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Abraham

The Whole Story….


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 #

SECTION 1.1 #
SECTION 1.2 #
SECTION 1.3 #

CHAPTER 2 #

SECTION 2.1 #
SECTION 2.2 #
SECTION 2.3 #

CHAPTER 3 #

SECTION 3.1 #
SECTION 3.2 #
SECTION 3.3 #

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LINEAGE/ BACKGROUND

Father to LOT

Abram and brothers Nahor and Haran were sons of Terah, the tenth descendant of Noah. Abram was born in Ur
of the Chaldees, located in the Tigris-Euphrates Valley region. From Ur, Abram and his family moved to Haran,
about 600 miles (975 kilometers) to the northwest. There, at the age of 75, he received his calling from God.

Abraham’s Family Tree is shown below:

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Geneaology From Adam To Abraham

THE CALL AND THE BLESSINGS….

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Greek Word Ra’ah meaning spiritual sight.
In Genesis 12:1 God called Abraham “Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and
from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will shew thee:”

The LORD then made seven (7) proclamations of blessings if Abraham heeded his call (Gen 12: 2-3):

1. And I will make of thee a great nation


2. and I will bless thee
3. and make thy name great
4. and thou shalt be a blessing:
5. And I will bless them that bless thee,
6. and curse him that curseth thee:
7. and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.

Abram obeyed GOD and “...Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance that
they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of
Canaan;”

When Abraham arrived in Canaan, God appeared to him and issued a promise:

“And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land: and there builded he an
altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him.

THE FAMINE AND THE F ABULOUS LIE…. ….

There was a very bad famine in Canaan and Abraham took Sarah and went down to Egypt find relief.

“And there was a famine in the land: and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was
grievous in the land (Gen12:10).

However, Abraham realized that Sarah’s beauty might cause him to be killed, as was the custom during that
time, so he concocted a lie:

“Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister: that it may be well with me for thy sake; and my soul shall live because of
thee. (Gen 12:13)

And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very
fair. (Gen 12:14)

The princes also of Pharaoh saw her, and commended her before Pharaoh: and the woman was taken into
Pharaoh's house. (Gen 12:15)

And he entreated Abram well for her sake: and he had sheep, and oxen, and he asses, and menservants, and
maidservants, and she asses, and camels. (Gen 12:16)”

PHARAOH’S PESTY PLAGUES…

The Pharaoh took Sarah as his wife and gave many gifts to her “brother” Abraham. However, this displeased
GOD and the LORD plagued Pharaoh’s house with many plagues. Pharaoh then realized the cause for the
plagues and sent Abraham and Sarah away.

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“And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram's wife. (Gen 12:17)

And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that
she was thy wife? (Gen 12:18)

Why saidst thou, She is my sister? so I might have taken her to me to wife: now therefore behold thy wife, take
her, and go thy way. (Gen 12:19)

And Pharaoh commanded his men concerning him: and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had.
(Gen 12:20)”

FAMILY FUED (ALMOST)

After going back to Canaan, Abraham and Lot’s herdsmen began feuding. Abraham then suggested that Lot
leave Canaan in order to prevent strife. Lot agreed and migrated to the plains of Jordan- Sodom.

“And there was a strife between the herdmen of Abram's cattle and the herdmen of Lot's cattle: and the Canaanite
and the Perizzite dwelled then in the land. (Gen 13:7)

And Abram said unto Lot, Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, and between my herdmen and
thy herdmen; for we be brethren. (Gen 13:8)

Is not the whole land before thee? separate thyself, I pray thee, from me: if thou wilt take the left hand, then I
will go to the right; or if thou depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left. (Gen 13:9)

And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered every where, before the
LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, even as the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt, as thou comest
unto Zoar. (Gen 13:10)

Then Lot chose him all the plain of Jordan; and Lot journeyed east: and they separated themselves the one from
the other. (Gen 13:11)

