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FST-Food Processing & Preservation 3(2-1)

Postharvest handling and preparation of foods for food processing: introduction,
properties of raw materials, handling, storage and transportation of raw
materials. Preparatory operations: cleaning, sorting, grading, size reduction,
sulphiting. Thermal processing: principles & application � blanching,
pasteurization, sterilization, HTST, commercial sterilization, UHT, canning. Low
temperature preservation: Principles & application - refrigeration, chill injury,
controlled atmospheric storage, modified atmosphere packaging. Freezing: methods,
changes in foods, freeze burn. Dehydration & drying - significance: concentration
and condensation. Drying systems: solar drying, hot air drying, drum drying, spray
drying. Chemical preservation: different chemical additives and their mode of
action. Fermentation technology: principles, objectives, types - alcoholic, acetic
and lactic fermentations. Fermented foods: bread, wine, vinegar, yoghurt, sausages,
pickles. Food irradiation: principles, applications, safety aspect, effect on food

Preparatory operation in food processing and preservation. Canning of selected
fruits and vegetables. Cold storage, freezing and dehydration of fruits and
vegetables. Use of chemicals in preservation of food products. Preparation of
fermented food products.

Recommended Books:
1. Awan, J.A. 2011. Food processing and preservation. Unitech Communications,
2. Awan, J.A. and Rehman, S.U. 2011. Food preservation manual. Unitech
Communications, Faisalabad-Pakistan.
3. Bhat, R., Alias A.K. and Paliyat, G. 2012. Progress in food preservation.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., USA.
4. Brennan, JG. 2006. Food processing handbook. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
5. Fellow, P.J. 2005. Food processing technology. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.
Cambridge, England.
6. Heldman, D. 2011. Food preservation process design. Elsevier Corporation,
7. Rahman, M.S. 2007. Handbook of food preservation. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis
Group, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

FST-Unit Operations in Food Processing 3(2-1)

Introduction: Units, dimensions, conversions. Heating systems for processing
plants: types of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation), heat
pressure diagram, energy calculations for heating. Refrigeration and cooling: types
(natural and mechanical), secondary refrigeration (congealing tank and brine
systems), refrigerants, cold storage rooms (insulation, doors and devices,
management of storage rooms). Evaporation: General perspectives, importance and
technical design of evaporators. Drying: Importance and technical design of dryers.
Membrane separations: Types of membranes and membrane modules, technical design of
membrane systems. Air-water mixture: psychometric charts and their application.
Transport of fluids through pipes: laminar and turbulent regimes. Circulation of
fluid through porous beds. Cleaning: Procedures, techniques and hygienic design.

Effect of different processes on food behavior and food components: sorting,
grading, size reduction, mixing, grinding, distillation, filtration, sifting,
centrifugation, evaporation, condensation, dehydration, emulsification, extrusion,
extraction, heat exchange, cooling, freezing, drying, sun drying, hot air oven
dying, crystallization, sedimentation, pasteurization, UHT.

Recommended Books:
1. Berk, Z. 2009. Food process engineering and technology. Academic Press
Elsevier. USA.
2. Gustavo, A. and Barbosa-Canovas, V. 2002. Unit operations in food
engineering. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
3. Jeankopolis, C.J. 2004. Transport processes and separation process (includes
unit operations). Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference, New Jersey. USA.
4. Robberts, T.C. 2002. Food plant engineering systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton,
Florida, USA.
5. Singh, R.P. and Heldman, D.R. 2013. Introduction of food engineering (Food
Science & Technology). Academic Press, USA.
6. Zhang, H.Q., Barbosa-Canovas G.V., Bala Balasubramaniam V.M. , Dunne C.P.,
Farkas, D.F. and Yuan J.T.C. 2011. Nonthermal processing technologies for food.
John Wiley & Sons, IFT Press. USA.

FST-Fluid Mechanics 3 (2-1)

Properties of fluids: density, viscosity, surface tension, specific gravity,
specific weight, compressibility, fluid energy. Fluid pressure: definition, units,
measuring devices, vacuum. Fluid static: derivations and problems. Fluid dynamics:
mass and energy balance, steady flow head, Bernoulli's equation, Reynolds number
and their practical applications. Energy losses in fluid flow. Newtonian and non-
newtonian liquids: flow measurements and characteristics, examples in food. Venturi
effect. Pumps: types, working principles, total dynamic head, hydraulic and energy
grade line, power consideration. Darcey-Weisbach equation: loss of head, types of
impellers, solutions of flow problems. Diagnostic analysis and remedies. Handling

Verification of Bernoulli�s Theorem. Measurement of flow through venturimeter,
orifice meter. Pipe flow and head loss relationship. Pipe head loss and pipe
diameter relationship. Characteristic curves for pumps in parallel and in series.

Recommended Books:
1. Franzini, J.B. and Finnemore, E.J. 2001. Fluid mechanics with engineering
applications. McGraw Hill Inc., New York. USA.
2. Hui, Y.H. 2006. Handbook of food science, technology, and engineering, Vol-1.
CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
3. McCabe, W.L., Smith, J.C. and Harriott, P. 2005. Unit operations of chemical
engineering. McGraw Hill Inc., New York, USA.
4. Streeter, V.L. 1988. Fluid mechanics. McGraw Hill Inc., New York, USA.
5. Young, D.F., Munson, B.R., Okiishi, T.H. and Huebsch, W.W. 2011. Introduction
to fluid mechanics. SI Version. Wily publishers, USA.