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*** Intro to Internetworking Data Delivery ***

BRIDGE/SWITCH
= Operate at the Data-Link Layer (L2)
= Connects 2 or more LAN segments
> same logical network
> diminish traffic on network segments
= Makes forwarding & filtering decisions based on the MAC (hardware) address
= Provides upper-layer protocol transparency
= Extends the LAN

BRIDGE (L2 device)


= More intelligent than hubs.
= Learns MAC (hardware) addresses by analyzing incoming data frames and storing the addresses in a table.

BRIDGE TABLE(brain/memory)
= Stores the information needed for the device to make forwarding or filtering decisions, based on MAC addresses.
= Organizes "who" lives "where"

who =>the hardware address of a connected device


where => source port of the bridge, or switch, where the who is connected

TYPES of BRIDGE
a.Transparent= most common
> Learns MAC addresses of connected devices
> Forwards/Filters based on those MAC addresses
> Creates Loop-Free Topology (802.1d/STP)

b.Source Route= used in token ring LANs

SWITCH (L2 device)


= Maintains address tables
= Makes forwarding/filtering decisions just like a Bridge
= Utilizes ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)
= Provides wire speed transmission rates

SWITCH (L3 device)


= Makes intelligent switching decisions based on the OSI Layer 3 source and destination addresses, similar to that of a
router.
= Offers more performance than that of a standard Layer 2 switch.

BRIDGE VS SWITCH

SW based <> HW based (ASICs)


Slower <> Faster
Low port density <> High port density

COLLISION DOMAIN
= Separate collision domains
= One collision domain exists per bridge/switch port
= Increases network efficiency
= Does not separate broadcast domains

B/S OPERATION

1. Empty Table initially


2. Sending device will send an ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) request
3. Intended recipient of ARP will reply back
4. Bridge will save the data on its database

Redundant Linkscause routing loops like:


- broadcast storms
- multiple frame copies
- MAC address table instability issues.

Spanning Tree Protocol


= Maintains a loop-free switched network
= Automatically updates
= Allows for redundancy in bridged networks
= All bridges participating in STP elect a "root bridge"
= "Designated Ports" elected on each bridge
Ports States
= Blocking
= Listening
= Learning
= Forwarding
= Disabled

Broadcast Message
= e.g. ARP

VLAN ~ limited broadcast domain


= group of users sharing a common broadcast regardless of their physical location in the network.
= improves performance and security

Broadcast Domain Considerations


= confined within logical (Layer 3) network segments
= One broadcast domain can be synonymous with one logical network/subnet
= Layer 2 switches cannot pass traffic from one logical subnet to another
= Layer 3 switches or routers are required for subnet communication

Therefore:
= VLANs create separate broadcast domains
= Layer 3 routing is required for communication between these separate networks

802.1Q

VLAN Protocol ID (16 bits) > Prio (3 bits) > CFI=0 (1 bit) > VLAN ID (12 bits)

When implementing VLANs in a network, a four byte tag will be added to the Ethernet frame to indicate the VLAN
assignment of that packet. Within the VLAN tag field, the 12 bit VLAN ID field is used to represent the actual VLAN
associated with this frame. Note that this tagging is within the Ethernet frame, so a Layer 2 switch is aware of this
assignment.

VLAN Characteristics:
= Same Broadcast Domain -Only members of the same VLAN will see traffic from other devices within that same VLAN.
= Security -Because traffic from one VLAN cannot be transmitted to another VLAN without a router or layer 3 device, this
makes VLANs more secure than a regular Ethernet network. At layer 3, the router security features may be implemented
as well.
= Logical Subnet -Devices in the same VLAN generally belong to the same subnet as well. Since members of a VLAN
are not necessarily on the same physical segment, these are logical subnets.
= Efficient Bandwidth Utilization -Since all traffic from one VLAN is confined within that VLAN (without the use of a layer 3
device), traffic is controlled by smaller broadcast domains. Just as switches isolate collision domains, VLANs isolate
broadcast (messages sent to all users) and multicast (messages sent to some users) domains. By isolating broadcast
and multicast traffic from traversing the whole network, performance improves.
= Port-Based or Dynamic -All VLAN membership is either port-based or dynamic. The NetVanta products support port-
based membership. VLAN assignment is made to a specific switch port, which is unknown to the end device. Dynamic
port assignment is usually based on the MAC address of the device plugged into a switch port.
= Problem Isolation -Because network segments are separated by VLANs, it is easier to isolate problems, as there are a
smaller number of devices per VLAN than on the entire switch device.

