop Meade. regarding the clergy of the parish. The number confirmed composed a class of in 1830. having I)ublished six volumes of poems. Mr.The CTiurches. Mr. Lyman. Daniel Sturges was then licensed by the Bishop of London as Rector for Norborne Parish. West Virginia became a seiDarate diocese in . and was followed by Rev. He was the first to propose a division of the diocese. and it is supposed there were no ministers in charge at those times. Rev. He had spent a while afterward in England for the benefit of his health. Emanuel Wilmer. Benjamin Allen took charge of the parish. was far beyond the standard of the parish. Mr. : The first confirmation. and on a homeward bound vessel died. Rev. Wilson. Theodore B. The present vestibule and iron railing were j)laced in front of the church in 1SC9. it is said. Enoch Love. Between the lai:)se of 1811 and 1813. The parish was organized in 1769. He Avas succeeded by Rev. in his ministerial work. Rev. about the year 1806. There are many breaks in the succession. effort by the war of 1812. nineteen. and the following committee was appointed to confer with the Bishop and standing committee on this subject Rev. Rev." The church was badly damaged during the late war. Price was made Here a temporary stop was ]Dut to all clerical rector. Yeasey succeeded him in 1786. and in 1815. and who. Bernard Page was the Rector in 1795. 353 Sentence of conse- by the rector of the parish. Edward Colston and Robert Page. and no indentification of the clergy as its Rector can be found until the year 1771.

Lea. 1823 John T. Hedgesville. . H. 1879. . in 1810. J. John M. The present edifice has been handsomely renovated and refurnished in an artistic manner. . P. . Y'oung. 1855 W. 1875 and Robert Douglas Roller. A. W. Colston Senior and Junior Wardens. Back Creek the other. Colston. Howell and J. this parish was supplied by Rev. W. about two and a half miles from town. L. Lyeth . Mathews. 1830 William : . Allen. who had been serving the churches of Shep- herdstown and Charlestown jointly for twenty years. W. D. The Superintendent is Wm. Lyng. Baker Treasurer. 1850 1860 John W. . 1837 James Chisholm. H. J. B. Baker. who was also an . J. when lie resigned to accept a call at Charleston. . Young and B. Alex. Ya. . Doll. who remained there years. Harrison. T. and from this date was succeeded by ministers as follows Revs. Geo. J. Davis. The cliurch now has a membership of 170. Francis Richard T. J. Registrar. W. Lippett. . In 1848 Norborne Parish was divided and was made to include Mt. Edward R. S. JMr. Johnson.354 27^6 Cliurclies. Trinity Church. and an average Sunday School attendance of ^'^. Chrisman. Thomas Horrel. B. the Rev. 1826 James H. 1832 Cyrus H. Doll. since whicli time tUe cliarch lias rapidly increased. This church was organized in 1825. . 1842 D. L. and Calvary Churcli. Enoch Love. Yestrymen. T. who served the parish until April 1st. and of the venerable old is the daughter church on Tuscarora. Si)rigg. 1878. Cooper was the first ruling Elder. . He divided his time equally between these two churches until he removed to the west in 1831. The church was organized in April and seems to have been without a pastor for the But in the year 1826 or 1827. Jacobs. Zion Cliurch. Mar. 1836 Charles C. . tinsburg. PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. Lyeth. John first year. gave up his charge with Shepherdstown and removed to Martinsburg. 1888. . C. After the death of Rev. Taliaferro. Brooke. B. S.

1866. James N.. Rev. for there is a blank in the Records from April. None of these ministers found the way clear to accept the call. Harrison. Mr. Mathews became fore the separation. which was accepted by the church with much regret. J. G. the pulpit was vacant. L. Riddle. Lewis C. Mr. Boyd Harlan. Harmon w^ere unanimously elected Ruling Elders. B. and on the 6th of Dec. Peyton Harrison was called to the pastorate of the church. Wm. M. Berry. Riddle and Mr. Mr. A. following Mr. and in the spring of 1838. then quite a young man. R. G. After the resignation of Mr. John Bogg became pastor in 1845. Berry resigned. and remained in this city for six years. Cooper occurred. At a meeteng held on the 19th of January. Berry. 1855. In August. a son of Dr. Rev. Peyton R. John M. In April.The Churches. C. Tabb and Mr. Samuel Baker appears in the records as a Ruling Elder. Mr. the name of Mr. and nearly On the all that time had charge of the sessional records. 1853. the former pastor. and Rev. During his pastorate the death of Mr. the congregation called successively Rev. though possibly longer. On the 2nd of May. D. 1858. 1859. At this latter date Rev. In April. who. John F. Peyton Harrison. was also chosen by the congregation to the same office. of New Jersey. who for fortylive years had held the office of Ruling Elder. Harrison were ordained to the office of Ruling Elders in the church. probably remained only a few months. C. 23rd of the following April. and served the congregation 1835. During this year he was succeeded by Rev. 355 Elder in the old cliurch in the county for some time beRev. Geo. of Falling Waters . D. Baker. Hopkins was ordained and installed pastor. was tendered a call. Rev. Wm. During the years 1836 and 1837. 1831. HoxDkins. 1861. to April 1847. acting pastor in April. Hanner. 1838. which was accepted. On the 19th of April. took charge and served as pastor until 1849. who continued to serve the church for nerly ten years. Mr. Rev. Alex. Love 1845.

that gives a pleasant pro]3hecy of the future of their active. J. of Lebanon. L. bury In the following spring. Wm. by Rev. was the first time God had called them to their pastor. busy town. C. Woods. M. The first services held by this denomination were in the house of John Timmons. 1877. White. kins resigned this pastoral charge in Aug. when he resigned on account of infirmity of health. Mr. F. and since the birth of this congregation. with Hugh A. Mr. Blackburn Hughes and J. 1SG7. E. as assistant. a call was accepted by Rev. Dr. 1SG8. The cost of the building amounted to nearly 84. who was afterwards installed by a commitOn the 23rd of Sept. began his ministry in Martinsburg. with a membership consistiag of about fifty families. X. Wisner is the j)resent Sunday School Superintendent.000 and the ground was given . the congregation for the thirteenth time in history was called upon to select another shepherd. Riddle. now located on Race Street. 1865.' Sr-G The CJiurcltes. Within these nine years its there has been an encouraging increase in this church. with a Sunday School attendance averaging 75. Jas. along with her sister churches. Hughes. 1879. The congregation of the church have built a most delightful and commodious manse at a cost of nearly $6. from about the year 1810 to 1830. W. tee of Winchester Presbytery. Hopoffice of Ruling Elders in this church. Pa.. and continued until April. B. CATHOLIC CHURCH.000. Rev. and on the 2nd of June.. On the 14th of July. Gildea. 1866. Joseph's Cemetery is now located. who has for the past nine years been endeavoring to realize this responsible trust. this he died. Mass was said in this house for a period of nearly nineteen years. Chinch. in this church. Rev. Combs. The Elders are Jacob Miller. Riddle were chosen to the Rev. and Mr. in 1825. The first church was then built where St. The church membership now numbers over 200. E. The lot fell upon the present pastor..

Father Cahill. and used the Sacristy rooms as ptrisons. Plunkett. Andrew Talty. century. his assistant. J. from its earliest existence to the present date. and also finished the basement. at intervals. The stone work of the present church was begun by Father Plunkett. of Wheeling BeckWilmington. During the early period. of Wheeling. Whelan. visited the mission. The wooden steps were very frail and inconvenient. The names of those in charge. are as follows Rev. Rev.. History records no names of the pioneers of Catholicity in this county. finished the church to the extent of the funds. The interior is handsomelv frescoed and furnish- . with a massive stone front. J. Del. of about $40. of Bishoj^s Whelan. but was suspended for the want of means. Rev. as the congregation was too small to support it.000. and placed a pair of wooden steps in front. 357 by Richard McSlierry. O'Brien. Sept. Capt. each remaining several years. It is said the erection was commenced about 1845. and Kain. 30th. Rev. in which year the corner stone was laid. Gildea. the subscription paper dating Feb. Kyd Douglas was confined here for a period of six months. J. is a strong and substantial building. At different times a number of distinguished churchmen had charge. J. H. and there is no doubt that the communion members of the church of Rome came to this section in the decline of the last . The present edifice. B. Rev. Readman. the Jessie Scouts used it for a stable in which they kept about 70 horses. During the war.Tlie Churches. 17th At a cost 1850. Maryland.. Rev. : among whom were er. Rev. A. but afterwards left. The Sisters of Charity were established here by Father ^Yhelan years ago. Rev. and were only used by the soldiers twice. Kain afterwards replaced them Avith stone. 18G0. the church was dedicated by Bishop McGill. i)riests from Hagerstown and Frederick. situated on South Queen Street.

and erected an ediThe fice. 1st. and This is German Reformed congregation. Pace. This society. took charge Sept. tor of the Catholic Union of America. the present one. ment of the church for a long while. Dr. Rev. one of the oldest congregations in the valley. as assistant. The present church membership numbers over 1500. McKeefry is the present pastor.) This church used jointly by the two congregations for many years was found to be too small. 17th. from Emmittsburg. mission here March. and continued until April At the earnest request of Bishop Keane. worshipped together in a log building. the denomination purchased the Judge Hall property at a cost of $5. and thereby caused a number of their descendents to connect themselves with the English speaking congregations. Lucke entered upon his J. about the year 1776. XDrocured a site on Burke Street. but upon the purchase of this property the Sisters of Charity. and made imx3rovements to the amount of The parochial school was taught in the base$2. at FloriHe will succeed Rev. highest esteem by the people of all denominations. GERiMAN REFORMED CHURCH.000. J. Tlie Churches. Rec1st. •md was founded by German emigrants. and contains a beautiful marble altar. Lucke. Fred. Rev.200.000. conducted in the German services were formerly language. The first church bell introduced in this section of . 1887. who takes the chair da. in connection with the Lutherans.358 ed. at a cost of about $5. The school now has an average attendance of over 200 children. with Rev. Father Lucke was held in the in the Theological Union. with a large Sunday School attached. 1883. The old members of the church adhered to the use of in 184(3 the more suitable their mother tongue in conducting their services. In 1883. 1888. who migrated principally from Pennsylvania. but have now been supx^lanted by the English. and is very successful. (See sketch of Lutheran Church. Augustine Cathedral. he was called ujDon to take charge of the St.

John Fitz. Harry Cushwa. Chas. Shoafstall and Wm. of which fact they met with much oppothen universal in the South. The laws of the church were strongly anti-slavery. The elders are H. attendance. D. 1826 to 1831. Bragunier. 359 country was purcliased by this denomination in 1808. and delivered the first sermon in the Market House. and which continued unbroken until the civil war opened in 1861. Seibert. 1845 to 1860 William D. W.The ChurcJies. In 1789 the first circuit west of the Blue Ridge was formed with Martinsburg as the centre. The first Methodist j)reaching in this State west of the Blue Ridge Mountain was commenced by Bishop Francis Asbury. The present church membership now numbers about 250. Shortly after a number of societies were organized in Martinsburg and throughout Berkeley and adjoining counties. south of the jail. Deacons. . he stopped in Martinsburg on his way westward over the mountains. RobertDouglas. and the society known as the M. 1870 to 1874. METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. Many were the obstacles and oppositions that encoun- . from ISOS to 1820 Samuel Helfersty. located on John street.lS34 to 1845 Daniel F. Cushwa. which occurred in 1846. Hoffheins in 1875. JacobBeecher. R. E. S. Lewis Mayer. and John A. The first building occupied by this congregation is still standing. Myers. James H. . Matthaei. M. Boak as Sunday School Superintendent. The congregations of this society Vv'ere assembled by blowing a tin horn. as they were bitterly ox)posed to ringing church bells. with D. G. . Kilmer. Lafever. and on account sition. 186G to 1SG9 Stephen K. Lewis Bentz. average . George Adam Geting. A division in the church was caused by this subject. Kremer. who is now the present pastor. and a scholarship of about 100. J. On the 2nd of June. Jonathan Rahauser. 1782. 1820 to 1824. The pastors as they succeeded each other areas follows Revs. Church South was afterward organized.

John M. during which time the membership increased to over tAvo hundred. 18551856 J.000. Furlong. their pioperty has advanced upwards of 850. A. He remained with the church nearly eleven j'ears. H. Green (since deceased) became j^astor in charge of Martinsburg. tliis but. it grew and the time it became thorouglily established until 1850 its membership numbered nearly a hundred. Presiding Elder for the Virginia portion of the Baltimore Conference. 1859-1860 C. The church was again reorganized throughout the county in the latter part of 1863 by Dr. and being set : . C. it was known as Martinsburg Station. Greene. by some itinerant Southern preacher at different places. In 1850 the Martinsburg society became an independolf from others in the county. causing almost an entire suspension of religious services. . . . each other 1851-1852 G. Since the ruins of the church building from the effects of the war.H60 tered ' The Churches. M. W. which so continued until 1801. From the Spring of 1861 until 1863 the Methodists held no religious services in the county excepting at irregular intervals. notwitLstancling. In fact. . H. 1853-1854 J. who completed the reorganization. such was the case generally throughout the State. John Lanahan. 1862-1863 J. . . It became popular on account of making no dis- society . Owen. 1850 David Thomas. Reid. 1861 J. 1866-1867 E. D. . McDaniel. termed the common people. In 18G1 the civil war broke out and the society was completely broken up. ent church. H. Henry Furlong as j)astor of the church. From tinction in its admission and was at that time and encouragement of members. since which time Methodism has ra^Didly increased throughout the county. 1864-1865 H. During 1850 only two Methodist preachers were employed in the county. Brown. SAvope. The following is a list of the pastors as they succeeded Revs. Cooper. ilourislied. . 1857-1858 S. During this year the Baltimore Conference appointed Rev. . Landstreet. McMullen. . and especially in Martinsburg. At this time Dr.

II.TheChurclies. Mathews. Henry Crim. Vice-President The present church memberLilly Mathews. Westrater. Ockerman. Luther Miller. McElroy and I. 1885. L. which gave such an impetus to the enterprise that those having the matter in charge determined to build a new church that would be an adornment to the town and a credit to the congregation. 3G1 . "Wm. David Darby. ship numbers 401. F. President F. 1S73-1874 M. The demand for a better house of worship had long been felt by those of Southern Methodist persuasion. and the work of laj^ing the foundation was immediately commenced after the removal of several old buildings. D. The amount realized was §2. A. The present trustees of the church are AVm. F. A.) at a cost of ^3. 1885.000. David Shoat and John A. Bender Assistant Superintendent. Kearn. The corner-stone v. Jacob Eversole. SOUTH. Becker in April. E. Secretary bers. Treasurer. with a Sunday school attendance of 330. W. S. by Revs. Wm. 1875-1876 J. V. 1872 J. present pastor. . lS70-lS7i A. 18S0-1881 J. Leech. Sunday School Superintendent. i8CS-1869 .-as laid with Masonic rites Sept. Fred. The missionary h^ociety is comi:)Osed oi. Bender. with a membership numbering fifteen. ChamMiss C. for the purj^ose of improving or building a new church. IMETHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. . 1866. This society was organized in December. (now Maple avenue. Hank. B. 19th. Reil}-. Lee M. . Frank Weaning. and addresses were delivered in the Presby- . . S.50('. . 1884. Cornelius. They worshipped in a small school building on King street for nearly a year. Amos. V. . 1887-1888. where they worshipped until January. Leecli." lifted December 21st. 1886. The ])resent site on West Martin street was purchased from Mr. Rice. Darby. and the effort to procure one culminated in the " Centenary or thank offering. 1877-1878-1879 G. 1882-1883 A. R. . 1884-1885-1886 Jolin Edwards. and in the fall of 1867 completed an edifice on German street.

and the Stewards are G. C. 1874 to 1877 John Poisal. The church membershix) now numbers 211. The Sunday School Superintendent is Mr. Andrew. . 1S71 John S. M. of Virginia. Fisher.. Kennedy as the present pastor. Eugene Newton and Joseph H.100. 1881 to 1879 J. Clark. Wilen. Shaffer. H. 1872 Wesedifice : The new . . H. with a Sabbath School attendance of 200. 700 Avas and others. R. Smith. John Landstreet. John L. S. 1877 Presley B. of Baltimore. Collections were lifted on both occasions amounting to The building committee was composed of Rev. . until the opening of the lecture room in the new edifice. who served from 1869 to 1871. 1880 1884 J. with Rev.362 terian The Churclies. Buxton. John L. and the City Band furnished music suitable to the occasion. The former was a distin2:uished theologian and minister in ihe German Re- . Hopper. This was dedicated by Rev. D. ley 1873 Louis C. R. T. H. March 21st. of Maryland. H. Rousch and J. Maxwell. . October 2nd. N. Beall. the first station preacher this charge ever had. F. AVilson. Miller. after which the congregation worshipped in the Court House and Feller's Hall. and services conducted morning and night by Bishop Alpheus W. S. R. 1S8G. W. Davidson. T. John Young. H. and was succeeded as follows Thomas B. T. Church by Grand-Master Shyrock. $2. G. . Sargent. The Church of the United Brethren in Christ was founded by William Otterbein and Martin Boehm about the middle of the eighteenth century. D. Andrew. The first i^astor in charge was Rev. Rousch. Fisher. pastor. 1SS7. N. Hammond. H. and who was largely instrumental in organizing the society here. taken \r^. In the meantime the old church was sold by the trustees. 1875 O. . UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH. On this occasion a collection amounting to si. G. Barr. 1884 to 1888. Clark. C. was completed and dedicated Sunday. J. . Shaffer. The Mayor and City Council attended in a body. . Shaffer.

