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ANTOSHA HAIMOVICH

THE BLUES:
GRAMMAR, MORPHOLOGY, ORTHOGRAPHY
THE PRACTICAL COURSE FOR BEGINNERS

FOR ALL OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

VOLUME 1 – The Blues

MOSCOW 2015
The introduction

All the material is very simple and logical, so there is no problem even for those who have never played by
ear. All exercises are interconnected, so study the material gradually, without missing a single exercise. Each
exercise is accompanied by a short annotation, which helps to repeat a two-bars phrase. Do not fear to make
mistakes, because mistakes do deeper memorizing information. Should not to bring the performance of each
exercise to perfection, is quite enough understanding of the logic of melodic construction and to a degree learning
the fingering combinations. Each table contains three options for various musical instruments: the top line for
flute, trombone, violin, guitar, piano and other instruments in tune «C»; the middle line for alto saxophone and
baritone saxophone in tune «Eb»; the bottom line for trumpet, soprano saxophone and tenor saxophone in tune
«Bb». As a result of the course you will learn how to build their own sensible musical phrases, sentences, and you
can use them to tell all sorts of stories in the language of Music using The Blues Improvisation Concept.

VOLUME 1. The Blues

Contents

CHAPTER I. The Minor Pentatonic Scale Page:


Lesson 1. The Minor Pentatonic Scale and movements around a Central Tone 3
Lesson 2. The Blues Changes. Melodic movements around a first steps of the Harmonic Functions 5
Lesson 3. The Trichords associated with first steps of the Harmonic Functions 8
Lesson 4. The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 7th steps of the Harmonic Functions 10
Lesson 5. The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 5th steps of the Harmonic Functions 13
Lesson 6. The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 11th steps of the Harmonic Functions 15

CHAPTER II. The Major Pentatonic Scale


Lesson 7. The Major Pentatonic Scale and the movements around a Central Tone 17
Lesson 8. The Trichords and Melodic movements around of first steps of the Harmonic Functions 19
Lesson 9. The Trichords and Melodic movements around of third steps of the Harmonic Functions 21
Lesson 10. The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 9th steps of the Harmonic Functions 23
Lesson 11. The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 5th steps of the Harmonic Functions 24
Lesson 12. The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 13th steps of the Harmonic Functions 26

CHAPTER III. The Chords of the Harmonic Functions


Lesson 13. The 7th chords 27
Lesson 14. The 9th chords 29
Lesson 15. The 11th chords 32
Lesson 16. The 13th chords 34

CHAPTER IV. The Minor and Major Blues Scales


Lesson 17. The Minor Blues Scale 36
Lesson 18. The Major Blues Scale 38
Lesson 19. Switching between the Minor and Major Blues Scales 40
Lesson 20. Conformity of the Blues Scales and the Harmonic Functions 41

CHAPTER V. The Minor and Major Blues Scales in All 12 Keys


Lesson 21. The Minor Blues Scale in All 12 Keys 42
Lesson 22. The Major Blues Scale in All 12 Keys 43
Lesson 23. The Minor and Major Blues Scales in All 12 Keys 44

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CHAPTER I
The Minor Pentatonic Scale

LESSON 1

The Minor Pentatonic Scale and the movements around a Central Tone
Bb Blues. Listen and repeat musical phrases in the pauses. Main task of the first lesson — learn the Minor
Pentatonic Scale, and six types of movements around a Central Tone, using the nearest scale steps. In all exercises
of the first and second lessons used only steps of the Minor Pentatonic Scale.


  



    
    
    
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  



    
    
    
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  



    
    
    
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Track 001
The first exercise consists of the notes of the Lower Trichord indicated black. The exercise begins with the
first step of the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 002
The second exercise consists of the notes of the Upper Trichord indicated white. The exercise begins with the
first step of the scale — F (D — instruments in Eb; G — instruments in Bb).

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Track 003
The third exercise brings together the Lower and Upper Trichords, forming the Minor Pentatonic Scale
within an octave. The exercise begins with the first step of the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C —
instruments in Bb).

Track 004
Exercise 4. Movements around a central tone of the Minor Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step down, Central Tone. The exercise begins with the first step of the
scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 005
Exercise 5. Movements around a central tone of the Minor Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone. The exercise begins with the first step of the scale
— B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 006
Exercise 6. Movements around a central tone of the Minor Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step down, Central Tone, step up, Central Tone. The exercise begins with
the first step of the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 007
Exercise 7. Movements around a central tone of the Minor Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone, step down, Central Tone. The exercise begins with
the first step of the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 008
Exercise 8. Movements around a central tone of the Minor Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step down, step up, Central Tone. The exercise begins with the first step of
the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 009
Exercise 9. Movements around a central tone of the Minor Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step up, step down, Central Tone. The exercise begins with the first step of
the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

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LESSON 2

The Blues Changes.