ROUTERS

= connects at least two different networks


= determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination

= separates collision domains and broadcast domains


= one CD per port
Router as an L3 Device

1. Interconnect multiple local or wide area networks =he ability to interconnect both local area and wide area networks.

2. Filter based on logical addresses =examines and learns the source layer 3 address of each packet crossing the bus.
Its routing table is memory used for these learned addresses.

3. Provide Path Determination using metrics =determine the path of each packet through consulting the routing table and
using metrics.

4. Forward packets from one network to another = once path is determined, packets are then forwarded to it respective
destination

5. Control broadcasts to the network =break up both collision and broadcast domains.

6. Interconnect different types of LAN devices, media, or access methods =used to further segment a network.

TYPES OF ROUTERS

1.ACCESS= routes data b/n LANs and WAN / small to medium sized businesses

2.CORE= forwards packets to hosts w/in a network only

3.EDGE= routes data b/n LANs / ATM backbone network

ROUTE TABLE= learn and store route information

ROUTING METRICS= picks the best path

PATH DETERMINATION

1. Static

= manually configured routing table


= needs human intervention to add/update routes in the routing table

2. Dynamic

= use routing protocols w/in routers


= automatic updates on the routing table as changes occur

3. Default

= used to send packets to a remote destination network not in the routing table
= only valid on networks with one exit port

STATIC ROUTING CONSIDERATIONS

*Benefits
No overhead on the router CPU / No bandwidth usage between routers / Security

*Disadvantages
In-depth administrative knowledge / No automatic updates with addition/deletion of networks / Not feasible with large-
scale networks

DYNAMIC ROUTING CONSIDERATIONS

*Benefits
Simple Configuration / Low Maintenance/Administration / Automatic updates when routing changes occur

*Disadvantages
Higher use of router CPU / Bandwidth usage on network lines / Less security/control
DYNAMIC ROUTING PROTOCOLS

1. Distance Vector = use a distance to a remote network to find the best path. Each time a packet goes through a router,
it's called a hop. The route with the least number of hops to the network is determined to be the best route. The vector is
the determination of direction to the remote network. [e.g. RIP and EGRP]

2. Link State (shortest path first) =the routers each create three separate tables (network topology, directly attached
neighbors, routing table) [e.g. OSPF]

3. Hybrid = use aspects of distance vector and link state. [e.g. EIGRP]

GATEWAY= router that acts as a "gate from one subnet/network to another.

Default Gateway (workstation) = main router on the LAN segment

Default Gateway (router) = next hop router to send packets if network is not in the routing table

*** Introduction to Internetworking Network Addressing ***

Hardware Addresses

>Ethernet Address Identification= unique fixed address given to a system on a network // used for L2 identification of
systems (source & destination devices) on an Ethernet network.

>IP Address= unique programmable address given to a system on a network // used for L3 identification of hosts and
routers on TCP/IP network // has two parts (network.host)

IP Address Format= fixed length of 32 bits // binary, hexa or decimal // divided in 4 octets in dot notation

Binary= either 0 or 1 // byte or octet is composed of eight bits // represented from 0 to 255

IPv4 ADDRESS

CLASSES= this defines which portion of the address identifies the network and host.

SUBNET MASK= 32-bit value used to distinguish the network and host portion of an IP address.

DEFAULT MASK= based on the class of the IP address.

PREFIX LENGTH (slash notation)= shortcut method of writing the subnet mask // value that represents the total # of
bits in the network ID.

Class A: 1.0.0.0 to 126.0.0.0 /8


Class B: 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.0.0 /16
Class C: 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.0 /24
Class D: 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 /32
= used to reach groups by assigning the same multicast address to all members of the group

Class D & E are used for Multicast and Research purposes and we are not allowed to subnet them so they are not
mentioned here.

