You are on page 1of 37

Construction Norms of Turkmenistan

CONSTRUCTION IN
SEISMIC AREAS

SECTION 1

APARTMENT, PUBLIC AND INDUSTRIAL BUIDLINGS


AND STRUCTURES

SNT 2.01.08-99

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR ARCHITECTURE AND CONSTRUCTION CONTROL CABINET OF


MINISTERS OF TURKMENISTAN

Ashkhabad 2000
UDK 69+699.841
KND of Turkmenistan 91.040
SNT 2.01.08-99 "Construction in Seismic Areas. Section 1. Apartment, Public and Industrial
Buildings and Sturctures" - A.; 2000. - 38 p.

DEVELOPED by Scientific Research Institute of Seismology of National Committee for


Architecture and Construction Control of Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan (PhD B.I.Iljasov -
Topic Leader; V.A.Lopashev, PhD V.G.Bekmetov, Ch.A.Kudratulaev.. Section "Metal Frame
Buildings and Structures" developed by Engineer A.A.Belov).

The National Map for Seismological Zoning of Turkmenistan Area used for the development is
prepared by SRI of Seismology of National Committee for Architecture and Construction Control
of Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan and approved by decision of National Committee for
Architecture and Construction Control of Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan # 9 NK on 20
September 1999.

PREPARED for approval by Department for Science, Design Work, New Techniques and IT of
National Committee for Architecture and Construction Control of Cabinet of Ministers of
Turkmenistan.

With introduction of SNT 2.01.08-99 "Construction in Seismic Areas. Section 1. Apartment,


Public and Industrial Buildings and Structures" on October 1, 2000, ShiP II-7-81*, Section 1, 2, 3
and Annex 1, 2 will became invalid in Turkmenistan.
National Committee for Construction Norms of SNT 2.01.08-99
Architecture and Construction Turkmenistan
Control of Cabinet of Ministers
of Turkmenistan Construction in Seismic Areas To Replace Snip II-7-81**,
Section 1 Apartment, Public and Section 1,2,3 and Annex 1, 2
Industrial Buildings and
Structures

1. FUNDAMENTALS

1.1. These norms are to be followed at designing of new, reconstruction and rehabilitation of
apartment, public and industrial buildings and structures in areas with seismicity grade 6,
7, 8 and 9 degrees by MSK-64 scale. The norms do not cover designing of hydrotechnical and
transport structures.

1.2. Construction in seismicity grade 6 is carried out without special anti-seismic measures,
except for construction sites with 7 grade seismicity as defined by seismic micro-zoning
(SMZ), or based on engineering and geological field measurements and table 1 in the
Norms.

1.3. Earthquake-resistant buildings and structures should provide for people's safety, integrity of
valuable equipment, environmental safety and possibility for liquidation of consequences of
earthquakes of the designed intensity. At earthquakes below the design intensity the buildings and
structures should provide for normal operation and reparability of structures.

1.4. Earthquake resistance of buildings and structures is provided by:


- selection of construction site that is favorable from seismic point of view; application of
volumetric design and construction schemes that provide maximal resistance to seismic
impacts and possibility for reduction of seismic loads; selection of structure elements and
joints by results of calculations for seismic impacts (see section 2);
- implementation of structural measures (see section 3);
implementation of theoretical and experimental investigations at introduction of principally
new structural concepts to mass construction;
- arrangement of quality control of design and construction works;
- technical examinations (pasportization) of existing buildings and structures.

1.5. When designing buildings and structures to be built in seismic areas the following
should be taken into account:

a) intensity of seismic impacts expressed in grades (seismicity);


b) repeatability of seismic impacts (interval between earthquakes with normative intensity
expressed in years).

Intensity and repeatability are adopted from National Map for Seismic Zoning of
Turkmenistan Area (Annex 1), or from the List of agglomerations in Turkmenistan (Annex 2).
Seismicity in Annex 1 and 2 is attributed to the areas with average seismic properties of
ground (category II in table 1).

1.6. Seismicity of construction site is defined by seismic micro-zoning (SMZ) for the areas
with seismicity grade 6 or more, taking into account the forecasted condition and properties of
ground during construction and operation of buildings and structures.
For the areas where SMZ maps are not available, the construction site seismicity can be
defined by Table 1, based on the results of engineering and geological field measurements.
It is not permitted to start construction in communities situated in earthquake focus zones
(EFZ zones) where no seismic micro-zoning maps are available, without prior investigations of
seismic situation.

1.7. Construction sites with slopes over 15°, close to discharge planes, with ground heavily
disturbed by physical-chemical and technogenic processes, screes, rockslides, quicksands,
earthfalls, carse, collapsible and rarefactive soil, mines, mudflows, are unfavourable from
seismic point of view.

If a construction is needed at such sites, special measures should be taken for base
strengthening (soil stabilization, establishment of artificial foundations) and for reinforcement of
building structures. In this case, construction site seismicity shall be defined by Table 1, taking
into account transformations of construction properties of base ground.

1.8. Construction of buildings and structures in the areas with seismicity grade over 9 is permitted
only on approval by National Committee for Architecture and Construction Control of
Turkmenistan CM, provided that requirements of section 3.86-3.89 are fulfilled.

1.9. Buildings and structures with new volumetric design and constructive concepts that are built in
various engineering-geological conditions shall be equipped with monitoring stations of
Engineering-Seismometric Service (ESS) of National Committee for Architecture and
Construction Control of Turkmenistan CM. The ESS stations shall be designed in accordance with
Procedure for Selection, Treatment and Utilization of engineering-Seismometric Information,
ZNHSK, M., 1980.

Ground Seismicity of construction site


Seismicity Ground Description depending of area seismicity
Grade grade
6 7 8 9
I Rock of all types, un-eolated or slightly eolated; big-clastic 6 6 7 8
ground, dense, low-humidity, composed by magmatic rock,
containing up to 30% of sand-clay aggregate
II Rock, eolated or highly eolated (except those belonging to 6 7 8 9
grade I); big-clastic ground (except those belonging to grade I);
semi-gravel sands, big and medium size, dense and medium
density, low-humidity and wet; fine and silt sands, dense and
medium density, low-humidity; clay with consistency index I L
≤ 0,5 and porosity index e<0,9 for clay and loam and e<0,7 for
sandy loam
III Loose sands irrespective of humidity and fraction size; semi- 7 8 9 >9
gravel sands of big and medium size, dense and medium
density, water saturated; fine and silt sands, dense and medium
density, wet and water saturated; clay with consistency index I L
> 0,5; clay with consistency index I L > 0,5 and porosity index е
≥ 0,9 for clav and loam and е ≥ 0,7 for sandv loam
Note:
1. The site can be qualified as grade I by seismic properties only if depth of the layer belonging to grade I is
more than 30 m from black mark for filling works or from plane mark for excavations. For inconsistent grounds,
construction sites are classified according to the ground with the worst seismic properties, if summary occupation
of this ground in 10-meter depth (measured from plane mark) is more than 5 m.
2. For the purpose of ground water rises and ground flooding (including collapsible soil)
during operation of the building or structure, the ground category is defined by ground
properties (humidity and consistence) in wet state.
3. If no data is available on consistency or humidity, semi-gravel and sand soil with ground
water level higher than 5 m are qualified as seismicity grade III.
4. For critical buildings and structures (see Note to table 3) to be built in areas with
seismicity grade 6 and construction site grounds grade H, the design seismicity is grade 7,
and at ground seismicity grade in, the design seismicity is grade 8.

2. SEISMIC STRENGTH CALCULATIONS

2.1. Structure and foundation calculations for buildings and structures to be built in seismic
areas shall be based on special combinations of loads, taking into account seismic impacts that are
attributable for seismicity of the construction site (design seismicity).
For the purpose of calculation of the buildings and structures regulated by this document'for
special combination of loads, the design values of loads shall be multiplied by combination
coefficients that are given in table 2.
Horizontal loads from flexibly hanged mass, temperature climatic impacts, wind loads, live
loads from equipment and traffic, brake and side force from traveling cranes shall not be taken into
account.
Calculation of design vertical seismic load shall accommodate for weight of crane bridge,
weight of troller, and the weight of load that is equal to crane capacity, with coefficient 0,3.
Design horizontal seismic load from crane bridge weight shall be applied perpendicularly to
axis of crane runway beams. Reduction of crane load that regulated by construction norms and
rules for loads and impacts shall not be taken into account.