Melodic movements around a first steps of the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the second lesson — learn to navigate the Blues Changes and also to build
musical phrases using only various types of melodic movements around a first steps of the Harmonic Functions,
using the steps the Minor Pentatonic Scale. Blues Changes — a kind of verse in blues, which consists of three
strings, each string consists of two two-bars phrases — "question" and "answer." The twelve-bars Blues Changes
consisting of six musical phrases, and the culmination of falls on the ninth and tenth cycles that is the fifth phrase,
located at the beginning of the third string. Not hard to guess that such form is interconnected with the traditional
form of the poetic text of blues. Those who are already familiar concepts: Tonic (T), Subdominant (S), Dominant
(D), will be understood by the following tables:

The question The answer


|T | |T | |
The question The answer
|S | |T | |
The question The answer
|D |S |T |D |

And the same thing, only steps on which to build chords of the Harmonic Functions, we are studying at the
moment kind of blues:

The question The answer


|I | |I | |
The question The answer
| IV | |I | |
The question The answer
|V | IV |I |V |
And yet I remind you that the harmony and harmonic functions exist to create a time-varying harmonic
voltage. Function corresponds to the calm position of the tonic, subdominant function breaks the balance and
creates tension, and the function of the dominant carries maximum voltage that requires resolution that is return
to a state calm and balance. This gives us a harmonic sequence that creates musical energy. But we will not more
be distracted, and will continue to practice exercises.

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
  

     




    
    

  

     




    
    

  

     




    
    


Track 010
All exercises of the second lesson uses only Minor Pentatonic scale. The first exercise consists of three pairs
of Blues Changes — one listening example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing. The first example
consists of long notes corresponding to the length of phrases and two-bars first steps of the Harmonic Functions
indicated in the table in bold font (barlines are shown in black). In a second example, the same notes added lower
melodic movements around a first steps of the Harmonic Functions and upper in the third.

Track 011
In the second exercise we will have dialogue. On two-bars sound recording phrases, which begins with each
bluesy string matching "The question" and you will be required to play "The answers". I can recommend the
following in advance: as much rhythm and as little as possible melodic movement, that is make the most of
different rhythms on the central tone (in the present case, the first steps of the Harmonic Functions) and add a little
bit lower and upper melodic movement around of the central tone, of course using only the Minor Pentatonic scale
steps, for the first experience start and end phrases on central tone, limit yourself to a range of one octave, not
move on a fifth step down and not move on a the first step up, build "The answers" the first two blues strings or on
the same rhythmic and melodic formula that "The question", or variations on this formula.

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Track 012
In the third exercise, we change roles and you have to play "The question", and listen recorded on a
playalong "The answers". Of course it can be done fully only in real-time live "interlocutor", but now more
important that you played phrases corresponding harmonic functions "The question".

Track 013a, 013b, 013c


The final fourth exercise of the second lesson consists of the dialogues with himself, you and I will take turns
playing for two interlocutors on a whole Twelve-bars Blues Changes, ask yourself "The question" and give an "The
answers" for yourself. Of course it's like schizophrenia, but has historically been a blues form, although sometimes
talk to myself even useful and interesting, there is a good chance to discover something new. Three tracks in a
row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.

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LESSON 3

The Trichords associated with first steps of the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the third lesson — learn to build musical phrases using only the Trichords
associated with first steps of the Harmonic Functions. The third lesson contains only the Minor Pentatonic Scale.
The first and second exercises consist of three pairs of the Blues Changes — one listening example, then in the next
repeats exactly the same thing. All samples consist of musical phrases starting and ending notes corresponding
first steps of the Harmonic Functions identified in the table in bold font.


  

     




    
    
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  

     




    
    
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  

     




    
    

Track 014
In the first exercise on the Tonics used the Upper Trichord built down from the first step of the Tonic
function (lettering score the Upper Trichord highlighted in white), the Subdominant used the Lower Trichord built
up from the first step of the Subdominant function (lettering score the Lower Trichord highlighted in black), the
Dominant used the Upper Trichord built up from the first step of the Dominant function (lettering score the Upper
Trichord highlighted in white).