They had grown tired of the cold formalism and inactivity of the churches to which they belonged. Otterbein arose and. The membership in this Srate now numbers over 7. and is in 1857. In 1856. the society in Martinsburg was formed. embracing the eloquent speaker. he exclaimed are brethren. Boehm preached the first sermon. and at the close of the late war it was found the number had considerably decreased. The first conference was held in 17S9.T?te Clmrchss. It is located in "Strinesville. Otterbein as pastor. Pennsylvania. established at Dayton. and began the work of promoting revivals and insisting upon a spiritual membership. Ohio. and is used to this day by a German United Brethren congregation. and the latter a member Mennon- Church.000. 363 of the formed ite Cliurcli. and was completed. the West lars. with Mr. to distinguish the church from the Moravian United Brethren. and one of great power." the Northern part of the city. They were eminently successful in their labors. the present edifice . about which time the first church was built. Here originated the name " United Brethren. Virginia Conference was organized. She has forty-eight annual conferences in the United States and territories. with three presiding elder districts and thirtysix fields of labor. Mr.500." The words " In Christ" were afterward added. which is clear of debt They have and annually turns over to the church thousands of dolIn 1858." The multitude that witnessed it was deeply and favorably impressed at this exhibition of christian : "We fellowship and good will. and since has made a steady and permanent growth.. with a few hundred members. at Lancaster County. also one in Canada. the first organization occurred in Baltimore. one in Germany and one in West Africa. These two devoted christian men were for the first time brought together at a great union meeting which was being held in Isaac Long's barn. Md. At the close of his speech Mr. In 1774. a printing oflace worth nearly §250.

Rev. Brackett — Deacons. The present membership numbers nearly 150. I^fr. The present pastor.364 well furnished. and a j^arsonage connected at a cost of $800. Minor Duval. R. METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. W. Va. R. the colored people. G. C. Morril. with a Sabbath School attendance of about 100. Marshall. but since has been put in complete repair. (COLORED. John Anderson FREE WILL BAPTIST CHURCH. It has since been torn conipletel}^ down. During the war it was considerably damaged. who was then engaged in school teaching and general missionary work vision of Miss A. (the site of the present edifice.) No records are to be found to show any exact date for the establishment of this denomination in our county. but like the other colored church. at a cost of 82. H. vrith a seating capacity of 400. Green is the Sabbath School Superintendent. and Messrs. as Stewards. number 110. Ridenour is the present pastor. Yeney. Adams. is a refined and scholarly gentleman. and has an average Sabbath School attendance of 97. F. and a graduate of Storer College. H.) in which public services were held. Dudley. considerable aid was given the church in its early struggle. J. and a large. The church trustees are J. with Mr. The present church was built directly after its organization. Philip Rimel as Sunday School Superintendent. S. it was not founded until after the late war. HarThe membership of the church l^er's Ferr}'. Joseph Long and James Buchanan General Steward. A. Carter. Wm. Yeney. an excellent brick building. With the assistance of Revs. Thomas Ellis and Brown Freeman. commodious brick . among IN". Henry and J. Its location is on North Raleigh street. W. The first building was erected on West Martin street. and was built under the superof Maine. and A. F. Rev.500. Stephen Elam. (COLORED ) This church was organized shortly after the war by the Home Mission Society. The Churches. J.

J. who succeeded Rev. Samuel Chas. 365 building erected in its stead. and with a present membership of about 125. The church is very ably supported. W. Z. with Mr. Ford. James Clayton. F. as Superintendent. ability for his ministerial duties. J. Rev. H. Wheeler is an earnest worker and jDossesses marked The Stewards are Hopewell. James Willis. James Willis and John Shaw. Frank Corsey. . Henry McGill and John Lowman. Smith in 1887. Wheeler. Silvers. has an average attendance The j)resent pastor is Rev. Trustees. Corsey. Wm. of nearly 100 scholars. Mr. F. Brooks. Samuel Hopewell. is doing a grand work. The Sunday School. John Shaw.The Churches.

and the river Potomac. This chapter. BERKELEY COUNTY IN 1810— TOPOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OP BERKELEY" COUNTY"— NATURAL CURIOSITIES MINERALOGY" AND LITHOLOGY" TOWNS. Martinsburg is the capital and inclining to the West. CONTENTS. BERKELEY COUNTY. W. inclining to North. MANUFACTORIES. iaclining to the South by said river. C J. — —INHABITANTS. iHROUGH sketch of Berkeley County in 1810. FaulkThe following ner. the courtesies of Mrs. which divides the States of Virginia and Maryland to the East. PRODUCTIONS. the seat of justice of this county. It contains 484 square miles. The same as in Frederick County. and Jefferson County to the South. by the river Potomac. the late Hon. inclining to the East. when compared with the following one. . M. and is bound to the North. or 319. . . . a large amount of historical facts. Faulkner. and also of the manner in which it has improved. Faulkner. by the county of Hampshire. and extends 20 miles in length and about 18i in breadth.CHAPTER XV. was taken from an old printed pamphlet.760 acres. ETC. now in the possession of Mrs. by Frederick County to the West. Lies between the 39th degree and 18 minutes North latitude. will give the reader a general idea of our county 78 years ago. the author has been enabled to secure from the memoranda of her husband.

paying the poor tax. Mr. It might be computed to be about 500 feet perpendicular at its greatest height. There is now in this county 2. called Meadow Branch. this county and Jefferson were but one it then contained 15. B67 POPULATION.000 would still remain to Berkeley. .Inliahitants. — . or males above 10 years of age. except in the middle of the two. The Potomac this State is the only river in this county : it divides from Maryland. remarkable on acIt has a summit beautifully undulated in all its length. The East side could be planted with vines. suppose that I of the white population has been taken to form the county It of Jefferson. Third The Warm Spring ridge.600 slaves. living immediately under that side of the mountain. The heighth of both mountains is about 700 feet from their base. . although the division of the whites was not so equal. exhibited an European vine which resisted the coldest winters. When the hist census was taken in 1800. afforded large quantities of lucious grapes every year.000 white inhabitants and 3. where issues a stream of water. RIVERS. &g. and both run parallel to the North Mountain they are not cultivated. Towns. First . — The its North Mountain it is count of raising immediately like a wall. is broken in several places it is about 300 feet high it divides Berkeley County from Hampshire. These ridges succeed each other in the above order. It is not cultivated. Edward Tabb. and where the plantation of a huntsman is seen. is supposed that half the above number of blacks fell to Jefferson County. Second The third Hill and Sleepy Creek mountains are nearly joining. and without either pruning or cultivation. 10. — . THE MOUx\TAL\S IN THIS COUNTY ARE— . running Westerly from the North Mountain.100 tithables.

Tuscarora. This circumstance does not. The remainder of it is slate and Mountain land. for the supply of the springs. and suffers the rain water to penetrate it. Robertson's mill. and extends froni Mr. nearly all limestone. as it were. will grow more valuable yet. on account of being higher than the other part of the valley. I have thought that in order to give an accurate idea of the qualities of the soil of this county. The water is therefore kept there. Second This parcel contains the valley of Back Creek. The quality of the soil is good. Opequoii. and the as well as part of failing streams. of an on the ridge. owing to the springs that feed Warm Springs. This ridge continues its course through this county. The three first. Middle. and on a breadth of about two miles. except the bottom on the creek. and where the Sulphur Springs are to be found. QUALITY OF THE SOIL.36S Iiihahlianis^ Toicns. on slate or rocky bottoms that do not i)ermit the water to penetrate their substance become dry in the hot seasons of the year. I think. I ought to divide it into three parcels or valleys. are neverthem being in limestone land. but it has been washed by the rains more than in Frederick County and lies lower. Mill. Back. which have the head springs. CREEKS. —The parcel is excellent quality excex)t Paris. &c. is watered by it. I think. while those creeks. on the Warm S^Dring road. Sleepy. the Warm Spring Creek. I think that a mountain existed. where. Gaunt' s to Mr. which is of a good limestone land. The whole is susceptible — and . corroborate that system already spoken of respecting the springs receiving their supply from the sea by subterraneous IDassages. which is deep and spongy. and by means of clover and plaster of First first . The creeks are. which is a loam. I will observe that there is a tract of land marked on the map with the sign of a hill.

) and in order to make the people on whose land these stones are found better acquainted with the nature of the true plaster of Paris. which. . many bushels. . believing them to be gypsum. with sides.Inhabitants. they said. there are masses under ground of these spars. LITHOLOGY. I took them to be rather a carbonate of lime (of the nature of limestone) instead of being the sulphate of it. I shall extract I)art of a chapter of ChaiDtal's on chemistry. by the is limepart along the Warm stone some bottoms on the creek are loam the rest is slate and mountain land. and consequently. and truncated. and will become very valuable by attention to agriculture. that the most intense heat had not the least immediate effect on them. of different kinds in the limestone land. good crops of small grain. had been sold as such. sooner or later. : : As part of this county . imx3roved by the plaster of Paris and clover. however. near Martinsburg there are some in the form of a column. . of different forms. He expresses himself thus The plaster loses its transparency by calcination. and resuming its hardness it does not give fire with the steel. On Ai3ple-pie Ridge. in my opin- Some Spring . . 369 of great improvement. white and transparent. (plaster of Paris). had them ground and spread on their lands indeed. The people on whose lands these stone are seen. after several experiments. ion. and made a trial on them. Third— Is the valley of Sleepy Creek watered said creek. in causing them either to lose their transparency or hardness. I went to those places and obtained specimens of those stones. is limestone. and acquires the property of again seizing the water of which it had been dejprived. and I found. would afford. (of the nature of pilaster. which is commonly used for detecting the true gy^DSum from the common stone I XDut them in contact with lire. at the same time that it becomes pulverulent. marble will conseI have seen spars quently be found in it. Towns &c. nor effer' ' .

the acid is decomposed. is pounded. and the residue is lime. it can be formed. the mill of Mr. by calcination. . &c. that to the former in earth. not resume its transparency a circumstance which appears to prove that its firm state is a state of crystalization if it be kept in fire of considerable intensity. may probably answer to improve lands. it is owing to the sulphuric acid that the plaster contains. but does der. 600 times its weight of water. either by pounding or grinding. 32 calcarins earth. while it will not be so with any other calcareous substance. from the other." It is soluble in . Upon the principle above stated if we learn that plaster is and lime are both calcareous a conclusion from them. also. any other caland in order that one might be known careous matter. in contact with powder of charcoal. on Tullis branch. and 38 water it loses nearly 27 per cent. when the plaster. I will add for information. He says farther. pour some drops of water on both. that the people also took for plaster of Paris. that as the plaster. . It will cause an immediate efferverscence on the lime. and that both a pyretous and limestone ground is required for the formation of it. . while the plaster will receive no effect from it. 100 parts of gypsam contains 30 jDarts of sulphuric acid. . after calcination. and we might draw attributed any virtue promoting the growth of clover and other plants. also. and falls into powIf it be moistened.370 InJiab Hants. or made into "Near found a kind of lime by fire. "Another kind of lime-stone I found atMr. its water of crystalization is dissij^ated it becomes opaque. it becomes hard again. with the addition of water. &c. Besides. When it is exposed to heat. Samuel . vesce with acids. I soft lime-stone. at the temperature of 60 degrees of Fahrenheit. loses its consistence. looks nearly as white as sifted. j)ulverized and when calcinated. into a paste which will grow solid by drying. Toions. which being easily reduced into powder. Stephens.

Towns. ties sufficient to be worthy of exploring. Those stones would be of great service in the raising of dams and locks on this river. Sheerer has used them in its stead to embelish his new house. There is a natural reservoir bearing the name of Swan Pond. in the same manner as spoken of in the article of.branch of commerce. you hear theai pass under . two or three miles from Martinsburg. John Yanmetre. NATURAL CURIOSITIES. (copperas. and no more is seen of them until near the mouth of Opequon Creek. xMLXERALOGY. that he raised from the bottom of that river. in Sleepy Creek Valley. AVhen the navigation of this river shall be improved. Sheerer' s mill. has been made by any chemist on those mountains. where. Rivers in Frederick County. Iron. near the house of Mr. beauty and size. in this county." " I have seen at Mr. any shistus (slate stone) I have ever seen. but not in abundance however. Those slabs can be polished and sawed easier than marble. the waters of which run off in a stream for some distance and then sink all at once. wliicli would perhaps answer tlie same jmrpose as the above described. in a hollow or jiit of about 100 feet deep and 300 feet in circumference. and Mr. is found a kind of sulphate of iron. It is found between the slates. and will constitute a. but the last ore is not found in quanti. are found on Sleepy Creek Mountain. &c." cities beloAV. near his house. The waters of Sleepy Creek contain the iron in solution to such a degree that the stones on its bed are covered with the oxide of it. with a x)articular view to obtain these ores. On the banks of Opequon. which surpass in color.Inhabitants. for the improvement of navigation. when a diligent search is made much may be found. copper. 371 Hedges'. no doubt that they will be boated down to the.) which immediately turns leather black. flag stones. as well as silver ores. on the Potomac. No search yet.

he intends to carry on a complete factory of cloth. this house is well fitted for accommodation. an oil mill and one paper mill. I hope these two infant manufactories may be encouraged so as to become permanent establishments and add to the stock of wealth of the country. MANUFACTORIES. on which the citizens of Martinsburg have bestowed some trouble and expense to render it convenient this county. Gibbs is an ingenof cloths on a pretty large scale. Minghini. and going undoubt- There are in this county upwards of 50 grist or merchant mills.MILLS. at two miles distance from Martinsburg. convenient stone-built merchant mill on and joining Martinsburg has been bought lately Tuscarora from Mrs. a fuller. &c. and having at hand a number of capable weavers. also. and several hundred i^ersons resort there every season. .i 372 tlie Inlidb Hants ^ Toidiu. the proprietor of a fulling mill and carding machine established on Middle Creek. Mr Jonathan Wickersham. dressing and dying all sorts Mr. rocks of the bottom of that edly to Join Opeqnon Creek. to place them in this . pit. Hunter by Messrs. There is another. near the precincts of Bucklestown. but the . as many saw mills. several fulling mills. Hibbert is a fuller by trade he has already erected all the apj)aratus for fulling. Hibbert and Gibbs for the purpose of establishing a wool and cotton manufactory. building. There are several of the sulx)hur kind on Opequon. ious mechanic he has moved from his cotton manufactory at Hagerstown all his^ machinery for carding and spinning both wool and cotton. Mr. MINERAL WATERS. in most remarkable is the one occupied by Mr. A large and . has added lately to his factory a jenny of fifty spindles to spin wool. about 8 miles from Martinsburg.

Toicns^ &c. mented and cai)able of contributing to the pleasures of the gay and healthy. This spot lies to the South-west of the Warm Springs ridge. Nature has been lavish of her favors to this spot of country. and after much pains. by the . might be greatly improved and embellished by taste and liberality if the Legislature of Virginia was disposed to encourage any practicable scheme to raise money for that purpose. I was informed by the neighbors and hunters living on the Ca. and of the Ca-Capon mountain. Water This place.Inliahitanis. as well as convenient and salutary to the sick and invalid. fluenced either in their temperature. under the Warm Spring Ridge. They liave put up a shower bath. 373 and useful to visitors. I will not attempt to elucidate the properties of these waters I will only say that the country in this valley looks barren and is uncommonly dry. she has showered her bounties upon the whole neighborhood by spreading over it a magnificent variety of the most finished and ereut channels issues a torrent grand scenery. which is used by the neighbors and townsmen. for in addition to those medicinal springs. as these springs are never in. as a mountainous country. that the waters of that creek were sinking at about 10 miles from its mouth. my curiosity was so much awakened as to induce me to look for the source of this spring. and at the distance of about 9 miles in a straight line from Bath Town. has the appearance of sterility. This seemed to me the more probable. though agreeably ornaful than this is. but by proper attention to culture might be made productive and rich. or quantity. The soil around this place. The most conspicuous one is at Bath Town. and as under the surface of the earth there generally exists a hard rock. from the foot of which and by difof water capable to cannot be more limj)id and beautiturn a mill.Capon Creek. which prevents the rain water from penetrating so as to produce permanent springs. and formed a vortex.

an eminent chemist. Is the cai^ital of the MARTINSBURG County of Berkeley . if desired. receives by their decomposition. that they contain no minerals in solution. well supplied with the necessaries of life. neither in a state of oxide nor gas. of which the basis of that Warm Spring ridge is composed. I took with me. and last fall. and a Market House. those sediments to Philadelphia. The streets . or wet. which plainly evince that they are highly mineralized.200 inhabitants it is the seat of justice. and has for that purpose a handsome Court House and Jail of stone. on account of its standing on an elevated spot. which could be carried in pipes throngh the town for the convenience and comfort of the inhabitants. have advanced. or cold. and consequently possessed of the virtues for which they have been so much extolled. and probably after having sojourned and passed throngh the mazes of the subterranean cavities under the Ca-Capon mountain. contains about 200 houses. in relieving or removing complaints. These waters. and consequently. will give a fall analysis of their contents. who. the soil of which is calcareous and having been in contact with the different pyrites composing their bed. warm. and after a due liltration through the sandy rocks. some of •gave them to Dr. the degree of heat. &c. who. as well as the gases with which they are impregnated. are totally destitute of any X)roperties whatever. that those waters contain. and nearly 1. The situation of this town is remarkably pleasant and healthy. Barton. and for having the Creek of Tuscarora watering its precincts. without taking any pains in the investiga- tion or analysis of these waters. they arrive at this spot. more than common water. have strong incrustations on the sides of the vessel. or dry weather. I have inserted this in order to counteract the opinion of those. when boiled. it . as well as under the valley which lies between the Ca Capon mountain and the "Warm Springs ridge.374 Inliab Hants ^ Toicns.