Abram dwelled in the land of Canaan, and Lot dwelled in the cities of the plain, and pitched his tent toward
Sodom. (Gen 13:12)”

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BLESSED BY THE KING OF SALEM/SHALEM

Lot was taking captive by the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah after a battle of rival kings. Word got to Abraham
and he pursued them with 318 of his servants. He then recued his brother along with other captives as well as
retrieved their goods. During the rescue, Melchizedek king of Salem and priest of the most high God, brought
him bread and wine and he blessed Abraham saying “Blessed be Abram of the most high God, possessor of
heaven and earth” and recognized that God had delivered Abraham’s enemies into his hands.

The king of Sodom however tried to convince Abram into surrendering the prisoners and take the goods instead.
Bur Abram refused and said “I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet, and that I will not take any thing
that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have made Abram rich”.

And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he armed his trained servants, born in his own house,
three hundred and eighteen *, and pursued them unto Dan. (Gen 14:14)

And he divided himself against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them, and pursued them unto
Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus. . (Gen 14:15)

And he brought back all the goods, and also brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women also,
and the people. . (Gen 14:16)

And the king of Sodom went out to meet him after his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer, and of the
kings that were with him, at the valleySalem/Shalem which“peace”.
of Shaveh, means is the Most Jewish
king's dale. . (Gen 14:17)
commentators affirm that it is the same as Jerusalem

And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God. .
(Gen 14:18)

And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth: . (Gen
14:19)

And blessed be the most high God, which hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of
all. . (Gen 14:20)

And the king of Sodom said unto Abram, Give me the persons, and take the goods to thyself. . (Gen 14:21)

And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lift up mine hand unto the LORD, the most high God, the
possessor of heaven and earth, . (Gen 14:22)

That I will not take from a thread even to a shoelatchet *, and that I will not take any thing that is thine, lest thou
shouldest say, I have made Abram rich: . (Gen 14:23)

Save only that which the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men which went with me, Aner, Eshcol,
and Mamre; let them take their portion. . (Gen 14:24)

SEED- AS MANY AS THE STARS IN THE HEAVENS,


LAND- FROM THE RIVER OF EGYPT TO THE RIVER EUPHRATES

Abram begins to doubt that he will father a child and suggests to God a child born of his steward Eliezer to
regard as his heir. The Lord refuses and proceeds to convince Abram that the child will be his own and that his
seed will be as great a number as the stars in the heavens.

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God also asked Abram to offer 5 animals and told him of afflictions that were to befall his seed for four hundred
years while in a foreign land. He then made a covenant with Abram that his seed will be given all the land from
the river of Egypt to the river Euphrates.

Genesis 15 1:18

15:1 After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy
shield, and thy exceeding great reward.

15:2 And Abram said, Lord GOD, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is
this Eliezer of Damascus?

15:3 And Abram said, Behold, to me thou hast given no seed: and, lo, one born in my house is mine heir.

15:4 And, behold, the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall
come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir.

15:5 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to
number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be.

15:6 And he believed in the LORD; and he counted it to him for righteousness.

15:7 And he said unto him, I am the LORD that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to
inherit it.

15:8 And he said, Lord GOD, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it ?

15:9 And he said unto him, Take me an heifer of three years old, and a she goat of three years old, and a ram of
three years old, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon.

15:10 And he took unto him all these, and divided them in the midst, and laid each piece one against another:
but the birds divided he not.

15:11 And when the fowls came down upon the carcases, Abram drove them away.

15:12 And when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, an horror of great darkness fell
upon him.

15:13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and
shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years;

15:14 And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great
substance.

15:15 And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age.

15:16 But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full.

15:17 And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, and a
burning lamp that passed between those pieces.