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Track 015
In the second exercise on Tonics used Lower Trichord built up from the first step of the Tonic function
(black), Subdominant used Lower Trichord built up from the first step of the Subdominant function (black),
Dominant used Upper Trichord built up from the first step of the Dominant function (white).

Track 016a, 016b, 016c


In the third exercise, play in turn using only Trichords associated with first steps of the Harmonic Functions.
Try to keep only within the limits of Trichords. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the
second you start.

Track 017a, 017b, 017c


In the final fourth exercise of the third lesson also play in turn. Now a little expand the scope of, and take the
liberty be used as Trichords and Melodic movements around central tones, but so far, only in connection with the
first steps of the Harmonic Functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second
you start.

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LESSON 4

The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 7th steps of the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the fourth lesson — learn to build musical phrases using the Trichords
and Melodic movements around of 7th steps of the Harmonic Functions. The fourth lesson contains only the
Minor Pentatonic Scale. The first and second exercises consist of three pairs of the Blues Changes — one listening
example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing. All samples consist of musical phrases starting and
ending notes corresponding 7th steps of the Harmonic Functions identified in the table in bold font. Remind you
about what is the 7th step of chord. Reference point is the Natural Major Scale in which the steps are marked as
follows: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8(the same 1). Chords — a combination multiple sounds, forming vertical, built by thirds,
that is, we get a series of steps: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and all steps may be the altered (lowered or raised) except the
first step. In this case, we are interested in chords consisting of four notes: 1, 3, 5, 7. There are five main types of
seventh chords: Major 7th — 1, 3, 5, 7; Dominant 7th ("7th chord") — 1, 3, 5, 7b; Minor 7th — 1, 3b, 5, 7b; Half-
Diminished 7th — 1, 3b, 5b, 7b; Diminished 7th — 1, 3b, 5b, 7bb(6). In the most commonly used in blues is
Dominant 7th chord ("7th chord"), the seventh step of the Harmonic Functions will be on minor 7th (7b) above
from the first steps (or on major second down from the eight steps, as well as the eighth and the first steps are the
same, easier to calculate down on major second from the first step).


  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 


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Track 018
In the first exercise hold out the 7th steps of the Harmonic Functions, then play: Central Tone, step down,
Central Tone (within the framework of the Minor Pentatonic Scale), and then: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone
(within the framework of the Minor Pentatonic Scale).

Track 019
In the second exercise will build on the seventh steps of the Harmonic Functions Trichords. The Tonic
function is used Upper Triсhord (White), built around the 7th step of the Tonic function. The Subdominant
function is used Lower Trichord (Black), built around the 7th step of the Subdominant function. The Dominant
function is used Lower Trichord (Black), built down from the 7th step of the Dominant function. Sounds included
in Trichords same as Melodic movements around of 7th steps of Tonic and in the case of Subdominant same, but
in Dominant Trichords not same as Melodic movements around of 7th steps.

Track 020a, 020b, 020c


In the third exercise, play in turn using Trichords and Melodic movements around of 7th steps of the
Harmonic Functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.

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
  

     




    
    

  

     




    
    

  

     




    
    

Track 021a, 021b, 021c
In the final fourth exercise of the third lesson also play in turn. Now a little more expand the scope and used
as Trichords and Melodic movements around central tones in connection with the first and 7th steps of the
Harmonic Functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.

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LESSON 5

The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 5th steps of the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the fifth lesson — learn to build musical phrases using the Trichords and
Melodic movements around of 5th steps of the Harmonic Functions. The fifth lesson contains only the Minor
Pentatonic Scale. The first and second exercises consist of three pairs of Blues Changes — one listening example,
then in the next repeats exactly the same thing. All samples consist of musical phrases starting and ending notes
corresponding 5th steps of the Harmonic Functions identified in the table in bold font. Remind you about what is
the 5th step of chord. Reference point is the Natural Major Scale in which the steps are marked as follows: 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 7, 8(the same 1). Chords — a combination multiple sounds, forming vertical, built by thirds, that is, we get a
series of steps: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and all steps may be the altered (lowered or raised) except the first step. In this
case, we are interested in chords consisting of four notes: 1, 3, 5, 7. There are five main types of seventh chords:
Major 7th — 1, 3, 5, 7; Dominant 7th ("7th chord") — 1, 3, 5, 7b; Minor 7th — 1, 3b, 5, 7b; Half-Diminished 7th —
1, 3b, 5b, 7b; Diminished 7th — 1, 3b, 5b, 7bb(6). In the most commonly used in blues is Dominant 7th chord ("7th
chord"), the fifth step of the Harmonic Functions will be on 5th above from the first steps. Since the fifth step of
dominant not have in the minor pentatonic scale, we take the central tone the first step of the dominant function.