Eiglit taverns are kept in tliis place one of them has the reputation of being one of the best in the United States. . several manufactories. under the North Mountain. coffee house. one cabinet maker. 8 large stores. There is in this x)lace a handsome brick church.Inlidbitants^ Towns. for the supply of the farmers around it here are also a number of mechanics. a German Lutheran. It contains about 40 families. where. 3 stores. 172 from Richmond. DARKESVILLE. 375 and partly planted witli Lombardy poplars. OR GERARDSTOWN. and have a very fine apj)earance. and is well known by those who resort to the Warm Springs. w^hicli crosses this place. Here is kept a are wide. a Methodist and a Bai)tist three English schools. It is 22 miles from Winchester. a Presbyterian. and nearly at the head of Mill Creek. . . &c. MIDDLETOWN. one mile and from Mill's Gap. are 30 dwelling houses. a never-failing stream. to the East side of it. and 15 and a-half from Winchester. Latitude. This town is 10 miles from Martinsburg. on the road to Winchester 15 miles from that place. a Catholic. 32 minutes. 4 taverns. . one wagon maker. States are read . OR BUCKLESTOWN. 2 weavers. 117 from Staunton. 2 blacksmiths. North 39 degrees. and every description of artificers and mechanics. and on Middle Creek. Situated on a level . almost all the papers in the United . Lies 7i miles from Martinsburg. 81 from the Federal City. a physician and a Presbyterian clergyman reside here several large stores are kept in this town. built by the Presbyterians. one printing office there are also five X3nblic meeting houses for worship. partly limestone. a-half soil. . one distillery of whiskey a Methodist meeting house stands at the North end of this town. one tailor. . and IG from Charlestown. one English Episcopalian. 20 from Hagerstown. 100 from Baltimore. There . 171 from Philadelphia.

in a narrow valley. and 196 from Philadelphia. there is a sulphur sx)ring. Is situated in . 106 from the Federal City. 34 from Hagerstown. without regularity. it was visited by above 500 people. . 6 miles from the Potomac. since the cause was removed. or boarding houses. 4 miles disIt is but tant from this place.on this ridge. 1779. Situated immediately under the East side of tlie Warm Spring ridge. 35 from AYinchester.376 InJiabitants. it has regained Its character. and has only the name of a town for it contains only a few scattering houses. near Sleepy Creek. who are to visit this watering place. for the information of the people. and no doubt will increase each year. Toions. of visitors and invalids . OR WARM SPRL\GS. as being built with wood. that besides the above springs. Here are live large.000 of the hecm monde. among the number various branches of mechanics. but the houses. It is about 13 miles from Martinsburg. and on account of the celebrity of its waters. and no accommodation near it. 185 from Richmond. JAMESBURG Back Creek Valley. slightly impregnated with sulphur. Here are several stores and a manufactory of leather. watered by the stream which runs from the "Warm Springs. BATH-TOWN. The larger portion of this chapter was taken from old pamphlets. its reputation on account of some diseases which raged during one season. 108 from Baltimore. 26 families are living in this place . Several years ago this town was handsome. and a chalibiate spring . was yearly It had lost visited by above 1. occasioned by a pond where the waters were stagnating but. about half a mile from this town. convenient and handsome taverns. Last year. from which no evidence can be found as to the writer. I must not omit to mention. kept for the accommodation . It is 25 miles from Martinsburg. have decayed. &c.

and protects the valley from the f ary of destructive storms. Strine's second addition. passing : . pure wat^r to invigorate and strengthen our people. Quinzel. LODGES.— MANUFACTURING ADVANTAGES. RAILROAD ^IpARTINSBURG FACILITIES is. A. passing through the lands of E. sweet air and clear. P. geograpliically. ETC. thence north 5h degrees east.MARTINS BURG SCHOOLS— HOME ORGANIZATIONS. Herring. which ever sends fresh. The town of Martinsburg is contained within the following boundaries. PRESENT SITUATION OF THE TOWN AND COUNTY—JOURNALISM IN THE COUNTY— COUNTY COURT AND 'officials. foot of the Little North Mountain. which ranks third in size and amongst the first in number of acres of improved land and value of farm products in the Topographically the city lies nestled near the State. admirably sit- ^^Ss uated as the countv seat of Berkeley County. and the south east corner of A. Henry. 66 poles to a stake at the angle of the fence and in an original line between the land of Ezra Herring and the lot of C. . Arden and Opequou districts thence with the line of Opequon north 11^ degrees east. Roth's lot. to wit Beginning on the middle of the county bridge crossing the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 253 poles to a stake in the field thence north 60 degrees west. AND BUSINESS STANDING. This same mountain stands as a bulwark to the west and north against the rough blasts of winter. south of Green Hill Cemetery and corner to Martinsburg.CHAPTER XVI. .

378 Siiuation of Town and County. but is being well cleared and cultivated. & P.. 19 from Harper's Ferry. along the line between the additions of James A. 70 from Cumberland. iron ore. one of the largest branches in the country. 84 poles to a stake at the south end of Queen street thence north 92 degrees east. 80 miles from Washington. and give employment to several hundred hands. . and corner of Opequon. & O. For business and trade it is the centre of a large territory of country. . J.. Stewart. The surface of the western part of the county is mounThe tainous. . it being the present limits of the town. Boyd. 162 i)oles to a stake in the low grounds. turnpike thence passing through the lands of David Hess. on the east side. monthly thousands of dollars are expended for labor. H. and X)loys a large number of hands. 224 poles to the beginning. 176 poles to a stake about two rods southwest of a stone house on the lands of Hon. on the 1st division of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. etc. The place is just 100 miles from Baltimore. and is the southern terminus of the Cumberland Valley Railroad. which furnishes considerable jjower for manufacturing x^urposes. . owned by John Fitz. Hedgesville thence with the line of and Martinsburg districts Hedgesville in part. The Hannis distillery. and about 3 poles from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. and excellent qualities of coal. Hannis & Co. are to be found. The machine shops of the B. 22 Winchester. most valuable forests abound. are located in the city. south 361 degrees west. and finally with Arden district. John Strine and Hockinberry 62 poles to a stake in a stone fence on the west side of the M. . S. and on the land of John W. and the Tuscarora x\gricultural Works. south 88 J degrees west. The Tuscarora Creek passes directly through. 245 three tenths poles to a stake in the grade at the west end of King street thence south 90 degrees east. and also emPay is good. . are located on this stream. Faulkner thence south 71i degrees east. limestone. C.

and real estate as follows : Districts. . 379 county is witli assessable buildings divided into seven districts or townships.Situation of Tlie Town and County.

Two large and handsome hotels are well supported in the town the St. The town is well graded and the streets kept in an excellent condition. Williams. The older buildings are fast disappearing. Bishop and a number of others have made big improvements. Doll. Two of the largest and finest banks in the State are supported in this city. Snodgrass and B. E. Williams Third Ward. E. John Dunn. H. Staubley and F. . was purchased by Messrs. Martin Second Ward. J. James H. McSherry and M. and in a few years our town will be composed entirely of the latest modern structures. C. McSherry. Lambert. B. Herring. W. Herring. A. J. Jr. It may be of interest to mention here some of the late improvements to our city. E. W. Emmert & Fiery. . . C. W. Dr. J. E. Dr. with rates from §2. W. Messrs. erected by the corporation for its own use. AV. J." which is generally well patronized. W. Walker. O. Senator C. Ramer. Clair. The old Carpenter lot and building on West King street. D. Shaffer.380 Situation of Toion and County.. under the management of Wm. W.00 per day upwards. Boyd Faulkner. Bowers Clerk. Faulkner. John Fitz. viz. . which had probably stood for centuries. and will far surpass many of the larger cities. under the management of Geo. Wellinger and M. and the Continental. John Fellers has latel}^ built a large town hall called the ''Academy of Music. . First Ward. . and two fine large and commodi- ous dwellings erected in its stead. Both are run and furnished in the best of style. G. Dr. Y. There is also a City Hall. C. Arthur Stephens and J.: The People's National Bank and the IS'ational Bank. P. Green Fifth Ward. Kaufman and Geo. A. Rutledge. a favorable comparison with any town of proportionate size. DeGrange Fourth Ward. and for promptness and dispatch of business cannot be sur. J. Mayor Councilmen. Fiery. passed. Both are well managed. F. W. Mr. C. The corporation officers are C. W.

Town and Comity. etc. at the foot of the ridge. for the purpose of manufacturing lumber and grinding sumac. and one mile east of North Mountain. Jacob . The town of Middletown was established about the year 1787. blacksmith shops. . and contains several stores. and has a large congregation. James Haw. Several stores and various other industries are supported. The Methodist Episcopal Church was built here in 1871. B. about one mile west of — — — — — . a large tannery and other important industries. Henry Wilen Policemen. O'Neal. etc. with one free and one high school. J. Nelson Wisner Engineer AVater Works. Thos. TOWNS AND VILLAGES LN BERKELEY COUNTY. Poisal Attorney. Shaffer. The towm is located eleven miles southwest of Martinsburg. Rev. . This place was originally called Jamestown. owned acd occupied by the Presbyterians. Two new^spapers are published here the Times and the West Virginia Good Templar^ by J. Jones'' Spring. The Presbyterian Church and one free school are also located in the town. John Gray. South. This village is located one mile w^est of Back Creek. A. three miles south of Shanghai. The town contains a number of stores. Morgan. William Henshaw. F. R. Located near the north line of the district. The present population numbers nearly 300. David Gerard. Ganotown. There are four churches in the town. . the first settlement in the district being made on the site of the present village. Ahern and John AV. C. Lutherans. Gerardstown. M. This place is situated on Back Creek. and soon afterward its name was changed to Gerardstown in honor of its founder.Situation of C. who laid it off into one hundred town lots. Methodist Episcopal and the Methodist Episcopal. 381 Young Sergeant. on Mill Creek. tan bark. Shanghai. A large factory is owned and run here by a joint stock company called the Shanghai Manufacturing Association. Gilbert McKow^n and Robert Allen were appointed trustees.

R. schools. containing the most valuable mineral waters. that while on here. and is used by this denomination at the present day. who was then a resiThe place was formerly knotvn as Bucklestown. blacksmith shops. known as "Hedges' Chapel. etc.382 Situation of Town and County. It con- Back Creek. E. one mile West of the B. Near by is a large grove. this locality became a historic spot on account of the many important events that occurred. V. of Martinsburg. etc. churches. The town is — composed of several stores. This town is located seven miles North Hedgesville.. etc. and is situated at the junction of Middle Creek. DarJiesville." was located the It has been authentically stated. schools. It was laid out in 1830 by Hezekiah Hedges. among which are the noted Sulphur Springs. and is noted as a resort during the summer months. 1791. &. It contains two churches. valley. several years prior to the opening of the Revolutionary War. the illus- — — trious is w^ell George Washington worshipped here. in North Mountain. It contains several blacksmith shops. and is situated in what is now known as Skinner's Gap. This village is located on the C. churches. stores. named after General Buckles. Falling Waters. stores. dent. R.. etc. United Brethren. Situated at the junction of Mill Creek and on the Martinsburg and Winchester turnpike. on It was the Martinsburg and Winchester turnpike. The town laid off and consists of fine dwellings. In 1872 the church edifice of the Episcopal society was purchased by the Calvary Church. O.—Thls village was laid out in October. about four miles North of Martinsburg. Bedington. tains a number of stores. occupied by the Methodist and During the late war between Ej^iscopal denominations. the States. BimJcer ITiJl. who resided there. named in honor of Genernl Darke. R. and named after his family who long resided One of the first Episcopal Churches erected in there. — Located about seven miles North of . his surveying expeditions in this locality..

This place is also a shipping point for Tomahawk and Hedgesville. One of the oldest churches in the county was erected here by the Presbyterian denomination. & O. on the C. schools. and is located on the Potomac River. R. are to be found Avithin its . and of greater importance. etc. stores. This place was the scene of many important incidents during the late war. and about nine miles North of Martinsburg. which was established in May. churches. R. which is standing and occupied at the present day. the about sixteen miles from Martinsburg. H. etc. churches. There are anumber of smaller villages scattered throughout the districts but my object has been to locate those in direct communication with Martinsburg. JOURNALISM IN THE COUNTY. above Dam No. The first newspaper jmblished in Berkeley County was the Martinsburg Gazette. churches. Within its limits are to be found several large flouring mills. Schools. about six miles North-west of Martinsburg. Gle7igary — '&\i\\?itQdi between the North Mountain and dividing line. by Nathaniel Willis.Toviahaiolt.. All are rapidly increasing in size and population. churches. Long before the advent of . seat. etc. and are inhabited by an industrious and energetic people. stores. 1799. etc. North Mountain. about sixteen miles Southwest of Martinsburg. Martinsburg Gazette. schools. It is composed of schools. Little Georgetoion... — Located on the B. — Situated in the extreme North-west end of etc. It is composed of well-regulated churches and schools.. and near tlie Potomac River. and contains schools. 8S3 Martinsburg. contains stores. — Situated six miles South of Hedgesville. etc. store. the county . churches. father of the renowned poet. — limits. This place is noted as a great fishing resort. Nathaniel Parker Willis. Y. stores.Situation of Town and County. and county. SoTio. R. and contains stores. 5.

it was published daily and weekly. on account of illness. 1811. the historic achievements on the banks of the historic Maumee. evidence of enterprise on the part of the prox)rietors. Its name and motto indicates its independence on all . Shaffer & Logan as editors. Logan. and the stirring events happening on the western border. Mr. 1873. when it iDassed into the hands of Wisner & Logan. it contains the details of many important events that occurred throughout the country but a short time previously. One feature of special importance is the war of 1812. In December. As an the telegraph. This firm continued the publication until March. it is astonishing to observe how the columns of the early files are crowded with interesting news. 1876. At the close of the war of 1861. a Democratic paper was started. In January. In 1866. 1876. April 1st. by General Harrison and Anthony Wayne. the Neio Era. Nelson Wisner as its editor until April. was compelled to withdraw from the business. 1873. with Mr.. it was controlled by the Indej)endent Printing Company. The publication of these articles were made within twenty days after their occurrence. John Alburtis became editor and proprietor. in xVpril. railroad imper commenced and steamship. From the consolidation of these two papers grew the Mar tinshurg Independent. Until April. 1833. 1873. and continued its publication until October 25. when he was succeeded by Washington Evans. its publication. — Martinshurg Independent. and closed its career with Messrs. and his entire interest was purchased by Mr. and since that date it has been published weekly. was the Berkeley Union. telephone. an advocate of Republicanism. this and considering this fact. J.384 Sihiaiioii of Town and County. 1822. Alburtis commenced the publication of the Journal^ at Shepherdstown. when Mr. the lirst paper published in Martinsburg. Wisner. From the time of its establishment until April. in North-western Ohio. 1885.

As an act of appreciation on the part of the author of this work. Pitzer and Walter M.Situation of subjects. is amongst the oldest established retain a sacred place to his in the This paj)er county. U. as foreman. Grant Pitzer is at present acting in the capacity of assistant editor. C. C. Mr. with Edward Wild. will speak for itself. and Mr.eight columns are always full to the brim with interesting and important news. Martinshurg Statesman. terest manifested Through the care and inon the part of this gentleman. besides access to libraries of books. and served his apprenticeship under the instructions of Mr. C. Mr. as tlie fact of its being the oldest established paper in the county and of nearly twenty-five years duration. a deep and lasting impression has been made. live editorials. Mathews. H. and various departments and skilled workmen exeevery branch of the business. office The prietor. He was taken from the associations of the average wild boy at an early age. H. and shows every evidence of marked ability on the part of its present editor and proadvertisers. . Wisner' s training was given every advantage of the art of printing and journalism in general. he takes this ojjportunity and pleasure in stating that on this paper he acquired the greater portion of his learning. J. Aler as comx)ositors. and has been from its infancy a staunch advocate of Democratic principles in fact the only Democratic paper in the county. and under Mr. S. a veteran typo of some forty years experience. C. Town and County. 385 It is and its aim to benefit the public welfare. and has been a — pai^er used to the interest of the public of both town and county. The Independent cute has a very large circulation and controls a vast influence. Nelson Wisner. Mathews. and wideuseless to comment on awake are complete in every detail. its past record. Its forty. It has always been conducted under strict management and party princii^les. It is of good clear print. which shall ever memory.

