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. The oil enters the exchanger at 60 °F and leaves at 168 °F. The average viscosity of the water passing through the unit is 0.33 cP and the average viscosity of the oil in the unit is 215 cP. The maximum allowable pressure drop through the plate heat exchanger is 15 psig on the hot and cold sides.
Step 1: Calculate the LMTD
Step 2: Calculate NTUHOT and NTUCOLD
Step 3: Read hHot from 0.25 < NTU < 2.0 chart for hydrocarbons Although is there not a viscosity line for 215 cP, the line representing ³100 cP´ can be or viscosities up to about 400-500 cP. The heat exchanger will be pressure drop limited and the heat transfer coefficient will not change appreciably over this viscosity range for plate and frame exchangers. Reading from the chart, a pressure drop of 15 psig corresponds to hHot $ 50 Btu/h ft2 °F Step 4: Read hCold from 0.25 < NTU < 2.0 chart for water based liquids Again, you will note that the exact viscosity line needed for pure water (0.33 cP) in this case is not available. However, the ³1.0 cP´ line on the chart will provide a very good estimate of the heat transfer coefficient that pure water will exhibit. Reading from the chart, a pressure drop of 15 psig corresponds to hCold $ 3000 Btu/h ft2 °F Step 5: Calculate the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (OHTC) Assume a stainless steel plate with a thickness of 0.50 mm is being used. 316 stainless steel has a thermal conductivity o 8.67 Btu/h ft °F.
150,000 lb/h of water is being cooled from 200 °°F by 150,000 lb/h of NaCl brine. The brine enters the exchanger at 50 °F and leaves at 171 °F. The average viscosity of the water passing through the unit is 0.46 cP and the average viscosity of the brine in the unit is 1.10 cP. The maximum allowable pressure drop through the plate heat exchanger is 10 psig on the hot (water) side and 20 psig on the cold (brine) side.
As before, the LMTD is calculated to be 38.5 °F. NTUHot and NTUCold are calculated as 2.59 and 3.14 respectively. Reading hHot and hCold from the chart for 2.0 < NTU < 4.0 (water based), gives about 2000 Btu/h ft2 °F and 2500 Btu/h ft2 °F respectively. Although the material of choice may be Titanium or Palladium stabilized Titanium, we will use the properties for stainless steel for our preliminary sizing. Calculating the OHTC as before yields 918 Btu/h ft2 °F.
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Implications for Size Reduction We have seen that alternative technologies have significant size advantage over shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Now let¶s consider the implications of this. The first advantage is smaller plot plan for the process plant. The spacing between process equipment can be reduced. So, if the plant is to be housed in a building, the size of the building can be reduced. In any event, the amount of structural steel used to support the plant can be reduced and given the weight saving, the load on that structure is also reduced. The weight advantage extends to the design of the foundations used to support the plant. Since, the spacing between individual equipment items is reduced, expenditure on piping is reduced. Once more we stress the savings associated with size and weight reduction can only be achieved if these advantages are recognized at the earliest stages of the plant design. Reduced Plant Complexity
As we will briefly show, the use of alternative exchanger technologies can result in significant reduction in plant complexity. This not only enforces the savings associated with reduced size and weight (reduced plot space, structural cost savings, piping cost reduction etc.) but also has safety implications. The simpler the plant structure the easier it is for the process operator to understand the plant. The simpler the plant structure, the safer, easier and more straight forward the plant maintenance (the fewer the pipe branches that must be blanked etc.). The alternative technologies result in reduced complexity by reducing the number of heat exchangers. This is achieved through: y y improved µthermal contacting¶ multi-streaming.
Mechanical constraints play a significant role in the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. For instance, it is common to find that some users place restrictions on the length of the tubes used in such a unit. Such a restriction can have important implications for the design. In the case of exchangers requiring large surface areas the restriction drives the design towards large tube counts. If such tube counts then lead to low tube side velocity, the designer is tempted to increase the number of tube side passes in order to maintain a reasonable tube-side heat transfer coefficient. Thermal expansion considerations can also lead the designer to opt for multiple tube passes for the cost of a floating head is generally lower than the cost of installing an expansion bellows in the exchanger shell. The use of multiple tube passes has four detrimental effects. First, it leads to a reduction in the number of tubes that can be accommodated in a given size of shell (so it leads to increased shell diameter and cost). Second, for bundles having more than four tube passes, the pass partition lanes introduced into the bundle give rise to an increase in the quantity of shell-side fluid bypassing the tube bundle and a reduction in tube-side heat transfer coefficient. Thirdly, it gives rise to wasted tube side pressure drop in the return headers. Finally, and most significantly, the use of multiple tube passes results in the thermal contacting of the streams not being pure counter-flow. This has two effects. The first is that the Effective Mean Temperature Driving Force is reduced. The second, and more serious effect, is that a µtemperature cross¶ can occur. If a µtemperature cross¶ occurs, the designer must split the duty between a number of individual heat exchangers arranged in series. Figures 8 and 9 below illustrate the difference between temperatures that are said to be µcrossing¶ and those that are not. Many of the alternative heat exchanger technologies allow the application of pure counter-flow across all size and flow ranges. The results are better use of available temperature driving force and the use of single heat exchangers.