  

 -  -  




-  -  
 - -  

  

 -  -  




-  -  
 - -  

  

 -  -  




-  -  
 - -  


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Track 022
In the first exercise hold out the 5th steps of the Tonic and Subdominant harmonic functions, the Dominant
function — 1st step, then play: Central Tone, step down, Central Tone (within the framework of the Minor
Pentatonic Scale), and then: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone (within the framework of the Minor Pentatonic
Scale).

Track 023a, 023b


In the second exercise will build on the fifth steps of the Harmonic Functions Trichords. The Tonic
function is used Upper Triсhord (White), built up from the 5th step of the Tonic function. In first track the
Subdominant function is used Lower Trichord (Black), built up from the 5th step of the Subdominant function. In
second track the Subdominant function is used Upper Triсhord (White), built down from the 5th step of the
Subdominant function. The Dominant function is used Upper Triсhord (White), built up from the 1st step of the
Dominant function.

Track 024a, 024b, 024c


In the third exercise, play in turn using Trichords and Melodic movements around of 5th steps of the Tonic
and the Subdominant functions, as a central tone using on the dominant function — 1st step. Three tracks in a row,
of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.


  

     




    
    

  

     




    
    

  

     




    
    


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Track 025a, 025b, 025c
In the final fourth exercise of the fifth lesson also play in turn. A little more expand the scope and used
Trichords and Melodic movements around central tones in connection with the 1st, 5th and 7th steps of the
Harmonic Functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.

LESSON 6
The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 11th steps of the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the sixth lesson — learn to build musical phrases using the Trichords and
Melodic movements around of 11th steps of the Harmonic Functions. The sixth lesson contains only the Minor
Pentatonic Scale. The first and second exercises consist of three pairs of the Blues Changes — one listening
example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing. All samples consist of musical phrases starting and
ending notes corresponding 11th steps of the Harmonic Functions identified in the table in bold font.


  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

Track 026
In the first exercise hold out the 11th steps of the Harmonic Functions, then play: Central Tone, step down,
Central Tone (within the framework of the Minor Pentatonic Scale), and then: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone
(within the framework of the Minor Pentatonic Scale).

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Track 027a, 027b
In the second exercise will build on the 11th steps of the Harmonic Functions Trichords. The Tonic function
is used Lower Trichord (Black) built down from the 11th step of the Tonic function. The Subdominant function is
used Upper Triсhord (White), built around the 11th step of the Subdominant function. In first track the Dominant
function is used Lower Trichord (Black), built up from the 11th step of the Dominant function. In second track the
Dominant function is used Upper Triсhord (White), built down from the 11th step of the Dominant function.

Track 028a, 028b, 028c


In the third exercise, play in turn using Trichords and Melodic movements around of 11th steps of the
Harmonic Functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.


  

     




    
    

  

     




    
    

  

     




    
    

Track 029a, 029b, 029c
In the final fourth exercise of the sixth lesson also play in turn. A little more expand the scope and used
Trichords and Melodic movements around central tones in connection with the 1st, 5th, 7th and 11th steps of the
Harmonic Functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.

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CHAPTER II
The Major Pentatonic Scale

LESSON 7

The Major Pentatonic Scale and the movements around a Central Tone

Bb Blues. Listen and repeat musical phrases in the pauses. Main task of the 7th lesson — learn the Major
Pentatonic Scale, and six types of movements around a Central Tone, using the nearest scale steps. In all exercises
of the 7th lesson used only steps of the Major Pentatonic Scale.


  



    
    
    

  



    
    
    

  



    
    
    

Track 030
The first exercise consists of the notes of the Lower Trichord indicated black. The exercise begins with the
first step of the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

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Track 031
The second exercise consists of the notes of the Upper Trichord indicated white. The exercise begins with the
first step of the scale — F (D — instruments in Eb; G — instruments in Bb).

Track 032
The third exercise brings together the Lower and Upper Trichords, forming the Major Pentatonic Scale
within an octave. The exercise begins with the first step of the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C —
instruments in Bb).