S. . who is The Statesman has the proud been the first distinction of having newspaper. and allowed the cylinder press to take the place of the hand press. W. the present editor and i^ublisher. In 1883. The Statesman is ably edited. He has equipped the office with new material. which it still holds at the present day. to of Grover Cleveland for the Presidency. and has been the means of accomx^lishing considerable enterprise on the part of the citizens. Colston has improved it considerably. W. Through its columns can be found numerous items. Sloan and Harry H. suggest the name . Leigh. Sharffs as compositors. B. John Y. and contained an excellent and large run of advertisements. Colston.386 Sittiation of Town omd County. John S. Eichelberger s control. and the name changed to the Martinsburg Statesman. This paper originated from the Valley Star. and then comx^are the improvement of both town and county of the x. size and make-up. it is only necessary to glance over the file papers of the past.)resent day. under which name it has continued to the present day. after his phenominal run for Governor of New York in 1882. is at present acting in the cax^a city of local editor and foreman. both in print. the plant was purchased by Capt. Since taking charge of the pajoer. During Mr. Mr. the paper was well published. and deserves joatronage of the public in general. Robinson. The heading of the i)aper contained a cut of the present Court House. Robinson. in the year It was x^urchased in 1869 by D. which was established by James W. arousing the citizens of the county to a state of enterprise. before the late improvements were made. Eichelberger. To form an idea of the Statesman) s worth and value to the community. and industry. Ill public affairs it is always ready to take a stand. Capt. Job printing of every description is also executed in the most workmanlike manner. with Thos. as far as the writer knows.

with a circulation of 100. This end of the state was for a long time without a Republican i^aper. The Press is a neat. and news of interest to all. and associated with himself Mr. Evans. this valuable paper. to make the Herald a newsy and interesting sheet. Chambers. under the above management. These gentlemen deserve much credit. Riddleberger. has received the supiDort of the best people of the county and It has several times been enlarged in size. the manner in which it has aroused the public industry. A. F. and is a neat and clear print. for the manner in which they have labored for the interest of both town and county. 387 Martinshurg Herald. and the patronage of every Berkeley citizen. conservative management. C. until 1885. (colored. Their office. The Herald was continued as a conservative Republican paper. The compositors engaged on this paper are George W. Ryneal. have speared neither pains nor money. Riley purchased the entire interest of Mr. R. Geo. commenced publication under the control of Messrs. Like all the county papers. and by prudent. Messrs. Under the management of J. Riley. The paper contains reliable advertisers. Riley. and is jDublished . is complete in every detail with material. M. Clifford. C. 4-iDage paj^er. S. Riley &. in all its branches. one the leading Republicans in this end of the State. and under the editorial control of Mr. Staubly. During this year Mr.Situation of Toion and County. and the party was more or less dependent in xDolitics. during State. and they execute job printing in the most artistic manner. Goulden. and A. In the year ISSl. W. The present proprietors. its publication. Evans. K. Pioneer Press. From that time the Herald has gained ground.) this paper was established in 1883. its worth and value can be obtained by judging from its files of the j)ast. it commands considerable influence. irrespective of politics. Goulden and John T.

with a circulation upwards of 1. Independent office until chased the entire outfit of the lield. and has a circulation of nearly 500 which The paper is x>ublished at the is rapidly increasing.. A. Church Corference. and now has a large and excellent run of reliable His advertisers. W. devoted strictly to the order. by J. Clifford has labored hard to make it a newsy and interesting sheet. . F. Central Methodist. Its editors are . This paper is the official organ of the I. T. and It is a four circulates through all parts of the State. B. In 1887 this paper was founded by the Typographical Association. in the year 1870. Morgan. Politically. Independent office. F. White and F. Its poliand is devoted princix^ally to home news. and has been continued to the present day. John A. with an excel- This paper lent list of subscribers. pastor in charge at this place. It is devoted entirely to the local interests of the District Conference. From tlie energies have been crowded with a as an editor and manager. proprietor and editor. G. It is a neatly printed four col- The Times was established • umn quarto. of the colored M. the Press is Republican. It is the only journal in the State devoted to the colored race. where he now publishes his paper. published every Saturday. Wheeler. but will journal. 0. Gerardstoicn Times. under the management of Rev. Moore- Va. when hei^ur- Hardy Express. T. editor and proprietor. both The paper was printed at the the spring of 1888. B. sliortly merge into a weekly date of its existence Mr. West Virginia Good Templar.000. and is w^ell managed and edited.. Wheeler. is tics are neutral. marked success. monthly. E. colun^i quarto.. and commands considerable influence among both races.3SS Situation of Town and County. Morgan. F. Holmes. and is published every other week by J. and erected a building near his residence on West Martin Street.

BroJudges of Circuit Court kenbrough. Troxell. and Doren. H. was held been stated in a former chapter the first Court the house of Edward Beeson. John Strother. Robinson. 389 COUNTY COURT OFFICIALS. Joseph T. E. Norman Miller. Balch. Luther M. Reuben M. W. W^illiam Drew. Kennedy. Ephriam B. filling — who ter. Feidt. Jr. Xelson Wisner. and the present Clerk. H. Thomas. Joseph Chapman. x\lex. and Frank Beckwith the present Judge. Blackburn. and S. — is now serving his third term. S. E. B. iDresent Attorney. Members of tlie Legislature: George M. as Recorders. PRESENT OFFICIALS. P. G. Wm. George W. trict. situated on the land now owned by Mr. Blair Hoge. Perry A. W. Isaac R. Moses HunClerlis of County Court is now ably — John Strother. Shaffer. Rohrbaugh. H. Obed Waite. Leaman Gerard and Bernard Doll. C. J. S. Flick. •Jacob two terms. Martin. E. three successive terms. John W. Judge of the Circuit Court Thirteenth Judicial DisClerk of the Circuit Court. A. Douglass. Richard E. John Scott. the duties of a second term. Hall. J. Bowers and George H. J. Jno. Conrad. E. Ropp. The first Court house was built where the present buildicg now lias As at stands. Hall. Hoke. James M. David H. Henshaw. Norris. — — W. Elisha Boyd. Martin. — — . Edmund P.Situation of Town and County. H. S. list From the old records we obtained of officers as the}^ succeeded each the following other from its earliest existence Robert White. L. Doll.. Wm. Frank Beckwith. Joseph Burns. S. Alburtis. Murphy. AV. John Dunn. George W. Attorney s for the Commonioealth : Alexander "White. who Van — Harrison Waite. Jno. Chas. Faulkner. Price. Commonwealth's Attorney. H. Parker. Hunter. Edmund Shaw. Hughes and Geo. Clevks of Circuit Court: Israel Robinson. H. JohnCanby.

Tabler and G. Commencement W. (vacant). Lemon. September and December. AValker. . G. — . O'Neal. Seibert. C. Falling Waters.390 Feidt. M. Blackburn Hughes & Hugh A. Depof uty Sheriff and Commencement Tuesday in County Court of Berkeley Jacob AV. C. W. Nelson Wisner. (vacant . Picking and C. CoroSealer of Weights and Measures. . Commissioner of School Lands. Opequon. T. Deputy Sheriffs. D. Doll. Hollis Robert Lamon. W. Sincindiver. Second DisCharles H. Terms of Circuit Court — Second January. Matthaei Mill Creek. Stucky. W. trict (vacant). Terms of County Court— First Monday in March. H. Turner and C. Clerk of Court. A. Yanmeter. A. Emerson. Gerardstown. D. Jailor. White. W. Frank D. AVm. Faulkner & Stuart W. J. O. Situation of Sheriff. P. R. Feidt. Justices of the Peace— Martinsburg. R. Chas. M. Ingles. Boyd Faulkner & M. Staley. H. W. Chas. Folk Hedgesville. Cunningham and H. G. Miller. Noll. Cox. Commissioners in Chancery— John T. S. Geo. Potts. President B. Surveyor of Lands Geo. Carney. Billmyer Opequon. S. J. — — — Resident Attorneys— E. Geo. Gerardstown. John Dumf ord. A. Charles R. Arden. Hedgesville. J. . and George L. of Doll. Nadenbousch and U. Grant Pitzer. . McKee and Chas. W. — . April and October. W. Westenhaver. James W. Bowers Arden. J. Seibert. L. Mill Creek. Henry J. Jacob V. June. Constables— Martinsburg. Assessor First District David Dodd. Commissioners. Deputy Surveyor of Lands. Kilmer. ner. General Receiver. Wm. W. Henry Wilen Mill Creek. James M. Town and County.) Gerardstown. W. A. McKown . H. A. Payne. Flick & D. Swartz. Kitchen and Wm. T. . C. Robinson. Gardner. T. John L. Coffenberger Falliug Waters. Overseers of Poor Martinsburg. R.

R. requiring the German language to be taught in the free schools of the city. MARTLNSBURG SCHOOLS." located nea» recitation rooms. H. W. Arden. containing a large school room when a as such until 1866. Miller Opeqiion. which occupied the second story.200 one in the Fifth Ward. — The public schools 1S65. and started as a grammar school. In 1875 an Act was passed by the Legislature. Grantham and E. . The grammar department occupied the lower story. was purchased at a cost of $7. district. H. All the b^iildingsare well furnished. Matthews and Geo. Kreglow Falling Waters A. M. but of the city were first organized in were not in full operation part of the old " Kruzen the centre of the city. making Martinsburg an independent and two : . In 1884 the High School building was erected. Local Board of Health— Dr.500.800 and also a property for a High School at a cost of $7. Dr. L. As the population increased new houses were erected. with heating apparatus. R. W. . on a on South Queen street. beautiful location. Four grades Avere taught as a preparatory to the grammar dex)artment. projoerty.900 one in the Fourth Ward at a cost of 85. and are governed by the same board. Three of the ward buildings are composed of brick and one of stone also. McSherry. a neat brick building for the colored school. Hoffman. by a corps of eight teachers. 391 ville. terfield. Myers HedgesGeorge T. S. The Legislature passed an Act in 1870.Situation of . taught sioners. The colored schools were simultaneously organized with the other schools. H. Irwin. cost $4. W. mod- . H. and that a capable teacher of both languages be emx)loyed. .500. . Dodd. as follows one in the Second Ward at a cost of $6. H. Town and County. . County Superintendent of Free Schools I). Por. Wisong were the first commisAbout 500 pupils were accommodated. which contained two school rooms and a recitation room. J.

Assistants. H. Combs. President W. 3rd Assistant. Combs. Cox. colored school. Green. Ryneal. Fifth Ward. J. a more rapid advancement than ever experienced in the past. 173 Second Ward. tion than ever.298. etc. Clara Y. A. Mann. in proud of her the future. L. Pitzer. Principal Jennie Alburtis. Faculties of the Ward Schools— Second Ward W. 1. Ditto. A. Bateman. Kate M.392 Situation of Toion conveniences. Principal Jennie L. 232 . E. Barton. A. Colored School J. Principal Lillie Mathews. Jessie McElroy. 281 Third Ward. J. S. City Superintendent. E. Cox. 1. A. Principal Kate A. 2nd Assistant Annie E. . : . Faculty of the High School J. Asssistants. Hill. Assistants. teacliers. Fisher. 227 : . F. W. N.. Number enrolled in the various free schools in the city High school. : . Lottie V. as to place our schools on equal standing and make them as thorough and efficient as any in the State of West Virginia. Ada M. A. (colored) Principal Geo. WLitson. . Fourth Ward J. . W. M. Assistants. . Principal Jennie E. McKee^Lenora Smurr. thereby placing our schools in a more prosperous condi- — Martinsburg has every reason to feel school officers and system. : . N. Board Pitzer. Corsey. T. Snyder and E. Third Ward O. white children. Examiners: L. Ahern. Cutting. Twenty-two teachers are employed in all twenty white and two colored. Ward 355 . 130 total. of J. (colored) Assistant. em own The Giij educates nearly all its and always gives tlie preference to gradu- ates of tlie Higli Scliool.168 Grand white and colbred. J. Rodrick. arduous and comi^etent. all of which are zealous. and to effect. : : . . President. cmd County. Lula Y. H. 1st Assistant Annie O'Neal. . Cox. Fourth Total. Wilson. A. Day. Muth. Bettie M. wliicli lias resulted in a unity of system and harmony of action. Fifth Ward Alice Y. The present Board of Education is composed of John Grozinger.

and dividing by the number of studies. and general attractiveness. McDowell. Chief Marshal C. many years. Martinsburg Fire Department was organized in 1870. essential to a thorough and accomplished female education. David Fitz number of Members. LODGES. . A rigid system of marking is adoj^ted in every department. This school has been established for quite a lengthy period. O Lambert. Sh-iflfer and David Westall Assistants. wliich lias been in successful operation for of accessibility. . The school and residence is situated on West King street. In the department of music no pains are spared to give pupils every advantage necessary to a thorough musical education. Harrison and Miss B. E.Shaf: . The to a degree unsurpassed by any City in the State. HO.Situation of Tuicn and County. C. "West Virginia. Curtis. and is taught and managed by its very able and efficient prinoipals. J. Thomas. together with a conscientious regard for the moral and religious welfare. the health and comfort. M.ME ORGANIZATIONS. good society. and reports candidly exhibiting the standing and conduct of the pupils. Mrs. 393 BERKELEY FEMALE SEMLXARY. Peyton R. A firm and wholesome discipline is maintained. and which combines the advantages healthfulness. . Hunter. Treasurer C. J. fer. Engineers. showing their standing in their various classes. 110. Assistant P. of all pupils entrusted to their care. . George T. and such as are taught at similar institutions of the highest grade. C. Officers C. . Commander H. Etc. Secy. The standard of proficiency is high. course of instruction embraces all the primary and ad- vanced studies. . and the ambition of jDupils is encouraged by means of monthly reports to parents. Dieffenderfer. . J. are sent home every month. is located in Martinsburg. This scliool. General averages are obtained by adding together the average for each study. . The Company is equipped with a Silsby engine has four Reels.

G. Albert Diehl. Riner. W. northwest corner Queen and Burke streets entrance on Burke street. 18th. James M. Cushwa. meets 3d . Homrich. Grantham Hall. F. W. Geo. D. Sec'y. Nicklas. T. . Treas. . B. Charles P. O.. Geo. H. Vice Pres't E. . J. O. Joseph H. T. S. Sec'y W. Xo. O. S. C. and A. 44. Surveyors—-H. . . : Pres't. Homrich. Troxell. Treasurer. Nicklas. Attorney. being patronized by a large majority of the most substantial citizens of Berkeley County. T. 21. Blessing. N. Geo. W. Vice-Pres't Ferdinand Gerling. Officers James M. A. and A. President. meets 2d and 4th Tuesdays from October 1 to July 1. . A. Staley. — Officers. This Company was organized Dec. Wisner. ler. F. A. Deatrick. No. A. Edwards. Sperow. southwest corner Queen and King streets. McKown. Feidt. Joseph H. Wm. Treas. Meets every Tuesday night. President Meets every Friday night.394 Situation of . Firemen have been recently equipped with fine dress uniforms and belts. Lambert. and has been in successful operation since that time. H. V. 1877. No. Officers. — Equality Lodge. Cushwa. ButExecutive Committee. Directors. of West Virginia. Equality Building Association. H. T. R. Officers. and A. M. CushEdwards. meets 2d and 4th Monday evenings from October 1 to July 1. Meets every Tuesday night. Enterprise Building Association. A. W.000 feet of hose has recently purchased a new Reel for 4th Ward. Jr. Treas. Geo. Robert White Lodge. O. Charles P. The Farmers' and Mechanics' Mutual Fire Insurance Co. President F. Matthaei. P. Wm — Central Building and Loan Association. Berkeley Consistory. M. Matthaei. N. Small. and second Tuesday from July 1 to October 1. Jefferson County. Town and County. Cushwa. P. J. Cushwa. Wm.. M. Sec'y. 57. Shaffer. C. with 2. wa.. and 4th Monday from July 1 to October 1. Kearfott. Berkeley County Shaffer.. . Sec'y.