Figure 8: No temperature cross Figure 9: Deep temperature cross Let¶s now consider multi-streaming.ft. this will be a regular oversight if exchanger selection is not made until after the flow sheet has been developed). Distribution and recombination of process flows is undertaken inside the exchanger. of effective surface area. Just one unit is used and this unit has 1. A good example of multi-streaming is the use of a plate heat exchanger serving as a process interchanger on one side and a trim cooler on the other. Some heat exchanger technologies (most notably plate-fin and printed circuit exchangers) can handle many streams.440 sq. of surface in a single unit.335 sq. our plate-and-frame design involves the use of 1.ft of effective surface).344 sq. while the other side can utilize stainless steel or a lower alloy. This arrangement is particularly useful for product streams that are exiting a process and must be cooled for storage. . The traditional shell-and-tube heat exchanger only handles one hot and one cold stream. Engineers often over-look the opportunities of using a plate and frame unit as a multi-stream unit. they pose much less of a corrosion risk. Another popular function of multi-streaming is in lowering material costs. Often times.335 sq.ft.116 sq. of surface distributed across four separate exchangers. So. of surface). Half of the exchanger can contain a higher alloy. In Figure 11 we show the equivalent shell-and-tube solution. In Figure 10 we show how a plate and frame unit has been applied to a problem involving three process streams. It is not uncommon to find plate-fin heat exchangers transferring heat between ten individual process. the heat recovery unit having four shells in series (each having 2. The heat transfer properties used for styrene are given in Table 1.ft. once streams are cooled to a certain temperature. The equivalent shell-and-tube design has 11. (Again.ft. The result is a major saving in piping cost. Such units can be considered to contain a whole heat exchanger network within the body of a single exchanger. In order to avoid temperature crosses we need six individual exchangers: the cooler having two shells in series (each having 1.
447 0. (Btu/ft 0.Figure 10: A multi-stream plate exchanger serving as an interchanger and a trim cooler Table 1: Heat Transfer Properties Used for Styrene in the Multi-Stream Example 100 0F 150 0F 200 0F 55. Version 1. Engineering.471 (Btu/lb 0F) 0.P.9 52.590 0.070 h 0F) Data from PhysProps by G.0 .329 Viscosity (cP) Thermal Cond.5 53.074 0.3 Density (lb/ft3) Specific Heat 0.428 0.077 0.5.427 0.
are the heart of many industrial processes.Figure 11: Equivalent SURGING COMPRESSOR CENTRIFUGAL Turbocompressors. Every centrifugal or axial compressor has a characteristic combination of maximum head and minimum . but this is not the case. Surge prevention is an important process control problem in these environments as surging can result in costly downtime and mechanical damage to the compressors. Understanding Surge Many believe that surging is analogous to cavitation in a centrifugal pump. Surging represents a major threat to compressors and these processes. including a flow reversal. these compressors are critical to the operation of the plant. Surging is defined as a self oscillation of the discharge pressure and flow rate. yet they are seldom installed with a spare unit. Often. An effective antisurge control system is critical for every turbocompressor. either centrifugal or axial.
During surging. surging will occur. . Surging is best illustrated by observing the movement of the compressor operating point along its characteric curve as shown in Figure 1. The discharge pressure is marked Pd and the downstream vessel pressure is Pv.flow. Beyond this point. Figure 1: Examining the Characteristic Curve Development of the Surge Cycle Consider a compressor system as shown in Figure 2. a flow reversal is often accompanied by a pressure drop.
Thrust bearing load due to loading and unloading. the surge point. When the flow reversal occurs. the compressor operating point will cross Point A. This is the flow reversal observed during surging. Anti-Surge Control > . Thus. Rapid flow and pressure oscillations cause process instabilities Rising temperatures inside the compressor Tripping of the compressor Mechanical damage Mechanical damage can include: y y y y Radial bearing load during the initial phase of surging. The operating point will then jump to Point B. At Point C. 2. Seal rubbing Stationary and rotating part contact if thrust bearing is overloaded. A side load is placed on the rotor which acts perpendicular to the axis. The next cycle begins again with another flow reversal and the process repeats until an external force breaks the surge cycle. 3. Figure 3: Graph of Operating Points Point B is not a stable operating point.Figure 2: Example Compressor System Now. Consequences of Surging Consequences of surging can include: 1. Beyond Point A. referencing Figure 3. If the load is reduced enough. the compressor loses the ability to increase the discharge pressure such that Pd will become less than Pv. the operating point will move toward Point A. assume that the system is operating at steady state at Point D. 4. This forces the operating point to move from Point B to Point C. the discharge pressure drops. This completes a single surge cycle. If the demand for gas is reduced. the flow rate is insufficient to build the necessary pressure to return to Point A. the operating point moves to Point D where the flow rate is in excess the load demanded and the pressure builds until Point A is finally reached.
For a PI controller to act quickly. Thus. When the operating point moves quickly toward the SCL. Adaptive gain is also used in the anti-surge controller. but not excessive. This will add a step change which is a function of the compressor operating point at the moment it reaches the RTL. the control system must be able to accurately determine the compressor's operating point as to provide adequate. the controller would simply cycle the recycle valve open and closed in response to successive surge cycles. Rather. such a controller would be unable to stop surge. suction temperature. the compressor operating point will reach the RTL. it is a complex function that is dependent on the gas composition.Anti-Surge Control The only way to prevent surging is to recycle or blow down a portion of the flow to keep the compressor away from it's surge limit. A Recycle Trip Line (RTL) is used between the SLL and the SCL. Therefore. recycle flow. In this manner. . an open loop control is used in conjunction with the closed loop in an anti-surge controller. This would result in a decreased operating region for the compressor when the recycle valve is closed. Figure 4: Compressor Operating Map The compressor surge limit is not fixed with respect to any one measured variable such as compression ratio or pressure drop across the flow meter. the adaptive gain move the SCL toward the operating point. Instead. This line is called the Surge Controller Line (SCL). the open loop control will be initiated. the "b" value would need to be high. At this point. For large or fast disturbances. A Surge Limit Line (SLL) is the line connecting the various surge points of a compressor at varying RPMs. compressing extra flow results in a severe economic penalty. The controller is then able to calculate the deviation from the operating point to the SCL. The overall configuration is shown in Figure 5. Unfortunately. the fast opening valve will be sufficient to stop surging. and pressure. Thus. RPM. Small or slow distrubances are managed by the closed loop controller which keeps the compressor operating point to the right of the RTL. The set point of the anti-surge controller is represented on the compressor map shown in Figure 4 by a line which runs parallel to the surge limit line. A closed loop PI controller would be unable to prevent surge during large or fast disturbances.