Track 033
Exercise 4. Movements around a central tone of the Major Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step down, Central Tone. The exercise begins with the first step of the
scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 034
Exercise 5. Movements around a central tone of the Major Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone. The exercise begins with the first step of the scale
— B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 035
Exercise 6. Movements around a central tone of the Major Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step down, Central Tone, step up, Central Tone. The exercise begins with
the first step of the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 036
Exercise 7. Movements around a central tone of the Major Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone, step down, Central Tone. The exercise begins with
the first step of the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 037
Exercise 8. Movements around a central tone of the Major Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step down, step up, Central Tone. The exercise begins with the first step of
the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

Track 038
Exercise 9. Movements around a central tone of the Major Pentatonic Scale, using the nearest scale steps in
accordance with formula: Central Tone, step up, step down, Central Tone. The exercise begins with the first step of
the scale — B-flat (G — instruments in Eb; C — instruments in Bb).

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LESSON 8

The Trichords and Melodic movements around of first steps of the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the eighth lesson — learn to build musical phrases using the Major
Pentatonic Trichords and Melodic movements around of first steps of the Harmonic Functions. The eighth lesson
contains only the Major Pentatonic Scale. The first and second exercises consist of three pairs of the Blues Changes
— one listening example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing. Since the first step of subdominant not
have in the major pentatonic scale, we take the central tone the fifth step of the subdominant function.


  

     




-    
 -   

  

     




-    
 -   

  

     




-    
 -   

Track 039
In the first exercise hold out the 1st steps of the Tonic and Dominant harmonic functions, the Subdominant
function — 5th step, then play: Central Tone, step down, Central Tone (within the framework of the Major
Pentatonic Scale), and then: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone (within the framework of the Major Pentatonic
Scale).

Track 040a, 040b


In the second exercise will build Trichords on the first steps of Tonic, Dominant and on the fifth step of
Subdominant. The Tonic and Subdominant function is used Lower Trichord (Black) built up and Upper Triсhord

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(White) built down from the first step of the Tonic function and from the fifth step of the Subdominant function.
The Dominant function is used Upper Triсhord (White), built up from the first step of the Dominant function. In
first track the Tonic and Subdominant functions is used Lower Trichord (Black). In second track the Tonic and
Subdominant functions is used Upper Triсhord (White).

Track 041a, 041b, 041c


In the third exercise, play in turn using Trichords and Melodic movements around of first step of Tonic,
Dominant and around fifth step of Subdominant harmonic functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and
third I begin, and the second you start.

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LESSON 9
The Trichords and Melodic movements around of third steps of the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the ninth lesson — learn to build musical phrases using the Major Pentatonic
Trichords and Melodic movements around of third steps of the Harmonic Functions. The ninth lesson contains
only the Major Pentatonic Scale. The first and second exercises consist of three pairs of the Blues Changes — one
listening example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing. Since the third step of dominant not have in the
major pentatonic scale, we take the central tone the first step of the dominant function.


  

 -  -  




-  -  
 - -  

  

 -  -  




-  -  
 - -  

  

 -  -  




-  -  
 - -  


Track 042
In the first exercise hold out the 3th steps of the Tonic and Subdominant harmonic functions, the Dominant
function — 1st step, then play: Central Tone, step down, Central Tone (within the framework of the Major
Pentatonic Scale), and then: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone (within the framework of the Major Pentatonic
Scale).

Track 043
In the second exercise will build Trichords on the third steps of Tonic, Subdominant and on the first step of
Dominant. The Tonic function is used Lower Trichord (Black) built down from the third step of the Tonic function.

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The Subdominant function is used Upper Triсhord (White) built around the third step of the Subdominant
function. The Dominant function is used Upper Triсhord (White), built up from the first step of the Dominant
function.

Track 044a, 044b, 044c


In the third exercise, play in turn using Trichords and Melodic movements around of third step of Tonic,
Subdominant and around first step of Dominant harmonic functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and
third I begin, and the second you start.

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LESSON 10
The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 9th steps of the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the tenth lesson — learn to build musical phrases using the Major Pentatonic
Trichords and Melodic movements around of 9th steps of the Harmonic Functions. The tenth lesson contains only
the Major Pentatonic Scale. The first and second exercises consist of three pairs of the Blues Changes — one
listening example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing.


  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 


Track 045
In the first exercise hold out the 9th steps of the Harmonic Functions, then play: Central Tone, step down,
Central Tone (within the framework of the Major Pentatonic Scale), and then: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone
(within the framework of the Major Pentatonic Scale).

