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# DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING- QSV

## DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

SUBJECT- QUANTITY SURVEYING AND VALUATIONS
CLASS – BE CIVIL
UNIT1

## Q.1.Explain estimating and costing and Need of estimate.

Estimating :- An estimate can be defined as the procedure or method of working out
probable cost of work.
Costing:- Costing is defined as the determination of actual cost the work before
excution of it.

In case the funds avilable are less than the estimated cost the work is done in part or
by reducing it or specifications are altered,
the following requirement are necessary for preparing an estimate.
a ) Drawings like plan, elevation and sections of important points.
b) Detailed specifications about workmenship & properties of materials etc.
c) Standard schedule of rates of the current year
NEED FOR ESTIMATION AND COSTING
1. Estimate give an idea of the cost of the work and hence its feasibility can be
determined i..e whether the project could be taken up with in the funds available or not.
2. To know the approximate quantities of materials and labours required.
3.Estimate gives an idea of time required for the completion of the work.
4. For technical Sacnction of project and also Estimate is required to invite the tenders
and Quotations and to arange contract.
5. Estimate is also required to control the over expenditure during the execution of
work.
6. Estimate decides whether the proposed plan matches the funds available or not.
7. Framig tax schedule. And calculate insurance required.

## Q.2 What data required to prepare an estimate?

1. Drawings i.e.plans, elevations, sections etc.
2. Specifications.
3. Rates.
1 Drawings:
If the drawings are not clear and without complete dimensions the preparation of
estimation become very difficult. So, It is very essential before preparing an estimate.
2 Specifications:
a) General Specifications: This gives the nature, quality, class and work and materials
in general terms to be used in various parts of wok. It helps no form a general idea of
building.

## PROF. V.G. AWASARE, VTC -PATGAON

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING- QSV

b) Detailed Specifications: These gives the detailed description of the various items of
work laying down the Quantities and qualities of materials, their proportions, the
method of preparation workmanship and execution of work.
3. Rates:
For preparing the estimate the unit rates of each item of work are required. 1. For
arriving at the unit rates of each item. 2. The rates of various materials to be used in the
construction. 3. The cost of transport materials. 4. The wages of labour, skilled or
unskilled of masons, carpenters, Mazdoor, etc.,

## Q.3 Explain types of Detail estimates, Explain any one in brief.

1. A detail estimate.
2. A preliminary or approximate or rough estimate.
3. A quantity estimate / quantity survey.
4. A revised estimate.
5. A supplementary estimate.
6. Revised estimate & supplementary estimate due to reduction of cost.
7. A complete estimate.
8. Annual maintenance or repair estimate.
Detailed estimation
This includes the detailed particulars for the quantities, rates & costs of all the items
involved for satisfactory completion of a project. Quantities of all items of work are
calculated from their respective dimensions on the drawing, on a measurement sheet.
Multiplying these quantities by their respective rates in a separate sheet, the cost of all
items of work are worked out individually & then summarised. In addition to the above
cost other expanses required to complete the project are added to the above cost to
frame the total of a detail estimate.
A detailed estimate is comprise of - i. Report, ii. Specification, iii. Detailed drawing
showing plans, different sections, key or index plan, iv. Design data & calculation, v.
Basic rates adopted in the estimate.
Q.4 How to prepare a detail estimate?
The unit quantity method is followed to prepare a detailed estimate. In this method the
rates per unit work of one item (such as 1 m3 concrete) including profit are considered
first and the total cost for the item is found, by multiplying the cost per unit of the rate
by the no. of units. The procedure for the preparation of a detailed estimate is divided
into two parts
A)Details Of Measurements And Calculation Of Quantities -
The complete work is divided into various items of work such as earth work
concreting, brick work, R.C.C. Plastering etc., The details of measurements are taken from
drawings and entered in respective columns of prescribed preformed. The quantities are
calculated by multiplying the values that are in numbers column to Depth column as shown
below:

## PROF. V.G. AWASARE, VTC -PATGAON

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING- QSV

MEASUREMENT SHEET
SR.NO. DISCRIPTION NO. L B H QTY. REMARK

B)’The cost of each item of work is worked out from the quantities that already computed
in the details measurement form at workable rate. But the total cost is worked out in the
prescribed form is known as abstract of estimated form.
ABSTRACT SHEET
SR.NO. DISCRIPTION QTY. RATE UNIT AMOUNT

## Q.5 What Factors to be considered while preparing detailed estimate?

i) Quantity and transportation of materials: For bigger project, the requirement of materials
is more. Such bulk volume of materials will be purchased and transported definitely at
cheaper rate.

ii) Location of site: The site of work is selected, such that it should reduce damage or in

iii) Local labour charges: The skill, suitability and wages of local labores are considered
while preparing the detailed estimate.