Table 2
Load Type Combination Coefficient
Dead load 0.9
Long-term live load 0.8
Short duration load (on floors and roofing) 0.5
Special (seismic) 1
2.2. Calculation of seismic loads for buildings and structures at special combination of loads
shall be carried out:

a) in accordance with instructions in p.2.5 of these norms;


b) using instrumental records of base accelerations at earthquakes that present the worsts
danger for (he type of building and structure, and also synthetic accelerograms. Maximal
amplitude of base accelerations should be assumed 100, 200 and 400 cm/s2 for
construction site seismicity grade 7, 8 and 9 respectively.
Calculation p. "a" shall be carried out for all buildings and structures.
Calculation p. "b" shall be carried out for principally new structure concepts for buildings and
structures at development stage, as well as at designing of critical or high structures (over 60 m).
Calculation p. "b" shall take into account possible development of inelastic deformations of
structures.

2.3. Seismic impacts may have any direction.


Design seismic loads for buildings and structures with simple geometrical shape shall be
applied horizontally, in the same direction with their longitudinal and cross-sectional axis. Seismic
loads in the above directions should be accounted for separately.
Calculations of buildings and structures with complicated geometrical shape should take into
account the most dangerous seismic impact directions for the structure or its elements.

2.4. Vertical seismic load should be taken into account at calculation of:
horizontal and inclined console structures;
structures with span 24 m or more;
distance structures with span 12 m or more;
structures for overturn or sliding resistance;
blockwork structures (according to p.3.22).

2.5. Design seismic load S ik in the selected direction, applied in point "k" and correspondint
to i tone of natural frequency of building or structure, is defined by formula:

S ik = K o K z K п K ψ Q k A β i η ik , (1)

Where K o - building or structure responsibility index as described in table 3

Kz – index to take into account structure solutions in the building or structure, as described in
table 4;

Kп – index to take into account earthquake repeatability, see table 5;

Kψ – index to take into account the damping properties of structures, see table 6;
Qk – weight of building of structure applied to point "k". The weight is defined taking into
account design loads to structures and combination coefficients according to p.2.1
(figure 1);

A – seismicity index that is accepted equal to 0.1: Q.2 or 0.4 for the respective design
seismicity grade 7, 8 or 9. ;

βi – movement index attributable to i tone of natural frequency of building or structure, as


defined in p.2.6;

η ik – deformation shape index attributed to point "k" and relevant i tone of natural frequency (
of building or structure, as defined in p.2.7

Figure 1 (page 7)

• Qn

X(x k ) • Q n-1

• Qk

• Qj
xk
xj • Q1
Рис. 1

2.6. Movement index β i , depends on design period T i of natural freguency of the building
or structure for the I tone. In calculation of seismic loads, β i is defined by the following
formulae (2), (3),(4):

For grounds with seismicity grade I:

For T i ≤ 0,08 c β i = 1 + 15
Ti (2)
for 0,08 c < T i ≤ 0,318 c β i = 2,2
for T i > 0,318 c β i = 0,7/T i

For grounds with seismicity grade II or II land layer thickness 30 m or less::

For T i ≤ 0,1 c β i = 1 + 15 T i
For 0,1 c < T i ≤ 0,4 c β i = 2,5 (3)
for T i > 0,4 c β i = 1/T i
For grounds with seismicity grade II orII and layer thickness more than 30 m:

For T i ≤ 0,2 c β i = 1+ 7,5 T i


For 0,2 c < T i ≤ 0,76 c β i = 2,5 (4)
for T i > 0,76 c β i = 1,9/T i
In all cases the adopted p\ value is not less than 0,8.

2.7. For buildings and structures that are calculated by console scheme, the η ik value is defined by
formula:
n
X i (x k) ∑ Q j X i (x j )
j=1
η ik = ,
(5)
n
∑ Q j X i 2(x j )
j=1

where X i (x k ) and X i (x j )- movement of the building or structure at i tone natural frequency in the
"k" point and in all "j" points where weight is assumed as a concentrated load, according to calculation
scheme;
Qj - weight of building or structure that is allocated to point "j". Calculation of Qj shall take into
account design loads for the structure and combination index as in p.2.1.

2.8. For buildings that have 5 or less floors, with no considerable of mass and rigidity between
the floors and T 1 less than 0,4 s, η k can be defined by the following formula:

n
xk ∑ Qj xj
j=1
ηk = ,
(6)
n
∑ Qj x j2
j=1

where x k and xj distance from "k" and "j" point to the top edge of foundation.

2.9. Stress from seismic load in building structures and their components should be defined
for at least three forms of natural frequency if periods of the first (the lowest) natural frequency
tone T 1 is more than 0,4 s, or only for the first form if T 1 is equal or less than 0,4 s.

2.10. Vertical seismic load in situations presented in p.2.4 (except masonry structures) shall
be defined by formula (1) with K z and K ψ indexes equal to 1, and A index reduced by 30%.
Cantilever structures which weight is small compared to the weight of the building (balconies,
shades, consoles for panel walls, etc.) shall be calculated for vertical seismic load at βη = 5.

2.11. Calculation of structures overlooking the budding or structure and having small size and
weight compared to the building or structure (parapets, frontons, etc.), as well as fixings for
monuments, heavy equipment to be installed at the ground floor, shall take into account horizontal
seismic loads by formula (1) at βη = 5.
2.12. Walls, panels, partitions, links between individual structures, as well as fixings for
process equipment, shall be calculated for horizontal seismic load by formula (1) at βη ,
appropriate for the structure elevation, but not less than 2. Friction forces shall be taken into
account only in calculation of horizontal joints in large-panel buildings.

2.13. Calculations for buildings and structures with simple configuration and footprint size
over 30 m shall take into account both seismic load as by p.2.5, and torque M about vertical axis
that goes through elastic centre of the building. M at k level is defined by formula:

M k = V k (ε k + 0,02 B) , (7)
Where V k - shear force at k level of horizontal seismic load, relevant to the first form of
natural frequency;
εk - distance between elastic centre and centre of mass at k level, perpendiculat to action of
seismic loads:
B - dimension of the building in the same direction.

Calculation of seismic loads at buildings and structures with complicated configuration shall
be based on multi-mass dimensional calculation schemes.

2.14. Calculation of buildings and structures taking into account seismic impacts is, as a rule,
made for first group limiting state. Calculation with the second group of limiting state is
acceptable on grounds of process requirements.

2.15. Design stress value in structure components caused by special combination of loads,
taking into account seismic impact, shall be defined by formula:

n
N p = N o + r √ (∑ N i 2 ) , (8)
i=1
where N o - stress from dead, sustained and short-term load, that is calculated taking into account
requirements of p.2.1;
N i - stress from seismic load that is relevant for the I form of natural frequency;
n - number of vibrations that are considered in the calculation;
r - reduction factor from table 7, depending on type of structure and its responsibility in respect of
limiting state at design earthquake events.
Stress defined by formula (8) shall not be greater than bearing capacity of the structure for the
limiting state.

2.16. Strength and stability calculations should take into account operation coefficients that are
subject to other construction Norms and Rules for designing of building structures, and an
additional operation coefficient m кр , which is presented in table 8.
Table 3
Ко
Responsibility of building or structure
value

1. Special responsibility buildings and structures 2, 0

2. Buildings and structures that will cause very severe consequences when 1, 5
damaged (big or average railway stations, covered sport halls or
auditoriums, shopping centers etc., and objects that contain flammable,
explosive or poisoning substances)

3. Buildings and structures that are needed for liquidation of consequences 1, 2


of earthquakes hospitals , fire depots, power supply objects, etc.)

4. Apartment public or production buildings and structures different from 1


the listed in p. 1-3
5. Buildings and structures that, when destructed, will not cause human No account for
death or damage to expensive equipment, and will not lead to seismic impacts
interruption of continuous production processes (warehouses, crane or
repair bridges, small workshops, etc.), as well as temporary buildings
and structures
Note: The list of buildings and structures in p.l shall be approved by ministries and authorities
and agreed by National Committee for Architecture and Construction Control of Turkmenistan.
.