G. 57. hall. John Dumford treasurer. Hall. 395 Tuesday evening of each month in hall of Equality Lodge No. . G. 24. O. F.Situation of Town and County. meets 1st Monday of each week in hall of Robert White Lodge No.Crist. No. D.. meets 2d and 4th Friday nights in hall of K. Thomas O'Brien treasurer.No. Rathman. S. of P. A. Tuscarora Lodge. 7. No. James Cox. Joseph E. A hern.. O. F. Palestine Commandery. M. 1. 62. No. 2. Prosperity Lodge. A. E. R. of P. M.E. Bethany Lodge. I. northwest corner Queen and Burke streets entrance on Queen. K. R. 24. meets 2d Monday evening of each month in hall of Equality Lodge No. 2. chapter No. V. meets every Saturday evening. L. No. Horeb Encampment. 44. southeast corner Queen and Burke streets entrance on Burke. Bank Building. meets 2d and 4th Tuesday evenings of each month in hall of Tuscarora Lodge No. K. T. hall. Washington Lodge. O.. 2373 K. of P. Rathman. G. O'Connor. F. John Farrin St.. N. 432. R. M. E. People's National . M. 44. AVestrater.iNo. A. Joseph's Society. Knights of Honor Lodge. President. .. O. No. F. secSt. A. O. G. . O. E. People's National Bank Building.. meets every Thursday evening in G. and A. and A. R.. No. I. A. A. I. President.. Lebanon Royal Arch. No. entrance on Burke. meets every Monday evening in G.. secretary. 12. No. 1. G.. S. . 29. hall. meets every Saturday night in G. F.. F. and A. meets 1st and 3d Friday evenings in G. O. Grazer. Patrick's. Lincoln Post. A. meets every Thursday evening in K. T. 1. A. hall. A. Royal Arcanum. W. Key Council. southeast corner Queen and Burke streets. J. V. retary. R. of R. F. Franklin Assembly. R. .

located in Gerardstown District meets first and third Tuesdays of each month. meets 2d and 4tli K. H. Cherry Grove Grange No. of P. Cartis is the genial manager. of W. Y. 1886. . .. H. Corsey. Foard secretary. 22. Pisgah Lodge. Mill Creek Grange No. Secretary and Treasurer. The Martinsburg Gas Company was organized in 1873 President. . Thursday niglits in hall of . 2. H. K. meets in People's Bank Building 2d Tuesday in each month Chairman. and changed to the Mechanics' Band about 1SS2 reorganized and incorporated February 6th. C. . Mt. Deatrick Vice-President. located in Martinsburg District meets last Saturday in each month.. Tuscarora Grange No. Frankenberry. 173. 3. . 13. and Prof. 29. W. . 152. . A. Fred. Swan Pond Grange No. fer . M. Mechanics' Band. Pomono Grange No. Luscomb. ^ . . . meets 1st and 3d Thursdaj^s of each month in hall of K. 1883 Mr. J. located in Opequon District meets second and fourth Saturdays of each month. Federal Lodge. 14. Order of Tonti.— The High Street Band. of P. Order Iron Hall.. was started about 1871. No. People's National Bank Building. B. organizer and leader. Rawlinson. N. Berkeley Lodge. Shaf- Brancli No. COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS. The Martinsburg City Band was organized on the 18th of December. Emmert Superintendent. musical director. 26.396 Situation of Town and County. . located in Opequon District meets first and third Saturdays of each month. II. . S. No. located in Hedgesville District meets second and fourth Tuesdays of each month. D. No. (coi'd) meets every Thursday evening on South College street. F. P.

both of whose sons give promise of attaining the legal and political prominence of their father in State and National Senator Faulkner was born at the ancestral affairs. Va. in Washington the story of which has become a matter of National history familiar to all. After his election to the Senate he associated with him. FAULKNER. Faulkner. and had the advantage of attending noted schools in Switzerland and in Paris. home at Martinsburg. now West Virginia. As a representative. C. ipN May. Walker. States Senate. the eminent jurist and statesman. in 1859. he is fast gaining prominence and favor. He returned to the United States in August. Among the representatives of the country at the National Capital. Senator Faulkner is the younger sou of the late Hon. at wliicli time . an able and prominent young lawyer. 1^ and resigned to accept the honor conferred upon him. He accompanied his father. who was Minister to France. Stuart W. and was with his father at the time of his arrest. who feel proud of his marked ability and energy. J. which firm now commands a large and excellent i^ractice. . for the practice of law. J. Mr. 1861. When he learned that Ms father had been arrested. Faulkner was elected to the United lie was on the bench.CHAPTER PUBLIC XVII. he has the respect and esteem of the people throughout the State. SENATOR C. PERSO:S\\L SKETCHES OF THE EXTERPRISING AND PROFESSIONAL MEN OF THE PRESENT DAY. making his way resolutely and determinedly through all the difficulties incident to those troublous 1887.. on the 21st of September. he immediately started South. 1847.

1868. He has presided over these courts with credit to himself and to the universal satisfaction of the people. was admitted to the bar in Sept. "I would not hesitate to trust to Judge Faulkner's decision in his legal capacity ujoon any His prudence and good judgment political question. 1880. His mental endowments were of such high order that he at once became a member of recognized ability. at the age of 33 years. He was elected judge of the 13th Judicial Circuit. and made him a general favorite." . He served with the Cadets in the battle of New Market. served as aide on the Staff of GeneralJ. was toward the field of law. 1866. he entered the Virginia Military Institute at Lexington. C. after which he returned home.398 times. Then began a course of mental training under his father's direction. He was afterward appointed aide to General Henry A. In 1862.. being one of the youngest Judges in the State. care. and resolute bearing. His judicial record gave assurance of still higher attainments in his chosen proHis rulings and decisions have evidenced so imfession. he entered the University of Virginia. when a boy of fifteen. 1868. and of such prominence as that led from the bar to the bench. and surrendered with him at Appomattox. Jefferson and Morgan. composed of the counties of Berkeley. in He Oct.. Breckenridge. immediately after attaining his majority. by whom he is held in the highest regard and esteem. in which the watchful father occupied through all his life a leading place in the Circuit and Supreme Courts. Thus prepared by so able a preceptor. and graduated therefrom in June. And later. w^here he was distinguished for his ardor and daring. and the foundation was there laid for a sucThe bent of his instruction and cessful public life. that a distinguished lawyer and political opI)onent said of him. partial a sense of justice and so thorough a knowledge of the law. in Oct. allied to one so young in years. His courageous until he was made Secretary of War. won for him the admiration of officers and soldiers. Wise.. Personal Sketclies.

He served two terms in the Legislature as representative in that county. which he followed there In the Spring of 1867 he went to Penin 1865 and 1866. W. lie manifested considerable interest. 399 were not unnoticed in politics. when he entered the army in July. Hiram. and elected to the same position in Pendleton County in that year. in wliicli. H. By the last will of his father he inherits "Boydville. and joined the reAfter his discharge he taught school cruiting service. Ohio. while not taking an active part. graduating and being admitted to practice in his native county in 1865. Mr. In 1870 he introduced what is known as the "Flick amendment. Ohio. Ya. April 7th. 1862. FUCK. residence adjoining "Boydville. Senator Faulkner was cliairman of the Democratic County Committee for a number of years before going on the bench." the old homestead. dleton County. for the practice of his profession. HON. 1841. serving in the 41st Ohio Regiment. After that he worked on a farm until the war broke out. Upon his admission he settled in Moorefield. and has served in various official capacities since. after the death of his mother. February 24th. and is also widely and prominently known and esteemed in tbe Masonic fraternity. In 1874 he moved to Martinsburg. and a term at Garfield School. H. a place full of historical interest to He has built for himself a fine citizens and strangers. where he married and has one child.Personal SketcTies.. having been Grand Master of the Masonic Grand Lodge of "West Virginia during the years 1879-80. Hon. and then entered the Cleveland Law School. Flick was born in Cuihoga County. H. H. His youthful days were silent in the common schools. 1861. to earn money enough to take uj) the practice of law. In 1886. Flick made a strong run for Con- . W. He was dangerously wounded at Shiloh." the house now occupied by his venerable mother. W." He was appointed to fill an unexpired term as prosecuting attorney of Grant County in 1872.

tlie Second West Virginia District. and he located permanently in . but resigned shortly afterward and became an officer of distinction in the Confederate Army. Italy. 1841. C. where he formed a law partnership with Judge Petree. E. In 1872 inducements were offered him to return to his native State. and enjoys a legal knowledge that but few can surpass. Westenhaver. being released in June. one of the shining lights of the Berkeley Bar. BOYD FAULKNER. in June. The lirm now has an able and extensive practice in the various It is almost needless to speak of Mr. where he was confined a year. He is of a clever and genial disposition. Letcher's Staff. popularity. his early education at sity of Virginia. and came within ninety votes of election. and of that and He — — strongly marked mind and character which distinguishes the man of to-day. and the firm had an extensive practice. until his capture at Port Republic. Ky. Boyd Faulkner was born in July. By his energy and talent Mr. and makes one feel x^i^rfectly at home while in his presence. 1865. and in the Seymour Campaign of 1868. He received Georgetown College.. Faulkner soon earned for himself a line reputation as a lawyer and speaker. E. He returned to the United States in 1861. was appointed aide on Gov.400 gress in Personal Sketches. HON. Flick is an able and efficient talker. Mr. In 1867. he went to Hopkinsville. 18G4. and Univer- and traveled extensively in Switzerland attended lectures upon constitutional law in Paris. was appointed an Elector for the Second Congressional District of Kentucky. Flick's courts. as he is generally known throughout this and the surrounding States. Shortly afterward he associated with him in the practice of law Mr. D. and at the age of eighteen was acting as Secretary of the American Legation at Paris an unusual and complimentary preferment to one so young and which gave evidence of rare mental attainments. when he Avas taken with other prisoners to Johnson's Island.

and especially noteworthy was the legislation by him to relieve the bonded indebtedness of Berkeley County. Faulknei" in every part of the State have and important law and attention. he decided not to accept. At the present time practice occupies all his time Cleveland tendered to General and Agent to Egypt. at the earnest solicitation of his friends throughout the State. Faulkner the office of Consulhis extensive . He was then tendered the Mission to Persia.Personal Sketches. ISSl. bonds were paid off or exchanged. 401 He is well known at liome a gentleman of nnswerving integrity of cliaracter. and the county relieved of an annual drain upon it for interest and commission alone of about $3. besides having the bonds bear their just x3rox)ortion of the taxes which weighed so heavily upon the people. Martinsburg. where he served with distinguished prominence and ability. He was an eminent member of that body. on the 2d of January. and remained where the work was to be done. becoming chairman of important committees. Faulkner. and held in the highest regard by his fellow Senators. elected td the Legislature in 1876. are so well ginia in 1834. upon the expiration of his term in the Legislature. Under the arrangement made by the court and through the legislation of Mr. the 8 per cent. and his record was such as has been referred to with just pride and pleasure. Such was the universal esteem in which Mr. He declined the Presidency of the Senate. which. Faulkner was held that he was elected to the Senate in 1873. which he likewise declined. He was. and with a faithfulness to the interests of the people which will long beremembered. and led to his being urged to become a candidate for the nomination of Governor of West Virand political career. President Mr. and abroad as and his sx)lendid abilities as a lawyer his professional and public speaker in and favorably known to the people of this section and throughout the State as to require no commendation. For several years friends of Mr.465.

FEIDT. Much to his credit he possessed an ambition for future usefulness with intent to serve his people. affable and learned gentleman. Feidt was born in Washington County.402 Personal S/ielches. He is now one of the most able and successful practitioners at the West Virginia Bar. in this x^lace. ESQ. Md. Feidt. ginia. and same to Martinsburg in 1872. He is of a clever disposition. He was educated at the Berkeley Academy. social and agreeable to all who come in contact with him. HON. and decided to make law his profession. This able and creditable representative of the legal profession is a son of James H. He is a worthy. and was admitted to the bar in 1875. Any one having a business connection will not hesitate to speak of him in the best terms. and an influential i^olitician. and no one does more enthusiastic work for the party than Mr. Walker. Mr. though young in years. He finished his law course with Blackburn & Lamon.. He was elected Prosecuting Attorney of Berkeley County in 1880 by 14G majority. is admitted by all. been urging Mr. Pie is a sound Repubikau. formerly in this This he city. and takes an active part in the interests of the town. and is a credit to his })eople. liis candidacy for Governor of West VirThat lie would receive a large vote and discharge the dignity and duty of the position in the most courtly and x)opular manner. is considered very old in experience and legal knowledge. STUART W. W. In 1S77 he was appointed Register in Bankruptcy on the recommendation of Chief Justice Waite. WALKER. He occupies various positions indifferent organizations. GEO. In his younger days he worked on the farm and taught school and studied law. Walker. and has satisfactorily transacted the business of the office with skill and the best of legal ability. now a retired farmer. successfully accomplished by taking a two years' course . He ^vas raised on the farm with two other brothers.

Walker with more than usual zeal. He is an excellent talker. His success in the various courts attracted the attention of Judge Faulkner and led to his rapid advancement. 1SS7. He is well known all over the State. has a fine delivery and a jiersuasive and argumentative bearing. His j)ast career has been a most honorable and successful one. of Romney. He has since represented the cases and produced the ablest arguments that have ever been laid before our courts. immediately after which he formed a law x^artnership under the firm name of Faulkner & Walker. throughout the Thirteenth Senatorial His friends. Important cases have taken self-confidence. through which he now enjoys the confidence . daily. Lexliis arrival home he was given a thorough examination by Judge C. Mr. Walker has been identified by birth with the Democratic Party. For him to accept any nomination will insure a victory to his party. The stand he has taken has led the x^eople to believe that he will mete justice fairly and honorably to all.Personal Sketches. always prex)ared to speak on any In May. while adding much labor to the firm by a heavy increase. having delivered He is a man of siDeeches and addresses in every county. him to many counties in the State. Faulkner and Judge Armstrong. Mr. after which he was admitted to practice in the courts of the district. During the campaign of 1884 he spoke for weeks. are urging District. and has always taken great interest and worked with untiring zeal for its advancement. Va. J. Faulkner was elected to the United States Senate. Upon cases before the courts. irrespective of party. is topic at a and moment's notice. encouraged Mr. In this he passed with honors. Through his energy and talent he at once became interested in and represented many of the most important civil and criminal ington. and often twice a day. This move of business on the part of Judge Faulkner. in one year at the 403 Washington and Lee University. him to accept i)ositions of responsibility and trust. who were then on the bench.

The thesis upon which his essay for this sire for a find him aiming We occasion was written tion.404 Personal Sketches. the firm remaining so constituted at the i)resent time. Westenhaver. and esteem of his x3eox)le. entering the active duties of his chosen profesassumed a partnership with Hon. of that office with great satisfaction to the people. Westenhaver' s mental attainments are of the highest . persons. and has lived here since his birth. Walker lias the vigor and confidence that will achieve the greatest results. into which he boldly plunged alone. and. This merely opened to him a view of the wide field beyond. through their own personal efforts and ability." was " Ex]3atriation and Naturalizaand which gained for him the first prize from the above institution. Flick. have ever raised themselves to such a degree of high public esteem and in so comparatively short a time as has Mr. His nature was not such to be content with this. we at and striving for a greater degree of excellence. WESTENHAVER. W. DAVID C. His father was a farmer. and fulfilled the trusts 1886 he Mr. the conflict of contending armies was exwar that the subHe is a native of this ject of this sketch was born. taking a two years' course in one and graduating with honor. He completed his law course at the Georgetown Law School. H. Mr. unaided any more by such private instructions as he previously can say nothing better for him than that few had. He taught school. H. and at the same time pursued a course of instruction in law under private tutors. under the firm name of Flick & Westenhaver. ESQ. county. and with an innate deIt v/as when pending its force during the late civil higher and more comprehensive knowledge. and consequently his early education was confined to such branches of information as are usually taught in the average country school. In sion he Upon was appointed Prosecuting Attorney of Berkeley County to fill an unexpired term.

but because . His is an example of a self-made man. He first practiced in the courts of his native county. of clear and unequivocal argument. Mr. Personall}^ he is a very agreeable gentleman. with the Speaker's medal from the Union Society. SA-etc/ies. He was elected a member of the County Court in 1880. his place is a conspicu- ous one at the Bar. Ya. Hughes has always been closely idenwith the Democratic Party. however widely differing on public questions His name was prominently mentioned in connection with the State Senatorship from the 13th District in 1886. His future career cannot but make him a successful leader and an honored and re- spected citizen. BLACKBURN HUGES. and educated at Hampden Sidney College. in which he has ever since occupied a leading place in talent and the regards of his fellow members and the people in general. 1859. not because of any brilliancy of speech. but removed to Berkeley in the fall of 1867. and takes an active interest in all iDublic matters. though conservative in his views and liberal to all men. In oratory he can boast of but little excellence his persuasive powers in this direction are effective. and for a short time in Richmond. and after the repeal of the test oaths he was admitted to the Bar of this county.Personal order. His past career as a lawyer has been pre-eminently successful. in 1860 and 1861. graduating from that institution in June. He studied law in Judge Brockenborough's Law School. 405 and tliougli a young man. This able representative of the Berkeley Bar was born in Cumberland County. leaders In politics he is a Democrat.. to which x^osition he has been re-elected each succeeding year. In 1887 he associated with Politically. in Lexington. Ya. He has tilled several important trusts in church and State conventions. as well as among recognized of his political school in this count}'. and on its organization was elected its President. ESQ.. tified . Virginia.

