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BS ECE 4C

MULTIPLICATION

- If there are m ways to do one thing, and n ways to do another, then there are m x n ways

of doing both

Examples:

How many 2 digits numbers can be formed from the numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

a) If repetition is allowed

5 x 6 = 30

1-5 0-5

b) No repetition

5 x 5 = 25

1-5 0-5

5 x 3 = 15

1-5 1,3,5

4 x 3 = 12

1-5 1,,3,5

4 x 3 = 12

1-5 0,2,4

5 x “0” = 5

1-5 0,2,4 + = 13

4 x 2 = 8

1-5 2,4

ADDITION

- If a task can be done either in one of n1 ways or in one of n2 ways, where none of the set

of n1 ways is the same as any of the set of n2 ways, then there are n1 + n2 ways to do the

task.

Examples:

How many 3 digit odd numbers greater than 421 can be formed from the numbers

(0,1,2,3,4,5,7,8) if repetition is not allowed?

b) 3 digit number without repetition > 6 x 6 x 5 = 180

c) 3 digit odd numbers without repetition -> 5 x 5 x 3 = 75

d) 3 digit odd numbers with repetition -> 6 x 7 x 3 = 126

“42” x 2 = 2 “42” x 2 = 2

3+4=7 3+4=7

3 x 5 x “1” = 15 “8” x 5 x 3= 15

2 x 5 x 2 = 20 2 x 5 x 5= 20

15 + 20 = 35 20 + 15 = 35

2 + 7 + 35 = 44 Answer 2 + 7 + 35 = 44 Answer

“42” x 1 = 1

“4” x “0” x 3 = 3

“4” x “1” x 2 = 2

“2” x 5 x 3 = 15

“1” x 5 x 2 = 10

1 + 3 + 2 + 15 + 10 = 31 Answer

PERMUTATION

selections for which an ordering is important.

Example:

1. How many 2 digit no. can be formed from the numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) if:

a) Repetition is allowed:

5 x 6 = 30

5 x 3 = 15

5 x 3 = 15

2. How many 3 digit no. can be formed from the numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9) if:

a) Repetition is allowed:

7 x 8 x 8 = 448

7 x 8 x 4 = 224

7 x 8 x 4 = 224

3. How many 4 digit no. can be formed from the numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9) if:

a) Repetition is allowed:

7 x 8 x 8 x 8 = 3584

7 x 8 x 8 x 4 = 1792

7 x 8 x 8 x 4 = 1792

4. Given the numbers (1, 2, 3,) find:

3 x 3 =9

3 x 3 x 3 = 27

𝑑 𝑛!

FORMULA: 𝑛𝑃𝑟 = (𝑛−𝑟)! ;r<n

𝑑

𝑛𝑃𝑟 = 𝑛! ;r=n

EXAMPLES:

1. How many 2-digit numbers can be formed from the numbers (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)?

a) No repetition of digits

5 x 5______ = 25

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

Zero cannot be used for the 1st digit. 1 number was already used for

the 1st digit hence you can only use the remaining 5 numbers for the

2nd digit

4 x 3 __ = 12

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) (1, 3, 5)

5 x “0” _ = 5

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) (0, 2, 4)

; objects enclosed in “ “ are fixed and is equal to 1

4 x 2__ = 8

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) (2, 4)

5+8 = 13

2. How many 3-digit odd numbers greater than 421 can be formed from the numbers (0, 1,

2, 4, 5, 7, 8) if repetition is not allowed?