15:18 In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land,
from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates:

ABRAM TRIES TO “HELP” GOD AGAIN…..AND SUCCEEDS

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Twelve years after Abram migrated to Canaan, Abram and Sarai again doubt that they will conceive a child of
their own. Sarai suggests to Abram that he sleep with her Egyptian servant Hagar and he agrees. Hagar
conceives and has enmity with Sarai. Sarai is angry and chases a pregnant Hagar from their home. On her way to
Shur, an angel of God convinces Hagar to return and apologize to Sarai, he also tells her the name of her unborn
son-Ishmael. The angel of the lord also blessed her son and tells her that her seed shall be multiplied
exceedingly.

Abram was forty six when Ishmael was born.

Genesis 16

16:1 Now Sarai Abram's wife bare him no children: and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was
Hagar.

16:2 And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in
unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai.

16:3 And Sarai Abram's wife took Hagar her maid the Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of
Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife.

16:4 And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived: and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was
despised in her eyes.

16:5 And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and when she
saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD judge between me and thee.

16:6 But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee *. And when Sarai
dealt hardly with her, she fled from her face.

16:7 And the angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way
to Shur.

16:8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence camest thou ? and whither wilt thou go ? And she said, I flee
from the face of my mistress Sarai.

16:9 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands.

16:10 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be
numbered for multitude.

16:11 And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call
his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath heard thy affliction.

16:12 And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he
shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.

16:13 And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also
here looked after him that seeth me?

16:14 Wherefore the well was called Beerlahairoi *; behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered.

16:15 And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his son's name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael.

16:16 And Abram was fourscore and six years old, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram.

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CONVEYING THE COVENANT OF CIRCUMCISION

God appeared to Abram when he was ninety nine years old and:

1. renamed him Abraham


2. renamed his wife Sarah
3. proclaimed his covenant

God also told Abraham that he will be a father of many nations and that he will make nations of him and that his
seed shall inherit the lands of Canaan. He then outlined his covenant:

 “I will make thee exceeding fruitful


 I will make nations of thee
 kings shall come out of thee.
 I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an
everlasting covenant
 will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of
Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God”

God then explained that the covenant between Abraham’s seed and him is to be sealed by circumcision-
circumcising all the male children at eighth years old. After his conversation with God, Abraham immediately
circumcised all the men and male children of his household.

Genesis 16

17:6 And I will make thee exceeding * fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of
thee.

17:7 And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an
everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee.

17:8 And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of
Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.

17:9 And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their
generations.

17:10 This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child
among you shall be circumcised.

17:11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and
you.

17:12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child in your generations, he
that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger *, which is not of thy seed.

17:13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my
covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant.

17:14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off
from his people; he hath broken my covenant.

17:15 And God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her
name be.

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17:16 And I will bless her, and give thee a son also of her: yea, I will bless her, and she shall be a mother of
nations; kings of people shall be of her.

17:17 Then Abraham fell upon his face, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall a child be born unto him that is
an hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear ?

17:18 And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee!

17:19 And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will
establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him.

17:20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will
multiply him exceedingly *; twelve * princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.

17:21 But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, which Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next
year.

17:22 And he left off talking with him, and God went up from Abraham.

17:23 And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his
money, every male among the men of Abraham's house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the
selfsame day, as God had said unto him.

17:24 And Abraham was ninety years old and nine, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

17:25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen * years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

17:26 In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son.

17:27 And all the men of his house, born in the house, and bought with money of the stranger *, were
circumcised with him.

THE INFAMOUS LIE (AG AIN) AND INFERTILITY….

After Abraham left Sodom and Gommorah, he went to Gerar and again told the king that Sarah his wife was his
sister. And, Abimelech king of Gerar, took Sarah to live with him.

Again God is displeased and caused all the women to be infertile. He visited Abimelech in a dream and tells him
that Sarah is Abraham’s wife. And that he should return her or else die. The king returned Sarah and also
bestowed gifts on Abraham. God then healed all the women of their fertility.

Genesis 20

20:1 And Abraham journeyed from thence toward the south country, and dwelled between Kadesh and Shur,
and sojourned in Gerar.