## Q.6Explain units of measurements and principle of measurements

The units of measurements are mainly categorised for their nature, shape and size and for
making payments to the contractor and also. The principle of units of measurements
normally consists the following:
a) Single units work like doors, windows, trusses etc., are expressed in numbers.
b) Works consists linear measurements involve length like cornice, fencing, hand rail,
bands of specified width etc., are expressed in running metres (RM)
c) Works consists areal surface measurements involve area like plastering, white washing,
partitions of specified thickness etc., are expressed in square meters (m2 ) d) Works

## PROF. V.G. AWASARE, VTC -PATGAON

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING- QSV

consists cubical contents which involve volume like earth work, cement concrete, Masonry
etc are expressed in Cubic metres.
PRINCIPALS FOR SELECTING MEASUREMENT :
The rules for measurement of each item are invaribly described in IS- 1200. However
some of the general rules are listed below.
1. Measurement shall be made for finished item of work and description of each item shall
include materials, transport, labour, fabrication tools and plant and all types of overheads
for finishing the work in required shape, size and specification. 2. In booking, the order
shall be in sequence of length, breadth and height or thickness.
3. All works shall be measured subject to the following tolerances. i) Linear measurement
shall be measured to the nearest 0.01m. ii) Areas shall be measured to the nearest 0.01
sq.m iii) Cubic contents shall be worked-out to the nearest 0.01 cum
4. Same type of work under different conditions and nature shall be measured separately
under separate items.
5. The bill of quantities shall fully describe the materials, proportions, workmanships and
accurately represent the work to be executed.
6. In case of masonary (stone or brick) or structural concrete, the categories shall be
measured separately and the heights shall be described:
a) from foundation to plinth level
b) from plinth level to First floor level
c) from Fist floor to Second floor level and so on.

## Q. 7 State types of specification and explain any one in brief.

GENERAL OR BRIEF SPECIFICATION-
General specification gives the nature and class of the work and' materials in general terms,
to be used in the various parts of the work, from the foundation to the superstructure. It is a
short description of different parts of the work specifying materials, proportions, qualities,
etc. General specifications give general idea-of the whole work or structure and are useful
for preparing the estimate.
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS OF FIRST CLASS BUILDINGS
Foundation and Pliath :- Shall be of first class burnt bricks in lime or cement
mortar(1:6)over a bed of cement concrete. (1:6:12 or 1:8:16)
Superstructure:- Shall be of first class burnt brick work in lime or cement mortar (1:6)
Damp Proof Course:- Shall be of a cm thick cement concrete (1:2:4) with on-layer of
bitumen laid hot or any other specified water proof material.
Roofing:- Shall be of R.C.C. slabs (1:2:4) covered with two coats of bitumen lalid hot and
a layer of lime or cement concrete 8 cm. thick over it with a tile flooring with cement flush
with cement flush pointed on the top.
Flooring:- Shall be of TERRAZO in drawing, dining, bath and W.C., 4 cm thick plain
conglomerate polished floors in bed rooms and in other rooms.
Doors and Windows:- Doors and windows shall be of teak wood, paneled or paneled and
glazed with gauze shutters to outer doors and fixed wire gauze to windows and ventilators
Fittings shall preferably of brass or good quality metal. Finishing:- The inside and outside

## PROF. V.G. AWASARE, VTC -PATGAON

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING- QSV

walls shall have 1.25 cm. thick cement plaster. Drawing, dining and bed rooms inside of
walls shall have 2 coats of distemper and other rooms shall have three coats of white
washing. The outside of the wall shall have two coats of colour washing over one coat of
white washing.
Painting:- Doors and windows shall be given three coats of white lead where exposed and
white zinc or cream or grey silicate paint elsewhere. Miscellaneous:- First class buildings
shall be provided with first class sanitary and water supply fittings and electrical
installations. A plinth protection 1.50 m. wide of bricks sloped away from the building
shall be provided all round the building.

DETAILED SPECIFICATION-
The detailed specification of an item of work specifies the qualities and quantities of
material. the proportion of mortar, workmanship, the method of preparation and execution
and the methods of measurement.
Q.8 what is schedule of rates (DSR)?
To facilitate the preparation of estimate and also to serve as a guide in settling rates in
connection with contract agreements, a schedule of rates for each kind of work commonly
executed (works, materials, wages of labour, transport etc.) should be maintained by
different engineering departments or authorised organizations & kept up to date. This is
prepared on the basis of rates prevailing in each locality including the cost of transport &
profit. All rates should be inclusive of labour, materials, & other charges may have to incur
by the contractor for getting the respective items of works executed to proper order &
complete and finish.
Q.9 State Difference between Administrative approval and Technical Sanction.

## PROF. V.G. AWASARE, VTC -PATGAON

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING- QSV