(1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8) (0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8) (0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8)

__5__ x ____ 5____ __ x ___3__= 75

(1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8) (0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8) (1, 5, 7)

“42” x 2_ = 2

(5, 7)

(5, 7, 8) (1, 5, 7) (5, 7, 8) (1, 5, 7)

+ +

“4” x _ 2 __ x _2_ = 4 “4” x _ 2 __ x _2_ = 4

(5, 7, 8) (5, 7) _____ (5, 7, 8) (5, 7) ______

7 7

(5, 7, 8) (1, 5, 7) (5, 7, 8) (1, 5, 7)

+ +

___2__ x 5 _ x __2__ = 20 _2__ x _5 _ x __2__ = 20

(5, 7, 8) (5, 7) _____ (5, 7) (1, 5, 7) ______

35 35

2+7+35 = 44

d) 3-digit odd numbers less than or equal to 421 without repetition

“42” 1 = 1

(0, 1) (1, 5, 7)

+

“4” x _”1”_ x _2__ = 2

(5, 7) _____

5

(1, 2) (1, 5, 7)

+

“1” x _5_ x __2___ = 10

( 5, 7) ______

25

1+25+5 = 31

3. There are 9 runners in a race. In how many ways can 9 runners finish the race?

n=9

r=9

𝑛! 9! 9𝑥8𝑥7𝑥6𝑥5𝑥4𝑥3𝑥2𝑥1

𝑛𝑃𝑟 = = =

(𝑛 − 𝑟)! (9 − 9)! 1

= 362,880 ways

4. Automobile license plates consist of a sequence of three letters followed by three digits.

Using the Standard English alphabet, how many license plates are there if no letters and

no digits are repeated?

n1 = 26 n2 = 10

r1 = 3 r2 = 3

26! 10!

𝑛1𝑃𝑟1 𝑥 𝑛2𝑃𝑟2 = 26𝑃3 𝑥 10𝑃3 = 𝑥

(26 − 3)! (10 − 3)!

= 15,600 × 720

Circular Permutation

ABC BCA

ACB CAB

BAC CBA

Pn = (n-1)!

The number is (n-1)! instead of the usual factorial n! since all cyclic permutations of objects are

equivalent because the circle can be rotated.

Example:

1. At a dinner party, 9 men and 9 women sit at a round table. In how many ways can they

sit if:

a. There are no restrictions

Solution:

(18-1)! = 17!

Solution:

(9-1)! x 9! = 8! x 9!

Solution:

Solution:

Solution:

Seat 2 of the other 15 people next to George in (15 14) ways or 15P2

Then sit the remaining 15 people (including Gabriel and Charm) in 15! ways

2 15!

2. In how many ways can 8 differently coloured beads be threaded on a string?

Solution :

As necklace can be turned over, clockwise and anti-clockwise arrangements are the same

(8-1)! / 2 = 7! /2 = 2520

The number of mutually distinguishable permutations of n things, taken all at a time, of which p

are alike of one kind q alike of second such that 𝑝 + 𝑞 = 𝑛, is

𝑛!

𝑝! 𝑞!

The number of all permutations of n things of which 𝑝1 are alike of one kind; 𝑝2 are alike of

second kind; 𝑝3 are alike of third kind; …. ; 𝑝𝑟 are alike of 𝑟 𝑡ℎ kind such that kind such that 𝑝1 +

𝑝2 + 𝑝3 + …. + 𝑝𝑟 = n is

𝑛!

𝑝1 ! 𝑝2 ! … . 𝑝𝑟 !

The number of permutations of n things, of which p are alike of one kind, q alike of second, rest

all are distinct is

𝑛!

𝑝! 𝑞!

Suppose there are r things to be arranged, allowing repetitions. Let further 𝑝1, 𝑝2 , 𝑝3 , . . . . , 𝑝𝑟 be

integers such that the first object occurs exactly 𝑝1, times, the second occurs exactly 𝑝1, times,

etc. then the total number of permutations of these r objects to the above condition is,

Example:

1. Rohan wants to form different words starting and ending with P and S respectively from the

letters of the words PERMUTATIONS, in how many ways he can do this?

Solution

There are 12 letters in the given word with 2 T’s and as P and S have their position fixed,

So that,

= = 1814400 𝑤𝑎𝑦𝑠

2! 2!