SUBNETTING= allows you to create multiple logical networks by dividing a single class IP address

= you borrow buts from the host portion to logically extend the network portion of the address

= simplifies management of network


= control network traffic
= workgroups are geographically remote from each other
= when there are two or more network segments

SUBNETTING REQ'MTS

= # of physical segments
= # of required hosts

SUBNETTING FORMULA

# of Hosts = (2^n) - 2 // where n=bits borrowed

# of Subnets = (2^(32-m)) // where m=new subnet


IPv6 ADDRESS= next generation of IP Addressing // defined by RFC2460 // provides 3.4 x 10^38 power addresses

= longer payload area // more efficient throughput // auto-configuration // no need for NAT // better multicast // true QoS //
built in authentication

IPv4 vs IPv6

= 32 bits <>128 bits


= dotted decimal <> hexadecimal

IPv4 ~ IPv6

= unique L3 addresses
= resolve L2 MAC to L3 address
= assigned statically or dynamically
= uses routing protocols

Hexadecimal Format: 8 groups of 4 hexadecimal digits // groups of consecutive 0s can be replaced by colon (:) //
leading 0s with a single 0

ROUTING IPv6

= not backward compatible with IPv4


= uses route tables
= routers must have dual IP layer and support IPv6 and IPv4 tunneling

*** Introduction to Internetworking Network Protocols ***

ETHERNET

=a protocol spanning up to Layer 2 of the OSI Model


=means of transporting frames over the physical medium such as CAT 5 cable or fiber.
=designed primarily for the LAN to provide a means of transporting data between devices and networks at 10, 100, and
1000 Megabits per Second, as well as 10 Gigabits per Second in some cases

ETHERNET FRAME (most common)

PREAMBLE [8 bytes] =alternating pattern of 1s and 0s used to notify receiving stations of an incoming frame
DA [6 bytes] =MAC Address of the station/host intended to receive the Ethernet frame
SA [6 bytes] =MAC Address of the station/host where the Ethernet frame originated
Type [2 bytes] =indicator of the type of traffic encapsulated in the Ethernet frame
Payload [46-1500 bytes] =contents include data, as well as destination and source IP address
FCS [4 bytes] =check transmission errors

WAN PROTOCOLS

** PPP [Point to Point Protocol]

=WAN Data Link Protocol


=allows data transmission across a single point to point serial link
=supports sync and async data transmission

LCP [Link Control Protocol]

=Error Detection thru Link Quality Monitoring ~ threshold of loss that causes a link to go down
=Authentication thru PAP and CHAP ~ used in dial up links
=Multilink Support with Multilink PPP ~ split the load for PPP across multiple parallel circuits

NCP [Network Control Protocol]


=allows simultaneous use of multiple network layer protocols (IPCP, IPXCP, ATCP)

PPP SESSION

1. Link Establishment
=LCP packets sent to negotiate config (MCU, compression, authentication) with receiver
2. Authentication
=occurs only after LCP is up
PAP (Password Authentication)
=clear text (initial startup only)

CHAP (Challenge Authentication)


=initial startup
=periodic check ups

3. Network-Layer Protocols
=devices send NCP packets across the link
=multiple NCPs can exist on the link

4. Link Termination
=sends LCP packets (link termination frames) to terminate link
=link will stay active until LCP or NCP explicitly shuts it down
=external events can also close a PPP session

** FRAME RELAY
=allows data transmission across dedicated digital circuits
=utilizes packet switching over a shared network
=establishes virtual point to point circuits
=allocates bandwidth dynamically
=ideal for meshed configurations
=distance insensitive
=virtual connections are SW configurable and highly flexible

TRADITIONAL WAN SOLUTION


=uses TDM
=circuits are engineered for peak traffic needs
=issues may arise (e.g. costly, complicated network config when changes need to be implemented)

FRAME RELAY INTERFACE

UNI [User to Network]= user to FR switch // local provisioning

UNI Parameters:

1. Access Rate / Port Speed


2. Committed Information Rate
3. Permanent Virtual Circuit
4. Data Link Connection Identifier

NNI [Network to Network]= between FR switches and bi-directional signaling // maps virtual circuits from end to end
thru both networks

DTE [Data Terminal Equipment]= puts info in the appropriate FR format before delivery.