2. However. 4.Figure 5: Compressor Anti-Surge Control Scheme Anti-Surge Valve Requirements 1.A fast stroke speed is very important. One or more volume boosters are required to ensure fast response and equal opening and closing time. Size 1" to 4" 6" to 12" 16" and up Recommended Full Stroke Times Close to Open Time Open to Close Time 1 second 2 seconds 3 seconds < 3 seconds < 5 seconds < 10 seconds 3. Fail position should be open <Understanding Surge . Ensure adequate air supply to properly operate the valve. Stroke speed . 5. The valve must be large enough to prevent surging under all possible operating conditions. Tubing run should be minimized to reduce lag time. a valve which is too oversized will result in poor control. 6.
increasing plant capacities. The articles comprises of following six sections: 1. The challenge every process engineer is faced with is to seek answers to questions related to their process energy patterns. What is Pinch Technology? y y y y y y Meaning of the Term Pinch Technology Basis of Pinch Technology Objectives of Pinch Analysis A Simple Example of Process Integration by Pinch Analysis Development of Pinch Technology Approach Areas of Applications of Pinch Technology 2. into a one coherent strategic plan for the overall site? any cost? All of these questions and more can be answered with a full understanding of Pinch Technology and an awareness of the available tools for applying it in a practical way. This article aims to provide the basic knowledge of the concepts in pinch technology and how they have been be applied across a wide range of process industries. How to put energy efficiency and other targets like reducing emissions. Are the existing processes as energy efficient as they should be? 2. A few of the frequently asked questions are: 1. What is the most appropriate utility mix for the process? 6. How can new projects be evaluated with respect to their energy requirements? 3. Basic Concepts of Pinch Analysis y Composite Curves .PINCH TECNOLOGIE While oil prices continue to climb. What changes can be made to increase the energy efficiency without incurring 4. energy conservation remains the prime concern for many process industries. improve product qualities etc. What investments can be made to improve energy efficiency? 5.
Benefits and Applications of Pinch Technology y y General Process Improvements Industrial Applications 5. Capital Cost. References. Cold. Steps of Pinch Analysis y y y y y y y y y Identification of Hot. and Utility Streams in the Process Thermal Data Extraction for Process and Utility Streams Selection of Initial DTmin Value Construction of Composite Curves and Grand Composite Curve Estimation of Minimum Energy Cost Targets Estimation of Heat Exchanger Network Capital Cost Targets Estimation of Optimum DTmin Value Estimation of Practical Targets for HEN Design Design of Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) 4.y y y y y y y DTmin and Pinch Point Grand Composite Curve Energy Cost. and Total Cost Targeting Energy Cost and Capital Cost Trade-Off Plus/Minus Principle of Process Modification Appropriate Placement Principles for Key Process Equipments Total Site Analysis 3. Conclusions. The Future Outlook Of Pinch Technology y y y y y y y Regional Energy Analysis Total Site Analysis Network Pinch Top Level Analysis Combined Heat and Power Optimisation Water Pinch Hydrogen Pinch 6. and Web Links y y y Conclusions References Web links What is Pinch Technology? .
for the heat exchanger unit. Aspen PinchTM have proved to be very useful in pinch analysis of complex industrial processes with speed and efficiency. In a heat exchanger unit neither a hot stream can be cooled below cold stream supply temperature nor a cold stream can be heated to a temperature more than the supply temperature of hot stream. The basic concepts of Pinch Analysis are discussed in the next section. Developments of rigorous software programs like PinchExpressTM. That is. Basis of Pinch Analysis Pinch technology presents a simple methodology for systematically analysing chemical processes and the surrounding utility systems with the help of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. SuperTargetTM. The procedure first . In practice the hot stream can only be cooled to a temperature defined by the µtemperature approach¶ of the heat exchanger. The Second Law determines the direction of heat flow. The temperature level at which DTmin is observed in the process is referred to as "pinch point" or "pinch condition". Over the last two decades it has emerged as an unconventional development in process design and energy conservation. The term µPinch Analysis¶ is often used to represent the application of the tools and algorithms of Pinch Technology for studying industrial processes. This prohibits µtemperature crossovers¶ of the hot and cold stream profiles through the exchanger unit. The First Law of Thermodynamics provides the energy equation for calculating the enthalpy changes (dH) in the streams passing through a heat exchanger. heat energy may only flow in the direction of hot to cold. The temperature approach is the minimum allowable temperature difference (DTmin) in the stream temperature profiles. The pinch defines the minimum driving force allowed in the exchanger unit. Objectives of Pinch Analysis Pinch Analysis is used to identify energy cost and heat exchanger network (HEN) capital cost targets for a process and recognizing the pinch point. Basic Concepts of Pinch Analysis. Check out Link-1 for their demos at the end of the article.What is Pinch Technology? Meaning of the term "Pinch Technology" The term "Pinch Technology" was introduced by Linnhoff and Vredeveld to represent a new set of thermodynamically based methods that guarantee minimum energy levels in design of heat exchanger networks.