20:2 And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She is my sister: and Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah.

20:3 But God came to Abimelech in a dream by night, and said to him, Behold, thou art but a dead man, for the
woman which thou hast taken; for she is a man's wife.

20:4 But Abimelech had not come near her: and he said, Lord, wilt thou slay also a righteous nation?

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20:5 Said he not unto me, She is my sister? and she, even she herself said, He is my brother: in the integrity of
my heart and innocency of my hands have I done this.

20:6 And God said unto him in a dream, Yea, I know that thou didst this in the integrity of thy heart; for I also
withheld thee from sinning against me: therefore suffered I thee not to touch her.

20:7 Now therefore restore the man his wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live:
and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.

20:8 Therefore Abimelech rose early in the morning, and called all his servants, and told all these things in their
ears: and the men were sore afraid.

20:9 Then Abimelech called Abraham, and said unto him, What hast thou done unto us? and what have I
offended thee, that thou hast brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin? thou hast done deeds unto me that
ought not to be done.

20:10 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing?

20:11 And Abraham said, Because I thought, Surely the fear of God is not in this place; and they will slay me
for my wife's sake.

20:12 And yet indeed she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and
she became my wife.

20:13 And it came to pass, when God caused me to wander from my father's house, that I said unto her, This is
thy kindness which thou shalt shew unto me; at every place whither we shall come, say of me, He is my brother.

20:14 And Abimelech took sheep, and oxen, and menservants, and womenservants, and gave them unto
Abraham, and restored him Sarah his wife.

20:15 And Abimelech said, Behold, my land is before thee: dwell where it pleaseth thee.

20:16 And unto Sarah he said, Behold, I have given thy brother a thousand pieces of silver: behold, he is to thee
a covering of the eyes, unto all that are with thee, and with all other: thus she was reproved.

20:17 So Abraham prayed unto God: and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maidservants; and they
bare children.

20:18 For the LORD had fast closed up all the wombs of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah Abraham's
wife.

ISAAC IS BORN AND HAGAR IS EXILED

When

Genesis 21

21:1 And the LORD visited Sarah as he had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as he had spoken.

21:2 For Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to
him.

21:3 And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac.

21:4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac being eight days old, as God had commanded him.

21:5 And Abraham was an hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him.

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21:6 And Sarah said, God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me.

21:7 And she said, Who would have said unto Abraham, that Sarah should have given children suck ? for I have
born him a son in his old age.

21:8 And the child grew, and was weaned: and Abraham made a great feast the same day that Isaac was weaned.

21:9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking.

21:10 Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman
shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac.

21:11 And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's sight because of his son.

21:12 And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy
bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called.

21:13 And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed.

21:14 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar,
putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of
Beersheba.

21:15 And the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs.

21:16 And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bowshot *: for she said, Let
me not see the death of the child. And she sat over against him, and lift up her voice, and wept.

21:17 And God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her,
What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is.

21:18 Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine hand; for I will make him a great nation.

21:19 And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and
gave the lad drink.

21:20 And God was with the lad; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer *.

21:21 And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt.

21:22 And it came to pass at that time, that Abimelech and Phichol the chief captain of his host spake unto
Abraham, saying, God is with thee in all that thou doest:

21:23 Now therefore swear unto me here by God that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, nor
with my son's son: but according to the kindness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt do unto me, and to the
land wherein thou hast sojourned.

21:24 And Abraham said, I will swear.