FRAME RELAY INTERFACE

DLCI [Data Link Connection Identifier]= ultimate destination

CIR [Committed Information Rate]

=allocated transmission rate of a PVC according to the Service Provisions


=based upon the average bandwidth needed on a site-to-site connection

MPLS [Multi-Protocol Label Switching]

=protocols are encapsulated


=data is switched across a network based on labels

MPLS Flow

=router inspects IP address and assigns label


=other routers in the network forward based only on label
=final router inspects IP address and routes to correct destination

MPLS Label
| Label Value (20) | QoS (3) | Bottom of Stack (1) | TTL (8) |
MPLS Operation

1. Router assigns FEC

*Forwarding Equivalency Class


=packets that will take the same path
=placed in the MPLs header

2. Subsequent routers examine FEC


3. Switching takes place

MPLS Benefits

1. QoS = give prio to certain labels


2. Scalability = new sites are added easily with little re-config
3. Improved BW Utilization = routers don't have to fully inspect the packet
4. Reduced Network Congestion = greater ability to control how traffic is sent thru the network

CARRIER ETHERNET

=typically a LAN protocol


=Metro Ethernet Forum (2001)
=Metro Ethernet for corporate WANs
=evolved into Carrier Ethernet for global comms

CARRIER ETHERNET ATTRIBUTES

1. QoS = specify BW and end-to-end reqmts


2. Reliability = detects & recovers from insidents w/out impacting users
3. Scalability = can easily extend to million of subs with BW of 10Gbps up
4. Service Management = monitor, diagnose & centrally manage the network
5. Standardized Services = stdzed equipment that accommodates existing networks

*** Introduction to Internetworking Networking Basics ***

NETWORK= made up of a group of devices connected together in order to communicate and share resources

Benefits:
-Cost Savings
-Flexible Access
-Centralized Management

LAN [Local Area Network]


-small physical location
-typically ethernet or WiFi

WAN [Wide Area Network] =span large geographic areas

INTRANET
-connects users w/in a single organization
-comprised of multiple LAN or may span across the public WAN or internet
-provide standard network functionality w/in a company for access to common info and resources.

EXTRANET
-intranet that includes public access
-common in larger enterprises in order to open part of the network to customers or partners

INTERNET
-public access
-connects millions of users wordlwide
-control is provided at access points by ISPs

**NETWORK DEVICES

LAN DEVICES
-interconnect computers and devices within an office building or office complex
-include PCs, servers, hubs, switches and IP phones

PC/Server =a computer or device on a network that manages network resources


HUB
-an extension of the physical network wire
-every signal received on a port is re-transmitted out every port of the hub
-repeater on the LAN, repeating and regenerating each signal

SWITCH
-provide multiple wires or network segments for device connection
-each port acts as a separate wire where one device can transmit at a time
-keeps up with data as it traverses the network
-they send traffic to appropriate destination only when it is known

WAN DEVICE =connects LANs using routers or L3 switches to interpret route and deliver info

ROUTER =interconnects multiple smaller networks while keeping up with the layout of the entire network

**NETWORK CONNECTIONS

WAN

1.Dedicated (Point-to-Point/Leased)= dedicated and always available line b/n two locations (e.g.T1, T3)
2.Switched
a.Packet=up all the time and do not require the endpoints to make a connection (e.g. Frame Relay, MPLS)
b.Circuit= not up all the time, but require the endpoints to first make a connection (e.g. PSTN, ISDN)

LAN
1.Ethernet
a. Carrier Ethernet = transmit Ethernet data over WAN
2. Wi-Fi

**LAN TOPOLOGIES

1. Bus
=common in old LAN implementations
=devices access a common media thru cable taps
=all devices sees the transmission

2. Ring
=devices access one common circuit
=end of the circuit attaches to the beginning and data flows in one directon

3. Star
=separate cable used for each device
=each device connects to a central location (usually a hub or a switch)

4. Wireless LAN
=defined by IEEE 802.11
=uses HF radio waves to transmit info wirelessly

**ETHERNET

10 Base T:Ethernet, IEEE 802.3 (UTP)


100 Base T:Fast Ethernet, IEEE 802.3u (UTP)
1000 Base T:Gigabit Ethernet, IEEE 802.3ab (long-haul solution over UTP)
1000 Base X:Gigabit Ethernet, IEEE 802.3z (Single/Multimode fiber and short-haul shielded copper)
1000 Base SX:Short Wavelength Fiber
1000 Base LX:Long Wavelength Fiber
1000 Base CX:Short Run Copper

**CABLE CONNECTORS

TIA [Telecommunications Industry Association] & EIA [Electronics Industries Alliance] =create and manage
network cabling and connection standards (e.g. coaxial, UTP, STP and fiber optic)