A Simple Example of Process Integration by Pinch Analysis Consider the following simple process [Figure 1(a)] where feed stream to a reactor is heated before inlet to a reactor and the product stream is to be cooled. The steam and cooling water requirements also get reduced by the same amount (X). The concept of process heat integration is illustrated in the example discussed below. The amount of heat recovered (X) depends on the µminimum approach temperature¶ allowed for the new exchanger. Figure 1(a): A Simple Flow Scheme with T-H profile An alternative. Next a heat exchanger network design that satisfies these targets is synthesized. the minimum requirements of external energy. ahead of design. The minimum temperature approach between the two curves on the vertical axis is DTmin and the point where this occurs is defined as the "pinch". the prime objective of pinch analysis is to achieve financial savings by better process heat integration (maximizing process-to-process heat recovery and reducing the external utility loads). respectively. improved scheme is shown in Figure 1(b) where the addition of a new µHeat Exchanger±3¶ recovers product heat (X) to preheat the feed. The Temperature (T) vs. Enthalpy (H) plot for the feed and product streams depicts the hot (Steam) and cold (CW) utility loads when there is no vertical overlap of the hot and cold stream profiles. Finally the network is optimized by comparing energy cost and the capital cost of the network so that the total annual cost is minimized. Thus. The heating and cooling are done by use of steam (Heat Exchanger -1) and cooling water (Heat Exchanger-2). .predicts. network area. and the number of units for a given process at the pinch point.
The estimation of optimum economic value of DTmin is discussed in Steps of Pinch Analysis. but also considerable process improvements could be discovered. Both the traditional and pinch approaches are depicted in Figure 2. Figure 1(b): Improved Flow Scheme with T-H profile Development of the Pinch Technology Approach When the process involves single hot and cold streams (as in above example) it is easy to design an optimum heat recovery exchanger network intuitively by heuristic methods. In any industrial set-up the number of streams is so large that the traditional design approach has been found to be limiting in the design of a good network. Increasing the DTmin value leads to higher utility requirements and lower area requirements. not only optimal network design was made possible. With the development of pinch technology in the late 1980¶s.From the T-H plot. the X amount corresponds to a DTmin value of 20 oC. .
pinch technology has achieved an outstanding record of success in the design and retrofit of chemical manufacturing facilities. This method helps to optimize the heat transfer equipment during the design of the equipment. and petrochemicals. and the overall process optimization in any plant. increasing throughput. and capital cost reduction of 5-10% for new designs. when applied with imagination. reducing emissions. Pinch Technology Approach: Process integration using pinch technology offers a novel approach to generate targets for minimum energy consumption before heat recovery network design. Heat recovery and utility system constraints are then considered in the design of the core process. cement. Interactions between the heat recovery and utility systems are also considered. The pinch approach is unique because it treats all processes with multiple streams as a single. It has been employed to solve problems as diverse as improving effluent quality. Early emphasis on energy conservation led to the misconception that conservation is the main area of application for pinch technology. the core of the process is designed with fixed flow rates and temperatures yielding the heat and mass balance for the process. Wherever heating and cooling of process materials takes places there is a potential opportunity.Figure 2: Graphic Representation of Traditional and Pinch Design Approaches Traditional Design Approach: First. The pinch design can reveal opportunities to modify the core process to improve heat integration. Each of these exercises is performed independently of the others. The technology. increasing product yield. separator design. the remaining duties are satisfied by the use of the utility system. Documented results reported in the literature show that energy costs have been reduced by 15-40%. The steps of pinch analysis are discussed in detail in Steps of Pinch Analysis. capacity debottlenecking achieved by 5-15% for retrofits. textiles. debottlenecking. It has been applied to processing problems that go far beyond energy conservation. oil. Next. Areas of Applications of Pinch Technology Pinch originated in the petrochemical sector and is now being applied to solve a wide range of problems in mainstream chemical engineering. Since its commercial introduction. integrated system. The general benefits and applications . base chemicals. food and drink. paper and cardboard. can affect reactor design. and improving the flexibility and safety of the processes. Thus initial applications of the technology were found in projects relating to energy saving in industries as diverse as iron and steel. Then the design of a heat recovery system is completed.
With the advent of pinch analysis concepts. the traditional design approach has resulted in networks with high capital and utility costs.of pinch technology are discussed in brief in Benefits and Applications of Pinch Technology. y y y y y . The design of such a network is not an easy task considering the fact that most processes involve a large number of process and utility streams. In the present energy crisis scenario all over the world. Basic Concepts in Pinch Analysis Basic Concepts of Pinch Analysis Most industrial processes involve transfer of heat either from one process stream to another process stream (interchanging) or from a utility stream to a process stream. and the nomenclature used in pinch analysis is given below: y Combined (Hot and Cold ) Composite Curves: Used to predict targets for Minimum energy (both hot and cold utility) required. To meet the goal of maximum energy recovery or minimum energy requirement (MER) an appropriate heat exchanger network (HEN) is required. the network design has become very systematic and methodical. DTmin and Pinch Point: The DTmin value determines how closely the hot and cold composite curves can be µpinched¶ (or squeezed) without violating the Second Law of Thermodynamics (none of the heat exchangers can have a temperature crossover). Minimum network area required. and Minimum number of exchanger units required. their significance. A summary of the key concepts. Grand Composite Curve: Used to select appropriate levels of utilities (maximize cheaper utilities) to meet over all energy requirements. the target in any industrial process design is to maximize the process-to-process heat recovery and to minimize the utility (energy) requirements. As explained in the previous section.