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Popular theories arising out of the story of Abraham

1) Dispensationalist Theory
2) Christianity vs Islam

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The Abrahamic religions

Judaism Christianity Islam Baha'i

Judaism is unquestionably the oldest of all existent The Christian faith is generally accepted to have Muslims believe that Islam is a faith that has always Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali (known as
Abrahamic religions. Jewish historical origins begin begun in Judea in the 1st century CE, then part of existed and that it was gradually revealed to humanity Baha'u'llah) in Iran in 1852, Baha'i faith emphasizes
with Abraham after he married Sarah, and left Ur of Iudaea province, as a radically reformed branch of by a number of prophets including Adam (the first monotheism and believes in one eternal
the Chaldees. Through his son Isaac and grandson Judaism (see Early Christianity). After centuries of human), David and Christ. The Qur'an also discusses transcendent God. Its guiding focus is to encourage
Jacob (also known as Israel) the Jews derive an trying to establish a unified Christendom, Christianity Judaism and Christianity. They consider that the final the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice
uninterrupted history. The Jewish people are split into many separate churches and denominations. and complete revelation of the faith was made through and peace may be achieved on earth. Baha'i
generally referred to as the Children of Israel, Today Christianity is the largest religion in the world. the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a descendant of revelation contends the prophets of major world
signifying their descent from Jacob.[38] The Abraham, in the 7th century CE[36] cities of Mecca and religions reflect some truth or element of the divine,
genealogy is recorded in the Torah. Medina. believes all were manifestations of God given to
specific communities in specific times, and that
Baha'u'llah is an additional prophet meant to call all
humankind. Bahais are an open community, located
Judaism moved from an unorganized religion of the worldwide, with the greatest concentration of
Hebrew tribes, to a Law-based religion with an believers in South Asia
emphasis on prophets in 1,400 BCE when the Torah
was given to the Jewish people. After the
destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the
Roman Empire in 70 CE, its focus moved toward
Rabbinic Judaism as a result of the Diaspora.[39]
Since the establishment of the State of Israel in
1948, and especially since the reunification of
Jerusalem in June of 1967, Judaism has begun
regaining its national character.

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The significance of Abraham

Judaism Christianity Islam Baha'i

For Jews, Abraham is, through Isaac and Jacob, the Christians view Abraham as an important exemplar of There are several reasons that Abraham is significant in Bahá'ís believe that Abraham, Moses, Zoroaster,
founding patriarch of the Children of Israel. God faith, and a spiritual, as well as physical, ancestor of Islam. For Muslims, Abraham is a prophet, the " Jesus, and Muhammad are all equally authentic
promised Abraham: "I will make of you a great Jesus—a Jew considered the Son of God through messenger of God" who stands in the line from Noah to messengers of one God. The teachings of these