COAXIAL
=Inner copper channel surrounded by insulation
=Outer channel is ground
=Highly resistant to interference
=Can be run long distances
UTP
Category 1: Voice only, telephone wire
Category 2: Data to 4 Mbps, LocalTalk
Category 3: Data to 10 Mbps, Ethernet
Category 4: Data to 20 Mbps, 16Mbps Token Ring
Category 5: Data to 100 Mbps, Fast Ethernet

RJ-45 =8 pins // Traditional Phone Jack

STP
=four pairs of wires, each with a plastic coating
=offers another layer of shielding from electronic interference

Fiber Optic
=transmits light
=not subjected to electrical interference
=provides higher data rates
=traverses longer distances

COMPARISON

Type Speed Cost Length


UTP Fast Lowest Short
STP Faster High Short
Coaxial Fast Low Medium
Fiber Fastest Highest Very Long

**OSI MODEL
=developed in 1984 by ISO
=network industry standard
=7 layers that define how data flows

All People Seem To Need Data Processing

1. Application :Layer 7 provides network services to end users. Examples of this include Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP) for e-mail, Telnet for remote terminal sessions, and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for web browsers and
servers.

2.Presentation :Layer 6 is responsible for controlling data presentation. It provides coding and conversion functions and
translation of data between peer Application layers. Examples of layer 6 formats are ASCII, MPEG, and JPEG.

3.Session Layer :Layer 5 establishes and manages sessions between devices. This involves coordination of
applications as they interact on different hosts. Appletalk, Remote Procedure Call (RPC), and Lightweight Directory
Access Protocol (LDAP) operate at this layer.

4.Transport :Layer 4 is responsible for seeing that data arrives at its proper destination and arrives in the correct state.
This involves end-to-end error recovery and flow control. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram
Protocol (UDP) operate at this layer.

5.Network :Layer 3 provides routing and forwarding of data packets between different networks and works with logical
addressing, such as Internet Protocol, or IP.

6.Data Link :Layer 2 packages bits into data frames. It is made up of two sublayers of the Media Access Control (MAC)
layer and Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC layer controls how computers gain access to the media and
transmit, while the LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control, and error checking.

7.Physical :Layer 1 defines the electrical and mechanical specifications of the physical link of the network connection. It
specifies voltages, frequencies, transmission distances, physical data rates, and physical connectors.
DATA FORMATS
LAYER 5-7 : Messages
LAYER 4 : Segments
Layer 3 : Packets
Layer 2 : Frames
Layer 1 : Bits

**TCP/IP MODEL

Application=where end-user applications exist, including file transfer protocol (FTP) and traceroute.
Transport=handles communication among programs on a network (e.g. TCP, UDP)
Network/Internet=used for basic device communication, addressing, and routing (e.g. IP, ICMP)
Link/Network Access=defining network hardware and device drivers

ENCAPSULATION
=process of adding headers and trailers to data handed down from upper layers.
=originates from the top Application layer and traverses down to the physical media for transmission to the destination
device

DECAPSULATION=headers and trailers are stripped off at each layer and the data is processed until the original user
data appears at the destination device's application.

MAC IP
Hardware Logical
Assigned by Manufacturer Assigned by Admin
Layer 2 (Switch) Layer 3 (Route)

MAC Address~ xx.xx.xx.yy.yy.yy

xx = OUI
yy = unique number from the manufacturer

IPv4 Address= contain both a network and host portion, or ID.

Subnet Mask= reveals which portion of the address is the network ID and which is the host ID.

CSMA/CD [Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection]= defines procedures for checking the medium for
availability

**ROUTER FEATURES

FIREWALL
=attack protection
=session initiation control with access policies
=ongoing session monitoring and processing
=session timeouts
=application specific processing
=NAT

ACCESS CONTROL = ability for an administrator to set up user access


I. SWITCHES

ETHERNET
=affordable and flexible product options
=robust QoS and Class of Service features
=PoE for VoIP applications
=integrated wireless controller for management of WAPs

NETVANTA L3
=combines performance, reliability and security
=perfect for gig to the desktop apps
=as an aggregator switch routing b/n VLANs
=offers opttional 802.3af compliant legacy PoE to power LAN devices

NetVanta 1200s
=edge access
=ideal for VoIP
=excellent value for features and performance

NetVanta 1500s
=network distribution
=gigabit to dekstop
=Wireless AP connectivity

NetVanta 1600s
=core switching function
=fully stackable
=10Gig Network Connectivity