M. and M. He is now Vice-President of the National Republican League for the State of West Virginia. HON. etc. Bowers has a large friendship and acquaintance among the farmers and laboring class of people. V. and is yet carrying on the most extensive milling business in the city. Hugh A. and is one of the most prominent directors of the National Bank. On the 17th of March. and if nominated. During his term of office he has not once failed or shirked any responsible duty that has fallen his lot. His success and ability in this placed him before the people of the State. ]ie was elected a director of the C. By his zeal and energy he has won the esteem and respect of the Berkeley people. and in 1884 he was made Chairman of the Berkeley Delegation to the Parkersburg and Grafton Convention. there is but little doubt as to his election being a successful one. Mr.406 Personal Sketches. Bowers. himself Mr. When but a mere shool boy he showed promising business qualities and made extensive purchases and sales on his own account. BOWERS Is a son of the late John S. R. in 1884. In 1886 he was nominated on the Republican ticket for Legislature. and a victory for the party. in this city. White. He has considerable interest in real property and also in various organizations. He took charge of the Eureka Mills. R. His name is now being urged for State Auditor. received his education at the Martins burg High School. and was elected by the largest majority ever given one man in the county. In politics he is a Republican and commands a large influence. GEO. and they are now engaged in a good practice before the courts of this district. manufactories. an able and energetic young lawyer. His .. and through which he has achieved the loudest praise. 1888. Upon the death of his father he administered the estate (which was a very large one) and made a prompt and satisfactory settlement of everything. one of the leading He was born at Gerardstown and citizens of the county.

Va.. one year later is now. W. Matthaei. Va. PROF. at the end of which time the students almost nnanimously petitioned the State Superintendent and Board of Regents for his re-appointment was Principal of King wood Academy five months. and by all the trustees of the school "won a first premi. as Superintendent of the Martinsburg City Schools and Principal of Born in . the genial and agreeable Justice. entitled "Two Hundred Practical Problems. Ohio Co. is a native of Germany. the High School. M. in his sixth year in the profession of teaching was two years Principal of the AYest Liberty State Normal School. and will execute any reI)le. He came to this country in the year 1854. ' 407 kind." j)nblished by Eaton.. .. affable mauners. which X30sition he resigned to take charge of the city schools of Martinsbnrg was given a letter of endorsement signed . cox. J. CHAS. thus becoming one of the authors of "The New Arithmetic. Buffalo. and was born in the year 1835. . . and entered the confectionery business in Baltimore. New York has written considerably on educational and other topics and is the autlior of a neat little pamphlet on arithmetic. by all his Kingwood students. Gibson & Co. P.Personal SJcetcJies. Va. by his assistant teachers. dol- by the Board. Md. A. B. 1858. .) May 30. graduated at Bethany College. taking the first honor of his class received the degree A... ESQ. Cox has given universal satisfaction at Martinsburg. with the degree A. and sound reasoning and persuasive powers has endeared him to the hearts of his peoHe possesses the ability. where he remained about six years. Mr. sponsibility thrown upon him in the most successful manner. um in a mathematical contest with 955 competitors." Prof.. in 1882.. In 1860 he removed to Martinsburg and opened up a confectionery store in the building . so much lars so that his salary was raised several hundred MATTHAEI. (now W.

and has given general satisfacMr. in 1838. lie retired. During his term of office. Lambert was elected Councilman from his ward in 1878. Matthaei is a close observer. he has filled the position ably and creditably. now occux^ied by Chas. Lambert. LAMBERT. Md.. He has held positions of honor and public trust.. and a genihl and agreeable gentleman. After the close of the war in 1865 he came to Martinsburg and entered business with his brother. ESQ. acquiring every art and branch of the business. of tion to the public. and then entered business for himself continuing at the present day. Schell. the present Mayor of Martinsburg. Mr. Mr. D. C. Matthaei may creditably be termed a self-made man. entered the butchering business under Charles D. During his early days. Here he served his time as an aj^prentice. 12th Virgiuia Regiment. and turned tlie business over to Charles D. After twenty-tliree years of business success. He is well known throughout the State. Matthaei is considerably interof his constituents. and is a sou of Frederick Lambert.408 Personal SketcTies. Esq. next to Court House. and at the age of fifteen years. practical judgment. which office he now holds. In 1857 he moved to Shepherdstown. Lambert. and is the owner of a large amount of 2:)roperty. sound. and there carried on business for himself until the commencing of the war in 1861. where he remained until 1869. He was educated in the public schools of that city. Matthaei. who has continued to the present day. and acquitted himself creditably to the satisfaction Mr. was born at Frederick City. George D. nnd a very popular gentleman. In the fall of 1884 he was elected Justice of the Peace. societies and corporations of ested in the the city. when he enlisted in the Confederate Calvary. his advantages for an English education were very limited. and Mr. and afterwards served three terms of two vears each five years and a half of which he served — — . O. organizations.

Personal as SketcTies. and of a genial and clever disposition. 1873. and conducted the affairs of the city creditably and with ability. ESQ Mr. etc. His services in this capacity were appreciated in such a manner.>?'o ^6772. and at an early age manifested considerable interest and energy. Lamon was born in Mill Creek District. Lambert is also considerably interested in farming pursuits. was born in this city in the year 1820. He is also at present carrying on business at his old location. where can be found at all times fresh meats. after which he served six or eight years in the hardware line. DOLL. As a citizen. tobaccos. Mr. and his services are appreciated by the people in business and public . Doll. He has served the County Court as Clerk since Jan. C. Lambert has worthy of the office. ROBERT LAMOX. 1st. Berkeley County. which was successfully accomplished. and has done valuable service to the county in the arrangement of the many papers and records on file there. Lambert is what may well be termed a self made man. Mr. and various other enterl^rises. cigars. Clerk of the County Court. and is one of the most liberal men in the county. he takes a great deal of interest. Esq. He was raised on a farm. and is held in the highest esteem by all who know him. confectioneries. about nine miles from the city of Martinsburg... groceries. v. For nearly thirty years he was engaged in the dry goods business. On his election to this office he received almost the entire vote of the Republican and Democrotic parties combined. \V. He is a courteous and obliging gentleman. C. a demand was made by the people for his reAs election. that in 1886 and 1888. In 1884 he elected Mayor by an official excellent majority. No. 23 N. who hold him in the highest esteem. ESC). As evidenced by his past career.-as 409 Mayor ^. Mr. provisions. AV. Queen St. He is a Democrat in politics. proven Jiimself Mayor of the City.

which office he Alls to the present day. Martin continued the store until 18G0. a much larger vote than had been polled previously. and under Lincoln's administration he served in the capacity of Deputy Marshal of the District of Columbia. Long. in 1S2G. He has served his people faithfully in this capacity. when he again returned to town and clerked for B. STEWART. Boyd. of building up the M. which continued until the breaking out of the late war. R. Montgomery Co. office and remained until 1878. Pa. T. Mr. Grantham until 1851. As Secretary and Treasurer. In politics he is a strong and influential Democrat. W. for a short while. affairs. which capacity he now fills with credit and ability. In the fall of '78 he was elected Clerk of the Circuit Court.. and is one of Martinsburg's most worthy citizens. He was a clerk in the store of W. he has been the means. Martin was born in Pottstown. ESQ. In 1842 he went back to the former place and remained with J. ESQ. Shortly afterward he formed a partnership with George Sherrer. R. and in his accounts is up with the State. & W. As a gentleman. In 1857 he formed a partnership with Ezra Herring and continued until 1859. H. and came to this county in the year 1S40. For a number of years he has acted as a Director of the People's National Bank. & O. \VM. after which he came to this city and entered the store of Jacob Van Doren.. Pie is a self-made man. S. having liad advantage of no otlier education tlian the common school of his boyhood days. is represented one of Martinsburg's most prominent. wealthiest and influential .410 Personal Sketches. S. by a majority of 338. In the person of Mr. In 1861 he Avent into the em13loy of the B. he is kind and generous. At the election in 1SS7 he was elected Sheriff of Berkeley County. R. and is held in the highest respect. Stewart. at Bunker Hill. when they dissolved and Mr. Turnpike. to a considerable extent. lie is of a flne manly bearing. MARTIN.

acquiring none other than the common school education. & M.Personal Sketches. . Turnpike Company. He now holds and ably fills the offices of President of the National Bank. and is also a Director of the C. he devotes considerable time and attention to industrial development. R. & W. M. Y. Beimr largely interested in county enterprises. 411 citizens. R. He was born in this county and raised on a farm.

In 1882 the present site. Wilson. cashier. For fifteen years t lie finances of this bank have been under the management of Jno. The vaults are large and secure. this bank in 1888 gained the topmost round on the ladder of success. and handsomely furnished. In 1874 it was re-organized as a National Bank. Esq. after its reorganization. and has since been improved until it now constitutes one of the finest buildings in the city. J. with a capital of about $12. Its line of bank deposits are decidedly larger than those of its competing neighbor. populir throughout . Mr.000. Esq. Thomas is an excellent financier and is largely interested in various enterprises. as President. 8H from the day it opened its doors. Mr. With A.. it cannot but help insure a successful future. Wilson is a wide-awake and energetic citizen. and has been managed with such financial ability that in fifteen years it has accumulated a very large surplus and dividend. The interior is elegantly and conveniently arranged. on corner of Queen and Burke Streets was purchased. |o^HIS institution was established in 1873 as a People's Deposit. inThis bank. who has served the institution ably and successfully as cashier. by being designated a Depository of the United States. AYilson. and will compare vv^ith any in the State. began business by charging 8 per cent.CHAPTER MEN.. Thomas. B. terest on money.. XVIII. Through the energy and zeal of Mr. at which time two competing banks were charging 10 and 12 per cent. and was the first It was a grand success of the three to fall to 6 per cent. BIOGRAPHY OFMARTINSBURG'S BUSINESS THE PEOPLE'S NATIONAL BANK.

the efficient manager and head of James H. and its lished and its reputation at home and abroad business daily growing larger. Walker. Esq. Walker ranks among the most successful men of the day. and afterward started in the drug business in Martinsburg. Hunter and Stuart. Knapp and Frank Wilson. is a son of surpassed by any in the of every variety are city. His place is neatly arranged. and are among the enterprising citizens. and generally known through- .. JOHx\ W. he opened ui3 in the drug business. and passing a thorough examination before the Board of Pharmacy. Esq. Mr. was given the advantage of the common schools. By their liberality. Since starting in the merchandise business. Walker. John W. Mr. AYalker is obliging and accommodating. and later attended an academy taught in Martinsburg by John Sellers. having carried off the highest honors of his classes. and was born in Berkeley County. when he again returned to his native county. clean and convenient. he has conducted one of the finest stores in the State. Geo. Groceries and provisions kept constantly on hand at the lowest possible figures. and passed through the most difficult examinations. He was raised on a farm with two other brothers.Biography of Business Men. 413 business circles. John W. and started the present merchandising firm. and for a knowledge of general banking business. the above gentlemen have* made it a grand success. National Bank Building. is estab- WALKER & CO. all of whom are well-known throughout the countj^. where he remained two years. His present location is on Queen Street. and highly esteemed by the people of his county. His assistants are Messrs. he is unthis firm. As a druggist Mr. and for fresh goods. caution and financial ability. He next entered the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. After a decided success of two years in the latter jDlace. are unsurpassed. Here he remained two or three years. he removed to Baltimore City. who efficiently aid in the transaction of affairs.

where he remained about two years. and His father died before they moved to the former place. serving the required time as an apx)rentice. Rankin. A. and an obliging gentleman. their return to this city. and remained for a jieriod of nearly five years. and at an early age showed considerable energy and enterprise. and equipped line of picture frames are always to be found His studio is well furnished. Mr. P. Rankin. Cunni-ngham a warm friend. Cunningliam PhiliiD S. cuted in all its branches. and enterprising p. and everything in stock.414 Biography of Business Hen. Mr. and is a ted. was given the advantage of the Catholic schools in Frederick City. an industrious out the county as citizen. J.. and undertook a business routine. City. who served in the capacity of 1st Lieutenant under Col. Hunter. 1SS6. Q. A. He . Like many others. He also makes a specialty of copying and enlarging. One will find in Mr. of Cunningham. complete for the trade. about the year 1882. Nadenbousch. he entered the photograph gallery under R. C. J. where photography is finely exe- uses the instantaneous guarantees satisfaction.. Md. Patrick A. in 1865. returned to this county again in 1877. and ably assisted in building up a standard reputation. Queen Street. great deal thought of by the young people in general. he purchased the establishment of his former employer. A large and well process. which he has since successfully accomplished and meriHe is a genial and clever young man. In July. A. CUNNINGHAM.. is now living. Esq. was born in Berkeley County about one mile south of the present city of Martinsburg. the eklest son. In 1S66 the family moved to Fredrick in the year ISCl. His pyresent place of business is situated over the Nation- — al Bank. during the late war. he had the broad world before him. dec'd. with but After little assistance to gain a trade or profession. He next went with P.

mottoes. CO. Bartlett is a native of Marshal Co. until now they have every convenience for their This firm lias extensive trade in carpets. One branch after another has been added. BARTLETT. Oden. BRO. walli^apers. The fatlier of the present firm followed car2:»et manufacturing in the Cumberland Valley from his youth. Mr. and lias become one of the leading houses in town. tissue paper. and enlargements made as the business increased. maj) drawing and sketch books. G. No. drawing paper. . Nicklas is the manager of the firm. school supplies. The most obliging attention is given to the trade. daily. chamber sets. and has built for himself a neat and attractive home on the corner library furniture. and special pains taken to please purchasers. and fulfilled his duties very acceptablj^'. stationery. water color paints. He deals largely in books. and is one of our most enterprising citizens. and the sons have established business houses in several of the leading towns in the Valley. Their carpets range from the cheaper goods to the best American and European manufacture. He takes part in various organizations of the town. music and mu. He x>urchased the Book store of A. weekly and monthly j)apers and magazines. and removed to Martinsburg in ISGG.Biograpli y of p. where he set to work to build for himself a permanent business. E. of of the Mr. B us in ess Hen S: 415 NICKLAS. The business rooms firm are at No. and was engaged in He rail- roading. autotypes. Fully prepared to do all kinds of upholstering and repairing. located in Cumberland in 1SG7. He was appointed to a position in the Hannis Distillery under President Arthur. W. Qaeen and John Streets. been long establislied in Martinsburg. inlSS5. albums and scrap books. steel engravings. O. scrap pictures. furniture. 17 Queen Street. 11 Queen Street. W.. picture frame mouldings picture frames made to order. Va. &c. remaining until the new administration came in. following the same occupation.