2. How many arrangements can be made out of the letters of the word ‘MATHEMATICS” be

arranged so that the vowels always come together?

We take 11 – 4 + 1 = 8 digits

4!

Vowels can be arranged among themselves = 2!

𝑛! 8!

= = 120960 𝑤𝑎𝑦𝑠

𝑝1 !, 𝑝2 !, … , 𝑝𝑟 ! 2! 2! (4!)

2!

3. How many can be made from the letter of the word ABRACADABRA?

Solution

There are 11 letters in the given word with 5 A’s, 2 B’s and 2 R’s

So that

𝑛! 11!

= = 83160 𝑤𝑎𝑦𝑠

𝑝1 ! 𝑝2 ! … , 𝑝𝑟 5! 2! 2!

8! . = 10 080 arrangements

2! 2!

5. How many arrangements can be made in the position by the colour of circles?

Pink = 2; Yellow = 4; Blue = 1; Green = 1; Red = 1 Number of colours = 5; Number of Circles = 9

9! . = 7 560 arrangements

4! 2! 1! 1! 1!

6. How many arrangements can be made in the position by the shape of the objects?

Number of colours and shapes doesn’t affect the position of the circles.

3! 3! 2! 1! 1!

Formula:

𝑛!

𝑃=𝑐

1 2 ! 𝑐3 !…

!𝑐

Where

Example:

1. In how many ways can 7 students sleep in a hotel if it has one 3-bed room and the two 2-bed

room?

Solution:

7! = 5040

If you don’t care about the order and you just need to fill the rooms

Divide the number in which the students will interchange in the room

3! * 2! * 2! = 24

Other solution

𝑛!

𝑃=𝑐

1 !𝑐2 ! 𝑐3 !…

7!

𝑃=

3!∗2!∗2!

P= 210 ways

2. There are 10 prisoners. There are 5 available cells and each cell contains 2 bed. How many

ways will the guards put the prisoners in the cell?

Solution:

10! = 3628800

Divide by number of ways that 2 people will share the same cell since the order doesn’t matter

2! * 2! * 2! * 2! * 2! = 25 = 32

Other solution

𝑛!

𝑃=𝑐

1 !𝑐2 ! 𝑐3 !…

10!

P = 2!∗2!∗2!∗2!∗2!

P = 113400 ways

Combination

A combination without repetition of k objects from n is a way of selecting k objects from a list of

n. The selection rules are:

the order of selection does not matter (the same objects selected in different orders are

regarded as the same combination);

each object can be selected only once.

A combination without repetition is also called a simple combination or, simply, a combination.

Examples:

1. In how many ways can we form a committee of ten consisting of four Engineers and six

Nurses from a group of twelve Engineers and fifteen Nurses.

𝑛!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 =

(𝑛 − 𝑟)! 𝑟!

12! 15!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 = ( )( )

(12 − 4)! (4)! (15 − 6)! (6)!

𝑛!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 =

(𝑛 − 𝑟)! 𝑟!

11! 14!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 = ( )( )

(11 − 3)! (3)! (14 − 5)! (5)!

𝑛!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 =

(𝑛 − 𝑟)! 𝑟!

11! 14!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 = ( )( )

(11 − 3)! (3)! (14 − 6)! (6)!

𝑛!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 =

(𝑛 − 𝑟)! 𝑟!

11! 14!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 = ( )( )

(11 − 4)! (4)! (14 − 5)! (5)!

𝑛!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 =

(𝑛 − 𝑟)! 𝑟!

11! 14!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 = ( )( )

(11 − 4)! (4)! (14 − 6)! (6)!

2. In a class with 30 pupils, 5 volunteers have to go out to do an activity. How many groups of 5

different volunteers can there be?

𝑛!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 =

(𝑛 − 𝑟)! 𝑟!

30!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 = ( )

(30 − 5)! (5)!