Table 4
Kz
Structural design of building value

1. Buildings with framed, structures or frame-link systems, including K z = 1 + 0,1(n – 5),


those with building cores, as well as buildings with complex wall but not more than 1,5
structures that have 5 or more floors.

2. Large-panel or box-unit buildings, or with cast-m-place walls, K z = 0,9 + 0,075(n – 5),


but not more than 1,3
having 5 or more floors.

3. Same as p.2 with less than 5 floors. 0,9

4. Buildings with flexible ground floor (naked frame), and with 1,5
bearing walls, diaphragms or filled frames at higher floors

5. Buildings with bearing walls made of brick of stone blockwork 1,3


that are built manually, without bonding agents

6. Buildings that are not listed in p.1-5 1


Тable 5
Percussion index Earthquake repeatability interval Кп
value
1 Once every 100 years 1,15

2 Once every 1000 years 1

3 Once every 10 000 years 0,85

Тable 6

Structural design of buildings /structures
value

1. Buildings with small footpring size (towers, masts, chimneys, 1,5


individual housewives and other similar structures)
2. Frame buildings where wall filling does not influence deformation 1,5
capability, when relation between post height h and cross-sectional
dimension b in the direction of design seismic load is equal or
more than 25.
3. Same as p.2 with g/b is equal or less than 15 1

4. Buildings and structures that are not listed in p.1-3 1

Note: 1. For h/b values between 15 and 25 K ψ value is defined by interpolation.


2. With different level heights, K ψ value is defined by mean h/b value.

Тable 7
Responsibility Reduction
Type of structure grade factor r

1. Bearing structures that receive load from floors and I 0,3


seismic impacts to the building

2. Self-supporting structures that receive seismic loads to


the building II 0,25
3. Self-supporting structures that receive only local
seismic load from their own weight III 0,12

Note: 1. If no residual deformations or local disfigurement by seismic loads are permitted in the
structure, reduction factor shall be 1.
2. In calculation of seismic impacts to junction elements or components of structure
reinforcement, reduction factor shall be defined by responsibility grade of the structure itself..
Table 8
m кр value
Structure

For strength calculations:

1. Steel or wood 1,4


2. Concrete with rod or wire reinforcement (except check for oblique
section strength):
а) heavy concrete with reinforcement class А-I, А-II, А-III, Вр-I 1,2
b) same with other class of reinforcement 1,1
c) light concrete with all classes of reinforcement 1,1
d) same for cellular concrete 1

3. . Reinforced concrete when checked for oblique section strength


0,9
a) pillars in multi-floor buildings 1
b) other elements

4. Stone, reinforced masonry and concrete: 1,2


a) when calculated for eccentric compression 1
b) when calculated for shear and stretching
5. Weld joints 1

6. Screw (including high-strength bolts) and riveted joints 1,1

For stability calculations::

7. Steel elements with flexibility over 100 1

8. Same with flexibility up to 20 1,2

от 1,2 до 1
9. Same for flexibility between 20 and 100
(by interpolation)

3. STRUCTURE REQUIREMENTS TO BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES


GENERAL

3.1. Construction of buildings and structures in seismic areas is permitted only when their
design is properly checked and approved by state authorities.
It is recommended to use reinforced concrete or steel frames in bearing structures of apartment,
public and production buildings (framed, with structural core or stiffening diaphragms, filled
frame, etc.), as well as cast-in-place, large-panel, block walls, and mixed structure schemes.
Selection of structure concept shall be based on classification and appraisal of damage rate
(Annex 3).

3.2. Buildings and structures shall have simple form, with bearing structures that are regular
and symmetric in plan.
3.3. Buildings and structures shall have anti-seismic joints when:
building or structure has a complicated platform shape;
prominences in plan are more than:
- for large-panel and large-block buildings - 3 m,
- for frame and site-cast concrete buildings - 6 m,
- for blockwork buildings - see table 11 (p.4);

adjacent parts of the building and structure have difference in elevation over 7 m.
One-floor buildings with height up to 10 m are allowed to have no anti-seismic joints,
provided that design seismicity is grade 7.

3.4. When justified, it is permitted to make design for buildings and structures that are irregular in
plan and height, without anti-seismic joints. In this case calculations for special combinations of
loads including seismic impacts, shall be made with multi-mass volumetric calculation schemes.

3.5. Anti-seismic joints shall divide buildings and structures all over their height. Anti-seismic
joints are not necessary in foundations, except for the anti-seismic joints that coincide with
settlement joints.

3.6. Distance between anti-seismic joints and the height of the building shall be not more than
the value set in table 9.

3.7. Location and number of staircases shall be defined by results of calculations in


accordance with construction Norms and Rules for fire safety at design of buildings and
structures, but not less than one staircase between anti-seismic joints.
It is not accepted to arrange staircases for buildings that have two or more floors as
individual structures outside the building plan.

Table 9
Height, m
Length (width ), m
Bearing structures (nr. of floors)
Design seismicity, grade
7 8 9 7 8 9

1. Metal or reinforced concrete frame, or As required for По требованиям для


reinforced concrete walls unseismic areas, but несейсмических рай-
not more than 150 m онов

2. Large-panel walls 80 80 60 45 39 30
(14) (12) (9)

3. Complex structure walls where:

а) vertical reinforced concrete inclusions


and reinforced сoncrete belts form a clear
frame system in both directions;
80 80 60 30 23 17
manual laying category I (9) (7) (5)

80 80 60 23 20 14
same, category II (7) (6) (4)
б) vertical and horizontal reinforced
concrete inclusions
and reinforced concrete belts do not form a
clear frame system: 80 80 60 20 17 14
(6) (5) (4)
manual laying category I

80 80 60 17 14 11
same, category II (5) (4) (3)

4. Walls from vibrated brick panels or 80 80 60 23 20 14


blocks; concrete block walls (7) (6) (4)

5. Brick or stone masonry, except those


listed in p.3 and4:
laying category I 80 80 60 17 14 11
same, category II (5) (4) (3)

14 11 8
(4) (3) (2)

Note: 1. Building height is the difference between the lowest pitching surface or planed
ground surface adjacent to the building, and the top of external walls.
2. Height of hospitals and schools at seismicity grade 8 or 9 is limited by two
overground floors.

3.8. Anti-seismic joints shall be arranged by pairs of walls or frames, or by a frame and a wall. It is
not acceptable to arrange the joints by gap in free bay structures supported by bearing structures of
adjacent compartments.

The width of anti-seismic joint shall be defined by calculation for the loads as in p.2.5.

The width of anti-seismic joint in building or structure that is up to 5 m high, shall be at least 30
mm.
The width of anti-seismic joint in building or structure that is higher than 5 m shall be greater by
20 mm for every 5 m of height.

Filling of anti-seismic joints shall not prevent mutual movements of the building/structure
compartments.

3.9. Construction of apartment buildings with walls made from adobe brick, ground blocks and
other unsafe materials is not permitted in cities and towns.

It is allowed to build single-floor structures from the above materials in rural communities with
seicmicity grade 7, provided that walls are strengthened by wooden anti-seismic frames with
diagonal links.

3.10. Wall rigidity in frame wooden houses shall be provided by braces. Billet or log walls shall be
fabricated with driftbolts. Wooden panel houses shall be designed single-floor.
3.11. Wall rigidity in frame wooden houses shall be provided by braces. Billet or log walls shall be
fabricated with driftbolts. Wooden panel houses shall be designed single-floor.

3.12. Floors and coverings of buildings shall be rigid in horizontal plan and securely linked to
vertical bearing structures for combined action at seismic impacts.

3.13. Rigidity of precast concrete floors and coverings shall be provided by:
binding floor and covering panels (plates) and filling joints between panels (plates) with cement
grout;
arrangement of links between panels (plates) and frame elements or walls to receive stretching and
shear stress in joints.
Side edges of floor/covering panels (plates) shall have spline or chequer surface. Panels
(plates) shall have reinforcement dowels and inserts for links with anti-seismic belt or for
connection with frame elements.