Track 046
In the second exercise will build Trichords on the 9th steps of the Harmonic Functions. The Tonic function is
used Lower Trichord (Black) built around from the 9th step of the Tonic function. The Subdominant function is
used Upper Triсhord (White) built up from the 9th step of the Subdominant function. The Dominant function is
used Upper Triсhord (White), built around the 9th step of the Dominant function.

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Track 047a, 047b, 047c
In the third exercise, play in turn using Trichords and Melodic movements around of 9th step of the
Harmonic Functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.

LESSON 11
The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 5th steps of the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the eleventh lesson — learn to build musical phrases using the Major
Pentatonic Trichords and Melodic movements around of 5th steps of the Harmonic Functions. The eleventh lesson
contains only the Major Pentatonic Scale. The first and second exercises consist of three pairs of Blues Changes —
one listening example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing.


  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 


Track 048
In the first exercise hold out the 5th steps of the Harmonic Functions, then play: Central Tone, step down,
Central Tone (within the framework of the Major Pentatonic Scale), and then: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone
(within the framework of the Major Pentatonic Scale).

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Track 049a, 049b
In the second exercise will build Trichords on the 5th steps of the Harmonic Functions. The Tonic function is
used Upper Triсhord (White) built up from the 5th step of the Tonic function. The Subdominant function is used
both trichords. In first track is used Lower Trichord (Black) built up from the 5th step of the Subdominant
function. In second track is used Upper Triсhord (White) built down from the 5th step of the Subdominant
function. The Dominant function is used Lower Trichord (Black), built around the 5th step of the Dominant
function.

Track 050a, 050b, 050c


In the third exercise, play in turn using Trichords and Melodic movements around of 5th step of the
Harmonic Functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.

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LESSON 12
The Trichords and Melodic movements around of 13th steps of the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the twelfth lesson — learn to build musical phrases using Major Pentatonic
Trichords and Melodic movements around of 13th steps of the Harmonic Functions. The twelfth lesson contains
only the Major Pentatonic Scale. The first and second exercises consist of three pairs of Blues Changes — one
listening example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing.


  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 

  

 -  -  




-  -  
- - - - 


Track 051
In the first exercise hold out the 13th steps of the Harmonic Functions, then play: Central Tone, step down,
Central Tone (within the framework of the Major Pentatonic Scale), and then: Central Tone, step up, Central Tone
(within the framework of the Major Pentatonic Scale).

Track 052
In the second exercise will build Trichords on the 13th steps of the Harmonic Functions. The Tonic function
is used Upper Triсhord (White) built around the 13th step of the Tonic function. The Subdominant function is used
Lower Trichord (Black) built around the 13th step of the Subdominant function. The Dominant function is used
Lower Trichord (Black), built down from the 13th step of the Dominant function.

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Track 053a, 053b, 053c
In the third exercise, play in turn using Trichords and Melodic movements around of 13th step of the
Harmonic Functions. Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.

CHAPTER III
The Chords of the Harmonic Functions

LESSON 13

The 7th chords

Bb Blues. The main objective of the thirteenth lesson — to learn steps of the 7th chords of the Harmonic
Functions. One Blues Changes listening example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing.


  

    
       
       
            

            

  

    
       
       
            
            

  

    
       

       
            

           


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Track 054a, 054b
In the first exercise to focus attention on the 3rd steps of the Harmonic Functions chords.

Track 055a, 055b, 055c, 055d


In the second exercise teach the triads and to focus attention on the 5th steps of the Harmonic Functions
chords.

Track 056a, 056b, 056c, 056d


In the third exercise teach the 7th chords and to focus attention on the 7th steps of the Harmonic Functions
chords.

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LESSON 14

The 9th chords

Bb Blues. The main objective of the fourteenth lesson — to learn natural and altered 9th steps of the
Harmonic Functions chords. One Blues Changes listening example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing.


  

    
       
       
            

            

  

    
       

       
            
            

  

    
       
       
            

           

Track 057a, 057b
In the first exercise to focus attention on the natural 9th steps of the Harmonic Functions chords.

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
  

    
       
       
            

            

  

    
       

       
            
            

  

    
       
       
            
            


Track 058a, 058b


In the second exercise focus attention on the lower 9th steps of the Harmonic Functions chords.

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
  

    
       
       
            

            

  

    
       
       
            
            

  

    
       
       
            
            


Track 059a, 059b


In the third exercise focus attention on the higher 9th steps of the Harmonic Functions chords.