The essence of the pinch approach is the speed of economic evaluation. etc. independent of one another. Steps of Pinch Analysis By: Mukesh Sahdev.y Energy and Capital Cost Targeting: Used to calculate total annual cost of utilities and capital cost of heat exchanger network. in order to reduce the utility requirements of the combined system. µTop Level Analysis¶. and µHydrogen Pinch¶ are being developed. Plus/Minus and Appropriate Placement Principles: The "Plus/Minus" Principle provides guidance regarding how a process can be modified in order to reduce associated utility needs and costs. These basic terms and concepts have become the foundation of what we now call Pinch Technology. Total Cost Targeting: Used to determine the optimum level of heat recovery or the optimum DTmin value. a welldefined stepwise procedure is followed (Figure 3). new topics like µRegional Energy Analysis¶. it is possible to obtain an accurate estimate (within 10 . µWater Pinch¶. µOptimisation of Combined Heat & Power¶. It should be noted that these steps are not necessarily performed on a once-through basis. evaporators. y y y With further research. µNetwork Pinch¶. furnaces. heat pumps. Total Site Analysis: This concept enables the analysis of the energy usage for an entire plant site that consists of several processes served by a central utility system. . heat engines. whether a new project or a retrofit situation. by balancing energy and capital costs. The Appropriate Placement Principles provide insights for proper integration of key equipments like distillation columns. Using this method. Assoc Steps of Pinch Analysis In any Pinch Analysis problem.15%) of overall heat recovery system costs without having to design the system. Additional activities such as re-simulation and data modification occur as the analysis proceeds and some iteration between the various steps is always required.
y y The identification of streams needs to be done with care as sometimes. µUtility Streams¶ are used to heat or cool process streams. air. product cooling before storage µCold Streams¶ are those that must be heated e. the stream is not available for heat exchange. flue gas.g. etc.) are used in industry. hot water. this stream may or may not be considered to be a process stream. In the context of pinch analysis. etc. when a gas stream is compressed the stream temperature rises because of the conversion of mechanical energy into heat and not by any fluid to fluid heat exchange. Identification of the Hot. refrigerant.) and cold utilities (cooling water. e. . despite undergoing changes in temperature. For example. feed preheat before a reactor. Hence such a stream may not be available to take part in any heat exchange. Cold and Utility Streams in the Process y µHot Streams¶ are those that must be cooled or are available to be cooled. A number of different hot utilities (steam.g.Figure 3: Steps of Pinch Analysis 1. when heat exchange between process streams is not practical or economic.
CHANGE kW 2900 1980 . TEMP. FLOW. Heat capacity flow rate (CP kW/ oC) : the product of flow rate (m) in kg/sec and specific heat (Cp kJ/kg 0C). Target temperature (TT oC) : the temperature the stream must be taken to. the data extraction is based on certain qualified principles. dH = CP x (TS . CP = m x Cp y Enthalpy Change (dH) associated with a stream passing through the exchanger is given by the First Law of Thermodynamics: First Law energy equation: d H = Q ± W In a heat exchanger.TT) ** Here the specific heat values have been assumed to be temperature independent within the operating range. Enthalpy Change. check out Link-2 at the end of the article. TABLE 1: TYPICAL STREAM DATA STREAM STREAM SUPPLY TARGET NUMBER NAME TEMP. cold and utility stream identified. The data extracted is presented in Table 1.2.OUT 60 270 205 160 HEAT CAP. kW /°C 20 18 ENTH. Any erroneous or incorrect data can lead to false conclusions. where Q represents the heat supply or demand associated with the stream. The stream data and their potential effect on the conclusions of a pinch analysis should be considered during all steps of the analysis. °C °C 1 2 FEED REAC. In order to avoid mistakes. the following thermal data is extracted from the process material and heat balance flow sheet: y y y Supply temperature (TS oC) : the temperature at which the stream is available. Thermal Data Extraction for Process & Utility Streams For each hot. For details on principles of data extraction. It is given by the relationship: Q= CP x (TS TT). no mechanical work is being performed: W = 0 (zero) The above equation simplifies to: d H = Q.
If a higher value of DTmin is selected the heat recovery in the exchanger decreases and demand for external utilities increases.( TC ) Cold stream Temp. Thus the temperature of the hot and cold streams at any point in the exchanger must always have a minimum temperature difference (DTmin). the area requirements rise. A and LMTD (Log Mean Temperature Difference) is depicted in Figure 4. In a network design. at any point in the exchanger Hot stream Temp. . the type of heat exchanger to be used at the pinch will determine the practical Dtmin for the network. if smaller values of DTmin are chosen.e. Figure 4: Heat Transfer Equation For a given value of heat transfer load (Q). The heat transfer equation. This concept will become clearer with the help of composite curves and total cost targeting discussed later.3 4 PRODUCT RECYCLE 220 160 70 210 35 50 5250 2500 3. which relates Q. Selection of Initial DTmin value The design of any heat transfer equipment must always adhere to the Second Law of Thermodynamics that prohibits any temperature crossover between the hot and the cold stream i. an initial selection for the Dtmin value for shell and tubes may be 3-5 0C (at best) while compact exchangers such as plate and frame often allow for an initial selection of 23 0C. a minimum heat transfer driving force must always be allowed for a feasible heat transfer design. ( TH ) . In mathematical terms. the selection of DTmin value has implications for both capital and energy costs. Thus. U. This DTmin value represents the bottleneck in the heat recovery. For example. >= DTmin The value of DTmin is determined by the overall heat transfer coefficients (U) and the geometry of the heat exchanger.