**NetVanta Categories

a. ActivReach Ethernet - NetVanta 1235P/NetVanta1535P


=24 port FE/GE
=Data connectivity of 10/100 Mbps over one, two, or four pair of voice-grade cabling
=Data connectivity of 10/100/1000 Mbps over CAT5 and higher-grade cabling (Standard E)
=Extended reach at distances up to 1,600 ft (488 meters)
=802.3af (PoE), Legacy PoE, and PoE over ActivReach Ethernet
=Non-blocking switching capacity up to 62 Gbps (NetVanta 1535P)
=Line rate Layer 3 Lite capabilities
=VoIP Setup Wizard for faster VoIP deployments
=VoIP ready with LLDP/LLDPMED and voice VLANS
=Business-class security with RADIUS, TACACS+, 802.1x and port security
=iSCSI optimized for Storage Area Networks (SANs) solutions (NetVanta 1535P)

i. NetVanta 1235P
=IEEE 10/100 BaseT
=Backup Power (NV1131) - Full RPS and EPS Support
=Voice/data/video/802.11 a/b/g/n WiFi

ii. NetVanta 1535P


=IEEE 10/100 BaseT
=Backup Power (NV1131) - Full RPS and EPS Support (Gen1.1)
=Partial EPS Support (Gen1.0)
=Voice/data/video/gigabut to the desktop/802.11 a/b/g/n WiFi

**ACTIVCHASSIS
=Ease of management: Stack and manage up to eight switches as a single, logical chassis-like switch
=Cost-effective scale: Add port capacity on-demand up to 400 ports
=Flexibility: Manage switches spread across multiple wiring closets up to 10 km (6 miles) apart in connected campus
=Increased backplane capacity: Boost backplane capacity up to 128 Gbps
=Network resiliency: Improve network resiliency and high-availability with ring topology and link aggregation across
multiple physical switches
=Supported in the NetVanta 1638P

b. Fast Ethernet =NetVanta 1234/NetVanta 1238


=24 or 48 port Fast Ethernet
=Layer 3 lite
=4 Gig Uplink ports: 2-1Gbps Combo ports (Copper & SFP) & 2-2.5Gbps Enhanced SFP ports
=PoE Versions Available (Legacy and 802.3af)
=Wi-Fi Access Controller
=Business Class Features: VLANs, QoS, 802.1x, Port Security, RADIUS/TACACS+
=Limited-Lifetime Warranty
=Next Business Day Advanced Replacements
=Applications: VoIP, Edge Switching, PCI Compliance

c. Fiber Ethernet= extends reach and fast througput - NetVanta 1544F


=Layer 3; 24-Port SFP
=4 Enhanced 2.5Gbps SFP Uplink Ports
=Layer 3:
-RIP v1/v2, OSPF, BGP, VRRP
-Wi-Fi Access Controller
-Limited-Lifetime Warranty
-Next Business Day Advanced Replacements
-Business Class Features : VLANs, QoS, 802.1x, Port Security, RADUIS/TACACS+
=Applications : Layer 3 Aggregation, Campus Deployments

d. Gigabit Ethernet =NetVanta 1534/1544 Series


=24 port Gigabit Ethernet
=4 Gig Uplink Ports : 2 standard 1Gbps SFP Uplink Ports & 2 Enhanced 2.5Gbps Uplink Ports
=802.3af PoE & 802.3at PoE+
=Layer 3 Lite (NV1534/NV1534P)
=Full Layer 3 (NV 1544/NV1544P) : RIP v1/v2, OSPF, BGP, VRRPWi-Fi Access Controller
=Wi-Fi Access Controller : Support for NetVanta 160 802.11n AP
=Applications : Edge Switching, 802.11n Wi-Fi, Video Streaming

e.PoE= provide legacy PoE 802.3af or 802.3at (PoE+) with FE and GE products

NetVanta 1531
=Layer 3 Gigabit-to-the-Desktop
=8-Port Gigabit Ethernet
=2 Copper Uplink Ports
=2 Standard 1Gbps SFP Uplink Ports
=802.3af PoE & 802.3at PoE+ : 1531P only
=Layer 3 Lite
=8x11x11.5 form factor