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LESSON 15

The 11th chords

Bb Blues. The main objective of the fifteenth lesson — to learn natural and altered 11th steps of the
Harmonic Functions chords. One Blues Changes listening example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing.


  

    
       
       
            

            

  

    
       

       
            
            

  

    
       
       
            

           


Track 060a, 060b


In the first exercise to focus attention on the natural 11th steps of the Harmonic Functions chords.

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
  

    
       
       
            

            

  

    
       

       
            
            

  

    
       
       
            
            


Track 061a, 061b


In the second exercise focus attention on the higher 11th steps of the Harmonic Functions chords.

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LESSON 16

The 13th chords

Bb Blues. The main objective of the sixteenth lesson — to learn natural and altered 13th steps of the
Harmonic Functions chords. One Blues Changes listening example, then in the next repeats exactly the same thing.


  

    
       
       
 
          

            

  

    
       

       
            
            

  

    
       
       
 
          
            


Track 062a, 062b


In the first exercise to focus attention on the natural 13th steps of the Harmonic Functions chords.

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
  

    
       
       
            

            

  

    
       

       


            
            

  

    
       
       
            
            


Track 063a, 063b


In the second exercise focus attention on the lower 13th steps of the Harmonic Functions chords, most
common with the higher 11th steps.

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CHAPTER IV
The Minor and Major Blues Scales

LESSON 17

The Minor Blues Scale

Bb Blues. The main objective of the seventeenth lesson — to learn steps of the Minor Blues Scale. Two bars
listening example, then in the next two bars repeat exactly the same thing. Minor blues scale is a minor pentatonic
scale, supplemented by the fifth low step, and includes the steps: 1, 3b, 4, 5b, 5, 7b, 1.


  



    
    
    

  



    
    
    

  



    
    
    

Track 064
The first exercise starts with the first step of the Minor Blues Scale (1).

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Track 065
The second exercise begins with the 3rd minor step of the Minor Blues Scale (3b).

Track 066
The third exercise begins with the 4th step of the Minor Blues Scale (4).

Track 067
The fourth exercise begins with the 5th low step of the Minor Blues Scale (5b).

Track 068
The fifth exercise begins with the 5th natural step of the Minor Blues Scale (5).

Track 069
The sixth exercise begins with the 7th minor step of the Minor Blues Scale (7b).

Track 070a, 070b, 070c, 070d


In the final seventh exercise also play in turn. Used the Minor Blues Scale with Trichords and Melodic
movements around central tones. Three same tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second
you start. Then is the set of tracks in different tempos and styles.

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LESSON 18

The Major Blues Scale

Bb Blues. The main objective of the eighteenth lesson — to learn steps of the Major Blues Scale. Two bars
listening example, then in the next two bars repeat exactly the same thing. Major blues scale is a major pentatonic
scale, supplemented by the third low step, and includes the steps: 1, 2, 3b, 3, 5, 6, 1.


  



    
    
    

  



    
    
    

  



    
    
    


Track 071
The first exercise starts with the first step of the Major Blues Scale (1).

Track 072
The second exercise begins with the 2nd step of the Major Blues Scale (2).

Track 073
The third exercise begins with the 3rd low step of the Major Blues Scale (3b).

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Track 074
The fourth exercise begins with the 3rd major step of the Major Blues Scale (3).

Track 075
The fifth exercise begins with the 5th natural step of the Major Blues Scale (5).

Track 076
The sixth exercise begins with the 6th major step of the Major Blues Scale (6).

Track 077a, 077b, 077c, 077d


In the final seventh exercise also play in turn. Used the Major Blues Scale with Trichords and Melodic
movements around central tones. Three same tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second
you start. Then is the set of tracks in different tempos and styles.

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LESSON 19

Switching between the Minor and Major Blues Scales

Bb Blues. The main objective of the nineteenth lesson — to learn switching between the Minor and Major
Blues Scales. Listen to an example, and then repeat exactly the same thing.


  



    

     

     

  



    

     

     

  



    

     

     


Track 078a, 078b, 078c


First, each scale takes a full Blues Changes, then switching takes place every four bars, then every two bars,
and finally each bar used the Minor or the Major Blues Scale. The first exercise starts with the first step of the
Minor Blues Scale.

Track 079a, 079b, 079c, 079d


Play in turn used the Minor and Major Blues Scales switching as any desired time. Three tracks in a row, of
which the first and third I begin, and the second you start. Then is the set of tracks in different tempos and styles.