3. On a circle there are 9 points selected. How many triangles with edges in these points exist?

𝑛!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 =

(𝑛 − 𝑟)! 𝑟!

9!

𝑛𝐶𝑟 = ( )

(9 − 3)! (3)!

𝒏𝑪𝒓 = 𝟖𝟒

A combination with repetition of r objects from n is a way of selecting r objects from a list of r .

The selection rules are:

1. the order of selection does not matter (the same objects selected in different orders are

regarded as the same combination);

Thus, the difference between simple combinations and combinations with repetition is that

objects can be selected only once in the former, while they can be selected more than once in the

latter.

Formula:

(𝑛 + 𝑟 − 1)𝐶𝑟 ;

Example:

(𝑛 + 𝑟 − 1)𝐶𝑟 = (10 + 3 − 1)𝐶3 = 𝟐𝟐𝟎

or

Total: 220

Total: 715

1 flavor: 10𝐶1 × 3𝐶4 = 10

Total: 2002

2. There are fiv e differ ent types of bottles in a wine cellar. How many ways can

four bottles b e chosen from th e cellar?

(𝑛 + 𝑟 − 1)𝐶𝑟 = (5 + 4 − 1)𝐶4 = 𝟕𝟎

3. In the confectioners 5 different icecreams are sold. A father would like to buy 15 caps of

icecream for his family. In how many ways can he buy the icecream?

(𝑛 + 𝑟 − 1)𝐶𝑟 = (5 + 15 − 1)𝐶15 = 𝟑𝟖𝟕𝟔

Formula: 𝟐𝒏 − 𝟏

The binomial theorem states that

𝑛

𝑛

∑ ( ) 𝑥 𝑘 = (1 + 𝑥)𝑛

𝑘

𝑘=0

Putting 𝑥 = 1 gives

𝑛

𝑛

∑ ( ) 𝑥 𝑘 = 2𝑛

𝑘

𝑘=0

𝑛

𝑛

∑ ( ) 𝑥 𝑘 = 𝟐𝒏 − 𝟏

𝑘

𝑘=0

1. How many ways can Rue paint a canvass if there are 6 colors of paint available?

Solution:

(a) 6𝐶1 = 6

6𝐶2 = 15

6𝐶3 = 20

6𝐶4 = 15

6𝐶5 = 6

6𝐶6 = 1

63

(b) Using the formula:

𝟐𝒏 − 𝟏

26 − 1 = 63

2. How many ways can you invite 1 or more of your 8 friends?

Solution:

(a) 8𝐶1 = 8

8𝐶2 = 28

8𝐶3 = 56

8𝐶4 = 70

8𝐶5 = 56

8𝐶6 = 28

8𝐶7 = 8

8𝐶8 = 1

255

𝟐𝒏 − 𝟏

28 − 1 = 255

Venn Diagram

- Sample Space - set of all possible outcomes

UNION

A B

𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = 𝐴 + 1 = 𝐴 𝑜𝑟 𝐵

INTERSECTION

A B

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = 𝐴 × 𝐵 = 𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵

COMPLEMENT

𝐴 + 𝐴̅ = 𝑆

Example:

Given that S = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) if A is the event that all odd numbers appear, and B is the event

that all even numbers appear. Find the intersection of A and B

S = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

A = (1, 3, 5)

B = (2, 4, 6)

A B

1, 3, 5 2, 4, 6

Example

Given that S = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), If A = (1, 3, 5) and B = (1, 2, 4)Find the following:

𝐴∩𝐵

𝐴∪𝐵

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵̅

𝐴̅ ∩ 𝐵

𝐴̅ ∩ 𝐵̅

𝐴̅ ∪ 𝐵̅

A B

3 2

1

5 4

6

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = (1)

𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵̅ = (3, 5)

𝐴̅ ∩ 𝐵 = (2, 4)

𝐴̅ ∩ 𝐵̅ = ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅

𝐴 ∪ 𝐵 = (6) , by using De Morgan’s Law

𝐴̅ ∪ 𝐵̅ = ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅

𝐴 ∩ 𝐵 = (2, 3, 4, 5, 6), by using De Morgan’s Law

De Morgan’s Law - The complement of the union of two sets is the same as the intersection of

their complements; and the complement of the intersection of two sets is the same as the union

of their complements.