nation, and I will bless you."[Gen. 12:2] With whom God promised to bless all the families of the Muhammad, to whom Allah gave revelations,[Qur'an divine messengers are seen as paths to salvation
Abraham, God entered into "an everlasting covenant earth. For Christians, Abraham is a spiritual forebear 4:163], who "raised the foundations of the House" (i.e., which contribute to the "carrying forward of an
throughout the ages to be God to you and to your rather than a direct ancestor, as defined by Paul the the Ka'aba)[Qur'an 2:127] with his first son, Isma'il. ever-advancing civilization." But Bahá'ís believe
offspring to come."[Gen. 17:7] Apostle,[Rom. 4:9-12] with the Abrahamic Covenant Ibrahim (Abraham) is the first in a genealogy for that this series of interventions by God in human
"reinterpreted so as to be defined by faith in Christ Muhammad. Islam considers Abraham to be the "first history has been progressive, each revelation from
rather than biological descent";[32] see also New Muslim" (Surah 3)—the first monotheist in a world God more complete than those which preceded it,
Covenant. In Christian belief, Abraham is a role where monotheism was lost. He is also referred to in and each preparing the way for the next.[37]
Abraham is primarily a revered ancestor or patriarch model of faith,[Heb. 11:8-10] and his obedience to Islam as ‫ اب ره يم اب ون ا‬or "Our Father Abraham", as well
(referred to as Avraham Avinu ‫אבינו אברהם‬ God by offering Isaac is seen as a foreshadowing of as Ibrahim al-Hanif or "Abraham the Monotheist". Islam
"Abraham Our Father") to whom God made several God's offering of his son Jesus.[Rom. 8:32][33] holds that it was Ishmael, (Isma'il, Muhammad's
promises: chiefly, that he would have numberless ancestor) rather than Isaac, whom Ibrahim was
descendants, who would receive the land of Canaan instructed to sacrifice. In addition to this spiritual
(the "Promised Land.") According to Jewish lineage, the northern Adnani Arab tribes trace their
tradition, Abraham was the first post-Flood prophet The tendency of Christian commentators to interpret lineage to Isma'il, and thus to Abraham.[36]
to reject idolatry through rational analysis, although God's promises to Abraham as applying to
Shem and Eber carried on the tradition from Noah. Christianity rather than Judaism, whose adherents
rejected Jesus, is derived from Paul's interpretation of
all descendants who believe in God as being spiritual Muslims see Abraham as one of the most important of
descendants of Abraham.[Rom. 4:20] [Gal. 4:9] [34] the many prophets sent by God. Thus he represents, for
Abraham not only symbolically appears as a However, in both cases he refers to these spiritual some, a common focal point whom they seek to
fundamental figure for Judaism, but is recognised to descendants as the "sons of God"[Gal. 4:26] rather emphasize by means of this terminology
have observed the tenets of the Torah before it was than "children of Abraham"
given to Moses. Modern scholars do not accept that
the K'tav Ivri is named after Abraham (who was
known as the "Ivri", which occurs in Genesis[Gen
14:13] with the phrase Avram ha-Ivri, and is the
origin of the English word Hebrew). The early
Midrashic sources explicitly state that the laws of
Torah (Passover) were observed by the Patriarchs
long before Sinai,[29] and in one case with a
simultaneous explicit example for chronological
calculations:[Gen. 26:5][30]