Support seats of floor/covering panels (plates) shall be at least:


For brick and stone masonry walls -120 mm;
For concrete block walls - 100 mm;
For large-panel edge supported walls - 60 mm;
For beams and walls in large-panel and site-cast buildings with beam seats - 80 mm.
In single-floor blockwork buildings at seisrnicity grade not more than 8, it is acceptable to arrange
wooden floors (coverings), provided that bearing wall step not more than 6 m. Floor (covering) beams
shall be anchored to anti-seismic belt and supplied with a diagonal decking.

3.14. Partitions in buildings shall be light, mainly large-panel or frame type, and fixed to the
walls and pillars by links preventing movement of partitions in their plane. If the length is over 3
m those shall be also fixed to floors.

It is acceptable to arrange brick or stone partitions, provided that whole length of blockwork is
reinforced by rods with total section area in joint at least 0,2 sm2 and step not more than 700
mm. In addition, at the floors higher than four partition blockwork shall be reinforced by
reinforced concrete belts and cores with step not more than 2 m by length and height of the
partition. Partition blockwork shall comply to requirements in p.3.23 and 3.24.

Partitions may be hanging, with stops for movement outwards the panel plane.
Sterngth of partitions and their fixings shall comply to p.2.12 and proved by calculation for
seismic loads.

3.15. Balcony structures and their fixing to floors shall be calculated as console beams or
panels. Balcony offset in buildings with stone walls shall be not more than 1,5 m.

3.16. Foundation design for buildings and structures in seismic areas shall be performed in
accordance with requirements of construction Norms and Rules for designing of
building/structure foundations.

It is not allowed to construct high buildings (over 60 m) or buildings listed in p.4 table 4 at sites
with ground seismicity grade III.
3.17. Foundation depth is the same as for unseismic areas.

Foundations for building or its compartments shall be laid at the same level. If foundation has to be
made at varying levels, the transition between different parts shall be arranged by steps which shall
be defined by calculation in accordance with construction Norms and Rules for design of
building/structure foundations, but not more than 1:2 at the step height 0,6 m.

3.18. For high-rise buildings, it is recommended to increase the foundation depth by arrangement
of basement floors. The basements shall be arranged under the whole compartment. Basement
floors should be taken into account at calculation of seismic forces. For buildings with bearing
walls, it is acceptable to define seismic force at basement floor level by formula (1) with βη = 1.
Calculations for shearing and overturn shall take into account side pressure of ground to basement
floors, in accordance with recommendations of section "Hydrotechnical structures" in this
document.

3.19. Strip footing shall be normally site-cast in form of counterbracing strips with continuous
reinforcement.
If precast strip foundations are to be used, a mortar layer M 100 shall be installed on top of the
strips, not less than 40 mm thick, and a longitudinal reinforcement d=100 mm in quantity 3, 4 or 6
rods for design seicmicity grade 7, 8 or 9 respectively. The longitudinal rods shall be linked by
crossing rods d=6 mm with step 300-400 mm.
If basement walls are made from precast panels that have structural links with strip
foundations, the above mortar layer is not required.

3.20. In foundations and basement walls made from large blocks, the blockwork bond shall
arranged at every raw, and at all corners and intersections at the depth at least 1/3 of the block
height. Foundation blocks shall be laid as a continuous strip.

Block joints shall be filled by mortar at least M50.

For buildings in areas with seismicity grade 9, reinforcement mesh shall be arranged in
horizontal joints at corners and intersections of basement walls, to the length of 2 m from the
corner centre, with total crossection area of longitudinal reinforcement not less than 1 sm 2.

Buildings wit up to two floors and structures that have corresponding height in areas with
seicmicity grade 7 or 8, basement wall blockwork may be made from blocks with porosity up to
50%.

3.21. Water-proof layers in buildings shall be made from cement mortar not less than 30 mm
thick.

BUILDINGS WITH BEARING WALLS OF BRICK OR STONE MASONRY

3.22. Blockwork structures shall be calculated for simultaneous horizontal and vertical seismic
impacts.
The value of vertical seismic load at design seismicity grade 7-8 shall be assumed 15%, for
seismicity grade 9 - 30% of the respective vertical seismic load.
Direction of vertical seismic load (upwards or downwards) shall be accepted for the worst stressed
state of the element under examination.

3.23. For blockwork of bearing and self-supporting walls made from brick or stone, including
complex structures, the following articles and materials shall be used:
a) solid or cavity brick mark not less than 75, with opening diameter up to 14 mm. At
design seismicity grade 7, it is acceptable to use ceramic stone with mark not less than
75;
b) solid or cavity concrete blocks (including those from light concrete with density not less
than 1200 kg/m3) mark 50 or more;
c) shelly limestone or limestone blocks mark not less than 35, or tuff blocks (except
petrosilex) mark 50 or more.

Partitions can be made from ceramic stones, or light concrete stones or blocks with density not
less than 1200 kg/m3 and porosity up to 50%, mark not less than 35.

Brick or stone blockwork shall be performed with mixed mortar mark not less than 25 for
summer conditions, and not less than 50 for winter. Blocks and panels shall be laid with mortar
mark not less than 50. Reinforced blockwork shall be made with mortar mark not less than 50 in
any case.

3.24. Blockwork are classified by their seismic strength.

Brick or stonework category, when materials are used in accordance with p.3.23, shall be defined
by fracture strength under axial compression along keying joints (normal bonding) that should be
within the following limits:

For blockwork category I - R р в ≥ 180 кПа (1,8 кгс/см2 );

For blockwork category H - 180 кПа > R р в ≥ 120 кПа (1,2 кгс/см2 )

In order to provide for normative normal bonding, use mortars with special additives, vibrated
blockwork, and other measures to increase bonding and solidity of blockwork.

The required value for normal bonding R р в shall be stipulated in project.

If bonding value not less than 120 kP a (1,2 kg(f)/cm2) can not be achieved at the construction site
(with the above measures), brick or stonework is not accepted.

Note: 1. At design seismicity grade 7, when normal bonding is below 120 kPa (1,2 kg(f)/cm2)
but not less than 60 kPa (0,6 kg(f)/ cm2), stonework of natural stone is allowed. In this case,
the building should have not more than one floor, with partition width not less than 0,9 m,
openings not more than 2 m, and axial distance between walls not more than 12 m.

2. In buildings made from adobe brick and other ground materials in accordance with p,3.9,
normal bonding shall be not less than 30 kPa (0,3 kg(f)/cm2).

3.25. Design resistance Rp, Rsr, Rgl for keyed joints shall be accepted in accordance with
construction Norms and Rules for design of stone and reinforced stone structures. The values for un-keyed
в
joints shall be defined by formula (9) - (11) as a function of normal bonding value R р measured by tests in
the construction area:

R р = 0,45 R р в ; (9)

Rsr = 0,7 R р в ; (10)

Rgl = 0,8 R р в . (11)

The values of Rp, Rsr and Rgl should not exceed relevant blockwork disruption values for brick or stone.

3.26. As a rule, blockwork in bearing and self-supporting walls shall be continious, from full-
size brick or stone, with double-row (bonding) keying. Where the blockwork is loosed by
vertical channels, the walls shall be reinforced with reinforcement trims in horizontal joints.
Raked joints are not permitted.

Plan for implementation of blockwork shall include special curing measures during hardening,
taking into account climatic conditions at the construction site. These measures shall provide for
adequate strength of blockwork.

Blockwork in bearing and self-supporting walls (including reinforced by wire or concrete


inclusions) can be laid at negative temperatures only provided that special additives are used to
facilitate mortar hardening at negative temperatures.

3.27. Floor height in buildings with bearing walls made from brick or stone blockwork
without reinforcement or concrete inclusions shall be not more than 5, 4 and 3,5 m at design
seismicity grade 7, 8 and 9 respectively.
When blockwork is reinforced by wire or concrete inclusions, the floor height can be 6, 5 and 4,5
m respectively.

Relation between floor height and wall thickness shall be not more than 12.

3.28. Buildings with bearing walls shall have at least one internal longitudinal bearing wall,
in addition to external longitudinal walls.
Axial distance between cross walls or frames shall be defined by calculation, but not more than indicated in
table 10.