Example

In a total of 50 smokers, If 40 smokes marlboro and 35 smokes hope. How many smokers

smokes both marlboro and hope?

𝑀 ∪ 𝐻 = 50 𝑠𝑚𝑜𝑘𝑒𝑟𝑠

Marlboro = 40

Hope = 35

Marlboro Hope

40 - x x 35 - x

𝑀 ∪ 𝐻 = (40 − 𝑥) + 𝑥 + (35 − 𝑥)

50 = 75 − 𝑥

𝑥 = 25 𝑠𝑚𝑜𝑘𝑒𝑟𝑠

Example

Find the total number of students if the students taking up Mathematics is 40, Elex is 48,

Comms is 45, Math and Elex is 20, Math and Comms is 15, Comms and Elex is 10 and the

students taking all subjects is 2.

𝑀𝐸̅ 𝐶̅ 𝑀𝐸𝐶̅

M E ഥ 𝐸𝐶̅

𝑀

17 18 20 𝑀𝐸𝐶

2

𝑀𝐶𝐸̅ 13 8 ഥ 𝐸𝐶

𝑀

22 ഥ 𝐸̅ 𝐶

𝑀

ഥ 𝐸̅ 𝐶̅

𝑀 C

𝑀 ∪ 𝐸 ∪ 𝐶 = 17 + 18 + 20 + 13 + 2 + 8 + 22

𝑀 ∪ 𝐸 ∪ 𝐶 = 100 𝑠𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠

Probability

Probability Experiment

Outcome

Sample Space

Event

Number of outcomes in E

𝑃=

Total number of outcomes in the sample space

Probability Rules:

1. The probability of any event E is a number (either a fraction or decimal) between and

including 0 and 1. This is denoted by 0≤P≤1.

2. If an event E cannot occur(i.e. the event contains no members in the sample space), its

probability is 0.

4. The sum of the probabilities of all the outcomes in the sample space is 1.

Example:

If a family has a three children, find the probability that two of the three children are girls.

Therefore:

3

p=8

Probability of Coins

P(head) = 0.5

P(tail) = 0.5

Example:

No. of possible outcomes = 8

No. of outcomes: 3 𝐶2 = 3

Therefore:

3

P= 8

a. At least 1 head

1

= 1 - (2)20 = 0.9999 𝑜𝑟 99.99%

b. At least 8 heads

= ∑20 𝑥

𝑥=8( 20 𝐶𝑥 )(0.5) (0.5)

20 −𝑥

= 0.8684 or 86.84%

Binomial Distribution

Binomial distribution

outcome in an experiment or survey that is repeated multiple times. The binomial is a type of

distribution that has two possible outcomes.

P = nCr pr qn−r

Where:

n = number of trials

r = rate of success

p = probability of success

q = probability of failure

Examples:

1. A test is conducted which is consisting of 20 MCQs (multiple choices questions) with every

MCQ having its four options out of which only one is correct. Determine the probability that

a person undertaking that test has answered exactly 5 questions wrong.

Solution:

n = 20, n - r = 5, r = 20 - 5 = 15

1 15 3

So, P (exactly 5 out of 20 answers incorrect) = 20C15 ∗ (4) ∗ (4)5

2. 60% of people who purchases sports cars are men. If 10 sports car owners are randomly

selected, fin the probability that exactly 7 are men.