Typical DTmin values based on experience are available in literature for reference. A complete hot or cold composite curve consists of a series of connected straight lines. A few values based on Linnoff March¶s application experience are tabulated below for shell and tube heat exchangers. In general any stream with a constant heat capacity (CP) value is represented on a T H diagram by a straight line running from stream supply temperature to stream target temperature. To begin the process an initial DTmin value is chosen and pinch analysis is carried out. . the construction of hot and cold composite curves simply involves the addition of the enthalpy changes of the streams in the respective temperature intervals. No 1 2 3 4 Industrial Sector Oil Refining Petrochemical Chemical Low Temperature Processes Experience DTminValues 20-40ºC 10-20ºC 10-20ºC 3-5ºC For more details on typical DTmin values.Enthalpy (T . An example of hot composite curve construction is shown in Figure 5(a) and (b).Just as for a single heat exchanger. When there are a number of hot and cold streams. Composite curves consist of temperature (T) ± enthalpy (H) profiles of heat availability in the process (the hot composite curve) and heat demands in the process (the cold composite curve) together in a graphical representation. check Link-3 at the end of the article. y y Construction of Composite Curves and Grand Composite Curve COMPOSITE CURVES: Temperature . each change in slope represents a change in overall hot stream heat capacity flow rate (CP). the choice of DTmin (or approach temperature) is vital in the design of a heat exchanger networks.H) plots known as µComposite curves¶ have been used for many years to set energy targets ahead of design.
The PTA lends itself to hand . refrigeration levels. Increasing the DTmin value results in shifting the of the curves horizontally apart resulting in lower process to process heat exchange and higher utility requirements. DTmin can be measured directly from the T-H profiles as being the minimum vertical difference between the hot and cold curves.). the energy requirement for a process is supplied via process to process heat exchange and/or exchange with several utility levels (steam levels. Thus. A numerical approach called the "Problem Table Algorithm" (PTA) was developed by Linnhoff & Flower (1978) as a means of determining the utility needs of a process and the location of the process pinch. the overlap shows the maximum possible scope for heat recovery within the process. This point of minimum temperature difference represents a bottleneck in heat recovery and is commonly referred to as the "Pinch". of the process for the chosen DTmin. At a particular DTmin value. they approach each other most closely at one point defined as the minimum approach temperature (DTmin). Graphical constructions are not the most convenient means of determining energy needs. the hot stream cooling curve must lie above the cold stream-heating curve. The hot end and cold end overshoots indicate minimum hot utility requirement (QHmin) and minimum cold utility requirement (QCmin).Because of the µkinked¶ nature of the composite curves (Figure 6). furnace flue gas.Figure 5: Temperature-Enthalpy Relations Used to Construct Composite Curves For heat exchange to occur from the hot stream to the cold stream. hot oil circuit. etc.
The GCC (Figure 7) shows the variation of heat supply and demand within the process. the composite curves provide overall energy targets but do not clearly indicate how much energy must be supplied by different utility levels. For more details on PTA see Link-4 at the end of the article. The method involves shifting (along the temperature [Y] axis) of the hot composite curve down by ½ DTmin and that of cold composite curve up by ½ DTmin. Lowpressure steam and cooling water are preferred instead of high-pressure steam and refrigeration. The designer aims to maximize the use of the cheaper utility levels and minimize the use of the expensive utility levels. To summarize. Using this diagram the designer can find which utilities are to be used. Shiroko and Umeda. The information required for the construction of the GCC comes directly from the Problem Table Algorithm developed by Linnhoff & Flower (1978). The introduction of a new tool. was introduced in 1982 by Itoh. the composite curves and PTA are not particularily useful. determining utility temperatures. The vertical axis on the . and deciding on utility requirements. The utility mix is determined by the Grand Composite Curve. Figure 6: Combined Composite Curves y GRAND COMPOSITE CURVE (GCC): In selecting utilities to be used.calculations of the energy targets. the Grand Composite Curve (GCC). respectively.
the grand composite curve is one of the most basic tools used in pinch analysis for the selection of the appropriate utility levels and for targeting of a given set of multiple utility levels.shifted composite curves shows process interval temperature." The shaded green pockets represent the process-to-process heat exchange. The total minimum hot utility requirement remains the same: QHmin = H1 (HP steam) + H2 (LP steam). y Estimation of Minimum Energy Cost Targets . Similarly. intervals. the horizontal distance separating the curve from the vertical axis at the top of the temperature scale shows the overall hot utility consumption of the process. QCmin = C1 (Refrigerant) +C2 (CW). The targeting involves setting appropriate loads for the various utility levels by maximizing the least expensive utility loads and minimizing the loads on the most expensive utilities. The Grand Composite Curve is then constructed from the enthalpy (horizontal) differences between the shifted composite curves at different temperatures. In other words. The result is a scale based upon process temperature having an allowance for temperature approach (DTmin). when placing utilities in the GCC. should be used. Recall that. and not actual utility temperatures. In summary. Figure 7: Grand Composite Curve Figure 7 shows that it is not necessary to supply the hot utility at the top temperature level. The GCC indicates that we can supply the hot utility over two temperature levels TH1 (HP steam) and TH2 (LP steam). On the GCC. the curves are shifted by subtracting part of the allowable temperature approach from the hot stream temperatures and adding the remaining part of the allowable temperature approach to the cold stream temperatures. The points TH2 and TC2 where the H2 and C2 levels touch the grand composite curve are called the "Utility Pinches.