NetVanta 1638
=Layer 3 48-Port Gigabit Ethernet
=2 High Speed Interface Slots
=176 Gbps Switching Bandwidth
=Redundant or Supplemental Power Support via NV1131 RPS/EPS
=Layer 3 - Static, RIPv1/v2, OSPF, BGP, VRRP
=802.3af and 802.3at PoE/PoE+

NetVanta 1131
=Redundant and Extended Power Supply for NV Gigabit switches
=Redundant Power for up to 3 NV switches
=Enables NV switches to be powered from Dual AC circuits
=Backup 370 Watts PoE budget power for NV PoE switches
=Additional 370 Watts PoE budget power for NV 1638P
=Half-rack form factor, allowing 2 NV1131s to be mounted using the optional dual mounting tray
=Plug-and-Play operation requires no manual configuration

**SWITCH OPTION MODULES

1. 1000 Base-LX LC SFP= Provides 1000Base-LX Gigabit Ethernet interface for single-mode fiber
2. 1000 Base-SX LC SFP =Provides 1000Base-SX Gigabit Ethernet interface for multi-mode fiber
3. 1000 Base T SFP= Supports 10/100/1000Base-T
4. 2.5 Gigabit SFP= Provides 1 to 2.5 Gigabit SFP Ethernet interface for multi-mode fiber. NV1600 series with Dual
SFP+ XIM only supports 1 Gbps.
5. 10 GBase-LR SFP+= Provides 1 or 10 Gigabit SFP+ Ethernet interface for single-mode fiber
6. 10 GBase-SR SFP+= Provides 1 or 10 Gigabit SFP+ Ethernet interface for multi-mode fiber
7. SFP Interconnect Cable (1m)= Supports 1 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps, SFP/SFP (1m). 1st Gen versions of NV1200 series
and 1534 only support 1 Gbps
8. SFP Interconnect Cable (3m)= Supports 1 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps, SFP/SFP (3m). 1st Gen versions of NV1200 series
and 1534 only support 1 Gbps
**FAST ETHERNET SWITCH REFERENCE

**GIGABIT ETHERNET SWITCH REFERENCE

II. ROUTERS

NETVANTA FIXED-PORT ACCESS =cost-effective, secure, business-class solution for SMBs or remote workers.

NetVanta 3120:Fixed Port Access Router with 4 Port Ethernet Switch, Firewall, VPN, and Voice Quality Monitoring
NetVanta 3130:Fixed Port ADSL Router with 4 Port Ethernet Switch, Firewall, VPN, and Voice Quality Monitoring

ADTRAN MODULAR ACCESS =have at least one Network Interface Module (NIM) slot, or a wide option module slot,
that will house any available NIM or wide module cards.

NetVanta 3200:Single Slot, Single Ethernet Desktop Chassis


NetVanta 3205:Single Slot, Single Ethernet Rackmount Chassis
NetVanta 3305:Supports up to 3 T1s, Dual Slot, Dual Ethernet modular router
NetVanta 3430:Single Slot, Dual Ethernet
NetVanta 3450:Dual Slot, Dual Ethernet
NetVanta 4305:3 Slot, Dual Ethernet, Supports up to 8 T1s
NetVanta 4430:3 Slot, 3 Ethernet, supports up to 8 T1s or 100 Mbps Carrier Ethernet
NetVanta 5305:Six Slot, Dual Ethernet, supports up to 2 unchannelized T3s

ADTRAN MULTISERVICE= has greater throughput and a variety of networking functions wrapped into a single chassis

NetVanta 1335:Single Slot, 24 Port Ethernet Switch, IPSec VPN, VQM


NetVanta 3448:Single Slot, Dual Ethernet, 8 port switch
NetVanta 3458:Dual Slot, Dual Ethernet, 8 port switch
ADTRAN CE
= Increases Service Agility through the integration of both a hosted and managed IP Business Gateway and a versatile
carrier Ethernet over any media NID.
=Improves Asset Utilization through reduced equipment obsolesces especially in the wake of ever-emerging premium
business applications
=Simplifies IP Transformation by supporting both legacy and next generation services delivery over both legacy and
emerging access technologies

NetVanta 4660
=Carrier Ethernet Customer Edge Router
=Offers the functionality of a business-class router, access router for data services, and a Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)-
compliant Carrier Ethernet services gateway in a single, optimized platform for streamlined business services delivery.