Va. About the year 1882 he entered the jewelry business under W. situated on the Public Square. L. Barr. Esq. Clerk of the County Court.. all sical mercliandise agent for H. W. present "a neat and clean apx3earance. etc. was born in Martinsburg in the year 1 853. is a son of Robt. Their present location is on the corner of King and Queen Sts. and afterward entered the hardware business as a clerk with H. zines at publishers' prices. occupying two large floors. and has met with a decided sucThe firm holds an excellent and most reliable repucess. In 1879 the firm of H. Farmers' Supplies. and is a son of C. where he remained nearly ten years. L. — . Riddle. Doll & Co.. DOLL & Mr. . and furnish every part of the business at the lowest possible figures. was formed. Builders Hardware. His advantages for an education were like the majority represented in this work limited to the common school of his day. and everything is arranged in the most convenient and pleasing manner. Their store and ware rooms. Doll. Doll has had considerable experience in the business. the genial manager and iDroprietor of the large hardware establishment. Mr. one of Martinsburg' s enterprising young business men. FRANK BARR. and make a specialty of House Paints. They deal largely in Timothy and Clover Seed.416 B iograpli y .. a native of Virginia. where he remained nearly five years completing his trade and gaining the advantages of the business in all its branches.. in 1862. L. Jones. R. tation. of Bus In ess 21 en. and was born one mile south of Winchester." at which place they have continued till the present day. and business com- menced in the large and commodious building known as "King Street Hall. newspapers and magaCO. Public Square. Mr. Barr. Esq. They keep constantly on hand everything connected with the hardware line. Doll. A. He received a common school education. and their business is conducted on a strict and sound basis.

ed with beautiful lamps. until it had gained a reliable and wide reputation. Through his untiring efforts this institution continued to progress. and one with whom it is a pleasure to deal. Wm. Burkhart. He is the exclusive dealer in the city. Any article not in stock will be furnished within a short time. etc. and Martinsburg can well feel proud of him as a citizen. North Queen street. Dr. in fine goods The store is neatly and artistically arrangof his line. About the year 1865 he organized the present National Bank. W. etc. Baker Building. Their pres- . C. is a native of Berkeley County. Barr has had considerable experience in his business. which position he filled with ability and success. Dr. the leading j)artner and manager of the above firm. He continued in the banking business for a period of twenty-five years... fancy goods. A. and afterwards practiced in this city for about three years. D. Mr. 417 He then resigned his position and acted as General Secretary of the Y.. he opened up in the J. M. of every description. He is a young man. and everything offered on sale will be at the lowest reasonable figure. In 1879 he established the Gflass and China firm. After serving this worthy institution creditably and deservingly for a jperiod of eight months.Biography of Business Men. L. he decided to enter the jewelry business for himself. He makes a s^Decialty of line repairing. known as Burkhart & Co. In 1852 he graduated in medicine at the University of Maryland. In May. and any one wishing to purchase will find in him a courteous and accommodating gentleman. As a physician he built up a splendid pracA short while afterward he tice and fine reputation. BURKHART & CO. energetic and industrious. gave up his practice and became teller in the old Bank of Berkeley. 1888. which he has successfully managed to the i3resent day. and gained for it an enviable reputation. Burkhart is a genial and clever gentleman. and was elected cashier.

and the general public will find in him energy and enter^Drise. until He then returned to Loudon County and engaged Shortly afterward he served as in farming until 1863. Swartz was born in the year 1829. commanded by Col. He makes a specialty of fine Mr. Virginia. when he again engaged in the service of the B. tobaccos and green groceries. and his store is neatly arranged and stocked with fresh goods. Neer was born in tlie year 1829. Washburn. 1857. He then commenced farming in Jefferson County. pleasing and accommodating gentleman. and incurred a loss of about ^3.. R. Ms ployed as an engine man on the B. the Fourth Brigade of the 19th Army Corps of sutler in the 24th and 28th Indiana. 1888. wood and lumber business at Harper's Ferry. — J.418 enfc Biograplty of Business Men. excej)ting those offered by the common schools. and served After a service of twenty. and no other advantages were had for an education. He came to Martinsburg in 1850. JOHN VV. A... & O. and is a native of Loudon County. and 26th and 27th Ohio Regiments. he purchased the entire stock and fixtures of G. man on the B. Mr. and opened up on King street. W. P.. and is a native During his early days his entire of Berkeley County. Neer is a cigars. and continued from 1871 until 1873. Everything in the line is kept always on hand at the lowest possible figures. Va. bhe company until 1887. so essential for the requirements of an upright business. On the 13th of March. . near St. and near Continental Hotel. Smith. His boyhood days were spent in farming pursuits. and was emadjoining residence. where he remained until 1870. & O. when he was washed out by the great Hood on the Shenandoah River of that year. Clair Hotel. E. About the year 1865 he engaged in the coal. NEER. he decided to peryears as engine manently locate in business. a first-class general merchandise store.000. R. R. & O.. Mr. location is on North-east corner of Public Square.

but on account of increasing demands in business. and was born in the year 1863. B. Lemen. and with a common education. He then resumed farming and continued until July 25th.Biography of Business Men. when he and his brother entered business in Martinsburg. he moved to Wysong's Hall. and graduated in 1881. During his boyhood days his entire attention was given to farming pursuits. His patronage extended far beyond Berkeley and adjoining counties. being next door to the Post-office. Esq. Thomas manifested and showed considerable ability for business qualifications. They purchased the store and fixtures. During his younger days.. BROS. He is a son of M. Swartz has few superiors. and. yet residing in Jefferson County. w^as compelled to seek larger quarters. Roberts on Queen street. where he remained a short and then removed to the large and commodious room he occupies at present. Thomas T. for many years occui)ied by J. experienced and rei)utable farmer. is yet a young man. grain besides a well supplied stock of general Mr. Lemen. at Shepherdstown. fresh goods. His place of business is centrally located. Swartz is a genial and clever gentle- whom it is LEMEN a jileasure to deal. able He makes and groceries. is a native of Jefferson County. and at reason]3rices. feed. Thomas T. At all times can be found good. Shortly afterward while. As a miller. and wiiile engaged in the business met with much success. in 1842. and one with a specialty of flour. Mr. The genial manager of the above Arm. 1887. and at an early age became interested in . man. In 1880 he opened his store in the room adjoining O'Neal's drug store. although young in years he is old in practical business experience. Here he continued until ISSO. when he established himself permanently in the merchautile business. W. merchandise. In the fall of 1878 he entered Shepherd College. he commenced business in "what is now known as the "Swartz'' mill. an old. 419 time was given to the milling business.

They deal in flour. Dorn. etc. fancy suitings and x)antaloonings. Messrs. Their yard at that time occupied a small leased lot on corner of East Eace and Spring streets. brother. and in 1883 established himself permanently in business. Mr. They have since. Mr. He is yet a young man.. L. I. L. Lemen is an obliging and accommodating gentleman. commanding an excellent reputation. and is held in the highest esteem by all his acquaintances. At his place will be furnished the lowest prices. and was born in Martinsburg in the year 1861. Bender & Bro. DORN. coal. energetic and industrious.420 Biograxjliy of Business Men. and as a cutter^ he is unsurpassed by any in the State. L. and after several years service attended a cutting trade. where can be found at all times the latest styles and best qualities of Cassimeres. succeeding H. Their present location is Queen street. feed. vantages. and deserves the patronage of the u. I. engaged in the lumber business about twelve years ago. •goods always open for inspection. the young and energetic tailor. With liis a large and successful business on a sound basis. by pur- . situated on East Martin street. Mitchell & Co. Mr. is a son of Martin L. He was given the advantages of the common schools for an education. Clippinger & Co. Dorn. and at an early age entered the tailoring business under He applied himself to every branch of the his father. Sr. general public. JR. BENDER & BRO. with a full line of Mr.. Dorn is genial and courteous. and guarantees rons. for whom I.. school in New York. wood. L. His place of business is located on East Martin street. under the well-known firm of John After acquiring the art and its adJ. next door to Adams Express Office. at the lowest possible figures. he is doing many important matters. was book-keeper. he returned to Martinsburg. satisfaction to all his jiat- L. Dorn has devoted his entire attention to the trade.

and their central location and convenience to the siding. Later he attended a private school at Greencastle. thus extending their yard from a front on East Race along Spring. demands of their trade. raised on a farm. and attended public day schools during the winters. From here. Pa. flooring. blinds.. He obtained no .aker. doors. good weight and prompt delivery. he went to the AYilliamsport Commercial College. situated on West John Street. for the railroad shops. obtained possession of this and adjoining lots. loading and unloading lumber. an old established and reputable shoem. J. In this they have enjoyed a marked success. Bender. with rear on John street. After graduating he took the position of head book-keeper for the firm of Rowley & Hermance. of the above Arm. Messrs.. Hill. now the largest manufacturers of machinery in the State. makes their place of business one of the most desirable in the city. in Martinsburg. he entered the lumber business in which he is still engaged. They have also added large buildings and sheds for shops and the storage of an ample supply of lumber. The above name represents one of Berkeley County's most energetic and enterprising young men. WM. was born in Pennsylvania. During the winter of 1876 he was emplyed as Professor in the theoretical department of the College High School. Mr.Biography of Business Men. 421 chase. Lee M. Hill was born in the year 1859. In 1881 they added the coal and wood business to their already large trade. Their own railroad siding for loading bark. Bender are among our substantial and reliable business men. HILL. as well as to the comfort of not a few of our people. etc. in 1875. Coming to Martinsburg in 1878. who have added by their own energy and kind indulgence much to our city's appearance. where he stood among the highest in his class in Latin and the higher mathematics. and is a son of James E. sash. owing to their well deserved reputation for furnishing the best coal in good condition.

McGraw & Co. one of the finest retail He afterward returned to Martinsstores in that city. and is a popular young man. established It was then the first enterprise of its kind in the Valit. short sketch of the jewelry establishment of Mr. Hyde as it is now and as it was in 1823. He possesses a kind and courteous disposition. Hyde. and its trade came . A S. from a sparsely settled country. other advantages for an education than those offered by the common schools of his day.422 Biography of Business Men. and is agreeable to all. J. ley its patronage was but limited. Hutchison were small only — about 12x15 feet. Hutchison.. S. etc. burg and resumed a clerkship until 1888. and opened up a Mr. next door to Crump's hardware store. may be of interest to the reader. Hill is well known throughout the first class store. iSTelson Wisner. The premises occupied by Mr. and served five years. HYDE'S JEWELRY STORE. His place of business is located on Queen Street. town and county. is honest and upright in his dealings. when Jas. provisions. the capacity of a clerk from 1879 until 1882. and whose possessions of silver plate were usually limited to a modest array of articles that now-a-days would seem primitive enough. about fifteen m^onths. a practical silversmith. H. its past history. At the early age of fourteen years he entered the shoe business with his Leaving this he acted in father. he established himself on Queen Street. and present dimensions. and then went to BpJtimore. when he entered the Post Office as delivery clerk under the effiHe remained here cient Post-master. K. but for a long series of years they af- . At all times can be found a fresh and well supi)lied stock of groceries. where he comiDleted a practical clerkship under the reputable firm of Geo.. Vast contrasts are presented as between the jewelry house of H. whose inhabitants had little use for jewelry. Having obtained a complete and practical idea of the grocery business. at reasonable prices.

the salesroom is upward of fifty feet deep) silver. Hutchinson's death Mr. the stock then invoicing about 81. Ohio. "We also notice one of Lillie's improved safes. Case No. succeeded to the business. In 1854 a son. — Upon so that now entering the store (which was recently enlarged. 9 to American clocks No. a leading jeweler in that city. 8 to French clocks . H. Hyde purchased the business. he determined upon another field of labor and so entered the jewelry business. where he completed his trade under the instruction of Benj.Biography of Business 2Ien. and the while one's second self is reflected from numerous mirrors adorning the walls. is a native of Strasburg. .500. The room is handsomely finished and painted the ceiling is espe. pencils and other articles. . — . . . Hyde in Martinsburg connected with the firm of Welland & Hyde. 5 to fiat ware Nos. Upon Mr. and in 1877 he purchased the pioneer jewelry store of this section a house whose trade has wonderfully developed under his management. . In 1872 he went to Springfield." over 7 huge pendulum swinging to and fro as it slowly and solemnly ticks out the moments. 4 to fine silver ware No. weighing 3. Mr. (on the Shenandoah. — tacle for valuables. Samuel Hiitcliispn. by the Avay. 10 to novelties of various kinds. and precious stones the contents of the adjoining case are in x)art a duplicate of the first here also are gold pens. Ya. In 1874 we find Mr.900 pounds a fire and burglar jiroof recepone's eyes are greeted with the glitter of gold sheen of . The contents of the numerous show cases naturally arrest attention in one case we see gold and silver watches... a massive iron and steel affair. its Another thing we notice is the "Regulator. . ' 423 forded ample room. statues and toilet sets No. Allen. 3 is chiefly devoted to jet and initial jewelry No. No. and in 1870 tie remodeled tlie building and enlarged the salesroom to 17x24 feet. feet high. G and 7 to granite ware.) Working on his father's farm until he was 20 years of age.

In addition to the local trade and the large repair business that is had this latter department receiving Mr. and is known as Hyde's Building. Mr. filling orders in widely different parts of the country. and we fancy that Mr. and in this way he obtained an education and idea of general business affairs. the apartment is a model of good taste. He contined here about two years. He is Hyde is still a young man. E LAMAR. and taking advantage of the opportunity. Disposing of his mercantile business. Of the three jewelers who were carrying on business here in 1876 he alone remains.424 Biography of Business Men. what may be styled a "self-made" man. with its centre pieces of inlaid wood from which depend globed chandeliers in brief. and four young jewelers growing uj) insure success in business. Jefferson County. W. he opened up a livery and sale stable at Charlestown. and was born in Frederick County in 1857. Lamar. cially noteworthy. 50 and 52 Queen street. His present establishment is said to be the largest between Baltimore and Wheeling. During his early days he was given no other advantages for an education excepting those offered by the schools of Frederick. . the genial and popular livery. and about a year later. In 1882 he engaged in general merchandising near Shepherdstown. Nos. in 1884. Hyde has every reason to be satisfied with the aggregates of his . being only 33 years old. His life during his younger days was given to business pursuits of various kinds.i and continued about three years. where the trade was completely monopolized by one livery-man. C. Hyde's careful attention the house controls a considerable jobbing business. Va. where he has continued to the x^resent day. In 1886 he announced his opening at the St. Clair Hotel stables. 48. — — business. is a native of Maryland. he decided to move to Martinsburg. He has certainly accomplished a decided success thus far.

. born in Martinsburg in 1865. and as a pupil to the he ranked among the highest of his classes. under his father's instructions. Stewart. KERSHNER. crossing. At an early age he apprenticed himself at the plastering business. North B. he can accommodate all. Lamar is a genial and agreeable gentleman. . R. about the year 1853. at all times and for a fine turnout.Biography of Business Men. Kline. genial and industrious. Lamar lias had tlie general run of patronage. Kershner was born in Hedgesville. and was man — energetic. After remaining with Mr. JOSEPH STEWART. . Kershner is prompt. GEORGE getic E. 425 Since opening a first-class livery. He can be found at tlie St. and is a son of George M. and fair in all his dealings. R. whicli is well evidenced by liis fine turnouts of liorses and vehicles. where he makes his office. Stewart is a son of J. and has succeeded in establishing a ""reliable business. Mr. at the lowest figure. Clair Hotel. His advantages for an education were limited to that of the common school. W. His education was limited common schools of his early days. Mr. Kershner. and applied himself to the trade in all its branches. this county. Stewart is yet a young Mr. Kline for some years. & O. The above name represents one of Martinsburg's enerand industrious young menr Mr. Esq. A few years later he entered business for himself. under William R. near Moler Avenue. he opened up business for himself. His present place of business is located on Qaeen street. Esq. and is a very pojjular man. and obtaining the advantages of the trade. energetic and industrious. Mr. He apprenticed himself at an early age to the butchering business. and will give general satisfaction to all who may favor him with their patronage. where fresh meats of all kinds are kept constantly on hand. Mr. His present location is on Williamsport Pike.

In the spring of 1887 they purchased the in the fall site adjoining the Market House. F.426 Biography of Business Men. F. and with their motto. Emmert. The dimensions of their store room are 100 feet deep by 23 feet wide. Their specialties consist in part of dry goods. From 1878 they occupied. and moved into one of the largest and finest build- ings in the State. The firm continued a successful business for nearly six years. Mr. when he purchased his father's entire interest. About the year 1872 he came to Martinsburg and enaged in business with Samuel Emmert. when F. the room now used by Frank Doll & Co. He commenced business at Funkstown. Md.. B. ladies' wraps. Both gentlemen are among the popular." they will guarantee satisfaction to the trade. and was born about the year 1852. and on account of the increasing demands of their trade they were compelled to secure larger quarters. and was born in 1830. Fiery. lights and many other improvements. S. Since the present firm has been constituted it has enjoyed a reputable and successful business... Everything in this line can be had at their place. the senior member of this firm. carpets. enter- . for a period of nearly nine years. Md. "good goods and low prices. of S. in 1S64. where for nearly eight years he was engaged in merchandizing. This firm is an old established one of an excellent reputation. S. ture of three stories. gas. Emmert. and their past record will insure a successful future. purchased his father's interest. EMMERT & native of FIERY. Through their untiring energy and business zeal they now own and occupy the most creditaIt is a handsome brick strucble building in the city. and is elegantly finished. is a Washington County. &c. He came to Martinsburg in 1872. father of the present F. of the x)resent firm.. Md. and conveniently arranged with steam. under the old firm until 1878. dress goods. is also a native Washington County. modern plan. and remained Mr.

where he remained several years. Dorsey. they are handling a large line of improved agricultural implements. W. Esq. and by their perseverance will push their trade to the highest degree of success. Berkeley County. The common school of their day was the only advantage obtained for an education. William and C. H. Messrs. He is a native of Middleway.. Their trade daily increased until now. Va. Here he applied himself to every branch . the enteri^rising managers of this firm.. MILLER & SONS. sulkies. Esq. The greater portion of their time was given to mercantile pursuits. and was born in 1859. where the lowest possible figures and reasonable inducements are ofi'ered to purchasers.. Gilbert represents one of Martinsburg's industrious and enterprising young men.Biography of Business Men. A. phaetons. A. Through a well deserved integrity they have succeeded in establishing one of the most reputable and successful houses in the city. coal. and are held in the highest esteem by their people. Arthur was given the advantage of a good education. etc. crossing. harness. R. purchasing the large warehouse they now occupy. J. in Hedgesville. R. Both are jDopular in the county. and supplying it with a large stock of agricultural implements. is among the successful farmers of Jefferson County. Their location is on North Queen street. H. courteous and obliging. & 0. buggies. which they justly merit and deserve.. In 1886 they entered the mercantile business. Esq. at B. and under their father's instruction they received a general and thorough business knowledge. AL GILBERT. Mr. and at an early age entered the drug business under AYm. are sons of J. and were born respectively in the years 1S58 and 1863. J. wood. Miller. John Gilbert. and are interested in various enterprises. feed. These gentlemen are energetic and abreast of the times. His father. Miller. fertilizers. by additions to their stock. 4'27 prising citizens of the county.