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The Supreme Deity

Judaism Christianity Islam Baha'i

Jewish theology is based on the Hebrew Bible, where the Christians believe that the God worshiped by the There is only one God in Islam. Allah is the Arabic The Bahá'í writings describe a single, personal,
nature and commandments of God are revealed through the faithful Hebrew people of the pre-Christian era has word for God, used by all Arabs of all faiths. inaccessible, omniscient, omnipresent,
writings of Moses, the Torah, the writings of the prophets, always revealed himself as he did through Jesus; but Islamic tradition also describes the 99 names of imperishable, and almighty God who is the
psalmists and other ancient canonized scriptures, together with that this was never obvious until the Word of the God. These 99 names describe attributes of God, creator of all things in the universe.[43][44]
the Torah known as the Tanakh. Additionally, it usually has a Lord, the revelation of God, became flesh and dwelt including Most Merciful, Most Just, The Peace and The existence of God and the universe is
basis in its Oral Law, as recorded in the Mishnah and Gemora among us (see John 1). Also, despite the fact that the Blessing, and the Guardian. Islamic belief in God is thought to be eternal, without a beginning or
that form the Talmud. This Supreme Being is referred to in the Angel of the Lord spoke to the Patriarchs, revealing distinct from Christianity in that God accepts no end.[45] Though inaccessible directly, God is
Hebrew Bible in several ways, such as Elohim, Adonai or by God to them, it has always been only through the partners and has no progeny. This belief is summed nevertheless seen as conscious of creation,
the four Hebrew letters "Y-H-V (or W) -H" (the Spirit of God granting them understanding, that men up in chapter 112 of the Qur'an titled Al-Ikhlas, with a will and purpose that is expressed
tetragrammaton), which observant Jews do not pronounce as a have been able to later perceive that they had been which states "God is One, He is the Eternal, the through messengers termed Manifestations of
word. The Hebrew words Eloheynu (Our God) and HaShem visited by God himself. After Jesus was raised from Absolute. He does not beget nor was he begotten. God.[43][46]
(The Name), as well as the English names "Lord" and "God", the dead—according to Christian scriptures—this And there is none like Him".[Qur'an 112:1]
are also used in modern-day Judaism. The latter is sometimes ancient Hebrew witness of how God reveals himself
written "G-d" in reference to the taboo against pronouncing as Messiah came to be seen in a very different light. It
the tetragrammaton.[citation needed] was then that Jesus' followers began to speak widely Religious Scriptures:
of him as God himself,[John 20:28] although this had See also: Islamic concept of God
already been revealed to certain individuals during his Kitáb-i-Aqdas, literally the Most Holy Book
ministry. Examples were the Samaritan woman in
The word "Elohim" has the Hebrew plural ending "-īm", Shechem and Jesus' closest apostles[42] Kitáb-i-Íqán, literally the Book of
which some Biblical scholars have taken as support for the Muslims believe that the Jewish God is the same as Certitude,
general notion that the ancient Hebrews were polytheists in the their God, and that Jesus was a divinely inspired
time of the patriarchs; however, as the word itself is used with prophet and was neither God nor His son. The the Gems of Divine Mysteries
singular verbs, this hypothesis is not accepted by most Jews. This belief gradually developed into the modern Qur'an also draws a similitude between Jesus and
Jews point out other words in Hebrew used in the same formulation of the Trinity, which is the doctrine that Adam—the first human being created by God— the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys
manner according to the rule of Hebrew Grammar, denoting God is a single entity (YHWH), but that there is a real saying they were both 'created from dust' by God which are mystical treatises
respect, majesty and deliberation, similar to the royal plural in "threeness" in God's single being, which has always who said the simple word "Be" (Arabic,
English and ancient Egyptian, and the use of the plural form been evident albeit not understood. This mysterious 'kun').[Qur'an 3:59] Thus, both the Torah and the
"vous" for individuals of higher standing in modern French. "threeness" has been described as, for want of better Gospels are believed to be based upon divine
Jewish Biblical scholars and historical commentary on the terms, hypostases in the Greek language (subsistences revelation, but most Muslims believe them to have
passage also suggest that Elohim in the plural form indicates in Latin), and "persons" in English. In the traditional been corrupted (both accidentally, through errors in
God in conjunction with the heavenly court, i.e., the angels. Christian concept, God the Father has only ever been transmission, and intentionally by certain Jews and
The pre-Christian era, early CE-period Kabbalistic and later in revealed through his eternal Word (who was born as Christians over the centuries). Muslims revere the
the European Chasidic movements after the Baal Shem Tov, Jesus, of the Virgin Mary, God the Son) and his Spirit Qur'an as the final uncorrupted word of God, or 'The
such as Breslov and Chabad, all indicate the use of Elokim as (who after the Resurrection was given to humanity at Last Testament' as revealed through the last prophet,
denoting the multidimensional existence of God on, in, and Pentecost, establishing the Christian church).[citation Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad is regarded as the
through every possible dimension of the created existence. See needed] "Seal of the Prophets" i.e. the last in a long chain,
Likutei Moharan and the Tanya, as well as the Zohar, Bahir, and Islam as the final monotheist faith, perfect in all
and the Kabbalistic texts of Sefer Yitzirah, Sefer Refayim, and respects as taught by the Qur'an.
Sefer Malachim, to name a few. Including the writings of the
Ramchal (R. Moshe Chaim Luzzatto), Drech HaShem and Nonetheless Christians stress that they only believe in
others such as the Rashbi (R. Shimon bar Yochai, author of one God. To believe in 3 gods would be thought of as
the Zohar) all explain the use of the Elokim as a pluralistic heretical. Religious Scriptures: Qur'an and Origin and
singularity, one essence sustaining all levels of creation from development of the Qur'an
the mundane physical to the sublime and Holy spiritual.[41] Religious Scriptures: Bible

Religious Scriptures: Masoretic Text, Tanakh, and Bible

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