III. WAPs
IV. IP BUSINESS GATEWAYS
V. IP TELEPHONY
VI. OPERATING SYSTEM

**Protocol Support = in order for a router to establish a connection to another device and send traffic to it, it must use
protocols to communicate with others in the network

WAN
-Frame Relay, Multilink Frame Relay, PPP,Multilink PPP, PPPoE, PPPoA
-RFC1483 (RBE), HDLC

Routing Traffic
=OSPF, RIP v1/v2, BGPv4, IGMPv2, GRE, Static, Bridging, Multihoming, Demand Routing
=Pim-Sparse Mode, Policy Based Routing, Websense Content Filtering, Layer 3 Backup
VRRP, Multi-VRF

**Firewall Features= provided by a stateful packet inspection firewall


=Provides cyber assault protection to protect the internal network from known cyber attacks
=Access Control Lists (ACLs) and Access Control Policies (ACPs) may be created to allow or block certain traffic or
users
=NAT, or Network Address Translation is also supported
=Allows internal private IP addresses to be hidden from the public domain
=ALGs, or Application Level Gateways are also included to allow the router to process traffic that is otherwise broken by
use of the firewall

VLAN Support
Router = 802.1Q in conjunction with a switch
Switch = 255 port-based VLANs and 802.1Q VLAN trunking

QoS Features =used to give priority to delay-sensitive traffic such as voice over IP or video applications

Layer 3 Router QoS


-Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ)
-Class-Based WFQ
-Low-Latency Queuing
-DiffServe Packet Marking and Recognition

Layer 2 Switch QoS


-Strict Priority Scheduling
-Weighted Round Robin Scheduling
-Strict Priority with Weighted Round Robin Scheduling
-802.1p aware/mark

VPN Functionality =requires Enhanced Feature Pack // # of VPN Tunnels varies by product

IPSec
-MD5/SHA-1
-DES/3DES/AES Encryption
-Diffie-Helman Groups 1,2
-XAUTH Authentication
-IKE
-X.509 Digital Certificates

Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) =enables a single physical router to be logically partitioned into multiple virtual
router instances.
Multi-VRF is supported in the NetVanta 1335, 3448, 3305, 3430, 4305, 5305 and 6355.
Websense & Content URL Filtering =prevents users from accessing websites defined by IT policy

Ping Probe =monitors connection through the modem to determine if the link has gone down.

nCommand
=Manage NetVanta based networks
=Backup and Restore
=Discover devices
=Upgrade firmware
=Mass config changes=
=Modify ACLs
=Inventory Reports

NETVANTA INSTALLATION & OPERATION

**AOS MANAGEMENT

Connecting to the Unit =Console Port OR DB-9 straight through serial cable

Connections Settings =Open a VT100 Session andConfig the COM port:


> Data Rate: 9600
> Data Bits: 8
> Parity Bits: None
> Stop Bits: 1
> Flow Control: None

"?" = list available commands in any mode


"tab" key = auto finish any non-ambiguous command

**AOS CONFIGURATION

CLI Security Modes

1. Basic Mode = initial // non-enable mode // ">"


2. Enable Mode = privileged // privileged exec // "#"

Global Config = set the sys enable password // config system global IP parameters // enter any other config modes
Line Config = config console and telmet access into the device
Router Config = config routing parameters and protocols
Interface Config = assign interface specific parameters to a particular interface

Exiting Config = ctrl+ z or exit

NetVanta Memory

FLASH / NVRAM
=Boot Code Storage
=Compressed application code storage
=Store non-volatile configuration data (startup-config)
=Retains contents when NetVanta is powered down

RAM
=Running copy of the application code
=Storage of uncompressed executable code and data structures
=All application code is executed out of RAM
=Running copy of the configuration file (running-config)
=Loaded into RAM from NVRAM at startup
=Cleared when NetVanta is powered down

COMPACT FLASH
=Used to store configuration files and AOS images
=Available on select NetVanta Internetworking products

"show" command= access all commands


Telnet Config
1. Setup IP address
2. Enable Ethernet or VLAN interface (no shutdown)
3. Config Telnet Password
4. Set Enable password

Access to WebGUI
1. Enable HTTP Server
2. Config username and password
3. Config IP address on Ethernet or VLAN Interface

Saving Configs
= copy running-config tftp or write network
= address of server
= filename

Upgrade Software Image/Firmware


= copy tftp flash
= address of server
= filename

Load New Firmware


= boot system flash "filename"
= show version -> shows current firmware version