3.29. Dimensions of wall elements in brick or stonework buildings shall be defined by calculation.
Those shall comply to requirements indicated in table 11.

3.30. Floors and coverings shall have anti-seismic belts along all longitudinal and crossing walls.
Those shall be made from cast-in-place reinforced concrete or precast elements, with cased joints
and continuous reinforcement. Anti-seismic belts in top floor shall be linked to blockwork by
vertical dowels.
It is acceptable to have no anti-seismic belts in buildings where cast-in-place reinforced concrete
floors have edges plugged in walls.
3.31. Anti-seismic belt (with supporting floor area) shall be, as a rule, arranged along the
whole wall width. In external walls 500 or more mm wide, the belt width can be 100-150 mm
less. The belt height shall be not less than 150 mm, concrete class not less than B12,5.

Anti-seismic belts shall have longitudinal reinforcement 4 d10 at design seismicity grade 7-8, and
not less than 4 d12 at design seismicity grade 9.

3.32. wall joints shall have reinforcement mesh in blockwork with total section area of
longitudinal reinforcement not less than 1 cm2, length 1,5 m. Step in height 700 mm for design
seismicity grade 7-8 and 500 mm for grade 9.

Wall sections and pillars over attic floor that are more than 400 mm high, shall be reinforced with
wire or cast-in-place concrete inclusions anchored in anti-seismic belt.

Brick pillars are accepted only at design seismicity grade 7. Mortar mark shall be not less than 50,
and pillar height - not more than 4 m. Pillars shall be bonded in two directions by beams anchored
in the walls.

3.33. Seismic strength of brick or stone walls shall be increased by reinforcement mesh,
complex structures, prestressing of blockwork and other tested methods.

Vertical reinforced concrete elements (cores) shall be linked by anti-seismic belts.

Reinforced concrete inclusions in blockwork in complex structures shall be open at least at one
side.

When complex structures are designed as frame systems, anti-seismic belts and their joints with
pillars shall be calculated and designed as frame elements, taking into account operation of the
filling. In that case, the chases for concreting shall be open at least on too sides.

If complex structures have concrete inclusions at partition flanks, the longitudinal reinforcement
shall be securely connected by bandages in horizontal blockwork joints. Concrete in inclusions
shall be not less than class B12.5. Blockwork shall be made with mortar mark not less than 50, and
longitudinal reinforcement shall be not more than 0,8 % of the area of concrete partition.

Note: Bearing capacity of reinforced concrete inclusions in partition flanks accounted in


calculation for seismic impacts, snail not be accounted at calculation of sections for main
combination of loads.

3.34. First floors in buildings with bearing walls, that are used for shops and other facilities where
big clear areas are needed, shall be made from reinforced concrete structures.

3.35. As a rale, lintels shall be arranged at the whole width of the wall and bedded into the
blockwork at the depth not less than 350 mm. When opening is up to 1,5 m wide, the lintel can be
bedded at the depth of 250 mm.

3.36. Landing beams shall be bedded into the blockwork at the depth at least 250 mm and
anchored.
Steps, stringers, precast flights shall be fixed, and landings shall be linked to floors. Console
steps bedded in stonework are not accepted. Door and window openings in brick and stone walls of
staircases at design seismicity grade 8-9 shall, as a rule, have reinforced concrete framing.

3.37. Buildings with two or more floors and bearing walls from brick or stone blockwork, at
design seismicity grade 9, shall have staircase exits on both sides of the building.

Table 10
Blockwork category
Distance, m, at design seismicity, grade
7 8 9

I 18 15 12
II 15 12 9

Note: In complex structures, distance between walls can be increased by 30% of the indicated
value.

Table 11
Wall element
size, m, at design
Wall element Note
seismicity, grade
7 8 9

1. Minimal partition width, m, for Corner partitions shall be 25 cm more than


blockwork: the indicated value. Smaller partitions shall
category I 0,64 0,9 1,16 be reinforced by concrete framing or metal
elements.
category II 0,77 1,16 1,55
2. Maximal openings, m, for 3,5 3 2,5 Larger openings shall be framed with
blockwork category I and II reinforced concrete.

3. Relation between partition width 0,33 0,5 0,75


and opening width, not less than
4. Maximal wall brow in plane, m 2 1 –

5. Maximal cornice offset, m: Non-pplastered wooden cornices can have


offset up to 1 m.
from wall material: 0,2 0,2 0,2

from reinforced concrete elements 0,4 0,4 0,4


linked by anti-seismic belts

wooden, plastered on metal 0,75 0,75 0,75


mesh
LARGE-BLOCK BUILDINGS

3.38. Blocks in large-block buildings at design seismicity grade 8-9 shall be securely connected
to each other with reinforced joints or welded inserts.

Horizontal block joints shall be arranged with mortar mark not less than 100, vertical joints -with
concrete class at least B 7,5. Block design shall provide for tight filling of joints.

Whey multy-row shifts, blockwork shall have bonded vertical joints in every row at the depth at
least 300 mm.

Wall intersections shall be equipped with reinforced comer blocks.


In large-block buildings it is recommended to arrange anti-seismic belts with reinforced header-
blocks to be laid at all walls and connected by welding of upper and lower reinforcement, with
cased joints.

LARGE-PANEL BUILDINGS

3.39. Large-panel buildings shall have interlinked longitudinal and crossing walls, fixed to
floors and coverings to form a uniform volumetric system capable to receive seismic loads.

Design of large-panel buildings shall accommodate for the following:

Size of wall and floor panels shall, as a rule, comply with the room size;

Wall and floor panels shall be connected by welding of reinforcement, anchor rods and inserts, or
by weld-free loop hold of reinforcement and filling of vertical shafts and horizontal joints with fine
low-shrinking concrete;

When floors are supported by external walls and walls near expansion joints, panel
reinforcement shall be welded to reinforcement in walls.

3.40. Wall panels shall be reinforced by volumetric frames or welded mesh. Door and
window openings shall have penetration vertical reinforcement with crossection area not less
than 1; 1,5 and 2 cm2 at design seismicity grade 7, 8 and 9 respectively.

When three-layer external wall panels are used, the internal bearing concrete layer shall bi at least
100 mm thick.

Light concrete in external wall panels shall be at least B7,5. Concrete in internal wall panel,
bearing layer of external wall panels and in floor panels shall be at least B15.

3.41. structure of horizontal and vertical joints shall accommodate for design forces in joints. The
required crossection area of metal links in panel joints shall be defined by calculation, but at least 1
cm2 per 1 m of joint.
In buildings with 4 floors or less, at seismicity grade 7 or 8, this area shall be not less than 0,5 cm2
per 1 m of joint.

Up to 65% of vertical design reinforcement can be located in wall intersections.

3.42. As a rule, the walls shall be continuous at the whole length and width of the building.

3.43. As a rule, loggia shall be built-in, with length equal to distance between adjacent walls.
Where loggia shall be located, external walls shall be equipped with reinforced concrete frames.
Outwindows are not permitted.

CAST-IN-PLACE BOX BUILDINGS

3.44. Reinforced cast-in-place concrete buildings shall have mainly counterbracing wall
design, with bearing or non-bearing external walls.

Buildings with non-bearing external walls having more than 12, 9 or 5 floors at design seismicity
grade 7, 8 or 9 respectively, shall have at least two internal longitudinal walls.

3.45. Cast-in-place buildings shall, as a rule, be erected in jump forms. Slip-forms are accepted
only when construction technology provide for no breaks of concrete at form movements, and for
continuity of concrete walls.

3.46. Internal bearing walls in cast-in-place buildings shall be made from solid or light concrete
class at least BIO, density not less than D1700.
External walls maybe single-layer, of light concrete class at least B5, sandwich with internal
concrete layer class at least BIO, or precast panels.

3.47. Axial distance between bearing walls shall be defined by calculation, but not more than
the indicated in table 10 for blockwork category I.
Window and door openings in walls shall be located not less than 0,6 m from bearing wall.
Relation between floor height and thickness of bearing wall shall not exceed 20, and relation
between partition height and its width shall be not more than 2,5.