The GCC provides information regarding the utility levels selected to meet QHmin and QCmin requirements.e. minimum hot and cold utility requirements can be evaluated from the composite curves. the distribution of area between the exchangers Pinch analysis enables targets for the overall heat transfer area and minimum number of units of a heat exchanger network (HEN) to be predicted prior to detailed design. Log Mean Temperature Difference or LMTD). and total heat transferred (Q). exchanges heat with the cold . the total energy cost can be calculated using the energy equation given below. The area distribution cannot be predicted ahead of design. 2. y AREA TARGETING: The calculation of surface area for a single countercurrent heat exchanger requires the knowledge of the temperatures of streams in and out (dTLM i. 3. the hot and cold composite curves do not change slope. The area is given by the relation Area = Q / [ U x dTLM ] The composite curves can be divided into a set of adjoining enthalpy intervals such that within each interval. at any point. overall heat transfer coefficient (U-value). It is assumed that the area is evenly distributed between the units. the overall network area. Here the heat exchange is assumed to be "vertical" (pure counter-current heat exchange).Once the DTmin is chosen. If the unit cost of each utility is known. the number of exchangers. y Estimation of Heat Exchanger Network ( HEN ) Capital Cost Targets The capital cost of a heat exchanger network is dependent upon three factors: 1. The hot streams in any enthalpy interval.
no heat transfer is allowed across the pinch and so a realistic target for the minimum number of units (NminMER) is the sum of the targets evaluated both above and below the pinch separately. where i denotes the ith enthalpy and interval j denotes the jth stream and dTLM denotes LMTD in the ith interval. With inclusion of temperature correction factors area targeting can be extended to non counter-current heat exchange as well. the HEN can be evaluated prior to HEN design by using a simplified form of Euler¶s graph theorem. y NUMBER OF UNITS TARGETING: For the minimum number of heat exchanger units (Nmin) required for MER (minimum energy requirement or maximum energy recovery). In designing for the minimum energy requirement (MER). NminMER=[Nh+Nc+Nu±1]AP +[Nh+Nc+Nu±1]BP Where : Nh = Number of hot streams Nc=Number of cold streams Nu = Number of utility streams AP / BP : Above / Below Pinch y HEN TOTAL CAPITAL COST TARGETING: The targets for the minimum surface area (Amin) and the number of units (Nmin) can be combined .streams at the temperature vertically below it. The total area of the HEN (Amin) is given by the formula in Figure 8. Figure 8: HEN AREA min Estimation from Composite Curves The actual HEN total area required is generally within 10% of the area target as calculated above.
c.7. An optimum DTmin exists where the total annual cost of energy and capital costs is minimized. typical values for a carbon steel shell and tube exchnager would be a = 16. A decrease in DTmin values result in lower energy costs and higher capital costs. b. b = 3. . An increase in DTmin values result in higher energy costs and lower capital costs. The installed cost can be considered to be 3.200. the total annual cost (the sum of total annual energy and capital cost) is plotted at varying DTmin values (Figure 7). The capital cost is annualized using an annualization factor that takes into account interest payments on borrowed capital. Three key observations can be made from Figure 9: a. and c = 0. For the Exchanger Cost Equation shown above.together with the heat exchanger cost law to determine the targets for HEN capital cost (CHEN).5 times the purchased cost given by the Exchanger Cost Equation. Thus. The equation used for calculating the total capital cost and exchanger cost law is given below. by systematically varying the temperature approach we can determine the optimum heat recovery level or the DTminOPTIMUM for the process.000. y Estimation of Optimum DTmin Value by Energy-Capital Trade Off To arrive at an optimum DTmin value.
The designer. in practice. This is known as the key concept in Pinch Technology. selects a higher value (15 0C) and calculates the marginal increases in utility duties and area requirements. So what is the significance of the pinch temperature? The pinch divides the process into two separate systems each of which is in enthalpy balance with the utility. Hence. Pinch Technology gives three rules that form the basis for practical network design: y No external heating below the Pinch. A very small DTmin value. Above the pinch. Recognizing the significance of the pinch temperature allows energy targets to be realized by design of appropriate heat recovery network. only the cold utility is required. . no heat should be transferred across the pinch.Figure 9: Energy-Capital Cost Trade Off (Optimum DTmin) y Estimation of Practical Targets for HEN Design The heat exchanger network designed on the basis of the estimated optimum DTmin value is not always the most appropriate design. To summarize. If the marginal cost increase is small. the higher value of DTmin is selected as the practical pinch point for the HEN design. Below the pinch. perhaps 8 0C. can lead to a very complicated network design with a large total area due to low driving forces. only the hot utility is required. for an optimum design. The pinch point is unique for each process.
or pump-around flow rates. There are several parameters that could be changed such as reactor conversions. Increase (+) in cold stream duty below the pinch will result in a reduced cold utility target. Plus/Minus Principle: The overall energy needs of a process can be further reduced by introducing process changes (changes in the process heat and material balance). This is called the "Plus/Minus Principle. pump-around condensing duty. and others. By applying the pinch rules as discussed above. The target should be to y y Shift hot streams from below the pinch to above and Shift cold streams from above the pinch to below. feed vaporization pressures. No heat transfer across the Pinch. These simple guidelines provide a definite reference for the adjustment of single heat duties such as vaporization of a recycle. distillation column operating pressures and reflux ratios. Often it is possible to change temperatures rather than the heat duties. The number of possible process changes is nearly infinite. it is possible to identify changes in the appropriate process parameter that will have a favorable impact on energy consumption. Decrease (-) in cold stream duty above the pinch. Violation of any of the above rules results in higher energy requirements than the minimum requirements theoretically possible. The process changes that can help achieve such stream shifts essentially involve changes in following operating parameters: y reactor pressure/temperatures . and any y y Decrease (-) in hot stream duty below the pinch." Applying the pinch rules to study of composite curves provide us the following guidelines: y y Increase (+) in hot stream duty above the pinch.y y No external cooling above the Pinch. This will result in a reduced hot utility target.