Solution:

n = 10, r = 7

p = 60% = 0.6

q = 1 – p = 1 – 0.6 = 0.4

P = 0.215

Probability of Dice:

2 Dice

2 1

3 2

4 3

5 4

6 5

7 6

8 5

9 4

10 3

11 2

12 1

3 Dice

3 1

4 3

5 6

6 10

7 15

8 21

9 25

10 27

11 27

12 25

13 21

14 15

15 10

16 6

17 3

18 1

Example:

1. If 10 dice are tossed, what is the probability that the sum is at least twelve?

Solution:

PS≥12 = 1 – PS<12

11

PS≥12 = 1 - 610

Ps≥12 = 99.99%

2. If 5 dice are tossed, what is the probability that the sum is at least seven?

Solution:

Ps≥7 = 1 – Ps<7

6

Ps≥7 = 1 –

65

Ps≥7 = 99.92%

3. If 5 dice are tossed, what is the probability that 6 will appear twice?

P = (nCr)(pr)(qn-r)

1 5

P = (5C2)(6)2(6)3

P = 16.08%

4. If 7 dice are tossed, what is the probability that even numbers will appear 7 times?

P = (nCr)(pr)(qn-r)

3 3

P = (7C7)(6)7(6)0

P = 0.78125%

5. If 10 dice are tossed, what is the probability that odd numbers will appear 5 times?

P = (nCr)(pr)(qn-r)

3 3

P = (10C5)(6)5(6)5

P = 24.61%

6. If 5 dice are tossed, what is the probability that the sum is at least 7?

PS≥7 = 1 – PS<7

6

PS≥7 = 1 - 65

Ps≥7 = 99.92%

Probability of Cards:

A standard deck of cards has four suites: hearts, clubs, spades, diamonds. Each suite has

thirteen cards: ace, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, jack, queen and king. Thus the entire deck has 52

cards total.

Example:

𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑠

𝑃ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑡 =

𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑠

13 1

𝑃ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑡 = = = 0.25

52 4

2. What is the probability of getting a card that is a king or a heart?

Solution:

12 1 3

16 4

=

52 13

The total number of cards is 52. The total number of cards that is either a king or heart and both

is 16.

SOLUTION:

𝑃 = 𝑃1 + 𝑃2 + 𝑃3 + 𝑃4

𝑃= + + +

52𝐶5 52𝐶5 52𝐶5 52𝐶5

3243 2162 94 1

𝑃= + + +

10829 54145 54145 54145

𝑃 = 0.341158

ANOTHER SOLUTION:

𝑃 = 1 − 𝑃𝑛𝑜 𝑎𝑐𝑒

48𝐶5

𝑃 =1−

52𝐶5

𝑃 = 0.341158

A perfect probability of 1 getting all the 4 aces, subtracted by the probability of getting no aces in

5 cards drawn in a deck of 52 cards.

In 5 cards drawn, what is the probability of getting 1 pair, 2 pairs, a trio, a quadro, a full house

and all random cards?

[(𝟏𝟑𝑪𝟏)(𝟒𝑪𝟐)][(𝟏𝟐𝑪𝟏)(𝟒𝑪𝟏)𝟑 ]

𝑷=

1 pair 𝟓𝟐𝑪𝟓

𝑷 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟐𝟑

[(13𝐶2)(4𝐶2)2 ][(11𝐶1)(4𝐶1)]

𝑃=

2 pairs 52𝐶5

𝑃 = 0.047

[(13𝐶1)(4𝐶3)][(12𝐶2)(4𝐶1)2 ]

𝑃=

Trio 52𝐶5

𝑃 = 0.021

[(13𝐶1)(4𝐶4)][(12𝐶2)(4𝐶1)]

𝑃=

52𝐶5

Quadro

𝑃 = 9.603𝑥10−4

[(13𝐶1)(4𝐶3)][(12𝐶1)(4𝐶2)]

𝑃=

52𝐶5

Full house

𝑃 = 1.441𝑥10−3

[(13𝐶5)(4𝐶1)5 ]

𝑃=

5 Random 52𝐶5

𝑃 = 0.507

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