3.48. The following components of cast-in-place buildings shall be checked for strength
under loads defined in accordance with p.2.5;
normal (horizontal) and oblique sections of blind walls and partitions;
vertical wall joints;
normal (horizontal) and oblique sections of lintels.

3.49. Reinforcement of walls and partitions shall be arranged by volumetric frames, with
even distribution of horizontal and vertical rods. Vertical rods shall have diameter at least 10 mm
with maximal step along the wall 600 mm at structure reinforcement, and 400 mm at design
reinforcement. Horizontal rods shall have diameter at least 8 mm, with height step not more than
600 mm.
Reinforcement at the edges of door and window openings shall be similar to that in p.3.40.
3.50. When precast reinforced concrete floors and coverings are to be installed in cast-in-place
buildings, those shall have a continuous reinforced belt along internal and external walls.
Crossection area of reinforcement in the belt shall be at least 3 cm2 at design seismicity grade 78,
and not less than 4,5 cm2 at grade 9.

3.51. Vertical and horozontal construction joints between bays shall be equipped with splines and
reinforcement dowels. Old concrete surface shall receive special treatment for better bonding in
construction joints.

FRAME BUILDINGS

3.52. The structure to receive horizontal seismic load in frame buildings can be frame, filled frame,
frame with vertical links, diaphragms or structural cores.

3.53. Frame buildings at design seismicity grade 7-8 may have external walls made of stone and
internal concrete or metal frames (pillars), provided that requirements to stone buildings are
observed. Such buildings shall be not higher than 7 m.

3.54. Space frame shall have rigid frame joints. The joints of concrete frames shall be reinforced
by weld meshes, coils or closed stirrups.
Beam and pillar sections adjacent to rigid frame joints shall be reinforced by closed cross
reinforcement or stirrups at the distance equal to 1,5 cross-sectional height. The reinforcement
shall be defined by calculation, but its step shall be not more than 100 mm (200 mm for frame
systems with bearing diaphragms).

3.55. Diaphrafms, links and structural cores that receive horizontal load, shall be continuous
throughout the height of the building and distributed evenly in both direction, symmetrically
towards the building centre of gravity.

Multy-floor frame-link systems shall have at least two diaphragms for each direction, located in
different planes.

Buildings or compartments with structure cores and length over 24 m, shall have at least two
structure cores.

3.56. Enclosures of frame buildings shall be made from light curtain panels.

Brick or stone filling is acceptable, provided that it is not involved in frame operation under
horizontal seismic loads. Gaps shall be arranged between the filler and frame elements. The gaps
shall be equal to floor shift, but not less than 30 mm, and filled by elastic material. Filler stability
and strength shall be checked by calculation in accordance with p.2.12 and provided by stop links
preventing the filler dropping from the plane, by reinforcement of the blockwork. In addition, the
floors above four shall have trims and reinforcing concrete elements (belts and cores) in the
blockwork, with longitudinal and height step not more than 2 m.

Besides the materials described in p.3.23, filling blockwork may be made from ceramic stone mark
not less than 75, and hollow light-concrete stones with porosity up to 50% and mark not less than
35. Seismic strength of filling blockwark shall be not less than category H
When materials according to p.3.23 are used in bearing or self-supporting walls of a building that
has not more than four floors, it is acceptable to use brick or stone filling as a stiffening
diaphragm. In that case, requirements to complex structures in p.3.33 shall be applied, and filler
strength shall be checked by calculation at combined action with the frame.

3.57. Self-supporting walls of brick or stone blockwork may be used when:

step of wall pillars of the frame is not more than 6 m;

building walls is not more than 18, 16 and 9 m at the sites with seismicity grade 7, 8 and 9
respectively.

3.58. Blockwork in self-bearing walls of frame buildings shall be made from materials
complying to requirements in p.3.23. It shall have seismic strength category I or II and be
flexibly fixed to the frame. The fixings shall not hinder horizontal movement of the frame along
the walls.

There shall be a gap at least 20 mm between wall surface and frame pillars. Anti-seismic belts
shall be arranged along the whole length of the wall, at the level of covering plates and tops of
window openings. The anti-seismic belts shall be fixed to the building frame by flexible links.

Where flank or cross walls intersect longitudinal walls, anti-seismic joints shall be arranged along
the whole height of the walls.

3.59. Staircase and elevator shafts in frame buildings shall be arranged as built-in structures
with floor shifts. Those shall have no influence to the frame rigidity, or act as a rigid core to
receive seismic load.

Frame buildings with up to four floors, at design seismicity grade 7 or 8, may have staircases of
elevator shafts within the limits of the building plane, as individual structures separated from the
building frame. Staircases shall not be arranged as detached structures.

3.60. Bearing structures in high buildings (over 60 m) shall have diaphragms, links and
structure cores.

The preferable structure scheme is the one where plasticity zones appear first of all in horizontal
frame elements (beams, lintels, framing beams, etc.).

Calculation of high buildings shall take into account both bending and shear deformation in frame
pillars, and axial deformations, as well as basement deformability. Calculation for overturn
resistance shall also be made.

3.61. When some of pillar foundations can not receive seismic shift loads, those shall be linked to
neighboring foundations.

3.62. Foundations for high buildings in non-rock ground shall, as a rule, be arranged by piling or
continuous bedplate.
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

3.63. At strength calculation of normal sections in bending or eccentrically compressed elements


the limiting performance of the compressed concrete zone ξ R shall be as in construction Norms
and Rules for design of concrete and reinforced concrete structures, with factor 0,85.

3.64. Eccentrically compressed elements and the compressed zone of bending elements, at design
seismicity grade 8 or 9, the stirrups shall be defined by calculation and installed at the following
distances: at R ac ≤ 400 МPа (4000 kg (f)/сm2) - not more than 400 mm, and at bound carcass -
not more than 12 d (, at weld carcass - not more than 15 d ; at R ac ≥ 450 МPа (4500 kg/сm2) - not
more than 300 mm, and at bound carcass - not more than 10 d, (at weld carcass -not more than
12d, where d - minimal diameter of the compressed longitudinal rods. Crossing reinforcement shall
fix the compressed rods to prevent bending in any direction.

At the place where the main reinforcement bars have lapping non-weld joints, the distance between
stirrups of eccentrically compressed elements shall be not more than 88 d.

If the total saturation of the eccentrically compressed element with longitudinal armature is more
than 3%, the stirrups shall be installed at distance not more than 8d and not more than 250 mm.

3.65. Stirrups in frame pillars of many-floor buildings, at design seismicity grade 8 or 9, shall have
the step (except the requirements in p.3.64) not more than ½ h and in frames with bearing
diaphragms it shall be not more than h, where h - minimal dimension of rectangular or h -pillars. In
that case the stirrup diameter shall be not less than 8 mm.

3.66. In bound carcasses, the ends of stirrups shall be bent around the longitudinal reinforcement
rod and lead inwards the concrete core at least 6 d of the stirrup.

3.67. Precast pillar elements in many-floor frame buildings shall, where possible, be unitized for
several floors. Precast pillar joints shall be located in the zone where bending moment is minimal.
Non-weld lapping joints in longitudinal armature of the pillars shall not be accepted.

3.68. In pre-stressed structures that shall be calculated for special combination of loads and seismic
impacts, the forces defined by cross-section strength conditions shall be at least 25% more than the
loads received by the cross-section at cracking.

3.69. In pre-stressed structures that shall be calculated for special combination of loads and seismic
impacts, the preference shall be given to the elements with off-centre reinforcement, where the
pre-stressed main armature is used in combination with mild steel rods (up to 25%). It is not
acceptable to use armature with relative continuous elongation after break is less than 2%.

3.70. It is not acceptable to use reinforcement cables or indented bars diameter over 28 mm
without special alienors in pre-stressed structures to be erected at the sites with seismicity grade 9.

3.71. In pre-stressed structures with post-tensioned armature, the tendons shall be located in closed
canals with further filling by concrete or mortar.
STEEL FRAME BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

3.72. It is recommended to design frames for single-floor industrial buildings with pillars
rigidly restrained at the top surface of foundation, with swivel or rigid fixing to covering elements.
As a rule, the columns shall have vertical links in longitudinal direction.