piping. The most important are operating cost. a single-effect evaporator having equal vaporization and condensation loads.y y y distillation column temperatures. pump around conditions. With a little practice. heat exchangers. materials of construction. heat engines. operability. 9. Appropriate placement principles have been developed for distillation columns. For example. Appropriate Placement Principles: Apart from the changes in process parameters. vaporization duty can shift from above to below the pinch. future requirements. The systematic application of the PDM allows the design of a good network that achieves the energy targets within practical limits. and plant operating integrity. the above principles enable the designer to quickly pan through 40-50 possible modifications and choose 3 or 4 that will lead to the best overall cost effects. capital cost. The pinch concept of "Appropriate Placement" (integration of operations in such a way that there is reduction in the utility requirement of the combined system) is used for this purpose. Operating costs are dependent on hot and cold utility requirements as well as pumping and compressor costs. Design of Heat Exchanger Network The design of a new HEN is best executed using the "Pinch Design Method (PDM)". if the pressure for a feed vaporizer is lowered. heat transfer areas. evaporators. furnaces. and utility systems with the ultimate goal of reducing the energy and/or capital cost. This means that appropriate placement of the evaporator is on either side of the pinch and not across the pinch. safety. should be placed such that both loads balance each other and the evaporator can be operated without any utility costs. intermediate condensers evaporator pressures storage vessel temperatures For example. reflux ratios. and heat pumps. The capital cost of a network is dependent on a number of factors including the number of heat exchangers. The essence of the pinch approach is to explore the options of modifying the core process design. and the cost of supporting foundations and structures. proper integration of key equipment in process with respect to the pinch point should also be considered. The method incorporates two . In addition to the above pinch rules and principles. The leads to reduction in both hot and cold utilities. a large number of factors must also be considered during the design of heat recovery networks. feed conditions.
The circles represent heat exchangers. Every match brings one stream to it target temperature. "Stream Splitting". the design of network examines which "hot" streams can be matched to "cold" streams via heat recovery. The vertical line in the middle represents the pinch temperature. The graphical method of representing flow streams and heat recovery matches is called a µgrid diagram¶ (Figure 10). . The stepwise procedure can be understood better with the help of an example problem (Link-5). The design of a network is based on certain guidelines like the "CP Inequality Rule". Figure 10: Typical Grid Diagram All the cold (blue lines) and hot (red line) streams are represented by horizontal lines. HENs for both above and below pinch regions are designed separately. "Driving Force Plot" and "Remaining Problem Analysis". As the pinch divides the heat exchange system into two thermally independent regions. Unconnected circles represent exchangers using utility heating and cooling. In effect. This can be achieved by employing "tick off" heuristics to identify the heat loads on the pinch exchanger. When the heat recovery is maximized the remaining thermal needs must be supplied by hot utility.fundamentally important features: (1) it recognizes that the pinch region is the most constrained part of the problem (consequently it starts the design at the pinch and develops by moving away) and (2) it allows the designer to choose between match options. The entrance and exit temperatures are shown at either end.
can lead to the following benefits compared to a conventional revamp: y Reduction in capital costs .Having made all the possible matches. the two designs above and below the pinch are then brought together and usually refined to further minimize the capital cost. etc. Such simulation studies can help avoid unnecessary capital costs by identifying energy savings with a smaller investment before the projects are implemented. we know the scope for energy savings and investment requirements. Debottlenecking: Pinch Analysis. It shows where process changes reduce the overall energy target. For more details on HEN Design check the Link 6 at the end of the article. Comparing practical with theoretical targets quantifies opportunities "lost" by constraints . in advance of identifying any projects. it can be further subjected to energy optimization. Pinch Technology enables process engineers to achieve the following general process improvements: Update or Modify Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs): Pinch quantifies the savings available by changing the process itself. Optimizing the network involves both topological and parametric changes of the initial design in order to minimize the total cost. Conduct Process Simulation Studies: Pinch replaces the old energy studies with information that can be easily updated using simulation. Therefore. layout. Set Practical Targets: By taking into account practical constraints (difficult fluids. General Process Improvements In addition to energy conservation studies.a vital insight for long-term development. After the network has been designed according to the pinch rules. theoretical targets are modified so that they can be realistically achieved. not just local energy consumption. when specifically applied to debottlenecking studies. safety. Benefits and Applications of Pinch Technology Benefits and Applications of Pinch Technology One of the main advantages of Pinch Technology over conventional design methods is the ability to set energy and capital cost targets for an individual process or for an entire production site ahead of design.).
7 million over 10 years. Net savings for Pennzoil were estimated at $13. Pinch shows the best type of CHP system that matches the inherent thermodynamic opportunities on the site. Unnecessary investments and operating costs can be avoided by sizing plants to supply energy that takes heat recovery into consideration. . The pinch study identified opportunities for saving up to 23.7% of the process heating through improved heat integration.y Decrease in specific energy demand giving a more competitive production facility For example. SWEPCO. Industrial Applications The application of Pinch Technology has resulted in significant improvements in the energy and capital efficiency of industrial facilities worldwide. can be recovered and lends insight into the most effective means of recovery. Heat recovery should be optimized by Pinch Analysis before specifying CHP systems. It identifies the existence of built-in spare heat transfer areas and presents the designer with opportunities for cheap retrofits. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Pennzoil's energy provider. Pinch Analysis has played a very important role and minimized capital costs. A Case Study: When Pennzoil was adding a residual catalytic cracking (RCC) unit. which waste heat streams. Determine Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Generation: A well-designed CHP system significantly reduces power costs. the gas plant associated with the RCC and an alkylation unit at its Atlas Refining facility in Shreveport. debottlenecking of distillation columns by Column Targeting can be used to identify less expensive alternatives to column retraying or installation of a new column. used pinch technology to carry out an optimization study of the new units and the utility systems that serve them rather than simply incorporating standard process packages provided by licensors. It has been successfully applied in many different industries from petroleum and base chemicals to food and paper. In case of the design of new plants. Both continuous and batch processes have been successfully analyzed on an individual unit and site-wide basis. Decide what to do with low-grade waste heat: Pinch shows. energy efficiency was one of their major considerations in engineering the refinery expansion. Pinch technology has been extensively used to capitalize on the mistakes of the past.