where he now enjoys the success of a reliable and wide reputation. This threw a great responsibility of a large upon the young man managing the affairs farm and family of younger children. At the age of 28 years he went under the instructions of Mr. HUNTER. and from present prospects he is destined to make his mark in the drug business. P. gaining a «uperiors.. For compounding prescriptions he has but few. Hunter. Hardly had he arrived at the age of 16 years when his father. at his present location. Hunter. In April. he entered business for himself. and one with whom it is a pleasure to deal. p. After mastering his chosen profession in its various branches. and was raised on a farm.. and an industrious gentleman. Baltimore County. died. and opened up a first-class lohotograph gallery. suof tlie business. sociable and agreeable. and in a short while found himself at the helm of success. thorough knowledge of ijharmacy and business tact. Mr. if any. the leading photographer of Baltimore city.428 Biograplty of Business Men. sociable. At his place can be found Tit all times and at reasonable figures everything kept in a first-class drug store. is a native of White Hall. and by steady application he intends to surpass his rivals in the future. C. His past business career has been a grand success. and entered business in Baltimore in 1872. 1883. Md. G. By steady application to business he has made a grand success and gained an excellent and wide reputation. He is an adapt — . on corner of Queen and Race streets. he heeded it not. Hunter is agreeable. 1881. In Aj^rii. where he has built up an extensive trade. He possesses the necessary energy and vim so essential for a successful business. he moved to Martinsburg. well-knowu throughout business circles. Gilbert is yet a young man. Possessing self-confidence and vim. He received his education in the public schools of that county. Mr. Mr. Henry Pollock. he launched out for himself. Esq. and was born in 1844.

known as "Feller's Hall. In this he was very successful for a number of years." on the same site. Mr. when he disposed of his business and built the hotel. known as the " Academy of Music. corner Race and Queen streets. In 1855 he located at Martinsburg. It is handsomely frescoed. and consequently Mr. sucli as oil. and contains all the modern conveniences and improvements. in varions styles and sizes. He was educated in the schools of that place. It contains a stage 22x37 feet. Feller. and entered the mercantile business. and nov/ enjoys a wide and established reputation. India ink and water colors. and comfortably furnished. in erecting a building of this kind. Feller. caused him to enlarge and remodel the building in elegant style. three doors South of Market House. and well lighted. at this time. . making it 100x44 feet in dimension. Martinsburg contained no public hall or building of any importance. known as the Shenandoah House. In 1887 the increasing demands for a larger and better hall. However. JOHN FELLER. Germany. He continued in the hotel business for a period of about 16 years. heated by steam. The name of the hall has since been changed. arranged with fine scenery. gaining a popular and well-deserved reputation. the genial and clever proprietor of the "Academy of Music'' and an energetic citizen." This hall is conceded to be one of the finest in the State. and is ably supported by the general public. with a double entrance. elegantly lighted with gas. 420 in portraiture in all its branches. met with the approval of the general public. and was born in 1820. crayon. and emigrated to America in 1844. 1879 the hall was burned down. About the year 1858 he built the large and commodious In hall. Mr. and afterwards rebuilt. Feller is well known as an energetic. The building is of two large stories. is a native of Hessen. pastel. His present location is on Queen street. well ventilated. An addition of 40 feet was added.Biography of Business Men.

D. W. it has steadily progressed in favor. a gold medal. The progress has been so rapid that it is £)racticed in every portion of the civilized world. Martinsburg. that which has made him so honored by the millions of suffering humanity. announced the principle which has made him famous. Cincinnati. xVlthough it has been received with derision by a vast majority of the medical world. L. liis is very popular among the A. Boards of Health are in part composed of HomoeopaSome of our state institutions are controlled by thists. Ya. overcoming obstacle after obstacle. the founder of Homoeopathy. A law that has caused the greatest revolution ever before or since in the history of medicine. Ohio. makes the treatment of Chronic Diseases a si^ecialty. Office near the Presbyterian Church. until to-day the system of medicine founded upon it. and obiigiDg gentleman. graduating first in his class. and at home here in the . In 1797 Hahnemann. receiving the Faculty Prize. and peoi^le of L. based on the law of similars. Doctor Day is a graduate of Pulte Homceopathic Medical College. Our State It is recognized in some of our universities. Homoeopathy is the system of medicine in unison with Nature's Law. the motto of Vhich is Similia Slmilibus Curantur.430 clever Blogrcqyhy cf Business 3Ien. Homceopatliist. them. county especially.. Ninety-one years have elapsed since Hahnemann promulgated his discovery. indicating that the drug to be curative must be given to the sick for symptoms similar to those produced by the drug on the healthy person. and also the first Clinical Prize for i^assing the best clinical — examination. numbers among its patrons and steadfast friends a large jiroportion of the more intelligent and cultivated of each community. M. The progress of Homcoopathy has been very rapid considering the jDrejudice with which it has had to battle. DAY.

Although the Gramm. and people must not think that this treatment belongs to any school of medicine. For example. or putrefacti-on of animal or vegetable substance pro- . 43 free dispensaries. The printed literature of the Homoeopathic school is numbered by the millions of pages. 43 Homoeopathic Hospitals. that homoeopathy differs only from other systems of medicine in medicinal treatment. in treating such conditions will give an emetic and proper antidotes. for they are based on chemistry. The Isopathic law is the prescribing of a medicine for the cure of a disease that was caused by the same medicine. one Ophthalmic and Otological college. and patronized by the hundreds of thousands. it is United States. Let this fact be remembered. Many have the sm.all dose of homoeopathy as an objection to the system. the miasm. "How does so small a dose act?" it is asked. The homoeopathist. hygiene and mechanics. since Dr. Accessory treatment is that branch of therapeutics which is not medicinal. thus avoiding the sickening.Biograpliy of Business Men.000 Homoeopathic Physicians. if a man is poisoned by arsenic he Avill be given more arsenic to cure him. This is based on chemistry and can only be treated chemically. weakening and grave physiological effects produced by medicine when given in large doses. 26 State Medical Societies. which varying from drop doses of the pure tincture to portions of a drop or grain at frequent intervals. AYho can tell how for it cannot be told how they act. first — Isopathy is a system of medicine. 17 Periodicals. the law of which is often mistaken by many as being the Homwopatliic laio. an unseen influence. the product of decay. physiology. Mechanical or operative surgery and obstetrics are the same and do not belong to any system. 99 county societies. probably 10. " How does a large dose act ? " Neither can be exx^lained. first settled in New York and to-day we have eleven Homoeopathic medical colleges. 431 but about sixty-live years Homoeopathic Phj^sician..

by assisting her efforts. well-known Mr. duces intermittent fever. and Sallie Thompson a quiet.lames en- on John street. but it cannot be explained like the first question. He was naturally a bright boy. or the tendency for consumption from a parent'^ Yet such is known to be the fact in many instances. Thompson.482 Biograpliy of Business Men. Va. because the one acts in unison with nature's law. senior m. was born in Martinsburg. yet a fruitful source of disease or who can tell how the child inherits the much-tobe-dreaded scrofula. The small dose has cured and is curing where the large one utterly fails. W.. showing that it takes a far less quantity of medicine to have an effect on the diseased body than on the healthy. because nature is trying to remove the cause of disease from the system. In disease the small dose of medicine will assist nature. The healthy eye can endure a very bright light. Jarnes F. Under the observation of a conscientious. wdiile the diseased eye will have to be protected. removes the disease. tradiction both in theory and practice. THOMPSON & TABLER. for it is established beyond con. but his father's family was a large one. (tlie so called malaria. the dose needs no defense.) September loth. where the larger dose of medicine Tvill weaken the system and thus retard recovery. industrious couple. He is the eldest of the thirteen children of Samuel J. How does the small dose act? or many other facts in science. 1859. .ember of the above firm.) or the infinitesimal germs too small to be seen with the microscope. Ward . James worked hard during the summer months and studied earnestly and late during the School. therefore the homoeopathic remedy. AVhen the war closed — and the school system was tered the old Third in its incipiency. and began to drink dee^D at the fountain of knowledge. while the other acts contrary. and rather than throw the entire burthen of its support upon him. intelligent and devoted class of physicians. (then Virginia.

and winning a splendid reputation for business qualities. His success was x3henominal. Weil to such an extent. Soon afterwards Mr. These two worked up an enor- — — . W. and a pushing. But he loved old Martinsburg the scene of his boyhood. after which he sought more suitable quarters and went in with Mr. He remained with Mr. His. He was ambitious. Deatrick until he closed out his stock. and soon left Martinsburg to work with his uncle. in the office of the Spirit of Jefferson. Here. Persons knew he would npt deceive them. he advanced in ing. and soon vices. Once more. M. and making numerous influential friends.half. 433 long winter nights. at Charlestown. taking in as a partner Mr. occupying the confidential x">osition of manager of the store in the Staley BuildBy dint of carefulness and push. Jno. the estimation of Mr. G. He remained with Mr. watchful young gentleman. Dalgarn. man with whom to get along. the hope of his future. H.BiograpliT/ of Business Men. (but for a still attending the Grammar School during the winter. N. or "Jim" as the boys familiarly call him. David Weil. When Louis Bouton opened his large store at the now Berry A hard stand. steadily advancing from "devil" to compositor and assistant editor. Deatrick obtained his ser"Jim" stood up to his new avocation. Bouton about two years and a. energy and determination were not lost sight of by business men. Then Mr. Weil retired. however.) he won the commendation and esteem of the watchful public of his native town. in the clothing business. Tabler. while old clerks went out and new ones came in everj^ month. working hard and persistingly livelihood in the humblest spheres of labor. earnestness and sobriety. young Thompson was employed by him. became the leading salesman in town. for over three years he worked at odds. laying the foundation of a good business and general education. continued the business. James retained his position. a clerk under the old firm. and James. that in one year he held a partnership in the business.

and when the company went out of organization. M. Berry and Dr.)son & Tabler. Ray. he enjoys the confidence of the entire community. 1888. junior member of the firm of Thom]. good Judge of material has a quick insight into the markets. A. Mr.made man the success he enjoys is the result of years of at- mous — tentiveness and toil. where prosperity has followed them. Thompson is a self. in one of the DeGrange buildings. on Queen street. Here he applied himself diligently for two years. Mr. tlie Mr. His father is an enteri)rising and thrifty farmer. equal knowledge of — — courtesy and attention. of Shepherdstown. and lends a helping hand to every laudable enterx:)rise. the essence of thrift and push that made his own life so November 8th. and now resides on West King street. on February ^8th. Day. is a word not to be and business tact is a farnily the sjoheres of his usefulness ever widening. No man in Martinsburg has an the details of the clothing busiHe seems to be a . winning . in successful. knows when to recommend. Tabler. is the eldest son of James W. came to Martinsburg and entered the Berkeley Academy. trade. "Can't" . and Amelia Tabler. 1862.434 . C. of Berkeley County. Biography of Business Hen. and spent the days of his early manhood on his father's But he felt that his sphere of usefulness was too farm limited on the farm. G. He was mainly instrumental in establishing the celebra ted See Chair Factory here. and will si)are no means or time to x)ush it to activity and paying advantage. found in his dictionary trait. and treats poor and rich with equal all .* Mayberry was born the neighborhood of Darkesville. L. in comi)any with Messrs.part of the business. and the stocks was removed to their present handsome location in the Homricli building. L. he jDurchased the business. Thompson was married to Miss With Minnie S. and instilled within the very being*of his sou. He is a ness. keeps the best makes of clothing. Their quarters grew too small. and when eighteen years old. H.

Blograpliy of Business 3Ien. The room is one mass of handsome novelties. he has developed into a safe and careful salesman. Tabler is careful and honest. Mr. and their x)atronage is not limited to counties. Having made. then conducting in his class. he has done 'much to make the business of the lirm stable and permanent. suits they turn out are i^erfect in fit and material. The country people feel that in him they can depend. J). Being a young man and x>ossessing a large circle of acquaintances. contented to see his patronage increasing and his customers satisfied. and thorough in his work. None complain of his dealings. Dieffenderler. fine suits. Jas. and a warrant from him. a flourishing clothing business in the Staley building. Weil. and the general concomitants of the business. as to the quality of goods. Theirs is undoubtedly the soundest and best trade in town. is as good as gold. the . and formed those mutual lies of confidence and friendship which linally united the two young men in the business they now so successfully pursue. he entered the services of Mr. The growth of . even tenor of his way. His face is an index of his character. watchful of the small things. and an efficient business man. and possessing natural qualifications for the business." He was quiet and industrious. After leaving the Academy. Under the careful training of his more experienced partner. winning his deservedly popular name of " fair dealer. was energetic and attentive. and had every indication of possessing the essentials going to make up a good business man. Conductstore ing a large firm of M. Satisfaction always follows the sales. Md. Thompson. The business of the lirm is steadily increasing. an acute insight. the esteem oi:" 435 Prof." he goes on quietly in the . states or ages. of Baltimore. and going to the iront His teacher said: " Tabler had an oric-iuality of conception. moulded and fashioned his own character. "made to order" feature with the well-known Friedman & Sons. Here he met Mr. F.

and has continued to the present day. vegetables. T. He received his education at the common schools of his day. BOWERS. where he commanded an excellent position in the B. Esq. Morrow. and was born in Martinsburg in 1857. as well as the latest novilties in the dry goods line. MORROW. sauces. and returned to the shops In 1885 he established himself in the at this city. Bowers. shrewd business man. imported and domestic pickles. His present location is on North Queen Mr. R. acted. imiDorted and domestic hosiery. Mr. crossing. machine shops as an apprentice. fish. R. he was compelled to leave on account of ill health. shops. one of Hedgesville's enterprising and energetic business men. His store occupies the entire floors of a two-story building.436 Biograjjliy of Business tlie Men. & O. & O. A. true worth thrives. energetic and industrious. and of a genial and clever disposition. and has won the resjDect and esteem of his people. including the most popular dress patterns. coffees and spices. R. After remaining about one year. & 0. He takes considerable interest in various enterprises.. embroideries." old saying " By indus- CHARLES H. Shortly afterward he was called to Garrett City. underwear. choice teas. groceries. wherein an enormous stock of goods is kept aBpd a successful! business transHis stock consists of staple and fancy goods. R. merchandise business on North Queen Street. trimmings. Indiana. near B. : the business is tlie result of try. Bowers is a Street. HANSON Mr. is a native of Jefferson County. relishes and other condiments and delicacies. and in 1872 entered the B. white goods and notions. fruit. Bowers. in fact all the necessaries and luxuries of the table. canned meats. ladies and gentlemen's furnishings. sewing materials. where he remained four years— serving the required time and acquitting himself creditably. one of Martinsburg's enterprizing citizens and business men. . is a son of Jno.

1826. and was born in His advantages for an education were those offered by the common school of his day. Here he remained two years and gained every advantage offered in the business. Morrow first opened in the silversmith business and afterwards added the saddler business. and was born at Shepherdstown. Hopewell represents one of the energetic. (COL. W.Biography of Business Men. At an early age he entered the milling business under his father. His present location is on Main street. and consequently he . HOPEWELL. Mr. In his trades he is a skilled workman of talent and energy. is 437 W. 17th. a period of about one year* After the war he followed the pursuit of farming for about two years. of Frederick. Vira son of James the year 1S4G. Va. Esq. Johnson. He was a son of Henry Hopewell. Md. Afterward he returned to school. Morrow can well be termed a self made man. clever and industrious colored citizens of Martinsburg. watches. In 18G4 he entered the military company under Captain Kobt.. . and served until the close of the war. and conveniently arranged for the benefit of the general public. attending during the winter season and milling during the summer months. Esq. SAMUEL W. etc.) Mr. ginia Cavalry.. when he entered the silversmith business under Wm. and is doing a thriving business. December. He is a native of Jefferson County. During Samuel's early days the advantage for an education was very limited with his race. and remained for a period of about seven years.. and from that date has continued until the present day in a successful business. holds the highest respect and esteem of his peoj^le. and as an industrious and clever gentleman." 12th Regiment. repairing of machinery and sale of Hour and feed. Baylor. is sent him from the larger cities. Mr. Morrow. in Company "B. Considerable amount of repairing on jewelry. In the spring of 1887 he opened up in Hedgesville. who was well known throughout Jefferson County for his sobriety and uprightness.

He employs two skilled workmen regularly. Hopewell is well known throughout the community. and takes an active part in business affairs. shami^ooning. ' During the late war. and made many warm friends. obtained no other learning than tliat given him by his friends.. He then returned to Martinsburg. in 1SG3. and remained until after the surrender at Richmond. and continues at the present day on East Martin Street. During the past twenty years he has successfully followed barbering. and has won the resi)ect of a large circle of acquaintances. and was exempted from service on account of ill health.438 Blogrcipliy of Business J^len. 594 9 . However he served but a short while. Louis. he was conscripted by the Eastern Maryland Regiment. from which place he went to St. dying and shaving. and has his shop conveniently arranged. He was employed on a farm. Mr. AVith his race he stands high in their estimation. where he remained for nearly twenty years. As a tonsorial artist he cannot be surpassed in hair cutting. He afterward acted as a caterer and carried on barbering for a number of years. Mo.

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