3.73. Vertical links in buildings without cranes, or within the under-crane section of pillars
shall be established at every longitudinal axis, at the middle of the building (compartment).
The number of links in every pillar row along the building (compartment) shall be defined by
their bearing capacity.
If two links are to be established at a longitudinal axis of building (compartment), the axial
distance between them shall be not more than 48 m at post spacing 6 m, and not more than 24 m
at post spacing 12 m.

3.74. A cover-fixing system including horizontal links at the plane of top and bottom truss
chord and vertical links between trusses shall be used in order to provide for volumetric stability of
frame and for stability of the covering and its elements.

3.75. Crossing link trusses shall be installed at building (block) flanks, a top and bottom chords
of truss.

3.76. Where block is longer than 96 m at design seismicity grade 7, or where block is longer
than 60 m at design seismitity grade 8 or 9, additional crossing ling trusses shall be installed at top
truss chords.

3.77. At the sections where crossing link trusses are located, the trusses shall have vertical
links at bottom chords.

3.78. Bottom chords of trusses shall have longitudinal link trusses, that shall be located only
along the end pillar rows of single-, two- and three-bay buildings.
In buildings with more than three bays, the longitudinal linking trusses shall be installed at
every second bay.

3.79. Principals between cross links shall be braced in the link plane with spreaders and
stretchers.

3.80. At the sections where crossing link trusses are located at top chords of principals, the
pillar rows will have vertical links under the level of covering.

3.81. The formed topping that acts as a horizontal diaphragm for the covering rigidity, shall be
fixed to beams or top chords of principals with self-cut bolts at each .wave. The formed topping
sheets shall be fixed to each other by combined rivets with maximal step 250 mm.

3.82. Coverings can be made from precast concrete plates installed on steel principals, if the
site seismicity grade is not more than 7.

3.83. The frame for many-floor buildings shall be designed with frame, link and frame-link
structure schemes. The preferable structure scheme is where plasticity zones can appear in
horizontal elements, first of all.
3.84. Requirements to coverings of many-floor buildings with spaced pile grid at the top floor,
shall be the same as for coverings of single-floor buildings.

3.85. It is recommended that the piles in steel frames for many-floor buildings shall have
closed-box cross-section with equal stability about the main inertia axis. The piles for frame-link
structures shall be H-beams. Pile sections where horizontal beams are to be fixed, shall have cross
stiffening ribs.

CONSTRUCTION AT SITES WITH SEISMICITY GRADE OVER 9

3.86. Buildings and structures at site seismicity grade more than 9 shall comply with the
following functional and structural requirements:
it is forbidden to erect buildings and structures that are listed in Table 3 pp. 1 and 2;
buildings and structures listed in Table 3 p.3 shall be justified by additional calculations in
accordance with p.2.2.b for maximal acceleration amplitude 800 cm/s2;
structures described in Table 4 p.4 shall not be applied;
limits for number of floors: for brick, stone and large-block buildings - 1 floor; for precast
frame, frame-link and large panel - 3 floors; cast-in-place - 4 floors. Options with basement floors
are recommended;
buildings with bearing brick or stone walls shall have the following maximal axial distance
between cross walls: for blockwork category I - 9 m, for blockwork category II - 6 m. The
thickness of longitudinal and cross walls shall be uniform and not less than 380 mm;
buildings or compartments with structure cores that are more than 1 8 m long shall have at least
two structure cores.

3.87. Buildings with brick or stone bearing walls shall comply with the requirements in
p.3.33 in respect of increased seismic strength of wall blockwork. Foundations shall be arranged
by counterbracing concrete strips with anchored armature of vertical reinforced concrete
elements (cores) for reinforcement of walls. Cast-in-place reinforced concrete floors are
recommended.

If precast reinforced concrete plates are used in floors of brick or stone buildings, the plates shall
be installed with gaps for cast-in-place sections. Armature of the cast-in-place sections shall be
anchored into anti-seismic belts. Cross-section area, reinforcement and concrete class for cast-in-
place sections shall be checked by calculation and accepted at least the same as for the anti-
seismic-belts (see p.3.31). Floor surface shall have reinforced screed at least 50 mm of concrete
class at least B15.

3.88. Buildings and structures shall be calculated for seismic impacts grade 9 in accordance
with p.2.5. Seismicity index A=0,8.
At calculation of stone structures in accordance with p.3.22, the value of vertical seismic load
shall be 50% of the respective vertical dead load.

3.89. At site seismicity grade over 9, it is acceptable to use the same norms and calculation
ruls as for seismicity grade 9, provided that measures will be taken to reduce the site seismicity
to grade 9, in accordance with the tested calculation methods and construction techniques
checked by practice.
RECONSTRUCTION AND REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS AND
STRUCTURES I N SEISMIC AREAS

3.90. This section shall be applied when buildings are to be rehabilitated after damage by
earthquake, other natural or technogenic impacts, and at reconstruction of buildings and
structures due to change of the site seismicity or the responsibility grade of the object. The
following works can be done:
rising properties of the structures to the initial design seismicity level at the moment when the
building was put into operation (rehabilitation);
rising properties of structures to the new increased design seismicity level (strengthening).

3.91. Decision to undertake rehabilitation or strengthening of a building or structure shall be taken


by the owner and approved by National Committee for Architecture and Construction Control of
Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan. That shall take into account instructions given in table 12.

3.92. As a rule, rehabilitation or strengthening of buildings and structures shall take place after
investigation by specialists from scientific-research and designing organizations dedicated for
construction in seismic areas, followed by development of technical solutions.
The degree of rehabilitation or strengthening of building or structure shall be defined by the
degree and type of damage, physical wear, and cost. As a rule, the object shall be demolished if
rehabilitation would cost more than 50% of its value (exclusive of development expenses).
When the site seismicity has increased, structures in the existing buildings and structures can
be left without strengthening, if the object responsibility has not changed, and its structures are free
from damages or deformations that can empire their bearing capacity.

3.93. Existing and new buildings and structures should be equipped with passports, in
accordance with Methodology for passportization of apartment houses, public and
industrial
buildings in seismic areas of Turkmenistan.
Table 12
Minimum level
Purpose of building or structure
Rehabilitation Strengthening

1. 1. Special responsibility buildings and structures (list of +


objects to be approved by National Committee for
Architecture and Construction Control of Turkmenistan CM)
2. Buildings and structures where big number of people can be +
present ____________________________________________
3. Schools, nurseries, hospitals, sheltered housing, etc. +

4. Monuments of architecture, history and culture. +

5. Apartment houses, public and industrial buildings, except +


those listed in pp. 1-4
ANNEX 1 (page 31)
NATIONAL SEISMIC ZONING MAP OF TURKMENISTAN 1999
LEGEND Zone borders Sub-zone borders Intensity grade by MSK-64

Borders of velayats (regions)

Cities/towns and population


ANNEX 2

LIST OF TURKMENISTAN AGGLOMERATIONS IN SEISMIC AREAS

SEISMICITY GRADE AND QUAKE REPEATABILITY

Akhalskv Velavat
Agglomeration I-n Agglomeration I-n Agglomeration I-n
Ashgabat 9-2* Gannaly 6-2 O.Kuliev 9-2*
Babadajkhan 6-2 Gekdepe 9-2* Sarakhe 6-2
Bagabat 9-2* Derveze 5 Tedzhen 6-2
Bekherden 9-2* Dzhulge 9-2* Enev 9-2*
Bokurdak 7-2 Dushak 7-2* Yashlyk 9-2*
Byzmejin* 9-2* Kaka 8-2*

Balkansky Velayat
Agglomeration I-n Agglomeration I-n Agglomeration I-n
Akdash 9-2 Guvlymayak 8-2 Dzhebel 9-2*
Balkanabad* 9-2* Gumdag 9-2 Oglanly 9-2
Bekdash 7-2 Serdar* 8-2 Turkmenbashi 9-2*
Belek 8-2* Etrek 7-2 Turkmenbashi vil. 9-2*
Bereket* 8-2* Gvzylgaya 6-2 Ufra 9-2*
Garagel 9-3 Gyzyl-Suv 9-2 Khazar* 9-3
Garadepe 7-2 26 Bakinskikh 9-2 Essenguly 7-2
Garrygala 8-2 Comissarov Ekerem 7-2