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LESSON 20

Conformity of the Blues Scales and the Harmonic Functions

Bb Blues. The main objective of the twentieth lesson — to learn switching between the Minor and Major
Blues Scales in accordance with the Harmonic Functions. Listen to an example, and then repeat exactly the same
thing. The Major Blues Scale is for function Tonic — Chords and Scale indicated in black. The Minor Blues Scale is
for function Subdominant and Dominant — Chords and Scale indicated in white.


  

     





     

     

  

     





     

     

  

     





     

     


Track 080a, 080b, 080c, 080d , 080e


The first exercise starts with the first step of the Major Blues Scale.

Track 081a, 081b, 081c


Play in turn used the Minor and Major Blues Scales switching in accordance with the Harmonic Functions.
Three tracks in a row, of which the first and third I begin, and the second you start.

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LESSON 21

The Minor Blues Scale in All 12 Keys

The main objective of the twenty first lesson — to learn The Minor Blues Scale in All 12 Keys. For the
successful development of this and the subsequent lessons you will need knowledge of steps of the Natural Major
Scale in all twelve keys. The changes are by The Circle of Fourths. Each key takes two bars. The Minor Blues Scale
is a The Minor Pentatonic Scale supplemented fifth lower step, and includes the following steps: 1, 3b, 4, 5b, 5, 7b,
1. Two cycles, consisting of twenty-four bars, play with me, then another cycle play on their own. And in this way
11 tracks.


  

        





        



        

  

        





        



        

  

        





        



        


Track 082a, 082b, 082c, 082d , 082e, 082f, 082g, 082h , 082i, 082j, 082k
All exercises begin with the first step of the Minor Blues Scale.

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LESSON 22

The Major Blues Scale in All 12 Keys

The main objective of the twenty second lesson — to learn the Major Blues Scale in All 12 Keys. The changes
are by The Circle of Fourths. Each key takes two bars. The Major Blues Scale is a The Major Pentatonic Scale
supplemented third lower step, and includes the following steps: 1, 2, 3b, 3, 5, 6, 1. Two cycles, consisting of
twenty-four bars, play with me, then another cycle play on their own. And in this way 11 tracks.


  

        





        



        

  

        





        



        

  

        





        



        


Track 083a, 083b, 083c, 083d , 083e, 083f, 083g, 083h , 083i, 083j, 083k
All exercises begin with the first step of the Major Blues Scale.

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LESSON 23

The Minor and Major Blues Scale in All 12 Keys

The main objective of the twenty third lesson — to consolidate knowledge of the Minor and Major Blues
Scale in All 12 Keys and switching between the Minor and Major Blues Scales in each key. The changes are by The
Circle of Fourths. Each key takes two bars. One cycle, consisting of twenty-four bars, play with me, then another
cycles play on their own.


  

        




         



         


  

        




         



         


  

        




         


        





Track 084a, 084b
The first and second exercises begin with the first step.

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Then, play the blues in all twelve keys.

Track 085
C Blues (Eb music instruments — A Blues; Bb music instruments — D Blues).

Track 086
F Blues (Eb music instruments — D Blues; Bb music instruments — G Blues).

Track 087
Bb Blues (Eb music instruments — G Blues; Bb music instruments — C Blues).

Track 088
Eb Blues (Eb music instruments — C Blues; Bb music instruments — F Blues).

Track 089
Ab Blues (Eb music instruments — F Blues; Bb music instruments — Bb Blues).

Track 090
Db Blues (Eb music instruments — Bb Blues; Bb music instruments — Eb Blues).

Track 091
F# Blues (Eb music instruments — Eb Blues; Bb music instruments — Ab Blues).

Track 092
B Blues (Eb music instruments — Ab Blues; Bb music instruments — Db Blues).

Track 093
E Blues (Eb music instruments — Db Blues; Bb music instruments — F# Blues).

Track 094
A Blues (Eb music instruments — F# Blues; Bb music instruments — B Blues)

Track 095
D Blues (Eb music instruments — B Blues; Bb music instruments — E Blues).

Track 096
G Blues (Eb music instruments — E Blues; Bb music instruments — A Blues).

The conclusion

Now that you have learned to build their own sensible musical phrases, sentences, and you can use them to
tell various stories, and you are able to express their personal view on any topic on the language of Music, using
The Blues Improvisation Concept. Try to play with other musicians, because nothing can replace live
communication. It's enrich your musical language, and also can bring you and many people nice and helpful spent
time, and of course a lot of fun.

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