Dashgouzsky Velavat
Agglomeration I-n Agglomeration I-n Agglomeration I-n
Akdepe 6-3 Jylaply 7-3 Saparmurat 6-3
Boldumsaz 7-3 Niyazovsk 7-3 Turkmenbashi
Gubadag 7-3 Keneurgench 6-3 Tagta 7-3

Lebapsky Velavat
Agglomeration I-n Agglomeration I-n Agglomeration I-n
Amudarja 7-3 Zeid 8-3 Svintsovy Rudnik 8-3
Bashsaka 8-3 Katretdin 7-3 Seidi 7-3
Gazachak 7-2 Kelif 8-3 Suvchyoba 7-3
Garabeksviul 7-3 Atamurat 8-3 Turkmenabat* 7-2
Garametnijaz 7-3 Kerkichi 8-3 Farab 8-3
Govurdak* 8-3 Lebap 7-3 Khalach 7-3
Darganata 7-2 Mukry 8-3 Khodzhakala 7-2
Dzhejhun 7-2 Nijazov 7-3 Khodzhambas 7-3
Doseluk 8-3 Sakar 7-3 Kojtentag 8-3
Dianev 7-3 Sayat 7-3

Maryjsky Velayat
Agglomeration I-n Agglomeration I-n Agglomeration I-n
Bajramaly 6-3 Mollanepesa 6-3 Saparmurat 6-3
Turkmenbashi
Vekilbazar 6-3 Murgap 6-3 Tagtabazar 6-3
Gulandy 7-3 Parakhat 6-3
Serkhetabat 6-3 Peshanaly 6-3 Uchadzhy 6-3
Eloten 6-3 Ravnina 6-3 Khapkhovuz 6-3
Zahmet 6-3 Turkmengada 6-3 Shatlyk 6-3
Mary 6-3 Sakarchage 6-3
I - quake intensity, grade
n - percussion intensity index. Characterizes mean repeatability of quakes with intensity I (n = 2 once
every 1000 years, n = 3 - once every 10 000 years).

Agglomerations with seismicity grade 9 that are located in possible earthquake focus zones (EFZ) with
magnitude 7,1 or more, are marked by * sign near the figure.
When seismic zoning investigations have been implemented and relevant maps are available, the
agglomeration is marked by * sign that stands near the name.
ANNEX 3
CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDING TYPES

Type 1. Houses with walls of adobe materials, adobe brickwork or rubble stones, without reinforcement
by wooden frame, including those with :
a) solid adobe covering;
b) light wooden covering.
Type 2. Houses with walls of adobe materials, reinforced by wooden frame fixed to the foundation.
Type 3. Houses with walls of standard bricks, stone- or blockwork with cement of mixed mortar, without
anti-seismic reinforcement, including those with :
a) wooden floors;
b) precast reinforced concrete floors.
Type 4. Houses with walls of standard bricks, stone- or blockwork with cement of mixed mortar, with
anti-seismic strengthening by reinforcement of blockwork, reinforced concrete belts and
inclusions that do not form a longitudinal frame.
Houses with external stone walls and internal reinforced concrete or metal frames (posts).
Type 5. Houses with complex walls, where reinforced concrete belts and posts form a complete frame and
are fixed by concrete in block-work slots that are open on two sides.
Large-panel houses with non-cased joints.
Type 6. Frame houses from precast and cast-in-place reinforced concrete, with wall filling that is not
involved in operation under seismic impacts.
Type 7. Frame-link houses from precast and cast-in-place reinforced concrete.
Type 8. Large-panel houses with cased joints.
Houses from cast-in-place reinforced concrete, erected with jump forms.
Type 9. Metal structure houses with light wall filling.
Annex 3 (continued)

ESTIMATION OF EXTENT OF DAMAGE


Type of Percentage of damaged buildings by extent of damage
building (classification of damage extent by MSK-64 scale)
0 1 2 3 4 5
Earthquake intensity 6
1.а 0 10 50 37,5 2 0,5
1.b 0 37,5 50 10 2 0,5
2 10 50 37,5 2 0,5 0
3.а 37,5 50 10 2 0,5 0
3.b 50 37,5 10 2 0,5 0
4 87,5 10 2 0,5 0 0
5 97,5 2 0,5 0 0 0
6 97,5 2 0,5 0 0 0
7 99,5 0,5 0 0 0 0
8 99,5 0,5 0 0 0 0
9 99,5 0,5 0 0 0 0
Earthquake intensity 7
1.а 0 0,5 10 50 37,5 2
1.b 0 0,5 37,5 50 10 2
2 0 10 50 37,5 2 0,5
3.а 0 37,5 50 10 2 0,5
3.b 0 50 37,5 10 2 0,5
4 37,5 50 10 2 0,5 0
5 87,5 10 2 0,5 0 0
6 87,5 10 2 0,5 0 0
7 97,5 2 0,5 0 0 0
8 97,5 2 0,5 0 0 0
9 99,5 0,5 0 0 0 0
Earthquake intensity 8
1.а 0 0 0 30 50 20
1.b 0 0 0,5 37,5 50 12
2 0 0,5 10 50 37,5 2
3.а 0 0,5 37,5 50 10 2
3.b 0 0,5 50 37,5 10 2
4 0 3,5 50 10 2 0,5
5 37,5 50 10 2 0,5 0
6 50 37,5 10 2 0,5 0
7 60 37,5 2 0,5 0 0
8 87,5 10 2 0,5 0 0
9 97,5 2 0,5 0 0 0
Earthquake intensity 9
1.а 0 0 0 0,5 37,5 62
1.b 0 0 0 0,5 50 49,5
2 0 0 0 30 50 20
3.а 0 0 0.5 37,5 50 12
3.b 0 0 0.5 50 37,5 12
4 0 0,5 37,5 50 10 2
5 0 37,5 50 10 2 0,5
6 0 50 37,5 10 2 0,5
7 37,5 50 10 2 0,5 0
8 50 37,5 10 2 0,5 0
9 87,5 10 2 0,5 0 0
Earthquake intensity more than 9
1.а 0 0 0 0 0,5 99,5
1.b 0 0 0 0 0,5 99,5
2 0 0 0 0,5 20 79,5
3.а 0 0 0 0,5 37,5 62
3.b 0 0 0 0,5 50 49,5
4 0 0 0,5 37,5 50 12
5 0 0,5 37,5 50 10 2
6 0 0,5 50 37,5 10 2
7 0 10 50 37,5 2 0,5
8 0 37,5 50 10 2 0,5
9 37,5 50 10 2 0,5 0

Note: classification of damage extent:


0 – not damaged; 1 – minor damaged; 2 – moderate damaged;
3 – serious damaged; 4 – breaks; 5 – collapses.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. FUNDAMENTALS……………………………………………………... 3
2. SEISMIC STRENGTH CALCULATIONS……………………………….... 6
3. STRUCTURE REQUIREMENTS TO BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES 13
GENERAL
BUILDINGS WITH BEARING WALLS OF BRICK OR STONE MASONRY 17

LARGE-BLOCK BUILDINGS…………………………………………………………….. 21
LARGE-PANEL BUILDINGS…………………………………………………………... 22
CAST-IN-PLACE BOX BUILDINGS…………………………………………….. 22
FRAME BUILDINGS…………………………………………………………………….... 24
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES ………………………………………. 25
STEEL FRAME BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES ……………………………... 27
CONSTRUCTION AT SITES WITH SEISMICITY GRADE OVER 9…….. 28
RECONSTRUCTION AND REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS AND
STRUCTURES I N SEISMIC AREAS……………………………………. 29

ANNEX 1. NATIONAL SEISMIC ZONING MAP OF TURKMENISTAN …


31
ANNEX 2 LIST OF TURKMENISTAN AGGLOMERATIONS IN SEISMIC AREAS
SEISMICITY GRADE AND QUAKE REPEATABILITY 32

ANNEX 3
CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDING TYPES…………………………….. 34
ESTIMATION OF EXTENT OF DAMAGE ……………………………………………. 35